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THE BREAKPOINT EXPERIMENT

First by iodometry (thiosulphate) method chlorine solution 1 Prepared from a source of chlorine such as calcium hypochlorite Ca(OCl)2 Take little amount of Ca(OCl)2 and dissolve it in appropriate amount of distillated water and let it to precipitate and take the clear solution . Sodium thiosulphate Na2S2O !." N # !.!2$ N (2 Potassium dichromate %2Cr2O& !." N ( potassium iodide %( $) or crystals(' . ( Starch indicator (" * in "!! ml distillated water ($ . + Procedure + i) Standardi,e thiosulphate -y dichromate as the followin* # .dd "! ml of dichromate in conical flask # add a-out " *m %( crystals ml distillated water #2 ml *lacial acetic acid # stand for a-out / minutes # titrate !# with thiosulphate solution until yellow color -e*in to pale add " ml of starch solution . and complete until -lue color disappear ii) Standardi,e chlorine solution to stren*th " *01. -y the same way a-ove replacin* dichromate with chlorine solution .in the manner of "ml 2 " m* Cl iii) Take a-out "! conical flasks # fill it with $!! ml raw water and the doses of + chlorine as the followin*

Close the conical flasks with plaster and place it in dark place for the stayin* time of water in precipitation pool as calculated from e3uation + Stayin* time2 4olume of precipitation pool 0 rate of pumped water Shake the flasks each ! minutes distri-ute the dose in the entire volume + .fter the time ends titrate each conical flask with thiosulphate as the followin* .dd 2 ml of *lacial acetic acid # " * of %( to each flask# let stand for / minutes# titrate with thiosulphate solution until pale yellow then add " ml of starch solution and complete titration until -lue color disappears : Calculations N54)S2O 2(N6547)Cl) (N72!.!2$54S2O 0$!! 88888.(" Stren*th for Cl 2N7593.:t 4S2O 5 $.$ 0$!! *01 5!.!2$ 2 m*01 5!.!2$2 ;es Cl 2 4S2O 5".&&$ m*01 + ;ecord your data in ta-le like this Series The dose of 4S2O m1 Cl m*0l Taken in titration " 2 ' $ / & < = "! +>raw a plot -etween the doses of Cl a*ainst the ;es.Cl such as ;es Cl 2 4S2O 5".&&$ m*01

4S2O 5 $.$5"!!! 0$!!

sometimes -reak point curve appear as

the shape of the curve is differ from the conventional shape of -reak?point -ecause of the trace amounts of ammonia

The first part of curve ;es Cl appear as chloramines so if ammonia present in a trace amount the formation of chloramines decrease and one ima*ine the curve like strai*ht line -ut the fact that -reak point *reater than
. the chloramine products and the point that the curve incline not -e clear :hereas the ;es.Cl at the -reakpoint e3uals to 2.$ m*01 so the curve must appear .in the way that we see a-ove