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LEf.lSLATIVE PROPOSALS RELATING TO THE WAjE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

-HEARINGS ^fe SENATE


NINETY^SBCJOND COXGKJiSS
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2, S. Res. 66
II,,?*, 21, 22, -AND 28 j MAT -. II. 7^ IS, 25, 30, A*fj> 21; 1W7
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LEGISLATIVE PROPOSALS RELATING TO THE WAR IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

HEARINGS
BEFORC THE

COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS UNITED STATES SENATE


NINETY-SECOND CONGRESS
FIRST SESSIONOX

S. 376, S. 974, SJ. Res. 82, SJ. Res. 89, S. Con. Res. 17, S. Res. 62, S. Res. 66
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APRIL 20, 21. 22 AND 28: MAY 3, II. 12, 13, 25, 26 AM) 27. 19M

Tj for (|M- uw of f*K- f'(/nitnlltw on Ifurtifn

Hflationn

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COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN BELATIOKS I. V. rOIAUOHT. AikuiM,


JOHN' SPAKCILANV AUtuu HtKK MA.VHIIELO, MoaikM Flt&VK CHL'RCB. Uafco STUART XTJUVOTOV. Mlwoort CI^AIBOKKE PKLL, Kiok IiUod GAU3 W. iIcOEE, WiMdac >U>MUKU 8. MUMne. iUltt WILUAJC B. CPUSO, /., OEOK6K D. AIKEV. KAKLE. MCKDT. Boot! DikoU CUVTOKO P. CASE. Kew Jcrwr JOBS SHEBMAy COOfEK. JACOB K. JAnT. 5etr Terk JUJGU 8COTT. JAHB8 B. PEAJtSOK,

CAM, HJLMT, CM*/ /


. KCKIs -cnW</ Clerk (n)

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Statement* br: : ;' ntk, Bon. Joseph, president; World Federate^, ;f?.S.A .v;,.. 520 uaan, Hon. Alan.I;.?. Senator from CsKfornni 9S lay, Student* And Yootb for s People'* Peace 211 , Hon. Thorn** F., UJS. Senator frwn Missouri .,-.'; j'^. 317 )r. Prof. EfcharJ A:, Princeton Umvsrtity..., 542 Gardner, John W., chairman. Comaon Oatuw, Washington, p.C 341 ix&thorpe. Edward, president, JIunt-WaMon Foods, Inc. FultMton, Cidif ^ 382 Gregory, Isaon, Wa*binjrton,D.C... .* ". 218 Grucpimj. Hon. Ernca, fontrfr (7.8". Senator (rom.Abuka. JW Bito, Hon. AvflreU, Wiuhingtoji, D.C , .....'.,. A01v lr. Hon. Vance, U.S. SenatorTroro Indians..- ... #> 30 wr*J. Hou. Mark O., U.S. SouU-or from Oregon., key, Dr. Gr%ld C., Social Science Department, the Rand Corp.. 4'J trwin, HOD. John Ni, I), Under ljocrctry of Sfto; accompanied l>y William H. SuUiv*n, I'nputv Amitant Seeretftry for East Asian aad Pacific Affair ." . 283 _ Jacob*. Hon. Aodrcit; Jr., a, ttepreenUttlvc in R((rM from ilie I \&- Concriaalonal/>J9lnct U the StaUr of Indians .'JJ 591 - Jrfviu, Hon. Jteob Kv.-U-S- Senator from New York ...1 103 IfWcy, Joiin, t^etiiaif^'iTetcranii Atfaii>rt. the Wsu*._...,-.^.'.." ,.... 180 f/swtev Prof. John Wv Iutitutv of :Political Studi^ SUnford University, SUndfard, Calif ^, 5W Luce, .Don, East Calaw, Vl , 442 . ManbaO, Chu>, Seaitlp, Waait 223 Mcdonkev, Hon. Paul N., Jr,, 4 Kcprotcn'ntivi! >n Congrt from the 1 lib Concr<nionsl Utftrict of the State of CiiUfoniis. COT McGvcm, Von. Georgi!. U.S. Senator from South DiJcot* , '22 MUJer, Hon. Jaek.JU.S. .Siator from Iowa ;; _. 117 Mondalr, lion. Water F., (7.S. Senior front Minnesota ,. 144 Kainwatur, II.-R. coirinijUid7in-fbicf, Veteran* of Foreign. Wad -ff. the Uoll*d Statot, accompanied !>> Cooper T. Uo)t, ^Xfr^uUvp director, VFW, and Antbouy M. McDonald, director, national ueturity *bdS3wanfcftVtm,VFW.. ..i-.'. 638 S*xbe, Mou, WiUiarii B., IT.^. Senator from Ohio ^. 174 Scogl>ot.i. John, Nashua, N'.K.-. ';;.. 221 KhapUm, Itobcrt, the New .Yorfctr n-^iaaiuc , ., ..'.-. 431 Shwip, (Wn, Dvid M., t'aJ. Vtarino .Cnrpt, rrtired 487Stworrton, H;>n. Adlni E., U^ t!-S, KenM'jr from ioiri'^iic^. Vert, CUwka W., fornicr b'.H. IVrniMitnf, K^fotcnfaOvr! I'nfccd Vatimw. ._ ., ,,.'.M....' > f^f the record: ^ ^ Tntc/S. 376.V U-...V;..- ...,iX.:... ',. Te*lofS,74..:.-.........: Tfit of Soitt Joint JlUoiutiwivj'/..... .., T-xt of Kena(t Con^urmnf/ Itatolutiun^i? Text of Sunato B^wiiiCot: 02. ^. ...; .127' u> tb^ -S&t -J' ..... 2 ...L, 5 7 ,.-.. 10 '. . 15 17 19 tor

i VifWanit on ~HiUv'it u<i-ih*T)!d)'- vrticir. from the , ""Wa*hin(Ct9'lC.**/ April20, fy/t:;..-! r_ IM>

,-'* fnirUon for the record-^ Con tuvued -".- *** - VVietnam Owenj^gsnwnt Art2<J <so*ponsow_: ii'.._ SO *""-"** --*-- jj Cbmmandc^-ro-C^i*!'iAuotber Vj*iv," article b*. iackjuar, American JJiir Association Juurnal, April', ._, - i .;^.^.v...-.->.;:..^,.,-. .--~,-.jx...: .-- . eowttitation*! T*^^ teched by the VTefujun. U>uAct, Inpectod in -tbVCoagi^suOoal Record by :Senator .on May I3,i970 ?....:-.,,.,:.^ --;-.. 57 ,- jxKmi ^CcakorkTidutn pa ibtr Amendment to End lb War, prepared i " , ,- :V- ~,-ir> .tidwrttf'-bf tht Ifkryard Law-School under the'direction of ** Vlfc;:*-.^.,.**?**1-... ;--72 '".-.? Statement of ^r. living Gimabrtrg^awpckror processor of history, Yeahiva I7rverw'ty/Si-fore the Coccioutf^e1' on Fonujui .Relations,

"Ky' SceaXoaJc Roaft to1Self-Uefena^Ku^c K^ysPiic^of Puiloutby UJi. i iWsonabk," 4rtick fromxhc New York Tiuwi,, Apiit 19, 1971 _^':'.: ^....: v.-..:.S^ -^ 115 jjtateioect^f Senator Adlal^..Stevenson III-.-" >-.".,.<,;, 1 131 s U-tJ. Sar\'ftfs a>"'Votc O&mna>pj,".tiicic by Gloria ^ od CoKuptiwn War," arUdc by Peter Al'j'ay, the vJCv*abhingtooPoKt,-A>nil30w:1971 ^'./.-...V"-41.3. To MowtorlVtet AltaJn for Next Tbrw'- $*ars," artido by ; ^-: . : Oeorge C. Wibwi>-tte WMbw^tou Po*t, April 21,1971...: ';_\_', 'rf^u'l- Obancv for Peace iif yieuiom," letter V>.be editor from Richard Ul 142

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'LaoV.-TboEud f~>4he Line, _ cditoriat lij,' the Washington P*wt, Mafch l,iW71.-~"x..\_. ..-./ .".. 148 "If Soutu Viinaiw Invades North Vitttoam," letter to the editor.! from Pr'K.'JUlea 6. WhitibK. the-Kfc York Time*, Mab 9, 1971." 149 "Cbi>- filicy: Confrontation . ."".," ednorial in the-New York ~ uSr. Mareb II, 17 ,.v :,i 150 ^re;KW*l/';edttdrlaL m rs Willmar Wef. Central D/iUy Trib,February27, l7lV......J 150 ^ , ~ '.'Mondxtt. B|U oc Invattioh {v*rtd Paiuagc," edit'Wial in the- St. Paul ,^ (Minn.) Siflday Ptieer Prcw, February 28, 1971 151 X '-Another Front," editorial in tlie Providence <il L) Journal, March 2, 1971 ,...,^ 151 ' "C "Suicidal Logic,'' edti^nal in the DCS Moinrs (Iowa) itcgutcr, March ' 8,1971...^,. ,. 152 . "Thieu Aski Haijuil n of Drive Into NorthSouth Vietnam'* Chief C DencrilMat Move* as Being 'Only a Matter cf Time,' " article by Michael Parlu.Uic Baltimore .Sicr^cbruary 26, 1971 164 : "Lao*V %'tid-t Nixon l Up To," article by Daniel ftfeberg, Uiu Ne.w . VorHtcxit-wof Book*, March It, 1971 ^;. "155 HtaWnent of former Senator Ktnest Grucning ^..- . Ov.170 Jo^nVT^eaty of Peace BvtUWn the People of the United State* aud 1. Uie'PdOpIc of South Vietnam and -North Vietnam .- 23[ The HarrU Survey'Tide of Public Opinion Turns Deciivvly '." -. Acaiiut the War;'xrtick- by Ivxtin Harri*, ttu Wahingtou Pot, "Military and civdioa vur Gwualtiw in Indochina ,., /. 278 Civilian Toll Study," article by George C, WiUon,-the . Pout, April C, J97J1 ..-".: 280 '>n*l authority for PrcKidnnt'n pulley m ViaVuuu...'... .-.'^.. 2<K> adSon during L".#. witbdrawalu .'. .::.r. 292. President Nixou's record on Y'tatnain, 1954-OM -^^-.^. ., 2tlS Tobi^t L*.S. priKODerx of war and miMing in action in Soutbciurt Aflia> .-.' 300 Vr-KZ rortie rate in N'/rtb Laox , 308 Opportunity of HtaU- Drpartun-nt to review Secretary Starw' -jtoecb "Buuker Affayi V'ietfiam Veftrs " article by Alvin Htiurter, tin- New York Tiinm, May 10, 1971 31*

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Itwertiorw for the record Continued -. - ~ "A Lnwoo From Uie French," articte by FVantf..Maokicwiu Tom Bradau, the Wwhingtou Post, May 11, WJv ..... .......:.~ 328 "14,000 S. Viefc Stalled ik .Cwmtodia," article -t>y Petor Onod, the Washington tort, May II, 1971____....:.._____..l.;.^... 338 i; <;ardner,Agr*eii:WjU< Nixon That 'PwSJJlt Arc Fed Uji'~ Growth . and SUCISMW of Comruon Cauac Noted by Politician*, article >>y Flora Lcwia, Uwr Washington Port, May 11; 1971 ----- ...... . ____ 346 "What Wt Wrong?", article by Kmcutl^jUu Hugbwvthc Nw Yori Tune, May 7. J 971 ......... .. ....___, .............. ..L. .S4K Tablr, fimeUouai breakdown of U.S.. Oo>'ernnAUE*Uidget outlays on -A* Fodiral fuutobaMV'oc-fwcaJ.ywirt 1OT(K72.,.A ---- ......... 3.W t*tt.T .t? Senator J. W. Fulljrightrlfruni <!aiJar W. Woinbergrr, Deputy ^Director, Office of Management andsSuJgrtrM^y 3, i971,_ ,",Kl "Tfa-r Cp<i)i,JC"B*- War: Monej: and-Morr," artialy hw.Peof. Dniw ' \'vdlr, Uio CortoOJ Kogiicxr, NoytfilwrJ970... : . . .". . ' : . ::_____, . 361 \' Letter to Prwidoit liicba/J Ni ion from eollcrc comtannfty leaden.-, -368 "fiH) Coilc4>ia4cf^ Conrt^mn War Pob'ry in Letter to Nixon," article It^Jolm Kifoirrtliy S<* York Titntat, 'April 2, I7 1 . . ........... 378 "Youtli Conference ICcjecU V'ictn*irtiwtlon, Ask* 1071 Pullout," rticlf. l>y J'xic WcutttortJi; UM WaKingtoii Pia<^ April 23, t7I_ . 377 r " 'ti<tal)liiihm<inl HrtlAi' &i.vv -?rdflt Motiv!^o Longer Enough," '! l>y BUiot2vict>acIi, Manufacturo Supfstnurket Ke\a*, April , '" cx in-KurpiNr fflirinking Like U)o Dollar." hv Aimlulr Shiib, Uic -WuhinKtou F<Wt( May 12,1 9?!...:; c, ii r i c , . . . -- - - - -. . . - . . . . .....,.--;.Ti- I)oni*r CrM/i: HoatiuK Toward -l(foon?" arUelc^ Time ~ from ' ... .. . . .Statt-iiiL-nt of Ifcury W. Maiw, mayor of Afil'ulccc,-for the NjJion' Ijca^uc.1 of Citii jUid U S, Gjofcrcnw: of Mayon.-. -....'___.".. -.:; " 4W "Tnc War in Ind'octitua Ocpart'Pk Words," artifl* from NcwafttfJ,^ May:i, t07l^VJ.r.;...-^-i. '....,. .r.-:. ...-.-. ^., :.-,...^.,. .426 "U.S. Wnt ToldTy X>rftvc VioOianJ'-JJwclosurejyf 'Ttljer Cage*' i* Hlatuud iu Jiien," articl*' by -Gloria Kmernon, thc-^iffjir ^ork TimcK, AprO;^/:J'J7^ ...... ____ I. -_>,: I-', ..... ~. ________ 420 "Saigon Kviotx a Ciitit^" arti'lii from the Bin* i^ork Timor, May I,

