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Evaluation of Process Systems for Floating LNG Production Units Presented by Inga Bettina Waldmann Kanfa

Evaluation of Process Systems for Floating LNG Production Units

of Process Systems for Floating LNG Production Units Presented by Inga Bettina Waldmann Kanfa Aragon AS

Presented by Inga Bettina Waldmann Kanfa Aragon AS

Tekna Conference 18-19 th June 2008 – Floating Production in Challenging Environment

Waldmann Kanfa Aragon AS Tekna Conference 18-19 t h June 2008 – Floating Production in Challenging
Waldmann Kanfa Aragon AS Tekna Conference 18-19 t h June 2008 – Floating Production in Challenging
Waldmann Kanfa Aragon AS Tekna Conference 18-19 t h June 2008 – Floating Production in Challenging
Waldmann Kanfa Aragon AS Tekna Conference 18-19 t h June 2008 – Floating Production in Challenging
Waldmann Kanfa Aragon AS Tekna Conference 18-19 t h June 2008 – Floating Production in Challenging

Presentation overview

Presentation overview Who we are Why Floating LNG (FLNG) FLNG Concepts FLNG Process selection

Who we are Why Floating LNG (FLNG) FLNG Concepts FLNG Process selection

Presentation overview Who we are Why Floating LNG (FLNG) FLNG Concepts FLNG Process selection

Aragon

Aragon Kanfa Aragon AS is a limited company in the Sevan Marine Group. Located in Bergen,

Kanfa Aragon AS is a limited company in the Sevan Marine Group.

Located in Bergen, Norway.

Kanfa Group topside references:

Process packages 5 FPSO topsides 2 FPSO topsides this year

Developed FLNG technology and involved in a number of FLNG studies for FPSO ship owners and LNG shipping companies

year Developed FLNG technology and involved in a number of FLNG studies for FPSO ship owners
year Developed FLNG technology and involved in a number of FLNG studies for FPSO ship owners
year Developed FLNG technology and involved in a number of FLNG studies for FPSO ship owners
year Developed FLNG technology and involved in a number of FLNG studies for FPSO ship owners

What is LNG

Liquefied Natural Gas, LNG = natural gas in its liquid form

Cooled to typically -155 to -165 deg Celsius

The specific power consumption (kWh/kg LNG) is a common way to specify the efficiency of the liquefaction system

NATURAL GAS 1,000,000 Sm3 100 x 100 x 100 m
NATURAL GAS
1,000,000 Sm3
100 x 100 x 100 m
the efficiency of the liquefaction system NATURAL GAS 1,000,000 Sm3 100 x 100 x 100 m

LNG

1,000,000

Sm3

12 x 12 x 12

m

the efficiency of the liquefaction system NATURAL GAS 1,000,000 Sm3 100 x 100 x 100 m

Why FLNG?

Exploration of stranded gas fields can meet the worlds energy demand

Recovery of oil-associated gas The energy demand and gas prices are increasing

oil-associated gas The energy demand and gas prices are increasing Source: Poten and Partners Source: Ingvar

Source: Poten and Partners

oil-associated gas The energy demand and gas prices are increasing Source: Poten and Partners Source: Ingvar

Source: Ingvar Tjostheim

oil-associated gas The energy demand and gas prices are increasing Source: Poten and Partners Source: Ingvar

Stranded gas fields - a large potential for FLNG

Stranded gas fields - a large potential for FLNG Note: 0.25 TCF = 250 BFC =
Stranded gas fields - a large potential for FLNG Note: 0.25 TCF = 250 BFC =

Note: 0.25 TCF = 250 BFC = 5.2 million ton LNG

Corresponds to 8 years production with LNG given production capacity of 1 million ton LNG p.a and a normal production profile

to 8 years production with LNG given production capacity of 1 million ton LNG p.a and

Oil-associated gas

Oil-associated gas Annually a tremendous amount of oil-associated gas is flared or vented due to the

Annually a tremendous amount of oil-associated gas is flared or vented due to the distance from the fields to the markets

