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PRACTICAL OBJECTIVE

To design and simulate a full wave rectifier circuit to convert AC to DC.

APPARATUS
i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) Breadboard Rectifier Diode Capacitors Resistors Multimeter Transformer AC source Mains cord Single wire Insulation

THEORY
A full wave rectifier is a circuit, which converts an AC voltage into a pulsating DC voltage using both half cycles of the applied AC voltage. It uses two diodes (lets call them D1 and D2) of which one conducts during one half cycle while the other conducts during the other half cycle of the applied AC voltage. During the positive half cycle of the input voltage, diode D1 becomes forward biased and D2 becomes reverse biased. Hence D1 conducts and D2 remains OFF. The load current flows through D1 and the voltage drop will be equal to the input voltage. During the negative half cycle of the input voltage, diode D1 becomes reverse biased and D2 becomes forward biased. Hence D1 remains OFF and D2 conducts. The load current flows through D2 and the voltage drop will be equal to the input voltage.

APPARATUS

i) Bread board A breadboard is usually a construction base for prototyping of electronics. This makes it easy to use for creating temporary prototypes and experimenting with circuit design. A variety of electronic systems may be prototyped by using breadboards, from small analog and digital circuits to complete central processing units (CPU).

(ii) Rectifier diode A rectifier diode, in general, is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction. The process is known as rectification. Rectifiers have many uses, but are often found serving as components of DC power supplies and high-voltage direct current power transmission systems. Rectification may serve in roles other than to generate direct current for use as a source of power. Because of the alternating nature of the input AC sine wave, the process of rectification alone produces a DC current which, although unidirectional, consists of pulses of current. Many applications of rectifiers require a steady constant DC current.

The rectifier diode used throughout this project is a 1N4007 series diode. The 1N4001 series (or 1N4000 series) is a family of popular 1A general

purpose silicon rectifier diodes commonly used in AC adapters for common household appliances and is ideal for laboratory purposes.

iii) Capacitor A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy electrostatically in an electric field. The forms of a practical capacitor may vary but all capacitors essentially contain at least two electrical conductors separated by

a dielectric (insulator).

iv) Resistor A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. Resistors are common elements of electrical

networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire. Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits.

v) Multimeter A multimeter is an electronic measuring instrument that combines several

measurement functions in one unit. A typical multimeter would include basic features such as the ability to measure voltage, current, and resistance. They can also be used to troubleshoot electrical problems in certain devices such as electronic equipment, motor controls, domestic appliances, power supplies, and wiring systems.

vi) Transformer A transformer is a static electrical device which transforms an alternating voltage from one to another of greater value. It adopts the principle of mutual induction implying that that transfers energy by inductive coupling between its winding circuits. Transformers can also be used to vary the relative voltage of circuits or isolate them, or both. They are essential for the transmission, distribution, and utilization of electrical energy.

INTRODUCTION A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction. The process is known as rectification. Because of the alternating nature of the input AC sine wave, the process of rectification alone produces a DC current which, although unidirectional, consists of pulses of current. Many applications of rectifiers, such as power supplies for radio, television and computer equipment, require a steady constant DC current which can be accomplished by the use of Capacitors. Rectifiers have many uses, but are often found serving as components of DC power supplies and high-voltage direct current power transmission systems. Rectification may serve in roles other than to generate direct current for use as a source of power. Rectifier circuits may be single-phase or multi-phase (three being the most common number of phases). Most low power rectifiers for domestic equipment are single-phase, but three-phase rectifications is very important for industrial applications and for the transmission of energy as DC (HVDC).The three main types of rectifier are as follows1. Half-wave rectifier: It is the simplest type of rectifier, which is made with just one diode. a. When the voltage of the alternating current is positive, the diode becomes forward-biased and current flows through it. b. When the voltage is negative, the diode is reverse-biased and the current stops. c. The result is a cropped copy of the alternating current waveform with only positive voltage. This pulsating direct current is adequate for some components, but others require a more steady current.

2. Full-wave rectifier: This rectifier is essentially made of two half-wave rectifiers, and can be made with two diodes and an earthed centre tap on the transformer. The centre tap allows the circuit to be completed because current cannot flow through the other diode.

a. When the voltage of the alternating current is positive, one of the diodes become forward biased whereas the other gets reverse biased. Hence, current flows through the forward biased diode. b. When the voltage of the alternating current is negative, the previous reverse biased diode becomes forward biased whereas the other gets reverse biased. Hence, current flows through the forward biased diode. c. Thus, current flows at least through one of the diodes at a time. Therefore, the result is still a pulsating direct current but with double the frequency.

3. Bridge rectifier: A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in a bridge arrangement to achieve full-wave rectification. a. The main advantage of this bridge circuit is that it does not require a special centre tapped transformer, thereby reducing its size and cost. b. The single secondary winding is connected to one side of the diode bridge network and the load to the other side as shown below. c. The result is still a pulsating direct current but with double the frequency.

APPLICATIONS The primary application of rectifiers is to derive DC power from an AC supply. Virtually all electronic devices require DC, so rectifiers are used inside the power supplies of virtually all electronic equipment. Converting DC power from one voltage to another is much more complicated. One method of DC-to-DC conversion first converts power to AC (using a device called an inverter), then uses a transformer to change the voltage, and finally rectifies power back to DC. The primary application of rectifiers is to derive DC power from an AC supply. Virtually all electronic devices require DC, so rectifiers are used inside the power supplies of virtually all electronic equipment. Rectifiers are used to supply polarised voltage for welding. In such circuits control of the output current is required; this is sometimes achieved by replacing some of the diodes in a bridge rectifier with thyristors, effectively diodes whose voltage output can be regulated by switching on and off with phase fired controllers.