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Letter to Senator J..VC." Fii)l>ci|(bt fr>w Huynh'Tsjf Mui, i4tirh)tuj , of tliu VivLututi ^i'HU>>*iit%)(i>it Uw6j, May *. Id71.,^ ^ - -^ ...... 44* L.-tu.T to *:hfc'.or J., W. Fiil^Kf-t fn>m Prof/ NKU>; -V jw Trun^, - : ' > cJiairmaii, (kr.i/,ittt,f W t& Jiiiprvv.'iiijrt of tlm Prison KrglKic -,in.-*wtli:Victoi,, My-3rwr4..,. .. ..... , :. ,_____.\., ". :.. 444' 'U-tU-r to tin- LT.y.-Siituste-rFort'iKd ^SaUwm CwfloiittW' xrom Mn-i-v >'o ft* Tbaivtr, ViGtimme<! WOHM-II'* >Tovjiwt for Ut? UightJ' Liff, Mav 7, l'J?l . . ..... ^^ ,_____r. . : : . . . . , . _ . . . . . . ,V 14fi >>U<T t^) J. B. Ku-kf>etr;ckr ^-nrruJ. oiitm*:r, iUf K, U lU, .Sfcl^wi, froru"L. V<. Cav ,.i<i4l). <)rtlc*lri <tJiar(;/> of mifttrir-tioii,. I)ci>irtuut :fiU \Wiwy, KiHiubli'ii-ot'yjiibkMii, January 7, J^7t .; ...... ,/:.:S*t."wt if-l>onJwe.. ...;-,;_ . ..______3 . . ..... ...'.".'.. . tti'^pKv of a<m.' IJnvid if. Mhoup.. . ;, .......... .-,.. . ,; 48/j. ; "- ".^IUOK from rwal %OI(')'M Cofijfn^wionaf Medal of Jli/M'jr'Avftrd-, 4H6 "Riikr fftiJ Lfnuurr on V.MUr War," wtid*- by irf'!tuid *XWr - "vii-l Jt-ifc iTuf-if i'.S. fur.&iri JDcfii. v|j W*sblojtii J'i wt, ,V jVr^i>[ wr T, ' . . '. '-A MAtujrof.TfUKi/'ftrfi.'J^b/^A.fitli/my^trin, the- Ni-* y.rkT)mv; . . * ' ^ " . : "Hanr.i-Aitt>, in InU-rvi'-K, Links- I'ultout J)au? i*nd. J*flJKr ' ^by AnUi-tny i,c-w, t*i.- NVw ViVrVTink"' / >Uy 24/( in Vk'toarn," artiOt- by Tom Wick^ f bn. Sw Vork .>,-( 07 j. . . ._____.--.. ..'.;. :.C ....... ; - . . . . n^Winduig f>oiT/'>'l(ru^ by Hi-au Ach<-*m, Ui< .> My20, 197 IT-~---. . - -"-. .f fi.r/nrr >x nat^r-Ji/w.-yb S (itark, pr(^i(l<'i]l </f World

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bi>>rtiQii3 fftt^he recordCoutind . . -"A"Jf>3r'tDcncite from Vietnam," artM bjr Oharlra* W. Ypit, -^ Jtlii- Washington Port, April 11. WJ ..... : ...... ..-.. ..-.: -^.. .-' -"535r;iichtrro-Ciuaed OvpnnviHvvmimt," anidc by Charte^W. utl, the WanhioicUik Port, April MV4971 .......... ^ . -: . . - . ~i- , - . :' M8 "\ Mice for tfcuthcatv **a, Afwr U.3. Withdran-al-J-raiu Su*ior Three Ponibte Sccnarioa," tbs Washington Post, May 10, .-, ....................... ...... -:>I_____- ........ ... 539 Mid V"wn -the War Some OwdiKiOfcs on "Ytetoaw;" "- Chirtc* V. A'ort, tk- WwhingloniWt, Ma/23, IKi.. MO Prrf.-&tikaKi A. Falk ....... :>.'1_. ............. .. V*18 Prof. John Witaw Lewis _________ .-.,": ...... ......... Wo HottWflvvrfuUon319____ ____I ..... ,. ,.: ................ - . . , . - 5W > . .'73t iTTkt Support Proposal To.Wttkdmv All Trop Thw Yi,'; artidu hjr G*>r Gallup, the 'Washington Po*t, January ^Jl 197l. 601 "Poll Shows. More A.k Strif, -PullnMt,^1 artidc-iriim the Now York: ' Tinwai, Ja:.aary3JI, 1971____-----...... -:. ..... - ....... / 001 "Aipi>ort. {'<r Nixa on Wjir IVo^w to 34%," artidu by Lcuia Haow,
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iugtm Post, Mav 23, 1&71 ........ _ .......... .............. 603 -Letter lo Secretary of Ocf<m Mt-lvin II. Laird from S-jiator J. W. Fut v 'Lright, April ^0, 1U71 ____ ............. .-'." ........... ......... : 62S Letter to ConKrenrnau John E. Mox from- President Ilichard Nixoti>. April 7, 196. . : ____ .............. ; ......... ; _____ ..... ; 024 Mcntoraoduni for -1-hr b<*d <>f o^'C'jUvr dcpartutrnta and agoci, - cstabliahijig" a ppvc^dun- to govcrju oimpliiu.cc ith congressional d.-iiuuidi-for luforiiiotiou, frr>in Prwid^it Richard Nixon . _. . ----- .024 "Xienfc Khx.itang Pruviuc,: Refuna-n in Vientiane Plain," J'tJv 10, 1970 ................... ....... ... ..... ....... *....-...._ 629 Cao Ky: On tbr Sinking Boat,-" article hy Nguyen Cao Ky, w York"Tim.a-, Ma? JV, 1971 ...... ...-. ..... ':. ............ 650 Demand Putlout Dale To Fret- Ok," artidf froln tlir Waohlag- _ IIM Post, May 5, "J7I . . . . . . . ...... , ........................ C'7 Xnnvcruatiim t^twwu Congrouiinan feyinour IIal|M;ni and Nguynn : " Thanh Ix!,DKVdi4i!gaUun,Parui, April 2H. l71 ........ - ..... C57 ' C..ris>c*atu)n Ivctvwu C<mf(cc&>Tnakt fx'yi'tuxir llaljxTn und ilr. N'guj'in Von Ti-'ii. Pft(id.-lcKatiofi, Paru/A|>rilWf. 1971... s ...... 660 "IV. Knm Breed* A Ni-w Kind of X'rt/^riiO'1 by John Whtclrr, th Cfiicafr Triburiu, Apri? II, 1071____/ _...................... 669 "The 'it llcturni . . . ^ Srivcial ^ob Probk-ni," artidu Hjy. Gcue (irove, thr H'u.<hiiif(Ujri Star f rmautiiy tnaKaxiuc), April 1 1, 4.'l7l ---- 671 "Our Violent Vitnain Wta," article by Dr. Charks J. L>-v>, in*.Chicajjo Daily N'cwi, ]>cfiicf)tT 1970 ...... ........ ........... ,_67.' "The. l)p'jblo Wouudi* of Wj*r LI'ij<itaJ Car.-. Hrr for Vietnam'* lojurod Cut i>y Adiniiiinrration," articl<; !>> Herbert Mitgang, tlurSew York Tmiot, Oriober IU, 1970..,. ........ ........ 077 J 'T!ip Vietnum VV-r: 'No One Civ.-s H Damii/ " artidf from NVwuwcelc, . . Marrh29,J97l (April 7,-l'J71) .. .......................... 07H - ""3.'i2,000 VStf. V'-iU J>I|>|PU," from tlv Baltiihor*; News-Anicriran, March 2.'i, 1JI71 ...... ! ......... :^................ 680 "OI PtiUout Zobed Only llanaa Solution," from th- Wnxhington CvjufiKta.VMayJ(5, 1971 .................. ....... . ....... 681 Appi-ndix: Hlatcuuir.t xuf/tiiifted l>y law.tiir*: c^u)tnifi':i' u Amr-riran Policy Towfl/fIVii*tiianion find-tho-U'iirJ^ipiiluti''!' ..... ^ ....... 083 SUl/'Kixii KiibiniltcJ Oi thf .Si-nolA F'lf.u'iyi Iti-laUoim CVmi>iitt.-o. liv ' ' " . frnin the Fn>t^tnt uh'jfrh I'-ailcrn oinnullatioii on Victmnti ' ........ . ..... ' : . . . , . . . . 692 in i'ii()|/i>rt of i% coni(ir;niw partition 'jf ttu.- Viut/iEir War... ................... f/Ji*

Appendix Continued " -; -^ . _.. - ^National Student Gx>rdinatmif-~CoiuriilH tar Freedom 5a -" Vietnam_ .'!" i v and Soutbawt Ata'a," official coyiuttc '<{ata<mt)ni'thi: Vietr^meV "*- 1 '- ' '" ' 700 701 "Progrww in the .VitUwan 'tiuu'^f ttc.BuriU-Fi&pulj'tioa," National ; Student .CqurdiMittp^ ,-omrui*ce fc< rrcedwn in Vietnam : and " . ' . Sov(,hf*A8lrr.:7 ........ -l-.-^.-j..-^.:- ----- _..-.. -\ "-.^ ----- .702 v "Cam5x.di*'* 8Uw Against Time," NAU^D^ StilrtvOt'Coorvlinning li Vip.Uiui aUcf Southt^wt \si,^ ,,'....^. ,,.... 704 i. . '' - .' . "Survw>'"f V'JtuSiuf Vietnam Vctcnuw," bj*^08Ct>ti Nwlion.' ----- ....'_ 705 '' - ~ - David . cr*l Court ....... -.;...{.../.. .-..;-.->>. X.. sJ---> ------ ~... -'.. 711 LcUtrto^cnatorJ. W.Ful>n(CrtrtQic Mart Bn.*t, M*y 31, 1071.- 712. LttUr io^8aitor?f . W. .-Pt^mgW. Ir*w Bernard -K. .Thbmu, 3r... . trtt?r to Senator J.'IV. FuIIirighl from Jtuucs Wiu.fiou, June L', 1971 . _ 714 Lutter ind cnrfooed nutctr.cnt of Frattca Ghfwtt Foundation to Sot/.-W-.-fulbright . and mcinlx^f of Cbe <x>mmitlcc oti Fon-igu ' 'from -Gwgc F. Perry, May 10, W?l.',- .-.^-r ...... . 716 LeUtrtoScnaforJ. W.FuIbright from Roesc Kushncr, Ma* W, 1,971.. 717 "The D.ctornl Option in Vietnam: I," rtid<ovlCfiCbtcf K. Ox)rx;r. the N'cw York Timw, AptU 1ft, J'J7^- ...... 1.1; ................ -7J8 "TVf Electoral Opttou in V>tnam: M," article by Chentcr L. Cooper, - tin-New York KJUJ, Aj.ril-l, 1071... ................. ; ..... 72U Lcttw to .^ctiator J. W. FulbrJght from Wavn H. St. Clair, May *fl.

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^ . Ltttcr to Senator J. W. FuIbrifUt from FcrdinAnd A. Improu, Mv 14. - . v- ' 1971...;... ..... :....- .................... . ........... .'.. 721 ^ Ltfbr to Scartor J. W. Fulbriebt froit> Prof. Herman T, Bluracfithal, dctiartuient oC iHj-x.toIo*y. ;WaHl)incton Uuiymitv, St. LOUM, Mo.. Ix;Uir to ^nator John Swarkman from Richard J. Hornbcalc. \ugUHt 10, 197(T. ................... -..^...- ...... :.'.:.. . ....... Ixtttcr to Senator J. W. Fulhriglit from Joan M. Vinswi t Mrs". Bobby (i.), national coordinator, National Lcuguv <if Families Of American Prwoncra and. Miaring in .Soutbeaat Ani, July 1 1971 . . ., ......... ~'i~> .Summary Index: '..-' . ' C 7/7

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April M: 1971.... V-,..-... ..'....I',.:...-.;....'.

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722

PRQPSX&S%LATBiD TO THE WAATO-

ab, ITIV
"' ' '' :JpTB> STATE* SENATE, CpKanrtEK os ForaooN RELATIOXB, The wminuttec met, pureuAnt:t<) notice, at 10 K)5 a.ro., in rooni New SnnjtfV Qffire Building, .Senator J-.W/Fulbrigbt (chairnuui) . . Present; Scatters Fitlbrigh^ Church, -Poll, Spong^ase, ooper. itoid J*vits. v \-;--. ' v -. . ; ,11ic CiiAiKJfAS.-.TJie oqmmittee \-i]l conje^ta oyder. .' . ^Ve did not- nnticapttte such a large crowd, in time. We tried to get the <*uciw room, but.k w*s enft*ged. 3. am very sorry, we 4J' - more" ronj,- bul thisucjuH-he l* room tlfat we could obtain,
RTATEMEVT " ' ,

The (>mmittcc^on Foreign iJi'bttioua id meeting today in the first of a scries of hearing oh pftudinff lopi-'laf ive proposals reUtini; to ilie war in SouHwast Aiia. TJicxr nr S. 376. S. 974, Seustc Joint Resolution 82, Senate Concurrent. Hctiolutinn 17. St'iuite Reeofutiou *2, and Senate Resolution OG. ol>jotfion tl)se proposals will t>e inaert<>d in the record at , ,(Tfui inforinatioii referred to follows:) '

2 .CONGRESS tarSooar

S.376

IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES


\-j." JAXCIST 27 (lacnUiirt day, JAXUAW 26), 1971 Mr. UcGotxu (for hiiateU, Mr. BAKU, Mr. CHCBCU, Mr. Guw*ro:r; Mr. KAOUTTOV, Mr~Q*A?EL, Mr. H/k>u,Mr. Iturr, Mr, Hjumue, Mr.' HATTULD, Mr. HOOHM, Mr. Jitorrr, Mr. J*m, Mr. Ksvirnr, Mr. MojotAU, Mr. ! UOM, Mr. Knucnr, Mr. PMZKIBE, Mr. Riaitxirr, Mr. TOWKCT, and Mr. :' WJLUAM ) iulroduced the following bill ; wiuch *TM renf twice utd -_ ' - CBfernd to UM Coounitten oo Foreign Relations

A.
To amend tbe Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, at amended.
1 Be it enacted by the Senate and Uftue of Kepreteota2 tiva of the-ffuikid Staiei of America in. Congrcti 3 Thai this Act may he cited-As t\u Vietnam
4 Act- of 1971.

SEC. 2. dmgtetts fiuda and deckre^ that under the Oon-

6 stifition of tbe ITnilod HtaU-t; tic President and t!jc Congress 7 xbare rtpomul>iJity for extfll/IixLbg, defining the authority 8, for, and concluding foreign military coroniitinctitii; thai the d repeal of the Gulf of Tonkin Itcsolutiou rawe* new 10 fat about the srmrcc of tuliiorify for Anu-riran inv
IT

2 in Vieuuun; that both the domestic and foreign policy iuter3 wts wf *ue uivJ C-Uo_ .squire an expeditions end to the
' ^ "\ "**

4 warm Vietiuun;.Uiattbcooaflict aw best be resolved th-oogh 5 ft political settlement among the parties concerned; that in C light of aD considentioai, the solution, which offers the 7 greatest safety, the highest measure of honor, the best likeii8 hood for the return of United State; prisoners, and the most 9 meaningful opportunity for a political settlement would be 1 the establishment of a date certain for the orderly with11 drawaJ of all United States Armed Forces from Vietnam. 12 BBC. 3. Chapter 1 of part III of the Foreign Assistance

13 Act of 1961 is amended by adding <it the end thereof the 1* following new section: 15 "gfic. e^O. (a) In accordance with public statements of

16 polity by the President, no funds authorized to he appro-, 1? priated cnder this or any other Act may be obligated or J expended to maintain a troop level of more than two bun-. 19 Jred and eighty-four tliousand Amwd Forces of the United 2" States in Vietnam after May 1, 1971.
21

"(b) After May 1, 1971, fuud* authorized or ppcjpriated under thi5 or any other Act, may be expeodeil hi

'i

~j coonttrtion with adivities of American Antied Forces ui tutd ^ over Vietnam only to accomplish the following objectives:

1 2 3
4

"OH0

bring about the orderly termination of mih'-

tary operations there and the safe and systematic withdrawal of remaining American Armed Forces by Decem-

her 31, 1971;


" (2) to insure the release of prisoners of war; "(3) to arrange asylum or other means to assure the safety of Sooth Vietnamese who might be physically euuaJigered by withdrawal of American forces; and " (4) to provide assistance to the Republic of Vietnam consistent with the foregoing objectives."