Annual gas flaring exceeding 150 Billion m3 pr year

More than 350 million tonnes CO2 emissions per year

West Africa, South America and Asia topping oil-associated gas flaring statistics

Political trends and increased energy demand will change the existing flaring philosophy

Oil-associated gas liquefied to LNG clearly can represent a new energy supply source

the existing flaring philosophy Oil-associated gas liquefied to LNG clearly can represent a new energy supply

Solutions for FLNG production

With well stream reception and separation system, or Gas from new or existing oil FPSO (separate hull) Converted ship, new hull or barge

Mid-size, 0.3 – 3.6 mtpa LNG For small and medium stranded gas fields For associated gas fields LNG storage & offloading Up to 14 Mill Sm 3 /day 1 – 4 LNG trains

 

 
For associated gas fields LNG storage & offloading Up to 14 Mill Sm 3 /day 1
For associated gas fields LNG storage & offloading Up to 14 Mill Sm 3 /day 1

Gas processing sequence and requirements

Gas processing sequence and requirements CO2, H2S WATER SOLVENT DRYER REGENEN. REGENEN. SEPARATION/ FEED TREATM.
CO2, H2S WATER SOLVENT DRYER REGENEN. REGENEN. SEPARATION/ FEED TREATM. ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL
CO2, H2S
WATER
SOLVENT
DRYER
REGENEN.
REGENEN.
SEPARATION/
FEED TREATM.
ACID GAS
WATER
Hg
REMOVAL
REMOVAL
REMOVAL
50 ppm
>1 ppm
>0.01 µg/Nm3
CO2
H2O
Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg

LIQUEFACTION

ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
HHC
HHC
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg
ACID GAS WATER Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg

FEED

GAS

Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg LIQUEFACTION HHC FEED

LNG

Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg LIQUEFACTION HHC FEED
Hg REMOVAL REMOVAL REMOVAL 50 ppm >1 ppm >0.01 µg/Nm3 CO2 H2O Hg LIQUEFACTION HHC FEED

Offshore liquefaction technology selection criteria

Offshore liquefaction technology selection criteria Compact and low weight Simple operation and start-up High

Compact and low weight Simple operation and start-up High inherent process safety Robust to vessel motions/ marine enviroment Robust to changes in process conditions High availability High efficiency

to vessel motions/ marine enviroment Robust to changes in process conditions High availability High efficiency

Cascade Cycle

Cascade Cycle Chosen technology for the first LNG base load plant 1 mtpa of LNG production

Chosen technology for the first LNG base load plant 1 mtpa of LNG production

Cascade Cycle Chosen technology for the first LNG base load plant 1 mtpa of LNG production
Cascade Cycle Chosen technology for the first LNG base load plant 1 mtpa of LNG production

Cascade Cycle

Separate refrigerant cycles with propane, ethylene and methane High efficiency (~0.3 kWh/kg LNG) Optimised technologies
Separate refrigerant cycles with
propane, ethylene and methane
High efficiency (~0.3 kWh/kg LNG)
Optimised technologies are evolved
and proposed
Large equipment count
Requires large plot area for
refrigerant storage and management
Increased risk due to flammable liquid
inventory

Not recommended for offshore environments

Source: Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology part II

inventory Not recommended for offshore environments Source: Natural Gas Processing Principles and Technology part II

Mixed Refrigerant (MR) Cycle

Dominant baseload plant technology

Mixed Refrigerant (MR) Cycle Dominant baseload plant technology Source: Foster Wheeler Energy Limited

Source: Foster Wheeler Energy Limited

Mixed Refrigerant (MR) Cycle Dominant baseload plant technology Source: Foster Wheeler Energy Limited

Mixed Refrigerant (MR) Cycle

Uses a single multi-component refrigerant comprising typically nitrogen, methane, ethylene, propane and butane The MR evaporates over a wide range of temperatures and thereby follows the natural gas condensing curve closely High efficiency (~0.3 kWh/kg LNG) Up to 50% less equipment items than the cascade process Several modifications are developed and proposed Sensitive to change in feed composition Requires extensive plot space for refrigeration generation, storage and management Flammable refrigerants

Source: Cryoplants Ltd.

extensive plot space for refrigeration generation, storage and management Flammable refrigerants Source: Cryoplants Ltd.

