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C. Pothisarn S. Jiriwibhakorn Department of Electrical Engineering , Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkuts Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok. Thailand.10520 Emails: kpchaich@kmitl.ac.th , kjsomcha@kmitl.ac.th

Abstract

Currently, with the continuous interconnection and size increasing, the power systems become larger and more complex. Therefore, the study of transient stability for protection system design and planning is more difficult and takes more time due to system size and complexity. This paper proposes an application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in transient stability study, with fast access to the answer of the power system stability. The multi-layer feed-forward neural network with backpropagation learning algorithm is used to determinate the CCT of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) system, the interconnection between West-Central and Southern areas under the variation of the power generation level, fault location and network structures. Time simulation method was used to prepare training patterns for neural networks. The results show that designed ANNs can estimate the CCT correctly. Keywords: Critical Clearing Time, Artificial Neural Networks, Power Systems Transient Stability. 1 INTRODUCTION In transient stability study, the critical clearing time (CCT) is one significant factor for maintain the transient stability of the power system. There are many methods to determine the CCT such as the conventional time domain simulation, equal area criterion (EAC), Lyapunov direct methods [1], transient energy function (TEF) methods [2] , artificial intelligence (eg. Neural networks) etc. Time domain simulation is considered to be the most accurate and in theory, it has no limit of the detailed models of generator, load and other system controllers. It is always used as the benchmark when comparing answers obtained by other methods, however the speed of solution is very slow, especially when the size of the power system is large. Lyapunov direct methods and TEF methods are the challenge for solving the transient stability problem. They improve the computing time with accurate results although in some cases they are not very accurate due to the high complexity of the particular system. Recently, the application of ANN to transient stability assessment of the power systems is one of the most interested methods. The advantages of trained ANN are fast assessment and high accuracy to solve the transient stability problem [3]. There are various classes of ANNs that suitable for solving difference problem. Kohonen network is suitable for solving the problem of a classification such as stable and unstable, Hopfield network is used to solve for optimization problems such as economic dispatching. For solving the approximation problem, there are two classes of ANNs that suitable, Radial Basis Function (RBF) network and multi-layer feed-forward network. RBFs advantages are faster convergence and simple network structure coupled with easier control over network performance. However, more training patterns mat be required to achieve a performance comparable to that of a multi-layer feedforward network trained by back-propagation, when that happens to converge to a good solution [4]. In this paper, the multi-layer feed-forward neural network with back-propagation learning algorithm is used to determinate the CCT of the EGAT system, the interconnection between West-Central and Southern areas under the variation of the power generation level, fault location and network structures. Time simulation method was used to prepare training pattern for neural networks. 2 ANNS APPLIED TO THE CCT DETERMINATION The CCT determination of the EGAT system in fig.1 was analysed based on pseudo random sequence (RAND) to generate input variables to ANN. Six dimensional input variables corresponded to four variations in power generating, fault location and network structure. The CCT of the system was calculated using the conventional time domain simulation method (TDM). The generator model was based on a classical machine model represented by a constant internal voltage E' behind its direct axis transient reactance X'd. In each case of input training patterns and test patterns, the CCT was assumed to be a function of

7829

S3 ==

==S4

Central-West Area *

7709

Tie Lines

3023

7711 7710 7708 7707 7809 7723 7802 7813 7812 7803

S2 == X (F1) X (F3)

(F1) 7901

3707 3708

3802

7902

3808

3715 3714

3710 3711

3811 3712

(F5)X

3736 3717 3719 3720 3805 3721 3806 3725 3723 3724 3003 3734

7031

Southern Area

3722

3846

7829

transmission line. Fault at Bus a. (Fa) (Fa) x Line outages for clearing fault at Bus a. Sb == Line removed for network structure type b.