5 7 8 9 10

Mb CONGRESS

S.974

IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES


FOWL-ACT 2i (lrplti\ cUy, FKHTOAKV IT), 1KT1 Mr. MIUCDUJC (tor liimwlf And Mr. SAXMC ami Mr. Bvvir. Mr. Onvurnx, Mr. KaaxtHV. Mr. (JKAVTJ, Mr. HAUIN. Mr. Il.vrr. Mr. II \irrxc. Mr. Hroiini, Mr. IlrnTHiirY. Mt. MiiiiAU*. Mr. MMS Mr. Mi xir, Mr. SEIJU>X. Mr. Mr. SrrvKvwiN, Mr. TrKM:r. Mr. WIIJ.IAMI.) uitrutluced 1 1* bill: wliii-h nas rnd tiricr HIM! rrfrncd to t\tf Camtmnrv im ^n Relation*

A BILL
To turieod the Foreigu \tunstaiu-4> Act <>f 19C1, a* ameuded, to probiliit wiy involvement or paflicijtalion <rf IJiiited Htat^H Arnifd F<roe in an invasion of North Vietiuuu without prior aud explicit <)iip-(^.-i(naJ authorization. 1 Be it enacted by the Stnata and Haute of Repraada-

2 tiveM of the United State* of America in Congreu auembltd, 3 Hint chnptiT I of part III of (he Foreign Awittanre Act of 4 I1KJ1 i* amended by adding it the end theror*f the following 5 new wotion: <> "fiEC, 20A. (a) Oongrow find* and dwJnrpK that nn-

7 der the OxiKtitution iA the United Rtate^ the Preident and

JI

the Congress sh&nc responsibility fur establishing, defining

'I the authority for, and concluding foreign military comiiu't3 4 incuts; that tin- 1,'jiiU-d States om in u<i way participate in or sujijKtrt aii iuvHsiou of North Vietnam without prior aitti

"' explicit congressional mitliorizutiou. W "


K

" (b) Ou and after tin- dutr if tMiai^inont <>f ilii* M-<lioii. in (ux-oniaiKx* with pulilic MiiU-incnts of |H|!C\ l>y the I'u-ident. IKI fund" audmrixi'd or ii|)|trojiriaU'd under tlii- <>r any

' otlicr Act shall !>< usc<l << earn,' out an inva>i<>n <>f Xorilr
1(1 1

Viettuini liy I'nitcd Slati-s Anncd Forty's uiilnmt prior nd explicit antliori/juioii of the < 'oiip-css. "( <: ) ^" "II(J utter the dale of ewtdnifin of llii-> M-dicn,

'-

1^5 ipi fund- unlfiori/ed or uppropriitted under thi or :mv oilier 1^ Act nlmll IH- ii^-d lo curn out <-<unlml air support m^ivities

1"' withiu the borders of North Vieinani in Mipjn of a jjpumd Ifi I" invasion of North Vicliijin uiihoui prior nnd explicit athorixtttion of (lie < 4

-a=" S. J. RES. 82
IN THE SKJJATE OF THE UNITED STATES
Mr. HUM introduced tl Mlwtng print involution ; wliii-b vw rvd wfc nd referred to U Committee on Foreign iteration*

JOINT RESOLUTION
Expreuing a proposal by Use Oougres* of the linked States for wiring Un- wtfc return of Aiiicrictui aitd allied prisoners of wur and tin; aitu-U-ruled witMmwal of all American miliUir\' tH-jNiuifH'l from Soutii Whereas die Pmad<xit of tiw Uuitd Hui m bin addresi on peace iti ladodtioa ti October 7, 1970 publicly auBowMswl a writ* of )Hr<}HMals f>f mti>i4TJkm fpy tbe <i<iveninieDt of NortL Vtotoam at tb ttuks l>?uig hcW 'w 1'ara; and Wherea* one of lite rrmidml'ii ptopoijj( WM the httOiatuUmo offer to immediately ud uucowlitwumliy exdtt |e all pruooen of war held by both *'.Am; and Wh*rca no preoooditiou WM iudiott^d fey tite Pras eol (w uegottattoti aud actioa u tbic; jnip<rtuJ; and
II

s
Wherens the purpose of the President's program of Victnaniitation is to giv* (he people of Sooth Vietnam . rrasoiMiMo opportunity to achieve the capability of defending Uh-mselves and their country agauurt *n<wd aggmwioti from North Vietnam and against subvention and terror diftvtt-d. controlled, and supplied from North Vietnam in order tlmt the priuuplo of national nclf-dcu-ruiiiuition under the Cimrter of the United Nations may be maintained without further involvcntent of American military pcrwtnud in South Vietnam; and Uie prugnuii >f Vietnuuiizathiii has leCn rapidly moving toward successful cjuij/ldion, jtonm'tting a. coutiiiuvd reduction of large miujUjrR of Anierioau military personnel in , South Vietuain; and Wlwreas it is the uiti-nUoii of die Ooi)gn;< of the L*it'd S(nU< (hot all American iiiilitur) |K-rw>nnol IIP withdmwu from South Vietnam conslsti-nf with t]ie time m- maJdy nccrfiuuy {or Otmiplution of Uio ]ir<tgmn of VietiuuiHxotion and in coufoniiity with tlw: so-iwllcd "Xixon llm-lf'nn-" ttnii(Miiu'c<I liy tl: Proxidcut ui (iiwm on -fuly ii5, IJMiiJ; ;md * Uie flagrant vioJaUuii.hy Xorlh Vi<-tn;uii of tlie f imcv;t vcring trUincni <f jirisoucrx of war IKIX Ac the crediltiiiiy of'Ujc offcr of rqirfwentative* of Um Oownuncnt of Xorth Vu-inujo lo mtgoluu* the exdiwj^c ' of prisoner* of war bfuu* the cvnijtkiU1 witbJmwul of AmcrJin rniJitwy pitrBonw} frow S*mtJj Vif4imi: Vow, therefore, le it Jtetoliwl fni Ihf finuilr urul 7/w/c nf Jlcp/rumtaltiv* of ttif fJiiifrtl Sttilrt nf Amfrv-4} in C'ongrrj(# aiutiiiMrei. Tluit the C*ntcn-1>>' 4>f 'I'4' T'uit4<d S^iex roose* UIA( tlw

Crated States agree to the complete withdrawal of all

2 J\Jnericaa nalimn' personnel from South P&nam within 3 twelve nwindrr following completion, under appropriate iuler4 :uU>nal sap. msion, of lh. exchange of priaoot^ts of war fc* 5 j>rjKw6d by the President ia bu pttbti^ iDDoauoemeot of 5 OctotW 7, 1()70, and die acfotailhig for men missing in 7 aftion; wid 8 Ktolrfd further. Tliat the Congress of tie United

9 SiaUs will fully support any effodx mad< by tbc Prqdect 10 and bis adfiuni-dration v> iinplftoicut: tb'tf proposal.

10

9& CONCKKSS

J N THi: MKN'AXK OK TI1K UNITED STATES


-Annul!, VJfil Mr. SnwK*Mitr.tr<>-u*rl{( Mr. OCASWTO*, Mr. <MI.UX, Mr. HtMHfs, Mr. t. Mr.Jtfuiivn. Mr. Krt.vnn. Mr. Mt^invmir, Mr. HAXI'IJ^, Mr. Xli^kti.) jiiiUiiiloil I!M< folloni;^ ctiiH-uriiMit rrviluliun; wliini

CONCURRENT RESOLUTION
<f INtihal Siwiis luilknry iuv<4vJii SMI(|I Viclinmr U (41 ^ntui^ llw fiV-l<iH ninl figlil* of llw icii|t|r i.l (In* siijijHiii. f |ln- I'ltiffi! Sidles I'm1 a i-,-^iiiic wliu^i r n-I;iiN

-_v inn

llu- /-..miMiMlinj! !,' |]M. Sinllli VU^IUJMCM- HMN* of |{i-|tr(M-n(ii<iu"> mill Jli Mi-nlil;. "t Mw tVi-^di-ii: ;ui.| llu- V'HV

I'li'-ilriij. of SM(ili Vii-liiiiiii ani\ |lit*T4-liy iilhvl <lirrJlv nii.I

iiiHy J|H- IKIH|I^-< 4f/ i /a- win'', i InJ, lwJ liio jirosjfHH for u
V .

11
tJic goal of sdf-dotcnniiiiitioti for Jio IKS>J]C irf Sunll, VtOimia roqniivs tliat tlio ITiutcd Suu^s imt <4ily ^u-niil support for nuy.niirdJdttli.^ or parties Imt l.s4i () o( any MicU wa^Kut; ami Wiwrcus ilic State* nud Uic GovcTiiiiK'iil 4f tvxiU( YiciJnim <->iil<I <-r<-;ii- u fiilsc wiipusinuKx- rf Mi]jMrt for tin- nvJoHiMi trf i'r-i<l<-ii \ 1 Ilijeu HT Vk* 1'nwMltuit Ky: Now, Uiorcforc, lM-3t ll&olrctl ty tlu- Senate flhe ftovtc of /tcjirf^itlallrtx

2 cimcurring), 'Hut &3CTIOX 1- Tlie CVnipvss naifiiniiy tta tteiUrnliiy <f lln-

4 Uuited 8tnt*^ iu tlic 1971 Koiitii VidiKiUM-sc elcx^iitiis mwJ ^ iirgoTUie IVtttiAiit uf tlio Uniuid StiiU-s t asrtirc (Iwl ijnG I'ttrted Soi(M luaiiitnlits MCrat ucjirn4?t) JUM! ijn|iun'mliiy 7 wilJj rr^iKS't t< Muii oli^itnis :MU! ll>ai IH

8 MijijKrt in any fi*rui will U' pruviA'd M uny


m

SKC. 2. it i* tl"- '"iiM1 tit' tin- C<ii^i't>s ilinl UK

:.1U

< 0 uv S<rudi VM'HuiJiM'f* 1 jr^imc wHiM-li lu'i'cafh r inquire. d <4.it -*T IHU

< lu1(' U*. <iiC S'NJtil

12
J at it* j^rjKiM1 (!' iilwrvalii'ii innl xlitdy f ilnitf

2 iiivulvuuwnt iii Uus 1W7-1 dceuoiw "m SouUi Vietnam.


:!

' 0') 0V TV Commission .JiaJl dUWKt of tlte followiuj* .." '

I c t w i iiwiiWs; .^
T ^A)

V\V MfJIlltOTrf 4" tllC (N'Utttf H{]HMilU'4l Ky v ' ,

'

llii* I'lWidfUl ]< 'ictiiiioro f-ll; ^-mUo, ilir*u* of J>o uicanlnfH^'f liif iiiuJ4iri<y {miiy mid twu 1 Uio miiK.iity |tnrty ; HIM!

1" <1

ui>|M>iiitrti liy tlie fSjiotkor ( tlml UIMIIH', (linx* f wiiuiu itimil U> IIK'UIK-IV of tlu- jiuijority juitty iiud tvu nf

fmin ;IJIH>II^ itx jiu'ln^'fK. VtK'-HtM'icM .ii( ilio uxtuii] ut iJw ('<tiimii*Kitt j*)i;ill not. nlT<-4i tin* >iw-i' <t|' UK* '' ''
"*

(wni4iHK uii'Jiiltt'i'H to oxcciih- (1> tluLH'K of dm txuirtMiMi.rii. mill nJiiJi l*o lillixl in I lid Ki4ii<! jiwiiiM'!1 jiit.iii I Ixt <-^*t>. rf 4Jir

'''

(<) JV

^IMII MY fnu*ii

. .

Y < r

<vui|uii(jn ntwl (Jw w'JtJvitk* of I'jii

^* - Kind1* n^'ticuf, (ulici/iln, jiinl rjii/4ii mid |rrH

13
1 dial country fur such period of tiuto as the Gwiuiibsiou 00112 siders appropriate. 3 (d) (1) The CouunWon.tJiatl ian\if. ' s firi& interim ro-

4 port to (he Congress mt uUw Uuin .Tuly I.r., l!7l. Tlio Oom5 tninioii jfall thcnvfler stilnuil regular interim reports to llm
6 7

OoogiCK md sIuUl .nibnul a fiiuil n^nirt not later tluiu November 30, 1971. EucL report. tJiaJl iin-Judo MK^I liiwl.

^ iugi, oonduskiM, and roooiniikrndft(inK wiiJi n-sjK^i (y (Jic


V- " ".^ .

9 10 11 12

doty imposed upon the Commissioit and witli r<^ol in sucL other tmUeot n the CommiKkm oonKMlcre apiimpfiato.
"O * ^

(2) The Coniuiission haJl. oersc to cimt thirty dnyx .

a/tar ubmtwion of k final report. /o) .Fur piiqKNuii <tf tliix ^xnuutrrrut nwolHlMni^ Uio

1* C<HOIIHUH>U is u4iUurixo(), in ito (hWn^Jon (4) io intiltr ^ cvjH)oJknrct from (lie ooiUJD^cut fuud <if iJio'S'/wU?, (2) to

1'' hold Jicarinp*. (3) to ml ftiul IH! at, iuiy time or pliux*,
J7

(4) to t'ropioy [H:rtuj'<.-l, (.r>) to jnibjuvrw. wi(ju*w< nud

1** licu-uutcnts, (<!) wiiJi (lio \n'u>t roiiHCitt of Uic '' <L^jDruiMMit or uMn;</ '-iimwriu't] uiul tlic '(V '^ r^ Itii^-* Mi'd Adjjuni.xj.i'iiJioii, ^ UMJ oij )i >!M> m'rV'Mx-s of "pWMiiid, infonimlioji, tunl iucilitlt^ of uy

ISS Midi iltfparliiu.'ut, or A%ctny, (7) l^i jmmtro tli<t ^ n'ico* (uot in cjia-M of MM ycnrl or inl^nniJIo d^ihwiU, or or^ino'UiiniH iJicnutf, i llu*

AIM!

1 committee of the Senate may procure such services under 2 section 202 (i) of tho Legislative Reorganization Act of 3 llt-Hi. (8) to interview employees of the Federal Govcm-

4 incut atid other individuals, mod 4'D) to take depositions 5 and other toBUimmy.
c

(f) .BxpctiMiR of Uio Cotumhsioo under this concurrent rcsoIulHHi, which rfinJl not exceed $450,000, shall be iud

"

^ Inna Uic runUiipcnt furuls of the Senate upon vouchers ^ ;i^j>nivtl iy the (Iminjiou of t!:e foininission.
V

10

Sice. 4. X<lhii)g in tliw 'coocurrcnt romliitJoa fihall ta construed Hf creating any commitment of military assistance
. , ^

^
12 13

U> my Soiitli ViotrauieBe government, howsoever that govcrnnicnt comes to power.

15
DCONGRESS I*r

S. RES. 62

IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES


Haun 1 (legWativo <ly, FOUIOAIY 17), 1071 Mr. r*oOMMbmktd the following rwolul ion; which WM referral to tlw Committee on Foreign Rmlttiom ,

RESOLUTION
Relative to military disengagement from Ihe Vietnam war. Whewas the Praideat of tue United State* iuc undortalun A hatoric program to diaengage milkaiy force* of die United States from Booth Vietnam; and Wliereai the Oongra* and the American people strongly' endorse the Prendeat's program ia reducing die number of Amfcricafi pflrtonnel in tiut region; nd Wlieraaa (be President h/is formulated a major new doctrine nairiotiaf tlie diroH-tuie of tlw military power of the United States mod empbariring the obligations, of other Rations to defend themselves against aggression wnl externally inspired insurgency; and Wlicreo* the icnoination of American jnilifery involvemeot in South Vietnam po^ot grave decision* for the United States,

V-

16

with serious implications for the Nation's future (security {*>sture; and Whereas the Congress and the President slmre responsibility for the presence &od protection of American forces Abroad: Now, therefore be it
1 Jlenolvcd, That in order to facilitate and expedite tho

2 President's programs of military disengagement Troin South f

3 Vietnam, thc'Scuata Cnumittcc* on Foreign ItafeuioiiK, Ap4 propri&tions, and Aruu-d Si>rviceti diould examine Uie rcqiiirc5 inputs uid cwnsfijuwicx-* <( (lio orderly withdrawal of ail (I Aruiftd Forcce of tiic UaiU^d SoUcn from ilmt rog'wn; nud 7 Retained further, That said commitWes shall report

8 to die Senate not kuer than niu^ty days following adoption 9 of thin r.->*>luU<ii su<'L n>couiJiieiidaUoiiti as Uu-y dwjjn ap]in10 priale c<'r"><"i>in|r liie iiuiiiinr, nn-tlnwl, and scheduling of 11 lTiitU.*d fkaU military di^'uga^-rnoiil from 8outhent Aa, 12 jitdiidinir provk'-oii^ for Mife return of Aricricau prigoucri 13 of war DOW hi'ld capUvc in that region.

