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Lecture 1: Atoms, Isotopes and Mass Spectrometry

(Chemistry in Context ch. 1.1-1.3 and 5.3-5.5) Structure of atoms -protons, neutrons and electrons -atomic number and mass number Isotopes -relative isotopic abundance and relative atomic masses The Mass Spectrometer -vapourisation-ionisation-acceleration-deflection-detection Interpreting Mass Spectra of Elements -calculating RAM from the mass spectrum -predicting an elements mass spectra from its isotopic abundance Introducing Spectra & Terminology Recap

Daltons Atomic Theory (1803)


each element has characteristic atomsAtoms of different elements differ.l Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine.each compound has the same relative number of atoms. Reactions are reorganisations of atoms.

John Dalton 19th Century atomic masses determined accurately for known elements

What is an atom? (1.1) -smallest particle of an element that retains the elements properties -positively charged nucleus surrounded by orbiting electron(s) -protons are positively charged -electrons are negatively charged -neutrons are neutral
atoms of copper in Cu metal lattice neutron

+
hydrogen atom

+ proton
electron

helium atom

atomic mass unit (a.m.u. or Dalton) defined as 1.66 x 10-24 g -the proton and neutron both weigh about 1 a.m.u. ot 1 Dalton (1 Da)

both types of nucleon are about 1850 times heavier than an electron protons orbiting electrons neutrons

Atomic Number (Z)


Moseley (1913) fired electron beam (cathode ray) at elements: emitted X-ray wavelength depended on atomic number.
(since no. of protons in nucleus of atom = no. of electrons in neutral atom)

He found way to count electrons in an atom

neutron

+
hydrogen atom Z=1 A=1

+ proton
electron

helium atom Z=2 A=4

Atomic Number (Z)


Moseley (1913) fired electron beam (cathode ray) at elements: emitted X-ray wavelength depended on atomic number.
(since no. of protons in nucleus of atom = no. of electrons in neutral atom)

He found way to count electrons in an atom

neutron

+
hydrogen atom Z=1 A=1

+ proton
electron

helium atom Z=2 A=4

Isotopes (5.4)
-all Li atoms have 3 protons. But mass of Li atoms varies. Why? BECAUSE: lithium exists naturally as three isotopes:

isotopes are atoms of the same element with differing mass (isotopes contain differing numbers of neutrons)

Isotopes (5.4)
3 protons in nucleus

8 particles in nucleus

number of neutrons = 8-3=5 (heaviest isotope)

(lightest isotope)

isotopes are atoms of the same element with differing mass isotopes contain differing numbers of neutrons neutral particles

Atomic Structure Recap (5.4)


Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons = Z + number of neutrons Mass Number Atomic Number A ZX Element Symbol

Atomic Structure Recap (5.4)


Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons = Z + number of neutrons Mass Number Atomic Number A ZX Element Symbol

3He 2

4He 2

A Z

3 2

4 2

-helium exists naturally as two isotopes. (heavier isotope is far more abundant, whereas helium-3 is rare)

Isotopes recap
Q: How many protons, neutrons and electrons are there in the following atoms/ions? Identify the missing isotope. 31 15 P 122 3-

Sb

93 protons 147 neutrons 91 electrons

Isotopes recap
Q: How many protons, neutrons and electrons are there in the following atoms/ions? Identify the missing isotope. 31 15 P 122 3240 2+ 93 Np

Sb

15 protons 16 neutrons 15 electrons (phosphorus) 51 protons 71 neutrons 54 electrons (antimony) 93 protons 147 neutrons 91 electrons (neptunium)

6Li

7Li

(isotope abundance, %)

(fluorine is an exception all of its nuclei have 10 neutrons)

-most elements are occur as a mixture of isotopes e.g. Li

+ +

+ +

Weighing Atoms with Mass Spectrometry (1.2)


-first, element is vapourised and then ionised (i.e. bombarded by electrons to give negative charge) -then accelerated towards electromagnet that deflects ions before it is finally detected at a certain position

amount of deflection indicates mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio

Cation and Anion formation positive ions are called cations negative ions are called anions
cation formation

anion formation

Atomic Ions and Molecular Ions


-atoms can donate or accept electrons to form atomic ions (atoms become ions when they accept or donate electron(s)) Al Na F O Al3+ Na+ e2e+ + 3eeFO2-

positive ions are called cations negative ions are called anions

+ +

n.b. stable ions to obtain a octet of electrons similarly, a molecule can also become a charged molecular ion if it gains or loses electrons e.g. NH4+, NO2, HOO etc.