3728 3823 3727 Thick line means that there are more than one 3726 3001 3002

Figure. 1 The EGAT system area of interest [9] power generating changes (x1, x2, x3 and x4) at busbars 3015, 7041, 7042 and 7043 respectively, fault location changes (x5) and network structure changes (x6). Power generating at bus 3015, 7041, 7042 and 7043 in network structures 1, 2, 3 and 4 indicated in fig.1 were change as a percentage from 66% to 100% of their rated at constant power factor. Power generating at other busbars were kept constant at their normal operation. When the ANN was trained, the value of x1, x2, x3 and x4 could be change: for example, the active power (in MW) of power generating at busbars 3015, 7041, 7042 and 7043 were selected to be input pattern. It was assume that there are three phase to ground fault applied in five possible locations (F1 to F5) as shown in fig.1. In table 1 the location of faults, the line outage after clearing and corresponding value of x5 for each fault location are shown and the selection of each network structure x6 as defined in table 2. When the ANN was trained, the inputs x5 and x6 could be selected to distinguish between the locations of fault from F1 to F5 and between structures S1, S2, S3 and S4 as shown in tables 1 and 2 respectively [3]. After each value of input variable was selected by RAND [5], these input patterns were used to prepare the output pattern by TDM [6] as the flowchart shown in fig.2. Then both input and output pattern were used in training of the ANN. Table 1. Fault locations, line outages after clearing, and the selection of each fault location

Fault F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 Fault Locations (at Bus) 7901 3802 7807 7807 3808 Line Outages (between Bus) 7901 1048 3802 3808#1, #2 7807 7802#1 7807 7808#1 3808 3846#1, #2 Values of x5

1/5 < x5 2/5 < x5

0 < x5 1/5

Network structure S1 S2 S3 S4

0 < x6 1/4 < x6

Values of x6

Description Base case (no removed line) Line 1090 7803 removed Line 3802 7829 #2 removed Line 3803 3804 #2 removed

start

a( n ) = n

(2)

where

Read in Load Flow Data File Perform Load Flow Program Read in Dynamic Data File Perform Transient Stability Program Cheking swing curves of all generators with respect to refference bus (Bus No. 7902) Yes Stop System Stability Change ? No System Stability ? Yes Modify Dynamic Data File by increasing the Clearing Time No Modify Dynamic Data File by decreasing the Clearing Time

is a constant value.

The slope of tangent-sigmoid transfer function was varied in 3 values ( k = 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50). Before training process, the method of normalization of training data was used to reduce the training time and increase the output accuracy by normalizing the input and output patterns. The normalization of input and output patterns is based on zero mean and unity variance. The performance of ANNs was indicated by the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the CCT, computed by ANN output with respect to the TDM output using (3).

n 1 CCT ANN i CCTTDM i M APE = * * 100 % CCTTDM i i =1 n

(3)

is the output of ANN, is the answer from TDM, is the number of test patterns.

4 TRAINING CONDITIONS

The training was carried out with the following condition : a) Initial weight and bias selecting : The initial weight and bias of each hidden layer was selected by RAND. b) Repeated training : The training for each structure of ANNs was repeated 30 times. c) Hidden neurons ranking and selecting : The number of neurons in 1st hidden layer is started from 2 neurons and increased by 1 until up to 15 neurons. The number of neurons in 2nd hidden layer is less than in 1st layer by one d) Stopping rule : If the adjustment of weight and bias reaches 1,000 iterations (epochs), gradient factor is less than 1e-10 or learning factor is more than 1e10 then stops the training.

5 TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3 APPLICATION OF ANNS In this paper, two hidden layers feed-forward neural network with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm [7] is used to determinate the CCT of the EGAT system. The input and output pattern for the ANN consist of six variables and one variable (the CCT of the system), thus the number of neurons in input and output layers are six neurons and one neuron respectively. The number of neurons in each hidden layer of ANN was based on a sensitivity approach. Beginning with a small number of hidden neuron, the number is increased until the maximum number of hidden neuron is found whilst checking occur at each step for the most appropriate structure for each group of training pattern (150, 200 and 250 patterns). Each group of training patterns, there are the number of fault location ( x6 ) in equal, used to trained ANN with tangent-sigmoid transfer function (1) in the hidden layers and linear transfer function (2) in the output layer.

a(n) = 1 e kn 1 + e kn

The results of each group of training patterns with different slope of transfer function are shown in table 3. Comparisons were made between 150, 200 and 250 training patterns and 3 values of slope of transfer function (0.50, 1.00 and 1.50). Fifty new test data were chosen to test each of trained ANNs. Test data were composed of new and previously untrained powergenerating changes between 66% to 100% of their rated, fault location changes F1 to F5 and network structures S1 to S4. In training process, only one ANN could not obtain satisfied results. Separation of each group of training patterns to five subgroups in accordance with each fault location for training five ANNs was suitable for this study. In Table 3,