WoCONGBESS

ft

S. RE*. 66

ft Tin

//

IN THE SKNATK OF TUK HNJTIfll KTATKS


M*w.ii 1 (lepwlntivr <Uy, KKMN AIIV IT), 1971 Mr. HAKTKC vubmiUtd tbe fotWiiijr tvnlnlioti: nliirli ** trfiTreA <i lic CooMnittco ou Kon'ipii li<-Jl MMW

RESOLUTION
IMntiug to die (cnnioadon <rf Tniu-d fitatts military" pmticipation in die

Aniuxi Forces to Ute ludmJiiiui otnflkl, wliiHi HtilJmrily was grunted l*y tlic (/ongixss in flic Tonkin r<>MiIutMii (I'uln Ji<- JAW KK-4^>, 8Hiii ( 'outfits). lw !H-<-II u-it)u]niwn Iiy (lie n'\nti\ >f HUH! n-M'Inlioji: -iis die Iiil<tfjiiim <'4inl]i44 lui" <'o4 (lie I T ni(<-<| S<;il<> a Iinirv 1<>JI in I^HK! nd liVsiwuv JIIH] lnj>: .jtr<Iucc<l iu4>)i!c.ukil>l<' HilTfriii^ from llu- civ<]'uiii jMijuibiliwiH </ ilic

n lw
li<i wili <mly udd (<i (IwJ Uill '.jwillHuif jir<>in(r IwfK'fil in (lie n^iatral inl<-rrt: Now, dMtiWorA, U; it *

18
1 2 3 *
5 6

Keaolved, That Uw Senate ucgcw the I'rcsklwit (1) to wttfadmw imiuedialdy nil Ikiilcd Siats Amicd Forces from Vietnam, Caiubodja, aud lynos, cousidering ouly Urn tnfoty uf tiiusu Afutod Foruo; (2) to tcnuiiuitc imiuodmlely oil other Huilod StaUs military opcraiioiis in Indodiiiui fnnu w!atU>vcf pLwx; of origin, except thoo military ojH'riitioux of a purely lcfeiisivc clraraetcr related sjxxaficaJly to Uic pmUvUon of sucL Anucd Tonxw during Uiu \viUidrawul JHTHH! ; and ('.() (o make tlic u'Hlidrawul yf eutii Artiaxl l''<rcxiH JUH! U*nnuut(4ou <*f UMNO juiliUtry ujtcmUoun cuutiuj;cut UJHHI coiiclutitou o/ a 8aijrfurt4iry umugciru.** willi (lie(Jovenuiiciit of tlir IVxijilcV Itcpuldic of Vktiram Stir tlw njHfdy rt'lraw luid n)ia<rliaitii o{ nil Uuilod HlateH civiliiui tuid military jwrooniiel now' being held by tint Government.

? & ^
1(1 11 12

^* 14
15

1C

19
2u CONGRESS IxrSanox

S. J. RES. 89

IN' THK SKSATE OF THE UNITED STATES


Mr. < <?K (for liiiuwlf ami Mr. Smt.N> intiixluo-il the fotl<inni joint rv*oluli'in; wlm-Ii w.itri'frnvJio tU'Coiji'DiMifuii Knrifni Iirl;ili>>ii

JOINT RESOLUTION
a jiri'jHiMil l>v tin- <Vm(rr<-N> rf iln- I'liitcd Statt-.s fr <:if<- n-funi nf Aincriiiiii Pri-cmcr-: <>i Wnr and lh<- acrclviiilidniwiU <>f all American military forco ami cjiii]>im-nt from South Victitiiiii.
liu- iimincinlly a->ist'<] tin- JIIM-< 'i>miijii]ii>f f>rc<-.- in IiKlin'liin:i -iiir*' I9">4: aiwl thiN :i>oli;inri > li;i> i - \ i I v i i l iiil" compile iiiililiiry. ci-i>ir. ai;<J (iij'l'Hii.'ilic <n}j>il |ir ilic JH'</J>|C <rf .^uiiiii \'i<-l: aud

rnxi- UM- <iuv^m.im-jif nf tlir I'niuil Si:ii^ Ii:i- i-niif/iliiilfil


ny(f $IL'I.<MHI.(HK).(K( jMnl lllr I i \ f > "I < H < T * 4 . < H > -rt il-

filw>t Vnldij; JlK'Il ill llj|'<'rt <>l ill' 1 |nJi|r <

and

I)

Whereas if is the ibt<-utiKi of .tin-' (VKIWVS* *iT tK.- I'mtrtl ?>*<iK


thaf nil Amwionn military personnel lav withdrawn t^iy*' \"iHuwit^taa<tj'iit with tin- tiimrreaVjiuWy nwwssatnr"{(jr'fnuipU'ticrti f fir*j-jkfi^rain >f Viotiiamumb^i.tHMi In coil-;' fisrawar*: with ifn- Sutiti.HjoctrifH- a .tmi<niit>iVbii July '25,
1909; awl
' '

?:

is lf-

to

vi- t

opportoniiy>f . nttired N> tli<-/|ait nf Miwvfvil omcplrtion: and <iovci;oiwut *A tbf rjjited SK bae tlu-r ; _ nrathlv fulfilled Jfv;>KliiritiiH'iit to ibi^'-gi^ik1 of South Vii-t-

' rrn.aJiiiug

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- ''.' The .'rfor.MAX. Today and tomorrow the ciynniittec will hear testimony froruYh : sensors of lin^t proposals ami other Members of the x-t$T.ati'. Hot 1 1 rfitt.XtfmTary o.i\>tatP ac? the Sivivian of Dt-frna.1 ha\v bificn Jimtod fti.tfjtify. and f Jtope-tb-Vifo-ywiU he ahle^oromo during .tire >onrsp~af thcst1, 'hearing. The. coittinitt<*o has nlso invited a numlier ,Jf dic;iii!['ffchcd Americans to rfmre their views with the committee. , Jfrtalls on the .-Kntcdulo and the names of \vit:i.'Soi-# will lie annoHiiml fti />oo:i as arrangements are
VICTX.VM WAR fV'TKKSlDEXTlAL U\\R

Y'nJcr our sysJou <>>j{rrpss. and ospccuily Uio .Sonati-. shares ri1bponsibtlify w it'll t!i<- Pivsident (or laakmjr our Xatit/n's fon-jgn IHT^:CV. Tliw *-;ir.. liowcvc-c. .tarti-J and .<jntum-s MS a_I>rfe.id'ntial war in which tltv CoajrriiJSj^intt1 the fmudulfur Onlf nf l>mkin not ^ilii\ri{ a. Significant role. Jft'a.t'Iw.ifriii sjw<'Ii on Xovi-ml.- r '. I'MW. th\;Prf.iidciir said, ami I
Tb AlrK-ricaji ;>H<j)i> oannut and ithtAd n->t lie asked to "snpfx.rt a iAlff whicl; ,'|iv.>Kos thf ovcrridine issues of rr and IKSIO/ pufeSs iLt-y k:;c.<v thTriabatv<Hi'.tliat i*>iiry. .. _:- ' " " r-

Tin- rurn-nt |li!;y Lv .Southrant Air** ^ stiil vairu*1 ihVl amhivalcnt. 'Wv an- :>k-(l i<. tak- uo /uith tin- PrrfidrntVaesiiiiUittthat "the Anwrs-'an'-bivikivvnii-nt ii:'Virtiiain is i-u:iii/ to a -j),4.'! Vt-t thr kirlii'p <if fs-rf^.-AifM-ricaiw nl VirtjHrfnc^'.'i'i.'iil tin- (K-stni'-VKn "f South'-*-ast Asia. ait imif> ai>rl 1 1^; ':ii<l is not - i n : nitr!)?. "^ Mr. Antbrny f>-\ i.-, in ;*. n-<vnt .-oloiiiu. I thought. K>mini.?<i it up r/ ^uitf wi-llaric} (jnotc: "" ' \ _. ' .C 'J
~TlM- rIJ krivWjt rluit Uiv I'ni'tfJ Stat-x~h on - way mu f-t IVtuani. m< luil >- i c a r y s u ' j i t i a ^ . .

> .

-;.Tht: re-jy .> fias jnt Ixt-n tatud h\ Stiv>vart AIoj>, a M'.jijwier of
it is wit jpiai-tl?jk f try to coir'jiiUt* t liidi' a wgr* JJut lias no at all '' '' ^ In .short. lli.i Xi.von [j]i<^ is to jro on Hjrhtijtjf Jiod kiUin^jj in a thar Amrrii-a'deii.onstrably dm-K not want asuJ-Li ^iiii:^ uji. He sa; we Jiavr to do that Iicratisr orlit.tnvi.if our l!iV* w-ii] >f>|;. U-f ii-.-.in^ u., Vid wi shaJ{ -.toj* hclii-ii:i^ i/V ourwlvi-. ft :.- a vim m I^Iit-f tii.if "dcnie.-> not only Hjoinlity htit reason, for onlv'im i-nd to th._''-*ar ean rir^i. jrisf ;i.^ aiiyoiir---Jtii MT that only un end

('ongr'.- i- i*'i:it' anki-d to njijir^priatf hi II ion* of dollup. ncit.it'" ' * - , - ^ nor the |rulnit knows h'>tt" nui'-h to finw.'v rontintiatk.: of r vef anothecii.M-ul v-ar. :"

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ft is iriv.oponsibV for the Conjnvgs to approve fnndi for conritmin<r . v a wit r without knowinjMTUim about tlu plan to end American involve: mejir; in the fighting. Congress pivdiunent has n piecrcfrnt in flf li.. 'rutioti experiencvd; by the French National Assembly during the first Ind<ichina~.war. That warcndid onlv aftorlbe National Assembly ' /' ' \ to jirmvht-r public consent and brouirht in a n;tv jrovernmcnf " o negotiate a srttloriicnt ui .Geneva,within a month. "Flint n!5ultoj in fhe /reuevi1 accor*.V ondin^ that"7wr.

Over th<> cxmiv of (?<P last ." w-.rs. fbi" comniittt,-." Kas:iifld nianv hparinfT' on thr executive braniCi^.war policies. Wlipn tlK1 first .public " p-ran in early lOKfi. the prirwripal qn'Hkn that r>nc^,rnl riie i- and the public was ~Wlirare \M\MI VittiiAn) ?*It *i-ns never to t!n> satisfaction of many nu liters of this commirW, But now ;. yvais Inter, .V2.flOO American lives, am) $120 million htr. fhe <|iie<tion [*in asked by the American ieoplp is no longer ~WKy an\rf there." imt u Wii i n and how do we uvt outs?" On. April IT the President said thu "OuV onl is total American withdrawal from Vieti 'vrn.v Then? is no longer a seriou^ di^jiiite. over v that jroal. Ifon* ^t to ccomplisl'i the troal is the issae. Xi-iUier the President nor Toncrcss lias (^Hionoi>olv on iudjnnent and .-wisdom. Congress has a reiponrjbility to appu- its fndepena/nt judgment to this problem-which" h;a so divided .our Xat:on. Durinjf-' an Tnfonuiil vi*it to the Sf-nati-17 monthsxptf. President Vixon. s ' ii>r of the rJe of.t Lf Sonate in i .leiyii jVeilicy, ?aid:
TJiis ailjbini.stratjyii want* to -a*v-loi> -i Mallcu*' ,> jii ivhlrli tsv will 1 coitouJta*Jvn. and 'n whf:l> we vvfil Iiate- ttiV artx.-*^ 'V't J y f!* coinn-nt. ~- -

Tin- y>irrpowe of the*- Learin^i? is 1<> develop tln> Ix-st advictf>nd /r'atiT public understaiitfin^ of th/> poJicy alterit.>Ui\1es availablc.xAil Vi> 'onjTH'^sK/nal action to enil .A jjier'cuil p>7ttt"ipatiin in the war. n; an. virry plwi^'fi rhis moriji-,i;:'to Jiave as OUT first witm^jN'rj---;'fityirj!i- MH'i.ivt-.'ti of SotilJJuOako^j who Ki.j'for--o lon^ rakcu a iparKn (hi-etTortsf^i'iid thi* war; " -^ x |>cnHtf>r M f J.w.'ni. we are. VITV pleaded /','havi- you, WilI'vot.

STATEMENT OF'HOV. OEOBGE McGOVEHW. US. SEHATOK EEOM


SOUT^I DAKOTA c
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S-nator Mc<yovf.KV. Tliartl; toil. >f r. ( 'Ixiiwiah. and S-itjUoT S

. .. , . Mr. fhairmar. J havi: f^fifjGed U-fon- thOc ctnimitti-c. <i yoti know L Viinn;r4)iis (cciir-ioru.. bui ,t "run si s-i Miavi; in- :>-r conu- "info t l i i > \_ .. / !. - T f.j.t:--th.'--- vc?<ittni; who'-rtt* our ^nest-/! l^re tins rnornin^r. I would--'.'^ |t>5t lik>- to aiiCfhat J haw.-.never U-en j/r^iider of 11 pi-cop of Ain'.'ri'-. :^CHI*/than "I iin^ of (hcnc.ljcriibat iHrntn.i'W.'k from \vrfnarM. wlu _""" k,ii"m Mjii|i-(hii/ t 'uliout tbffTribIe raviipa-of (hat wafflrKt liand. and L S " . *-" '*. '^-