Expander Cycle

Based on the classic Reverse Brayton / Claude Cycle Several options:

 

Single expander cycle Double expander cycle Open expander loop (methane as refrigerant) Closed expander loop (nitrogen as refrigerant)

Efficiencies down to 0.4 kWh/kg LNG

A pure refrigerant (typically nitrogen) is deep-cooled by expansion to condense the natural gas to LNG in the cold box

PRETREATED LNG FEED GAS HEAT EXCHANGER BOOSTER TURBO COMPRESSOR EXPANDER CYCLE COMPRESSOR
PRETREATED
LNG
FEED GAS
HEAT
EXCHANGER
BOOSTER
TURBO
COMPRESSOR
EXPANDER
CYCLE
COMPRESSOR
to LNG in the cold box PRETREATED LNG FEED GAS HEAT EXCHANGER BOOSTER TURBO COMPRESSOR EXPANDER

Proposed FLNG Processes

Multifluid Cascade Process (MFCP) by Linde

Standard single and dual nitrogen expander cycle

NicheLNG SM by CB&I Lummus

LNG Smart R Liquefaction Technologies (open and closed loops) by Mustang Engineering

Optimised Expander Cycle by Kanfa Aragon

R Liquefaction Technologies (open and closed loops) by Mustang Engineering Optimised Expander Cycle by Kanfa Aragon

Start-up

Start-up Expander cycles are superior to MR cycles related to start up Typically a nitrogen expander

Expander cycles are superior to MR cycles related to start up

Typically a nitrogen expander cycle need 24 to 36 hours from warm to maximum production.

MR Cycles requires 1 to 2 weeks to reach the same level

cycle need 24 to 36 hours from warm to maximum production. MR Cycles requires 1 to
cycle need 24 to 36 hours from warm to maximum production. MR Cycles requires 1 to

Operation

The Expander cycle is easier to operate than the MR Cycle

 

No sophisticated level control, phase or composition exchange in the refrigerant loops are giving operation upsets

No complex control system coupled to the process gas composition

High turndown

The N2 Expander Cycle has additional advantages

The expander refrigerant loop contains nitrogen which gives the highest availability for rotating equipment

Seal leakages are non hazardous and easily compensated by nitrogen from the refrigerant loop.

Turndown down to approx. 25% for one single train is obtained by reducing the nitrogen containment in the loop. Rotating equipment is maintained at fixed speed during turndown.

by reducing the nitrogen containment in the loop. Rotating equipment is maintained at fixed speed during

Safety

The N2 Expander cycle has a significantly higher inherent safety level than MR cycles, Cascade
The N2 Expander cycle has a significantly higher inherent safety
level than MR cycles, Cascade cycle and Open Expander cycle
Nitrogen is a non-flammable refrigerant
Half of the plant does not contain hydrocarbons and can be
regarded as safer than most FPSO topsides.
There are minor volumes of LNG in the plant, since the produced
LNG are led directly to cargo thanks
Proven equipment offshore (compressor,
gas turbines, heat exchangers)
Safe area
LNG are led directly to cargo thanks Proven equipment offshore (compressor, gas turbines, heat exchangers) Safe

Change in feed gas composition

Change in feed gas composition The Nitrogen Expander Cycle is by it’s nature much less sensitive

The Nitrogen Expander Cycle is by it’s nature much less sensitive to feed gas changes than MR Cycles

MR Cycles have higher efficiency since the refrigerant evaporation curve are ideally following the LNG condensation, minimizing the exergy loss

Change in the feed gas composition requires changes in the refrigerant or acceptance of lower efficiency

At off-spec operation, the nitrogen expander cycles can have higher efficiency than a MR Cycle

The Aragon Optimised Expander cycle optimises the split between NGL and LNG products