(1)

Fault Location k = 0.50 Number of Hidden Neurons Training Time (min) Number of Hidden Neurons Training Time (min) MAPE (%) min error (%) max error (%) k = 1.00 MAPE (%) min error (%) max error (%) Number of Hidden Neurons Training Time (min) k = 1.50 MAPE (%) min error (%) max error (%) Training Patterns

2-3 1-2 2-3 2-3 1-2 2-3 1-2 2-3 2-3 3-4 3-4 2-3 2-3 3-4 2-3 -

9.59 10.00 9.50 9.92 10.03 49.04 12.99 9.86 9.53 10.05 10.82 53.25 11.09 10.96 10.74 13.79 10.13 56.71

5.2961 1.4451 12.7010 0.0002 0.0000 0.0011 3.1997 0.1689 10.4148 6.8396 0.9848 25.4391 1.8332 0.0000 14.1668 3.4338 0.0000 25.4391 4.8847 0.8588 12.8663 0.0010 0.0000 0.0090 2.8310 0.0499 10.0871 4.0418 0.3018 14.9001 0.8726 0.0018 5.9009 2.5262 0.0000 14.9001 3.6290 0.3047 16.7071 0.0005 0.0000 0.0048 2.8118 0.4260 8.6835 3.0340 0.2309 7.5915 0.7072 0.0181 2.5880 2.0365 0.0000 16.7071

1-2 1-2 3-4 4-5 3-4 2-3 5-6 2-3 3-4 3-4 2-3 1-2 3-4 3-4 4-5 -

8.90 9.67 9.65 9.61 10.08 47.91 9.39 14.94 9.73 10.39 10.99 55.44 9.86 10.11 10.93 11.23 12.31 54.44

5.5131 1.2832 18.4136 0.1736 0.0000 1.6949 4.1909 0.7141 10.0745 7.2492 0.5660 20.7055 2.3004 0.0054 16.5931 3.8854 0.0000 20.7055 5.1371 0.7430 16.5043 0.0350 0.0014 0.2670 3.1420 0.0290 9.8268 4.3514 0.0175 13.7141 0.7085 0.0022 6.3305 2.6748 0.0014 16.5043 4.2167 0.3307 11.4116 0.0013 0.0005 0.0018 2.8737 0.1658 9.1098 3.1770 1.4472 6.8406 1.0725 0.0005 8.5391 2.2682 0.0005 11.4116

2-3 1-2 4-5 2-3 2-3 3-4 1-2 2-3 2-3 2-3 3-4 1-2 4-5 4-5 1-2 -

9.37 4.20 11.73 9.92 9.67 44.89 11.48 10.10 9.74 9.97 9.70 50.99 12.33 11.06 12.68 12.71 9.50 58.28

6.9405 0.2012 31.4877 0.6796 0.0767 1.0449 5.0407 0.2633 17.6491 8.8446 1.1254 33.8479 3.7416 0.0279 22.5445 5.0494 0.0279 33.8479 5.0324 0.8350 14.8432 0.2607 0.1422 0.2743 4.3020 0.1772 15.1852 6.6265 0.8224 14.4359 2.2836 1.0047 7.5126 3.7010 0.1422 15.1852 4.6321 0.1631 9.3007 0.1927 0.0469 0.2580 3.6231 0.4298 9.9499 4.5539 0.6379 14.4886 1.3071 0.1356 7.1039 2.8618 0.0469 14.4886

Test CCTTDM CCTANN data %error (sec.) (sec.) No. 1 0.08200 0.08383 2.2341 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 0.09700 0.11500 0.10900 0.00100 0.09400 0.10500 0.09100 0.11900 0.13900 0.05900 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.15300 0.00100 0.29400 0.27400 0.27700 0.09791 0.11742 0.10867 0.00083 0.09456 0.10815 0.08736 0.11604 0.14443 0.05900 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.15441 0.00100 0.26847 0.26890 0.26890 Test data No. 26 CCTTDM CCTANN %error (sec.) (sec.) 0.27300 0.26500 0.26500 0.25800 0.27000 0.19700 0.27000 0.29000 0.26300 0.16600 0.15500 0.18800 0.19300 0.17700 0.27600 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.06000 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.04600 0.00100 0.26890 0.26866 0.26890 0.26890 0.25726 0.20096 0.27312 0.28166 0.25653 0.17043 0.15122 0.18190 0.20765 0.18702 0.27536 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.06101 0.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.00102 0.04719 0.00100 1.5019 1.3814 1.4717 4.2248 4.7195 2.0099 1.1541 2.8776 2.4604 2.6706 2.4394 3.2462 7.5915 5.6591 0.2309 0.0601 0.4371 0.0377 1.6893 0.3863 0.0181 0.0432 1.7903 2.5880 0.0223