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Mho a re'here in the Capita] ttrin^ to re>:h -Ow> 'ortsckncx- of tc v Com?rt^btfn<4tlwr American-people and fhe officials of our tiovnrflnufcn/ I. think'.whst they i^nsdrmohstratim* tu?>'wtvk repiv$euf>Cihe very highest furm of iitHOti{cuir I think ^ombtmies it rajoires is mudi courage-fo^iK-ak up to thr national interest ihon one he)vnt hof^ ' ing-tjvpolitical pivsj^uvs; of this nktvwr as it rtrquiros to.nfrfofm thebattleficld. ^::-;L . - ,' -";/ ^; % . >So J-salnte thrsc t^taraiu.vhd I an honored ind'^KSed tfmtthey ftV^-this m o n i i n t o hear thedr-ML^ratk'n-'' l?o^.'ibw T. . , . , Tf-Kji "Oiuirouv. ifty I sav fw.our guests --t^iat 1 Joiu Swialor in savihjr we -welcome ,yba here and -you certainly arc ef\f U- here ' Anybody IM. ftoVin'ordor foryoij t IIWIP whalSeiw.-" other wjti^essrs liave to say, \ou willfcave to t**' "" " >ut it,nnd w* shuro therii%(nit l?top*' you allow-C^wSitor MK5ovi-rn to.pn-sciit hiai^atyuony w t%t-'every" v Thaftk you-ftry i
" " , ' KXDINO rUMOllXA VTAB

h yofc iK-gin today ''ihay-ix' tlie mdiS important nvet'i-onducfi-d In tJiis dist in^iiislicd coniniittV'?. Tlifsc KekVmg are dk^t<-d, as ( uuoVr.sland (<. at finding .(Jvc^hrxt way to end tlio war ui Jndo<"}iiiia. isk'io more urgent -{rn|>$*tive U'fore the Americu^i |>eople fpda tout. .-- v . -; '-.. -' _\ . S-."J have no henitaxicc in saying that. the very w*tti of thiji riat'urfi de*ilufify that we niu^take jn'itivfc xoto/i nowv fa. terniiiiatc-otnCrok" : VVitkillinganddtfltrurtionof JVJC K i l l i n g MIIUU-Tvl M |iH <l IndcK\hitia. !.Iii4U*MIJIlIi. '- '".'v \_Lfkc many meo'^iers of this wiMtnlttfe, including the clin.lyLmn, I .'have for yeani^pixwcd American nritilary inrolvenulifju i^CthcasI x Aisi. Siii'-e t}jfe"f>i.lj of LO<W. there fm^^cfdojii Ijeen a^{y>X-I*iC'ht fhat ^ my In-art IIM.I n^<t uLJf'-d over the I)!6xiv. j^-jwh'ss condse- wa have been s "-pursuing ii> tl^oaoiu* of freedom--and self deU-nniiiiiCJon.''Xever in . ^'history lias the jS^i^U't ween rlivtorti-niid n-ality beiHiio^liinfuIiy wide';' as it Jis lid>n iH^^'c'en Anie.ri'-a's proffwsed aims in .St>u(Feast Asia and - . the actual n^iltt^of our polic.y. _" _ ( C "An interve^i<ja whi<*L : lN > grfti7rtriie muni*/if A-tf^et'rmination'rtKH. . ''hi fact, preCenlffl indigenous pv^l0>Tal forces in Southeast Asia-f^oui . "" achievingr prfrmsof self-determination, ^ An inU'r^rciion which wC* lami'-hi-d in th4^;itfin<-oj'niducijiff.h?iT>r and dvafit haja iiifiii-tt-d otvffv; |HM)pic of IjiuT^i'nu such untold Mifffringar-d nuelty that ii isfx-yondcomprejjrjHl'Tir. u Kwu'.-n'fW. our Uiiiilci' nd ailillery nrA-^liit#->at.iHg tlie vilTaj^y, the fo^i Mipj/Iy.'ihe fohu^'. and the la'iuily lis''Ciu South Virtnain. ^rsriu,lvl^. arid f>uos,^\sa-y ii(/thitig of.V(rtli Vietnam. We n,' all ihoi'b'd iy the Iinrlui4j<n ^->" Myfai, LiiT-do" we consider th*"- rarg^.' crinii1. RHolvcd in killi>'/!^'v<?ral lidiidr1*! jj'iviixand iniKwi-nt civiliaru by Otit'iiiiL'-iiYV fi

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.Do we cousidortliat inorc th*H hi^Tine vjuapes in the five northern . . jjtjjv-iitcvs of -South, Vu-tnaiu have been burned to the ground by Aoi)cioai\trooCtcrtiHery and airpower? C~ *vxsnwMir.that*ncyw higher jien-entapeof tlrvilliigwin larpv

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Do we <*ms5der that aev^hst million Vietnamese, OumboduiC Wld Jju)ti*H ji?*sants and villagers have Wn systematically dri\vri-/{Hn^ , their lioitvsjftid herded into miserable refugee c*unps under the pound-,vig.<rf ocf<ArtiHeiy, our aircraft, and the torching of huts by Zippo l^l^wittfl Ifphti-rs in <h* hanjs of Anvricitn troops? "-""..",, "dMrV;ChairmanT tli\9e crinuw agmiiist huinktn^y are on tbe seal*1 of .tJwMc^tliat led us to sentence to death (JermjuTand Japawsc officers ~ attlit'tcd of.^Torld War II. They wmtraHi/4 ever>thinc tUal iaUemnt in,-|hi' Anierkmit tradition. They cAnnctf:hc> jKtnnitt^r to p> 0 *ny v longer if ..we exfect to preserve ourpYWtwsisas Ntttion and .our self^nesr>ct. In a sense, we are all uiidet rV indictin-it of Lieutenant \-C*wy- Amerioin pilots flyinjj <?\;crlicad do not hval- thtf mrivams of. titwr viftims below. tJnt tho p^ia.'und the death are ac n-al H Hie misKficri' at Mylai. ^\- * , /\. ' :- : fan we nlly argue tlut the j^ipfi^ of tlicwr lttV coou^rij^ jn. Southeast Asia, aw better Jead.4haji Kwl? Amt-x'prttMde-icigndft'ln decide that issue in the, finjtjJiu*!x .^ " . - --. Viiitnaxnizatioo, as I >old ilin mmntttK^ i.u iiy |&ut ^nftnitw in ^ HVbniary of 1970. is pt'cb*p> tW cnu-K-A ff.iAiuui of nil tlt.that- it actt-lt-rntcs indiscriiuin!tb> airpoKer nU.drtilleiT K it vki to^reduciground forw-s. It sulwidi'/xw th*v>aj'ai.Mirr;lfJlUn(r of tliex- people of Ijidochina by tedinolo^y ttJ-nCTiyn*tiMC.'This is liftt n tt<x'cptable moral, diplomatic, or military ptMf uiP~ fm H <rn-t eountry J"idt iw tlir ' I'ujted States. . C' -.V " -| '-'-

Mr. rhnirmnnv . . is^f. I Ijt-liow; the liest crifcttjow availaMi' lot-hv dnitras* is to teruiltiaU'-all' fuudtnp f nt -T/.>^ military operations iij Indorbina K\^i)n J Derj'mU-rf. I of-rhid yenr'.-'f hat is thr forjnaU of ttie Jio-c*Ued iW5ov'ni'Hftffield at^ciKtrar it. /'f bat in thi^formulav^hich i o-f'tlw Ana'ricaifc pi^tpfK.ciitl^ uprtu u^iUy. waet io a (.allnp ' is A formula rlm'lfi IJtttroi jirct tju> National LiU'rttion Front have wild would lend to m-^'Ot ratios forllv n-Iea.w^ronr"|>riw)njn* ".iind the HaMy of our foi\*-hHuiiii2.i)i( wi(hr|raVal - Pnt.idfnt N*ix'/VViftiitoiii/nC.j(rf( (ormiilu, OJi the not relertsM- Ainer'u-an prisoiM-is". It doi-snot Im-a1< t nt I'ari**. It dw-x iwrf nid th-- inort.il dnu^ s 7naic \iiierti%in fon-i-s "u> rr-iiiii-f tli<H'H'! hujjilwr; ft uoi-s m.l end ijjw-t roftion of the. jfopC- mid tlnr."j'wjitry*>lc of TtxlfxJtuitf, [t ojrly the hojK- Ibfit l/y ii^jiJi-ifig: ouc'^roiind ' forn*. vie i . . Mr. NuonV Virfiiuinl?urK>u> policy K^iuttji1 ^rurintwK ih.ni or 'rR niil iifWiii ut t.F'Hr Mlo. that <^ tro<|M will rrcin'us ji , rtiiU tilt* rip)tiM(i'f)H wrl! fk stxiU-jl, uifl tltdt Ihf killing n'ill i''. It ilirniiu\'jM> \nA-li Uic t rue tfi I'M A.''H of our Xu'joii ari4 our fj t\i. .*yrld-/il puts its HI th*- jM^urc. a^tlx* jm^rfieKt *iut

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richi-st industrial nation on earth, of using that great. powertu destroy one of the impoverished areas of Asia. ' . -7 . ' There arc those -who argue that a great country cannot. afford to admit that it has mafc mistake, le* its commitments^ questioned elsewhere in the world. Bat, Mr. Chairman, we most, sit irelyrnow that : the mark of a mature and great society is the capacity to admit jttid comet error. That is what distinguishes us from a rigid, totalita-Jan society. ,- -.-""-^ ''"'" Why do we 'grinnr pledge "No more Vietnam** to the Awiencan . people, abd thcc >fty~ we must-remain in Vietnam to prove _oiir good fault to tiw rest of the world ' Do we really want to assure outer na: iions of our determination to repeat this tragic error elsewhere? 1 " submit that Africa will be c greater, mom self-confident, and more respected nation" if, as Tinted representatives of the people, we exer- . eiar' our^vmstitutional responsibilities to terminate supportifor a vrr: thatw*.know is wronga.nd not. in the.national interest. ;~ We are t:>ld that thif President i* worried about a right-wing EB~ *^ion in the United Straw if he ends this war too quickly on tenW " that swtn to admit Anwrioan rr&t* J detected this same concern ni . m*vrfiljon8 I %i'0 had receMtlj^with the President's National Security Advisee, ilr. Kissinger. But that concern of qh extreme rightwing reaction fnhn the few betrays narticular lack of confidence in th moml sense of the larger ^Wy >f tne American public. 1 5e a diffetwt kind of mAion'fieizing.America. if we continue this ';- jrara maasA'*' loss of confidence m our leadership, a pi-owing erosion ~ of confidence in ourselves, and,finally, tlie destruction of tlie very spirit of America. TO |*araphraat:tW Scriptures, what does it profit a nation to saves its f art; and losft ifrtsoul ? This is a far more ^*rion matter than tlie kind of recriminations that the Prtrdet and tbf Congress may very well confront from th* so-caltaT radl'7I right, iif the war isxyulod quickly. Furthennon>, by asoulkig cngresicl^l responsibitity ou & broad bipartisan bnsi? for terminating the w.r, we tend to reduce the political hazards that tlicPresident fears ac^tlwirarsend. In-ot.ber words, we assume, as Republican and *>pniK-rati(^ Memher* # trie CongrvsH. some of the burdeu. some of the |)olitiral hazoTu, rht tle Pn-sident may face if he is cidlod upon to terminate this war alone. -

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PLKA rOR r.nTOIfr FOR *. 37U

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." I plea.'! with-thc. membcrx of thi cr/uunittec to give their full en<l<'raciiH>nt to the Vietnam DUtngagmerit-'Act of J971, S. S7C, which I ^.jmr^nvd o_f January- !J7,JlWl T with Senator Halfirld and other Memixn of Ihu .So^atc. Mr. Ohaitnutn, I ask. unanimous conwnt that the o' i'<5 o[^iwore of (FuH act \te in')uded at ttu- condusuni-of my ' . - ; Wiih<vut objection it <o ordered.

Senctor ytfiwuixl Let me cjcariy and briefly RUuunarize tlie proMiojifr.; ft lie Vu-tnini Diacngaci^K'^tf Act. Out -b'n would t^'B dieodluv of Deo-mLcr 31 of th'w year for th rawol of alt "Afwrieau' Jfround, air and <vI Cony** from Vurtniun. - - . - .

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Jioyond -May' 1. I!7l, 'fufe "wouM :rimsin availnluo -only for (I) ;th> orderly b'nninat ion o'f ..militarr^opomtioiw^Vh*' and the "sa.fr ~ und KVsCmatio withdrawal of ivoiHtr.inj* American Anwd Forces .by" pvselnW 3U-.I97X- (.2^ arrahpuifttn*' return of firisonrrs. <",) nrondinj? ^r usvluni or ofh*r means /ff o^umie the sifi'ty of South t.ancjc who wijrhfiw endangered by our withdrawal, mid ,: assisrauce to the JJvpublic of Vivtiufuu, if ibc.Corignlj;appcov( >uch ... ' . - .v'- ^ "OTKEK COOB-E.< TO E>.1 '

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vealiav Mr. riuiinnan.^hat-,tbtv/gltos -other counv.-* that have suggt-stcil to fcriniti* f c^our.iuvul\vin(Mit iii Indochina. One is .ly to isbe nir f)ol.-cvDrtk-.ra l^ chan^ thoir enurS;. or to >all upon . tlic PjvSidcnt to set n dduiite withdrawal date. But that is an altcma-> .'..tiv that, sonic of us lia\v cjJiautcd.fM'ycare. and now feel is no longer , ;a ' ' _ ~ altprnatjvc "would IK to seek iinpoachnttfil' dio P-tvsidyU. Btit how^can \\v advocaic.this'coiijsiiiav; Vittc-mjrt^d tl> tongri-j^ioiial reiiicdy of curtailing eougrwstiooal . in. <yrtcndcl fil%isiuir ''a^piinsttho. war. But y rcst>rf^to tiiM- tvinftd; Iciore we htyc o^riously sought to .-posftiv^.Mid to the wr tlinouph ; ,thf i-oufrol ; ft[>prouri:iti''-(is? . " , x"r. ^" Still others iiave sacfWsStfurt a dircrt-rliallenge to (he Ptwidtiit i elections o-> 1072, citri-.r -in his/YW'n primary or frobi:thc " iaci* ' x u fifc sidf.' _ " '. v Tins Ts-a, coui'sc .which I am nor undertaking but I dojiiof bolicvv wo can v,%-t.(il January "of J7:J to terminate this U-rnble conflicf>
. . ; C-.t'.ff*^" Turt-JPAKIA'-^'NO l-ROMiT 6CWOBT OF S. 3f v

So-6nc> train 7 cninc-ljc-fon- thirf diflii^cuished rommittw pleading ^

Vb to the

u Jt is' hrpw'd.hv. sonic that the vnVkkiicw of . ^jtiri'Midini-nt fjcuifrinc i.- f h:vf it sr^cs notiiv on t R'cni'tny of thi.muuif of our .ub((iuti(iiii'fit to u-jfurlrawal. Itiit tljit is piffi^y whaf ^bi: sif tuition :(&riiaod$ that^ if we \r.j!i.rr> end tjii^ ;war. -. Both Han'/i^n.-Dhi- N'utioital [".ilKinitiori Kruiit ha.vi-^.uu n-iwatr-sily that th^only-wny ;if^iotfations"(Uin h> Hlu.i1&t"for t ! -oifr-fli.' of ouc' axd f he sa/C-f xit of oiir-foou^ is for us to siyn < f> it di-fiiiit* liju:" fm- fh>' vvif^drawaJ of all^AHwricwi fon_v. ii.''fotp! of ihi:~ ifinx- i.-i uiu<lc' dcaf^uhi'ii_on*' n-alj^^tliiit it I*-s iii-tlH- rt-lf-Lii<i'rt't4 of-fhanoi and fli: Nuri<niIJ>il.H!'r:it{oii Front to a^'irt,- Jhc KifHy of oiir. fnr'iv and the tvli-iw ofoijr |.rivr;ii;rs a* ~ as we nwke Jii'Iciiry'oJHOjitincnl- to totnl withdrawal. :