This increases the efficiency and increases the acceptable window for the feed composition

between NGL and LNG products This increases the efficiency and increases the acceptable window for the

Offshore enviroment

Floating production units are subject to motion

The Expander cycle is robust for the offshore environment as no liquid phase refrigerant is present

Avoids high focus on equal distribution of two phase/ liquid flow

MFLEX LNG producer Incl. Kanfa Aragon’s Optimised expander cycle
MFLEX LNG producer
Incl. Kanfa Aragon’s Optimised expander cycle

Refrigeration generation

Refrigeration generation For the N2 Expander Cycle the nitrogen can easily be generated on board For

For the N2 Expander Cycle the nitrogen can easily be generated on board

For Open Cycle Expander Processes, feed gas or LNG can be used

By Kanfa Aragon’s patent pending system the N2-refrigerant can be easily stored during maintenance or turndown operations.

For MR Cycles the sophisticated refrigerant must either be produced onboard by advanced distillation systems or specially purchased. Feeding of the refrigerant is a thorough operation

Warm up during longer shutdown periods often require blowdown of the MR to flare

the refrigerant is a thorough operation Warm up during longer shutdown periods often require blowdown of

Complexity and cost

Expander Cycles are superior to Cascade and MR Cycles when it comes to simplicity

Can be built compact and light

Example for 2.7 mtpa:

 

Topside weight estimate [ton]

Cost estimate pr production capacity [MMUSD/mtpa LNG]*

Aragon expander cycle

10,000

450 - 700

MR Cycle

up to 35,000**

>1000**

*Including vessel, gas pre-treatment, liquefaction and offloading (excluding field spesific items and cost of financing etc. ) ** Source: SBM Offshore and CB&I Lummus

N 2 Expander Cycle 2.7 mtpa
N 2 Expander Cycle
2.7 mtpa
field spesific items and cost of financing etc. ) ** Source: SBM Offshore and CB&I Lummus

Optimised Dual N2 Expander Cycle

Optimised Dual N2 Expander Cycle Kanfa Aragon has developed new liquefaction technology (patent filed) Based on

Kanfa Aragon has developed new liquefaction technology (patent filed)

Based on the well-proven Dual Nitrogen Expander Cycle and optimised for offshore liquefaction application

Maximised LNG production for given driver Minimal or no condensate bi-production if preferred Integrated LPG / NGL recovery if preferred Very high efficiency

Integrated and optimised power generation

LNG specifications adjusted acc. to Client requirements

Very high efficiency Integrated and optimised power generation LNG specifications adjusted acc. to Client requirements

Aragon liquefaction technology

Aragon liquefaction technology SPECIFIC POWER @ TROPICAL CONDITIONS (kWh/kg LNG) SUITABLE FOR MEDIUM/ LARGE SCALE FLNG

SPECIFIC POWER @ TROPICAL CONDITIONS (kWh/kg LNG)

SUITABLE FOR MEDIUM/ LARGE SCALE FLNGtechnology SPECIFIC POWER @ TROPICAL CONDITIONS (kWh/kg LNG) SINGLE EXPANDER N2 CYCLE ~ 0.8 kWh /

SINGLE EXPANDER N2 CYCLE

~ 0.8 kWh / kg

SUITABLE FOR MEDIUM/ LARGE SCALE FLNGSINGLE EXPANDER N2 CYCLE ~ 0.8 kWh / kg HIGHLY COMPLEX AND LOW INHERENT SAFETY HIGHLY

HIGHLY COMPLEX AND LOW INHERENT SAFETYCYCLE ~ 0.8 kWh / kg SUITABLE FOR MEDIUM/ LARGE SCALE FLNG HIGHLY COMPLEX – SUITABLE

HIGHLY COMPLEX – SUITABLE FOR SOME LARGE SCALE FLNG PLANTS ONLYLARGE SCALE FLNG HIGHLY COMPLEX AND LOW INHERENT SAFETY DOUBLE EXPANDER N2 CYCLE 0.55 – 0.65