Mass Spectra Reveal Isotopes (5.5)


ionisation: Ne + e Ne+ + e + e

fast, bombarding electron

removed rebounding electron electron

-lighter ions are deflected more than heavier ones -mass spectrum of neon shows three isotopes from singly charged Ne+ cations -peak size indicates relative amount (abundance) of each isotope 20Ne is neons most common isotope

-because there are three isotopes of neon:

20 10 Ne 90.5% (most common isotope)

21 10 Ne 0.3% (rarest isotope) 9.2%

22 10 Ne

isotopes are atoms of the same element with differing mass

Predicting Mass Spectra from Known Elements (5.5)


-we can predict the appearance of a mass spectrum of we know an elements natural isotopic composition e.g. Kr

Predicting Mass Spectra from Known Elements (5.5)


-we can predict the appearance of a mass spectrum of we know an elements natural isotopic composition e.g. Kr

84Kr should show the tallest peak 78Kr & 80Kr should show small peaks 79Kr, 81Kr and 85Kr should show no peak

78 80 82

84 86

Predicting Mass Spectra from Known Elements (5.5)


-we can predict the appearance of a mass spectrum of we know an elements natural isotopic composition e.g. Kr

84Kr should show the tallest peak 78Kr & 80Kr should show small peaks 79Kr, 81Kr and 85Kr should show no peak So why is atomic mass of Kr given as 83.798 g/mol?
78 80 82 84 86

Relative Atomic Mass (1.3 & 5.5)


relative atomic mass (atomic weight) of an element is a weighted average of isotope masses of that element

e.g. chlorine consists of 75% chlorine-35 and 25% chlorine-37. its R.A.M. is about 35.5 g/mol (average value) Q: Cu is found in two isotopes. 65Cu (mass 64.93 Da) occurs with 30.85% abundance the rest is 63Cu (62.93 Da). What is coppers R.A.M. (to 4.s.f.)? A:

Relative Atomic Mass (1.3 & 5.5)


relative atomic mass (atomic weight) of an element is a weighted average of isotope masses of that element

e.g. chlorine consists of 75% chlorine-35 and 25% chlorine-37. its R.A.M. is about 35.5 g/mol (average value) Q: Cu is found in two isotopes. 65Cu (mass 64.93 Da) occurs with 30.85% abundance the rest is 63Cu (62.93 Da). What is coppers R.A.M. (to 4.s.f.)? A: Relative atomic mass is a weighted average of mass numbers. (64.93 0.3085) + (62.93 0.6915) = 63.55 Da (4 s.f.)

-to find out how electrons are arranged in atoms we can study the spectra of the elements

(continuous spectrum) e.g. light bulb, sunlight

Wavelength, Energy and Frequency Reminder

long wavelength () low energy (E) low frequency (f) short wavelength () high energy (E) high frequency (f)

-atomic spectra prove that electrons only adopt certain energy levels

E = hc = h
i.e. larger the energy drop, the higher the energy of the emitted photon (the higher its frequency and shorter its wavelength)

short wavelength

long wavelength

The Spectrum of Atomic Hydrogen -model (theory) of structure of atom based on negative electrons orbiting a compact, positive nucleus electrostatic attraction -spectrum of atomic hydrogen: energy is lost by emission of light

problem why does spectrum of atomic hydrogen show


emissions at certain wavelengths only? Why not continuous range of wavelengths like a rainbow?

(line spectrum e.g. sparks, excited gases)

neon signs use similar glowing electrified noble gas

Learning Resources
Recommended Textbooks: Chemistry - Palgrave Foundations Series
(by R. Lewis, W. Evans)

Chemistry in Context (by Graham Hill & John Holman) Chemistry (by R. Chang)

Learning Resources
Moodle used for posting of: -work tasks -amended deadlines -extra learning materials -forthcoming quiz dates try to login twice every day Chem Factsheets -week-by-week summaries of lecture material (useful for revision, posted on Moodle)

Next Lectures:

2 Electron Configurations (ch. 6) 3 Molecular Structure & Bonding (ch. 8) 4 Intermolecular Forces (ch. 9) 5 Volumetric Analysis

You must read ahead (before lecture!)

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