X-,

What Mocks the negotiating procoj-svjvhat blocks tlie. release of nur pns^nei'si, what continue* the danger to.*(F- forces is the admmisrrat ion's i.ii!$Lstrn<.i that we arc going to keep iT. residual force there and fontimiu the U3?~vf American -airjwwer in sujii>ort of the Tnieu-Ky ir^inif jir'Stti^oaiintil inch rime,as that refine .L*ic*fableof.contaiuv in>r rh>"\var under it's own. ^povrcr. ^ -_ -;" ' -Ciiery ^ nu ]>le;tsaat or-^rL^-frcc solution to the disaftttr in Indorfiins. But i am willing "4<5-b*r judged ja^iisfory on the assertion tJm( if "we will make a flaf cotum^tment to witlidrawnl of all our forces by th(>-t)0<i f tins year j w> can break thfi negotiatuig stalemate in PTS.* started on the release of -fr iisoufersN" a4)d secure as-of f-afctj- for- our force? while they arc bcnip'xvrithdwflv 'i'ltat. I firmly believe, is the CCHIRH? thjs cotnmittftc. and this Congress adopt/ f-Applausc.] ""' ' Mr. Chairman. I ask unanimous cpnsenr.tliat the1 tertof My remarks iiitrwluring S. :{76. (ojrelher "valh a brief exrexpt api^aring^ui this jaorninp's "\VashinRton Poot of th*; statement made by formftr 'Jfavy r/ieutenant (}.p.) John Kerry on ^Mcct Tlic Picss:" on la* Simday.be tbis jxiint in the record.^ Ajr]ijiM use.] '.ii \IKXAV. Without objw-tion Jt i? so ordered. (The informs; tiou referred to follows:) -

. L'_ '

SMwoft. ntoitoK MceovKMt.dr sucrru SUKOTV

r^

xMOCnDUCOS MIO DSAIkif~Tta CI^COWC*!**, /JMT SMttOM " . . X * ^ "--, - . *


4

117

Senate
kadlnc to th . of oar priioner* and would ptodce a nala exit tor wir troops; A OaHup poO ImatffU Mf.IdrOOVCRM.Mr tmdas* far *nj*eU and (or teuton stowed th* Amoltin people - Uwrtat -. ' Hancu. Cauwrow. Batmtt. , BAYV, thMlornroJ* br 2-W-t narcta. Vn,edtnunM South VlrtttmKutCKW. Chum, HJCT. thane*. Itoen. Jtrr*. KanE*r. JJomuu. -Mo**, Mn- CM fJoMrnnKnl vhlch Terbt> xcfono and' pcmrtfc** conitpi for tb* prfnclptas . , Md entitled- UM "Vietnam that a-Mdd IM it^UuWnifcr. - And white ttxr txar Ah* lndcraeiei ofhe provWon* U Mri* <t; which vouM vof Uiat rrilroe. JLhc '0outh . Vtetaarne*e -meed ttot Pon!n AmUuaet Act 4t people fUH tear. too. the devanaUon of IMf. are dMltar to UHM ^K tte VlttaMQ UiHr countryside and Ut *Vtructkm - ceiMldcrcd In of thetr-lhr*-*)' weapon* tC*t~eaMioC . . ' discern JKlwero rnonr nrt TonocaH. -The war -tat *rad fvtber acraat Wt oflr U. to ttn coutlcUon Cmt it arftnay IMOMMTT Mrn- Icdoehina. ~<troxxt! now wean -the' -lht-Hteoo idinlatatntln' 10- teart AT Uey-'bnhardment. nomlc ruination. And tU the TW a*^*r btnioo ww defeated In Ution tf widening fiaofliet. tbc Benau on -fltDtrabcr J, ITW. by a (A that oxmtrr tvxr. eonftnn prcdwfy rot* of S to JO.-;" " - ' " what the flXmioro MoTwpportertf-oX the. Cdoper-CtfVrtti amendaicnt -MU(ht ta What hu hWTwmd (toe*? n- American- eommitmeot to TOUDC Ancncaiw :CixiOou to blMd - "prereDt yet anoCSfl wobbly Sontheatt Artan and dir And thrtr Mojflcr to n*tf all Uw mre pabtf ul by tb* kntnrUOfB that At bom* owr owa naUonal economy tt irffl atf-Kt not at U U eatm that ' conUnue* in the mojt *odma recew4oo~ to a decade. Cadt month'* indleaton. withdrawal* of 74. force* defy 4hv dmlnlrtri<'i roe-oior*d ba with each *tep rabfnc whiJe the ^reddeut tetoe* who mutt remain a* lh oaltonat program* to a'Tikt rfrqury and war foe* or.. Hundred* of American^ tffl laruuhh To win acctptasn of fen war policy. in enemy prkon camp* with no nat hope ft* admialitraUon h discarded rttal of rdeaM, **Vii*tnafBiitaMiff1'* I*, a tlctaaHM uf K* own capacity to orrra. which, run tfi<.eW?nr~cU DaUyair miMkitw over Cwnbodla vtowould Ma -Uiri. U( ttve Pmldtnf own ruMeUne* Bn in prlMM tot* the Indeflmu f otura. The ,itro 1C u> the t*tn>i of hi* own adntototrmtion-Aplorea their plUtbtlxit Cabinet" "cdB*r* flecrwtary , Boierc on icoore* itorcoaM that would Ttivn 'Umtedia'and Secretary Uatd <m ihe them and our troop* to their bnmnr and . 'oo Tar :ta!<t Invanioiu are incur' famUM*. . ilon,V telluK* are -rirtorlia." air atIt lia become incfeadntjly c^ar that ' uk4 are "rotaeUve rcactfoo " od We nefotlattoiw to Tail* have no chance Victnam-t* our 'float- hour" of. prodticiaf aKreemeot. TAM rendition The rhcrte cannot, lone tfiteM ftx wul renajn to lone a* w* iCAlnUIa our reafcnm of ji policy mt*talctn frotr the oktlr* t* Via foal on the crjctmate bclnnincr^t.Mii otily dcfifate thr rwf* UMt that w bare long ttbee-foMatme foira of tnut. mud vfU aW r*(Mct on t}ieJ>aitk>M4. But dnfie ftM detmt wbicli are McnU*J to rHecUie aatlonaf of the MoOovem>KatiMd JcadcKhip. U deprive* our *ocietr of the lut fall poknin for the moral ctreflcth U Mete ndir a* owch lur Ubaratton rront and Hanoi at any time in out- ruilknal oiperir*. (hat rf the 04. Oorrmment would de> W wait in vah. (M: oiuwn that can jivt our nalionai ( and avoU toe j)< af! o'.v force*. Uvy would Immedtateljf pain uf admlitinr our ibuiaii*. Tin r*-

ACT or irrt

29
.*ot cS firf cnnci-r leave. * >ourtd to jil.-'Miat nuclliirna brine, would uk .^Uotflc cancer instead? .- J. Or? -war corrupt! all it toucU. We titut e>>(( it now. We must bio now .lie -xedOiPUoa of our own foriclf at horw'and ,'hc rtntarsUon cTw-uJom smd co:i;icc,v\ccjiciu pur potture abroad. Thii Mill* A decisive step tovard tkott fial<i..Ta commitment w complele I'hrfrtwal of BjS. forcei by * da:* ceruia- can op*a. the .ny to political seUKaacRt.li offen tlia ooe , respoa.'uiile. ieullrtlc mwtna of brincIrji U>. prboaorji bocpe. Wlthto -bonrs *i'-t<r adoption "we" CMiTd expecV flie ns ruacWcxry -So **in wortto produce an UnraedUte avtXl.v to prorjuc* an early Oi difference* anjtfic th* tropic themselves. "We -out hose to achieve co more . ' i. H c-3. c]irt a monr l^pJlaT courw Art;'- tliiif bill would al*> i!ctlae- > tupreme obliiauous o;- icar" nd peace. Onlj Die . thcTMakJ can ralM and op^ port art.iic*. Only-inc Conicrett-can dt' claro vrar. And with .tttove powers, Cotv - t;r>sx -x^a Kivcn r> f>Utat!on to revk* lu military dcisoni oner every 2 yoja*. Lar.t ye*v we brard pica* lw Prc^uknwaj ricxibilitr. Tb, Prcoteiit has lud It. Tor -AAr ^onUtrjis And tiav. icltn . id' live Gulf orTnrJclr, resolution. U Jio Jcr.^er tlxr J;1 V*t Mature of The bill IS. 37> to amend the Forcii-n AxaLV^2icc Act of 196). fc* mnvcndrtl. Introdcccd by Hr. MoGovaa '{or htaaetf aac! otltrr. Setvwr>. m-ai recovrd, m>d twice by lu title, cad referred to the Committee on *WeJun ReUUon*. as follavt: . lit >( eiuv f( by (V- ;<m ,n4 Nour a/ Xcpr>ncua(i>O o/ th* I/mi j< 5rM>i o/ A nv.b cit*a i tn VTtrtjn D<iuigurrfnl Act " - ^ UK J .vaoft***. SiMlt eif* dtclM*. U>^i untfv tic Cat- tituUrt'.i of tM Uniu-o tttA tvtmut nart th* 'mafnu-ttu uluty lor wuiUnKn-.e, CeAmnc tlx fur ina eaDc'-itfmi; -KMra miliury crjnrait. hub'*: Uut tlw r^*t r <N C-iU a( Tonkin ROToluUuu jum a** unccrwintm bw'. th *M*rc* of KutboH'.jr (AT AnwrKAB lnrolmmt in VlMnu&;-Tbt both tlw dcmxtx mud forncn policy uurM nf tb* Owinl Scat** r*quu a cxpuditiou* ttjd u> MM wir la VMUiam: ttet th eooSCCt c*n bent bt n> r>:y<l t&nnzh poltUriU wnirnwnl nvn"K Uif pvU conoiMd: Cut in klcht r ir eouidcnuoiu, clw Mluuon which ofloii the . the blclmt ncMun of (wooc, t UkciluouO <>wtiM t'ctum <tf CultM pruocxn 3-) 'to u*t diiv ecrulu br It* (<lt!)of *K C>uud SL.. (vr 1 Chapur 1 cf VS1~- n of lh Fkxfltn. A.k.^iX< Art of IMI IwJIMOdMj kty fl'Mnv. ibc rixi tbrnof Uw f<31owu< v- WI-LII>: LM'i'ieiiU of pniinr by ttw .Hr-il<T.t. no Act r IM &DllK>U'. or erpif<ld 10 u*ai'itAjn a travel Jrtrl of mTr tlun two hundred nd Kht.y'four ippropny vd 3bdrr tba ur M>y i>ur A.-l l be <pra4*A. In rontwi-Onn wi-ji ^cUr Anutrican vm<4 fotff* in ttvi nvrr V.*tn otily (A MiMbplU^ Itx MlnvtBC ob>rcUMUon of mlllUry opmlb-o* QMT* oat
Tb
nf
oi~W. (10 () In m>4<iinr with puriix;

in Uw VIbe d)91cvit i^-'-^- -'o flmj . Ojcct*-ho would dJJpW* l'ic uc^ &>r new uttcatjon tu Uw.eondl'i<mi iii4 Uic procedures far cordmitr'jit I to battle.. VfetnHw (-. <Jr]y clrrcctijened Krc rM>emautui Ita constitution*! prr' ro^aUvce T Aiujxyrt UiaC carh oi>e of ux bai ntacl< Mi own ICdlvldual rcsoliitjon - for '.'no icorr W'jvuiv." -!)>!< can. ws'dca! only la kl*tract -/lvrrii? Whj not be releviu.co totfay?~If wr wor/y ubout WK pa-vie*' xctrsutl for tin- Cotirrw,. 1 tuboirf. tbut bllr ire -Cc/utcritfcovclvcs.witlt nt* procril';rrc U. jtt*vcM fuUrc warn. ? outfit to be e-/en jnxJoiB to uce the pncrdum ct - Cotuljltrtlori "t^ id tlie *-,ir
"Pi-re r iruny niton* to rfcrolve "no more V.r'xwns" ' '- Jxrt u-' mat-n. 'M*n. afalrst '4il oW. er.t Uil1I|M fcirl of UM" "ViJtr*rrt D|ip: ic-tj.' !! .Art { 1971" 1/r rrini^d at ' 11ic-f liiRSH/KAT pro Ir iHI! In- i>i^l rcrj u.-id. ullftnc*. obj<rj|'fn. iJ (n I in'
. - t!!i

<I) To

<3> To urane* MVI^BT or Hint; mtw ta UW o> rmStij at ton i'4i Viuu-i)^<t wr.t fa* pii/>|rufy rc-w;r<l irf "Jjn :<>.- IUK] 1s j pr>rM Mi'cffMflr.' vm wltiu

30
.[Tbr WMhlnrtonPoct. Apr. 2". 1U711
FOB THfcllECOatJ ...

.; -

i' VICT^AU VTTEA>-S O X - A - r H O l T AXH Tin. MUD

( former. >'Pf LI. (jg) Job* Kerry of ttu- rirlnam Vctirann AgaiHit the War, <>ti<-*tU,nv4 tutJffO Xhcctan. of Thf AVir Yurk Tiint on "Mcft ttic //" (.VB^WRC), April 18.} '. ^ Mr. Sbcrhan: . . . Z>3.00(> Anivrttttnx live died In Victtmni^tiid we are told rfpcatcdty \>f JIKJI loxldv the government aud som- out tliat ou> f tin- barff reasons fur cunttnvfnjc 'I'*1 war and tryinc to ]<<uVt- wnm-tblnt nolid Jit-bind in ViHnam IN to JiwUfr tbosc r&.OQO d-tlis Niw it M^I. ( me (lint wlmt you anil Mr. nublmrd (Al.Hulrfmrd of Victuam \VtcniiiM AjaliuS lie Wur] art: |irn|K*lng IK tii&C tiif otmnfry withdraw from Vjetunni rrptrdlt-s* <.f ili<- ivitw^uencfn to VMntioi lurif. and dort-u't tlil.i uiakt- nioaulnplex- tin- iJaorificv <>f th<H<f r>3.000 ' t k i t doyouliav^toKayaliout tliatV C r.'Kftrf : . . . Fim <>f all T dmj't na> mr drd-. Mr IIuli)>nrd <.v wt> xiiuuld out rvcardletw of thr oiusvijuciuvs. 1 tUInt this imiutrj" bas :i IIHII; ul>li* t-i9U in tbc fututv for r<-parurion> to tin- Viptujtiw*- and I think <Hir imllinc out. if '-wv , uli >ut ncrej.tlnt: oialitiun Rnvornmrnt. witJiou: th- Thien-Ky-Dlpui reefniie nimji ' .n do and wliirli IK th only <i|)ta.-)c to our imlling out. would ' I* aNJ>rHUe ninrsontatfrc i>o)ltiral forw. To ittn*T your (ideation a_, to tlw; ilrad. v> -ill luu, ^ujfclilnc -with ns iuwllirt^ ol prtnotMTH of i-ar. motlwrx of sijUli*-n..xvUi.lukVf l-wi^Vlllt-d. wlvi< of ImAjisnor nht> lnn'i? l>wn *t!W,.\Vf ve\\\ liv> Marinrn romiiijc <i<m7 SiiTf. mm w-iflt mi Ii-si; wllli .Nuvy Cnrsw-x. Silver Slar*. I'lirj'''' H<rt>, I0( p^r int disM"tI- Tlh-jr sttf. vofulue'lu'w to j>o} to tho in^ijilo <if tiiN country. "We !;irc l<ist our xonM. ttr imrc ht otrr hnrimnrf". 1 iort my lep- Km thi- imponant tHnx 4 no* tluif TUit .liaiipcnod. fxt'x not l.-ji kltliiiK i>ct>j'le l justify my IOMI. U-t'n uot jtU/ri/y thcxlcad. Isl'x try and clorify ilic Ifvinjj. J^riV do soinclliln? fur the . 11 vine" And tti<-y would My. f liffL-fori-. duri't li-t it )uiji*-n to any more it dfn.-sii't !<srr to DIH/I let it tmi.|*-ti in wm-our !).

MrGorcru -OatA-M Ilurt tJruP:! Mnndalr

_ .'

FiufletonNVl.;ii Rilii'-off Harti>>> 'Jut-it* - Bayh Jin.nji-

I'roiniln1 HarriK *- fjurophrr) .