0.9422 27 2.1025 28 0.3047 29 16.7071 30 0.5977 31 3.0039 32 4.0044 33 2.4876 34 3.9054 35 0.0048 36 0.0000 37 0.0000 38 0.0000 39 0.0000 40 0.0000 41 0.0000 42 0.0000 43 0.0000 44 0.0002 45 0.9238 46 0.4260 47 8.6835 48 1.8613 49 2.9242 50

the MAPE for All fault locations in each condition is equal to the mean of MAPE of F1 to F5 because each group of the input training and test patterns contains the same number of fault locations F1 to F5. MAPE of the best results for all fault locations is equal to 2.0365%. The ANN was trained with 250 training patterns and the slope of transfer function is equal to 0.50 The comparison of CCTANN and CCTTDM is shown in table 4. The errors of some test data, for example test data No. 11, there are no difference between CCTANN and CCTTDM but the error was occured from the 6th decimal point. All of these training times were measured based on a Pentium III, 733 MHz, 256 MB RAM PC.

6 CONCLUSIONS

The application of ANN to the CCT determination whilst subjected to variations in power generating, fault location and network structure of the EGAT system were compared. It concluded that using two hidden layers feed-forward neural network with only 150 training patterns and standard tangent-sigmoid transfer function (k = 1.00) in each hidden layer is enough is MAPE less than 5%. There are two methods to improve ANN performance, first is increasing the number of training patterns and the other is decreasing of transfer functions slope ( k ). Both methods are required more training time, but in this study, increasing the number of training patterns can improve the performance of ANNs more than decreasing of the transfer functions slope.

REFERENCES

Biographies

Chaichan Pothisarn graduated with B.Eng in electrical engineering from Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand in 1994 and M.Eng in electrical engineering from King Mongkuts Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand in 2003. His research interests are in power system analysis and neural network applications. Somchat Jiriwibhakorn graduated with B.Eng (Hons) and M.Eng in electrical engineering from King Mongkuts Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand in 1994 and 1997 respectively. He obtained his Ph.D. and DIC from Imperial College, University of London, UK. in 2001. His research interests are power system analysis and neural network applications.

[1] M. A. Pai, Energy Function Analysis for Power System Stability, Kluwer Academic Publishers., 1989. [2] A. A. Fouad and V. Vittal, Power System Transient Stability Analysis Using the Transient Energy Function Method, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1992. [3] S. Jiriwibhakorn, Transient Stability Assessment of Power Systems Using Neural Networks, Ph.D. Thesis 2001, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College, University of London.E. Clarke, Circuit Analysis of AC Power Systems, vol. I. New York: Wiley, 1950, p. 81. [4] N. K. Bose, P. Liang, Nueral Network Fundamentals with Graph, Algorithms, and Applications, McGraw-Hill, Inc., Singapore. 1996. [5] The Math Works, Using MATLAB, The Math Works, Inc., June 2001. [6] J. Jardim, Advances in Power System Transient Stability Assessment Using Transient Energy Function Methods, Ph.D. Thesis 1994, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College, University of London. [7] H. Demuth and M. Beale, Neural Network Toolbox Users Guide, The Math Works, Inc., March 2001. [8] S. Jiriwibhakorn, A. H. Coonick, Fast Critical Clearing Time Estimation of a Large Power System Using Neural Networks and Sobol Sequences, IEEE proceeding Summer Meeting. Vol.1, pp.522-527, 2000. [9] Equipment and Power System Diagram Section, Transmission System Operation & Planning Department, System Control Operation Division, EGAT, Switching and Transmission Line Diagram, September 1999.

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