DOUBLE EXPANDER N2 CYCLE 0.55 – 0.65 kWh / kg KANFA ARAGON OPTIMISED EXPANDER CYCLE*
DOUBLE EXPANDER
N2 CYCLE
0.55 – 0.65 kWh / kg
KANFA ARAGON OPTIMISED EXPANDER
CYCLE*
PRECOOLED
DOUBLE EXPANDER
N2 CYCLE
~ 0.45 kWh / kg
SINGLE MIXED
REFRIGERANT
~0.40 kWh / kg
0.40 – 0.55 kWh / kg
CASCADE,
PRECOOLED MRC,
DUAL / CASCADE MRC
<0.3 – 0.4 kWh / kg

PLANT COMPLEXITY (QUALITATIVE)

* PATENT PENDING TECHNOLOGY

PRECOOLED MRC, DUAL / CASCADE MRC <0.3 – 0.4 kWh / kg PLANT COMPLEXITY (QUALITATIVE) *

Lat out design example

Includes all required topsides utilities ans auxilliary systems

PRE-TREATMENT MODULE
PRE-TREATMENT MODULE
PRE-TREATMENT MODULE

PRE-TREATMENT MODULE

PRE-TREATMENT MODULE
PRE-TREATMENT MODULE
Includes all required topsides utilities ans auxilliary systems PRE-TREATMENT MODULE LIQUIFACTION MODULE COMPRESSOR MODULE

LIQUIFACTION MODULE

Includes all required topsides utilities ans auxilliary systems PRE-TREATMENT MODULE LIQUIFACTION MODULE COMPRESSOR MODULE
Includes all required topsides utilities ans auxilliary systems PRE-TREATMENT MODULE LIQUIFACTION MODULE COMPRESSOR MODULE

COMPRESSOR MODULE

Includes all required topsides utilities ans auxilliary systems PRE-TREATMENT MODULE LIQUIFACTION MODULE COMPRESSOR MODULE

Liquefaction capacities

PARALLEL LNG TRAINS

LNG PRODUCT

FEED GAS

1 LNG TRAIN

UP TO 0.9 MTPA

UP TO 125 MMSCFD UP TO 3.5 MSm 3 /d

2 LNG TRAINS

UP TO 1.8 MTPA

UP TO 250 MMSCFD UP TO 7 MSm 3 /d

3 LNG TRAINS

UP TO 2.7 MTPA

UP TO 375 MMSCFD UP TO 10.5 MSm 3 /d

4 LNG TRAINS

UP TO 3.6 MTPA

UP TO 500 MMSCFD UP TO 14 MSm 3 /d

SINGLE PRE-TREATMENT TRAIN FOR ALL SIZES

MSm 3 /d 4 LNG TRAINS UP TO 3.6 MTPA UP TO 500 MMSCFD UP TO

Expander Cycles for LNG liquefaction

Expander Cycles for LNG liquefaction Nitrogen Gas Expander Cycles are better suited for offshore liquefaction than

Nitrogen Gas Expander Cycles are better suited for offshore liquefaction than more traditional systems because of their compactness, weight, ease of operation, safety and cost.

liquefaction than more traditional systems because of their compactness, weight, ease of operation, safety and cost.
THANK YOU! Tekna Conference 18-19 t h June 2008 – Floating Production in Challenging Environment
THANK YOU! Tekna Conference 18-19 t h June 2008 – Floating Production in Challenging Environment

THANK YOU!

Tekna Conference 18-19 th June 2008 – Floating Production in Challenging Environment

THANK YOU! Tekna Conference 18-19 t h June 2008 – Floating Production in Challenging Environment
THANK YOU! Tekna Conference 18-19 t h June 2008 – Floating Production in Challenging Environment
THANK YOU! Tekna Conference 18-19 t h June 2008 – Floating Production in Challenging Environment
THANK YOU! Tekna Conference 18-19 t h June 2008 – Floating Production in Challenging Environment
THANK YOU! Tekna Conference 18-19 t h June 2008 – Floating Production in Challenging Environment