; ' "- . .

Tit** CJIMKHA.V. Ix't tin: say ofii-i; nton- tliat it will li- vi-rv 4liffi<-iilf for us towike |iro^ri-& if tljcrv is too iuwlt (Ii'ni<nitra'iuii. f'ruli-r <Iit; pnicwIun'S f/f tlw 'onuitittif. ns wi'll as t i n - Scitut^, dcnioiist rat ions. . 'irl<'r in lh' paUi-ry or from m,r ^iu>.i. arc mrf ii'-ii-pJ-iMi-. I tv<*o^.jizj; your Tit}jiiM:.Mn ami int.'n'-it in flii'. vul it crrtaiiily is l'{ril ifni.f-. Cut in order to ^i^ <m w i t h our liiixicK-bs'tvIiii-li I Mic;*i". jud^rinc from your dvnvui^iriitir/n. your l'ii.-iii<s.a. I )ioj- you w r l l :i]low .is to j'\sK,\'ic or ... ari ov tor ,M(Xio\i'ni. do you Iwlii-xc t'nat / f i i - |-u-.-a{.'i- of vm h.-Mf- tin- fff-(-t of |A.-rsiia<iin;rt!if Pn-riidi-nr f'i jiro.-id w i n t f i A i i c a r fiitiin-. :f h wi^af

31
Senator MKiGvratx. Yes: I hiik it would. Mr Chairman. I think it would IK- a clear indication to the President of the t'nited States that a majority of the elected representatives of the Congress of the Vniu-d Siates want the war brought t<On early end, and that tlt-y arc willing to share, any political hazards involved" in that judgment.* If thenv is any truth to the reports we hear that the President ; worried alxmt some kind of a [K>ntieal reaction to any action on bis part that might WrO alXMy; aiut-arly ejid to the war. we could helj> reduce. that anxiety ar.tt fifo monl and political Mipjwrt to the Presi'dent by sliwruigtluu burden with him. t haw. always thought fhat was one of th< strengths of the so-called amendment, that it does, rjH-r.it ing within our oon:tfit itf ional authorif y. indicate our willingness ro assume that authority arid thnt. ivs|x>iiHihility, J think it mighfs.aiso encourage the President to rake it lxl(iT stand in Bringing ahout an end to the war.
ACTION l.KAIUMi TO KKKVCII WITHpBAW.U.

Tho Cif AIKMAX. That, in fact, was what happened in tin: case of the Frc-nrh. Tin- art ion of the French Assembly in iliat cast- did persuade the then Prim* Minister of France to proceed within a very short time, which J think naalout '< or C weeks, to cojiclude that war )>y a negotiate! st-Uk-nK'nt at (Icik-va. IstJ-al IKX a isn't i S< > iiator.\f<'<J<rtKj(S. Tliat Jscvrnvt. 'IIAIKM AN. The war had dragged on for some 0 years, I liolieve. h had a -wju-what .>imihir ex[K'rieiice. altliough it wasn't a> - a^n:r. They dilii"t liaiethecajracity for dest ni'-tion that have. N'cv^rtJie^Sfi. whaf actually hapjK-i-eJ was that w!ie:: the Asscii)l)!y made its jx>shi<>n very clear, tln-y obtaiiu J :; i'oinmitmei:t from th- I'rinie Mini.-rter conceniing-Giis very s-Hine country. This is the ivaNI why I t h i n k it is so appropriaie, ai'd F would think Ciat this could lierrtvrt|v in |NTsujidiiigtnePrer.id't. Among the reasons for rx'rMjflding the Pivsident is that the (Vnv gn-MS. I In- it;pre*'nUri^^ f (In- pcoplr. would have, in a -^nsc. a.Sbun-d him t h a t there would l.t- no dL^fni^t or, as you put it. right-wing re:u:Mo!i. i think thai is very sound logic.^.' ."^niitot \fi4!(fiTJ:N. Mr. Chairman; l-t'-ink the French exjHTieinv -h iiis((qi-ti\i- in another way, in thaf the fea of WJ;IK- jx-opic that vmirli/wr -ifa: t^nit.'<l States wfuIJ !* .limiriifelu'd 1:1 ihv eirs of the wiiHil if v.i- wntluJrc-w fro'^i Vietnam is not boriii* mt by tin 1 Fn-iwJi C\|MTII nc.'_ f (liink 'n if fjcr'to say thaf Fiance li-cameM more nspr<cd .-mil moii- .-u/Ti-vfuJ i>iivr in t-iie world, and n-rtainly did letlei- in liiuid'irtr U" oh JM 'i! IciiiJi. after its w'uliflMwai from Jndocliiua. and tiii-u InUr'-fujiij AlgTia. than woufcf ha\c \*t'ti te nisi' had they con(iiiiii-ii irs* war> indefinitely. T!i<' danget t^> t!i> - ir own fonvs viid f< (! |H-op|e if tli'se ernlmtfled ureas fell off very sharply oiim- Kivnch nii';t.ir\ puver Kiir 1 removed. So | ifiid/i u lot of th(M- frnrK rnll in** materialize in fa'-f. There hiav !< .^'.iin1 cvtMirnii-d bUioii.-.hiui smd Htniggle iit J-odo'hina after we w i f h d r a n if for iw* 'rfln-r iv;jviri ((inn (h ve liaie left an Army theie of over a iriilli'Ti voiilh Vii-ttiumese fniceM thai are united and i-'jitipjH-d. ]t i ;i f a i r l y gry<| pri->iimp<ion tliat tlu'y might contin"j' |i- (i^'[i(. fiui l^c t h y t ;iv if i i i a ) , < l i c Fff/iclj e\|MTieiice point* ill tue '}>?><( IMM nf teducetj i-asuaft ir, on nil wides iui:e the d'f*LWrti is made t.o

32
RELKASE u FRENCH PRISOXERS OF WAR

The- CH.UBMAX. There was no problem abopt the prisoners of war arf soon as t-lio agreement had Uvn reached at (ieneva : was there? Senatoi McOovFjtx. There was no problem. There were no French soldiers"&liof while Ihey were trying to withdraw, there were no piisoners held |M-rriuwcntly by tlie enemy once the decision was made to disengage, and that. I think, is the clear distinction between .the formula that C. being: pnn>osod here in the aiuendment *Jiat I um auggestJng t the committee. and the formula 4hat the President proposes ' which doe.3 leave our troops in prison and leaves our troops in continued danger, even though the President deserves whatever credit is due for reducing tle. numherof foras on the ground. C RBQriktarevrs or s. 3T The CHAIRMAN. Does your bill require the withdrawal of I\S. milipity |Mrsoiuicl in Thailand and the stopping of I'.S. nijval earner <ij)eraCr.ns offjiotv from Vietnam i Senutor Mcii<'V>ut\. {INloes not s|M-.ik to the ([itestion of Thailand., It N[*eiikH only to the states in wliaCwns Irdoriiimi. Xoilli and South Vietnam. T^uos, and Cambodia. It would .stop any kind of military o|H'nUioiih against any of those rountries from naval forces offshore us well as from tiie airoi the ground, and it provides. Mr. Chairman. . that after May J of this yftr, in oth<-r word.*, almut 10 days hence. funds ant hori/ud or appropriated rould only IM- used lo bring ul>out tlie orderly termination of military_operations timv, and {he sufe and , systvinafie withdraxval of ivmaHiing A^iieriean Anned Forced by Pe-vl cetnlter .'ll. 1971. It also s|eak* alxmt the use of funds to iii-iiire ilie relense of prisoners of war. to arrange asylum or other means to assure the sttfety j>f >%outh Vietnamese who might In- physically endangered by withdrawal of our font's and, finallv, to provide assistant.'*! to the Republic of Vietnam consistent .with tliew forgoing objectives.
lint tlKWe provisions would beconu'0|i'fativf if we had time to pass t h i * Ir'l I K; fore May 1. by the firsl of May. Vow J recognize tlutt t h a t N not pnnlical |M*Mbility now ami tliiit dale wo'fld have to \w. adj/jstttl in ai-conlam-e with the tinM 1 when ,ve njisUer this ;i;neiidme;if. ^ iox OF i >. rmi<'t* ^ Tlif ( '11 M U M A V . Would your bill prevent tlie PreMiJt-ril fron: taking >i'li offensive or (defensive ai-tion us lie dn-me| ne'Vhsiiry ]i>^ order !o proteil our forces during tin* withdrawal |iro.-es>.^ *i'iialor M<./!ovtj:\v. No: it would no*. bec:inst it s|>ecifically that firiulv-ixn !< i-xj^'iiflcd rf uring that withdruvval |M-rio<Lf>^ (lie hafi? ;Mul systeniiit i'- witli'lra\\:il of rem.'iiiiing Aiiu'/'ii-an Armed Forces. \fi CJciirman. I t h i n k thai ugaiii i an inuiginry danger. Oii/-e we h;r, mail- n flat coii'iiiidiient for the \< illnirHU?' t^f out fop-o it WiilliM \- the height of *hlf>idity fnr tlif otln-i MI]C In li;u;i^ llifdi Mini to inukf it diftl< i.ll ('r them to u i t h d n i u , xiid f h;ive no doulit ut u'l

33

ihnt Hanoi and the National Liberation Front would readily the jneoessity of providing safe assurance during this withdrawal unWss. tint Uvause they are saints lint because it l in their selfish interest iu< tn inijiede our withdrawal once we agree to it. but we haven't agreed to!hat under the present formulal In fact, every implication is we HIV goinr to stay there with the Air Force and naval j>ower offshore and logistical backup forces to whatever extent fs necessary to keep the Saigon regime in power. The. CH \IKM.\\. I will reserve the rest of my questions so I can <rive my colleagues an o]portuiiiv to ask fjue.stions. Senator Case, .senator TASK. Thank von. Mr. Chairman. riKrosK OK iir.Mtivtis First. may I say that I want to express to the chairman my own njprv:l!ttioD fur his initiative in }rranging these hearing. We have had historic he.irings in this committee in re<viit years and I think if \r- coi rei-t that these hearings will U* us im|x>rtant. and I am sun- as roiij-inictixv. aw any that tvp have hod in the past, I war. much interested in the quotation that the chairman rve of a statement by I'res.idi:nt Nixon, with wliich I fully concur, as the chairman dov^. that the relationship between the 1'naiident uud Uu- S(!iuit should l>e one of advi/v. pn-snmably i>n the part of the Senate, as well as consent. I think the role of this connrittw under the Constitution necessarily means that this proo-ss should occur. I fake if that these henr'mtrs rejnesent an effort to satisfy that commitment which the Constitution puts upon us. ifr. Chairman, just a word or two. As the Senator fu . the ^reat State of South I/akotn know^, I am a cospons'ir of the bill which he has presented. Senator MrffOVKBV. Ves.
/

n.KX!HiuiT UK wninm.vw'Ai. I>\T>:

S-natorCA*K. I joined on the understundin^that he and thccosj>onrif i Lr nieaMiiv regard the <ln(e as v>mc liuf u flexible matter and. as he Inu indicated already in repird to OIK of (lie dates in the bill. m-mvtarili tlwre will June to U- xmw changes In-fon- it is- i.Macted, MTK! I jojiird Hfi i!i<> Hsyumption w,- r.iav arrive a( > I'rnc sr>me(hing like the middle of nest yeitrasa moii1 realistic- period. Senator M-<;<fvjiN. ( 'an I re?|>f/nd ti> the Senator on tJtaf jxiint ( Senat-rn- C.vnt:. [ didn't mean to put anything in the Senator's rnoutjj Ixic jiint telling him how I feel about it. Senator M<<iovijc.v. 1 know the S-natoi lias had those ivsj-rratiojix at.'i J appreciate if. t 'Link th'-rv in a jK.int ilml if not undfivi.KxI. not bv the Senator front New Jersey but L\ some (x-opd1 alxxif (hi.-, uiin-iuJiiient, J noted a n-rujrf. thai sonic u-teiTins against the war had lood Corigrenxr.'oiiiu ,\b/ng ntid < 'ongre^mitii ife('lo>l;e\ OM fht-ir Ktat<-uienf fhnt t.'ii-y wunt<-l to w<- all American foicei. w i f i i J t n v u i by tinend nf tins ji-iir and tlu-> k win it couldn't I*- don- now. Now I t h i n k tiit miA^iithc |>oint.

34

The purpose of this amendment, as I understand it. at least this is my puqmse. is to see a definite deadline announced, in other words, a flat commitment that all American forces are coming out of there by such and such a date. It is my own very deep conviction that the minute the President announces that declaration of American policy that the killinjr could stop in Indochina, and that the negotiating stalemate would be broken. Of course. I realize I might lie disappointed in that expectation, but I really believe that. From that standpoint the date of full withdrawal is not so important a> the date when wo announced it. In other words, I am more interested in gett ing the President or the Congress to announce tomorrow or the next dav or the next month that we are going to come out of Vietnam by a definite time, that all forces are fuming out of then4, than I am interested in the j-xact date when f!w withdrawal process lias to i>e completed. I stress that the reason that is so important i that I think the hang up on negotiations in Paris is our unwillingness to Commit ourselves to a definite withdrawal date of all American forces. Once that is announced then I am not going to quarrel over whether it is iVcemU'r *'>! or what date it is liccause I think the killing would stop. I think negotiations would Itegin. and we would le well on the wav to a |Kacefti| resolution of this w n r t h a t would probably even anticipate \\ hatever withdrawal deadline we finally agree on. Senator CASK. I agree with yon as to what would happen if we were to ndo|* the Vietnam Disengagement Act, even with some adjustment in the time.
Qt'KSTlOV OF f.S. MIKTAKK

I would like to raise a question with you about an expression which you have used in vour statement, and which I would have preferred you had n<* used. I say this without in any sense derogating from the tremendous job you have dour. I am referring to \our suggestion we should IK* big enough to admit we have made a mistake (Reaction from audicii'-.) If th<-Chair will keep order here. The Til MBH \x. Will you !* imict. Senator < "ARK. This is precisely tin- kind of thing that I think is not helpful, and the [xiint I want to make here i> this. That I am not one who lielicvcs that we went into this war with any had motive, with any evil intention or anything but the desire, whetlier we chose the wisest way or not. to do good in that part of tlie world. I do rot think, therefore, tliat we should bett ourselves OUT tlw Ju-ad UvaiiM- it has turned out that what we have IN-CII trying to do has turned out to Ixvery bad indeed. I don't t h i n k Me have to dwell on that and I thinl: tt it. iinfoctunate for us to do so Iierauw what I think has hap|>encd IK that we tried to do tlie liest we could. It turned out it was impossible to do it tlw way were doing it. and we ought to change the way *< a redoing U. That is the way I regard it, Si-nator M<<fO*Hf\. \r\ \\v wiy in the Senator I am not luboring the [uiint that our original motives were had. Tin-re is a great diffiTeinv Ifrtween Baying that our Bourse war- mistuken und suggesting that <mr riM>tiies were eiil. but I do t h i n k that the whole pur|>otte of theM- hearing* is to \r\ to face up tu tin* fui-t that there has \fei\ error id our |Ktli<-y. and tliai it need* to he corrected.

> 35

I don't want to ace a big vendetta started either in this country in trying to set up a series of srkpeiajsts or try to decide who is'tlw biggest war criminal Vr who-is roost iotlame." There is enotudi Maimto go * round for all qf us to sf Ufe,c But I do think that we haw lcn in error, we have lxii in tragK* error, in Indochbtu tiiat the American jxviple have fotHnfcrstand that, and I think fhey aiv-big eaowgh to be to}d tlic facts. *nd th*l we can't go on idling the American jwople that this is in enormous venture, that it iVa great struggle for freedom a.uq that bomeltow tb honor of the Jetton is at stake in That we are doing there and then exjM^-t them to endorse a jwliry that, brings about un early end to our disengagement. . In other words, aft I said in my statement. I don't know how we can keep telling the American iWsplc no more Yietnams and then saying we have to st^j' then in order in prove our coa>{nitmcnts to the rest of the. worl(J. 1 >'"'".ADIIK&l<V ftp r>. MIHT.IKK Ql KSTIO>">

Senator-CAWS.-Well, t-his is the point ' want to make, Senator M-Goveni. It iicn-ally slixr['*'"<><i by what ><> uive ]'ust said, this Imsinras fitnohion- Vietnams. Idim't likrtocoiKliK-i foreign jx>Ii-y ordomi-stic ijoli^v by slogans, Km! I think it is not beJpfnl to approach it this way. 1 think the Anwriran people are entitled to feel that tlu-ir leaders, including biiccwdiug 1'residents. weJt into thU thing with the licst of motives and UK- drairc to fulfill the. role tint 01 r (Dmitry is give!) to perfonn in the world. I don't think we have to heat ourselves over the la-ad and rail ourselves wit or anything el*\ Mnny things are involved in this*. Many people whose sons, whoa*- brotliers. who> \n\*lfc>d luie lieen killr-d, would rat!;f-r not have this Nation >..n- that VifUjatn was all a trrribh> mistake from the v?n Itegirniinjr. :u. . . il thing in its inception or it$ intention. Vow if then- are people who ijecnnw they did not wanr <o gu into the war those to sny this, that is all right with me. hut T don't think i>u<-h was the caw. Vietnam was an agonizing effort on the jart of our i-onntry to do th'- right thing and I think we did make error*-. increaAingly as we went along. T1we errors have com*11/ {* su<-ii tlial if w<- roiitinii*' them, irr,m'<nilily will result. [ grw with thix. hut f <io not think that we ought to trv to xhattM' or [nit don |M*oplc who lM'lic\-c otherwixe or indeed a whole su^x-vsion of American Icndi-rs wli/> wi-r* doing what thcv thought, with imperf^l judgment many tinu-s (he Utrf tluv 'ould. That ib tiu- only [mint I went to mak' tn you now and I think if is to liad for UK to n*# expn-snions like "to tnake 11 mistake,'' It i all right if you define fc'liat kind of mistake you are making, xur-h us xi'lainm;' wliat if mearth to have * prrat iiwcliaiii7/-<l foni> like tlw [ "uirrd Slate*, go into it country and destroy it. Surii a &trnirM is corrwi. I d' not ucvept mir *aving that tin- effort wi.-i wrong to ju.-iriiita.'ii a dcgrci- of utadilitv in thaf j-arf of tlie world when all the old Irulwurks of prtwrer n I itch kept the fieai'e Itad IKVII tom down i\fi I don't t h i n k we need to do *i in order fo rer/gniw that fuiw th<> ti/iir IIMW conn* t'i join in t'w effort to diwngage as f u i i Kly MH *>w>,iljle M ilh

36
or MWATOK ir \TFIKU' The Cn ATOMS. I woudor. since Swiator Hsitft-ld is here and he is eosonsor of fhis bill, if ne wouldn't wake his ststeme.it. TIen \ve idproofcd with ooestJons for batli of yon. Yon if you carp to. Senator MKJoveriu 1 think it on in remain tlwnc tl " \# orderly. We haie'three other witnesses and \w will Uxve to lcn with tin; bill. Sermlor Hatfield, would you proceed please. STATEMEIT OF HOW. XABX 0. HATFIELD, U.S. SEIATOE FEOlf OEEOOM Senator If ATni:!J>. Tliank you very tnnrli. Mr. Chairman nnd nwmhes'ii of the conroittce. Mr. Clininnan, die central question throughout ihe <vtntry and Iv.forv this 4fninitt1<! is whether we. sliould follow tin- direct iots set fortli liy t!u President, trusting liiin and hu. policy wliere -sjie^ifirs liave. not l*n revealed. or wlie<her v should d(>i>f x le?is!ti\ e initinf'ne desicitfd to end tle -jrar. as the Amrrioor fxsipl*1 clenrly want like first to clarify the dtllVreiMvfi irt intention and likely iieiwveu tike policy of <) a<tminis<nUiou and tlte- i*^5" Iati\- propoi!al I am mapaiLSorintr v i -25 irthej- Senators, whidi is pending- liefore y >r )mrnitte.
OF V1ETNAMIZATIOV

The thnwt of the xdrnJnisrraJi'xi's jxjlicy has in^reasio/rly t-mplufiir, on the |rotmhili(v that nrfnitiatvfiii? will end the <-aflict. It hav turned instead to "ViPtnamizfltion"* xsthe solu(i<jn. I^irk of rlnrity and arnhijpjify rhuraf-ter:^ tiw rtdniiiustration's :xplxr.ati<Mi of poli-y. In his tuidresn to tiie N"ali<m April 7. IflTl.the I'tt^ident
* * our fim\ It a tirtal Anwiknti iflidrnI front VtrtiMtn. WV mu vrlU n-ncti tluit B<m1 Tlir-mtli ..\ir iipttcmu >if VU-fuucniMlUvi If

Sti ive serHi ti lie foitunilte'I t i-'mt inning ^niiliial Trnp refl<-(i<iii;i until, j^iu-zi tl* ritrht ''Oiulitions. Atiu-ri'iin irivolveiiMMit fan 1** !>rou(.'ht ton rlrtw. Uone\er. it is wit <-\rir wlwtlwr this iiH-ari^, <h<-. withdrawal of tilt to nu' that thi^; nmy 'jot in-vliidi- all <>f our air powrr liy that hu*e<i in 1'hnilMJid and ( sea, Inii ustfl in I)i(l<x-'iiiia. Wf do i|t know if thr- flow of m i l i t a r y cij.iipruriit and supplies to South Vietnam u<*sjl<i contimu 1 titter "Auwrican iiiv|i4-n>eiit" is ended. Furthi-r. the I'tv.iidetit vjjJ last Friday. April K'I, that w*- vill kee[> a rt**nlw\\ focw as well a* fur air fxwer in Vieiiiaijj until >! Vorth VMnao*"M reU-a-*- our iiri-^wrw of war. Ami finaily. driti>r thr virw interview. tl> f're/tident dntpd that o,ir u i i l i l n r y iiitoln-niriit w i l l onfimic as 1'iJijras:
luiviff.<n (it. tin-

37

This pattern of calculated ambiguity, this reluctance, to he candid with tl>e American {*ople, has seriously eroded confidence in the administration's ability to lead us out of this >var. It is I1 the more unfortunate because the President luw acknowledged the need for Americans to be fully informed alxrat tlte policy they re nskl to support. On November 3.1969, the President said:
Tic .Uueriein people aiuiot nd boaW be naked to sopport a policy which tbe orerrMing IMUOA of war and peace nnleti they know tbe truth
S. IT V IS DESIGNED TO rKOMOTE POLITIC A I. 8KTTLEMEXT

Tbe bill I am proposing (S. 376) presents an unequivocal determination to withdraw all U-i-i. forces. But more than that, it is designed as an initiative to end tit? war through a political settlement. By making certain that wo will remove all our foiros by the end of this year, we would create a new political environment for the negotiations and could exjKrct the following : (1) A cease fire might be established. This has been suggested by the. North Vietnamese and tle People's Revolutionary (lovevnmi-nt-N"LF if we set a reasonable, fmblic date for withdrawal. (*2j Authentic negotiations anting the various Vietnamese factions ou future political [>owtr in South Vietnam, and the means for its ffttablishmtnt, could take place. THesc negotiations would begin in earnest when the Thieu-K> goveninK'nt realizes it can no longer rely on continual American miliUr>- s?up[>ort to make up for the jioHtica] strength rl>a( it lacks from k.*oii per/pie. (3) Serious negcH iarions leading to llu- relrtse "f our prisoners of war wild beg in. The point is thai we uiiwt put our opjwnenls to the t<-st. W- never have, fid w never will lx>i:>btneni iutOi(iibmLioi>, Tin: thiv*t. and tlir use of our devastating uirpou-er tvill not obtain (or its a cease fire, a political ^tettk'ment among Hi*- Virtnaiue^e or the rrkT<.' of our pri*iers. f\w nay to {Mjt prcsaijrc on the other side to netrot iate on t hese i.^iK~i in to rf a date for our wit hdra waJ. Thus, this bill wouhl dwinivf !y and expvditioiifiiy i-onrludi- our mill tarj role in Vietnam. Hut more in)pfrtgiit. Mr. C'hairtnau. it K the. nioirf likely nlt<*native to promote a ]xlitica! setlllemetii and brinjr a true end to thi" war. topping tle fighting andldlling there. Why do l
n-i.li:\ V.?.r'Kfc AJtfJUf,AV OVER .1SIAX LSkV.

Tin- Hi-st MiidfiKMT coiii|w-)liiig rrawMi i.-> moral, i Iii .--. HUH* to believe that fuiulanti'iila 1 fo all i-lw, we niuat *ie our war policy xnd tt~ '-onvquericMt in moral tenrttf. And for thu iicwpei-tivf, the 'inont iiig a3|MK.-t <f tin- pulio we fierin coirimitte.d U> pun>ue IN that A liff ii> valu^l fur mo re than A><ian li(<*. 'llw anrtriNii'vtl inU'Ufuxi of llie "President / to n-duc* I'UKintllit'K aiwi this luth bei-n ^ubritanrially H<voinplibli<*d. Haf eenifto U- little regHrd for Asian '-ajsualtirti. WhJl- rulm-i'ij: tljt1 dirwl iiivolvvawnt of Auu*ritan holdieni in /round 'oflilml. we i*ill pnnirietlw jfolicy.tberitrateg^.Tlx 1 money. Hie ffjuipnii nl. arwl the inlvnwv*-, dirw^. coriil.>ai Muj')rorr TO suatain tlw South VietiiDfiics; n^iiiwnd<vmti;iii('tiMf

LaotUn operation well illustrates this. While in the techiucJil fiensft, there was no" direct American ground combat mvolwment m Laos, yrt T/.S. heficoptej-s and planes flew an incredible l.M,s:j" sorties in support of this venture. Amprirau casualties wen- light, According to the Pentagon, of those troops giving air support to the operation, .about 4."i were killed, W) wmtndrd, and *2S missing in action. In addition more than On 1T.S. _ . troops were kilted rn the ground Jn Smith Vietnam in conjunction w Itlt :~. _ I^am Srn 710, the Laotian opeivt'on. Jiut Vietimmes.' casualties.on; -'.':." bot-h sidx; were o--imnomical. Official estin>at>s ('-{aimed alKt 1.445 .^ ARVN trrops died (sonn- press Tv'f)ort? stated AKVX di-aths far greater than official figures:) and an csrimatvd i:V3- enemv I dind, T\v a.S6uni|>tion is that, if we cnn. s\iipo!t the Thieu-Ky regiuw's continuing the war,J>ut haw fttver Amerir.iijrfd.te-, while Asian blood continues to lie si)!!!^. tlie.n thu> wsr is- Somehow hss <i rong. and moni toJcrabk-. 1 believe such policy fc morally uhpnvonAIifd. If this war is wrong-if it should not U- conrijmed. if it is not worth the cost, and if the human suffering it is causing canf l>e just-fied by any goals--tltL-it it must IK? hi ought to an.end. ft will not be i;dc uny more right Dimply Iiors.u<i4' we hv devisivl the s(rnt;gy for f-wiT Afjiot-icwis to die each month. 'Iliat. after all. rnake^- very little difference to the C. million refugees who continue to sulTvT in Indochina as tlie war jroe> on, or to the families of tin- thousands of ViKnamese. Mrldiers anl innocent civilians throughout Indochina w!i. wil) in t lie montlin ahead.

We mii^ taLe a itard look at w iat t]v 'imiiun rusts of tlic jK>lii-y we r(- pursuing wil! l*\ Hurmglhe tirst;'. muntii-> of this year 5^.1^ South Vi^tnamcA1 soldier- <iicd. according to thi- iMimat'^ of the JX-fens*' IV/artnynt. uiid 11,4^7 N"--rtli VK-tmmt~' and National liberation Fn>nt w>Idiers w-n killed Tlu-n- may In- retioii. of coarse, tn i!oult the :iMira'y of flu-.-* figun^K Imt IH u.i -<si in** ili.-it thi-y an- rel:ilii-ly \ali(|. I)nriiig th<-first -'! riionf hs >f tiiis y<ar. fighting ;ui<l iMMialiii^ wrre light id Janunrj'. moderntf iu Febrt.ary. and In-aiy in .\farvli Am- to the I-aolian ojvruf'uvn. If project froni ^Ije lf-vt-1 of cjy.uaItirs lust yi-:ir and dm ing flufif^t ijuarfer of this'year. :md !i(*umi' thai ^'il'tlIaIlJcs^ ra.-u.ilfij-- xiill n-niaiit aiK/iit the Mime utcrage Ien-1 as th- uargov.-<ri).tiicn fimin now until tin- end of tlw s<-ar. over l<K.(xiO Vi"tiianieN- MIdi-j> i'f liki-iy (o <h". Frotu now lI^^i! rliv crtd of 197^. ai many a- :i ijuarti-r of a million Mildiers <-/)ii!d die as tin- n-Milt of poiicio that continue tlie war. Acc'irdilJg fo "iirli |i!'i)jc.-tti olitnatcs. (In- j>;c|x)ii<l<TrtliJ J 4- 4if tlww death.-- arc, of i-oijrv. from (In ciu-mv Dinks. Some of (hose siill iJ^-H"! \silh <h- IKM!V count mntJility max t l i i t i k f l i H is -n--ounigiiig f/ir the 1 -tih'fVKnof our {xt.ii'v. I 'hink if i- iminorul.
Tiu-M [Toliiililc c~!^ in trrmi' of tuir/iiui life do m.t i,\'-\\i<]f c i i i l b n . H-|iich Hfc even jjjofv diff^'lllt to (iileiih.ie. The J'efiliM 1 }k' i n( iiUN xuid t h a t i( maker- lio 'hfininteh of rtvi'.ibll c

ftiact that I cannot comprehend, for jtslmwsfliiphn callous disregard for the'^niwn consequences of our po!ic)S - ,'" The ,:S*atci Subcommittee: on Rcfugnes estimate; that then Tvcrc 25.00Q civilians.tufted in South" Vietnam last vcar. which would be -.over &000 mom thiut the tot*lnumbfer,,of; South Vietnam^ soldiers In Laos, more sparsely populated than Vietnam but intensively "' bombed, the fxmimht**- reported that iO.OOO have died in the part, year - and a half. And, untold Hundreds 4f thousands have- l*en wounded '. " and made homeless throuplioutail of Indocliiua, -;r -' Bftcausi' uur firepoww, compared *o our o^poent s- is'so divr*wheliniiig, the majority of the civilian casualitucscorae as .thc-flon^ squenc6 of our mflkary action. '. Stnct- tlie beginning1 of the war,~we have d^"J>pe<l about 5.6 ruillittn tons of Jwnibs on Indochina,. About "2.5 itiDlion of these have fallen during the ptnisent adromistration's time in officr- The President has reiterated .his iotXMttioii to continue to relv on airpowex in tlic future. On Februar \-17 :he sa id he would place, no \ imits on the, use of a'i rpower. As euch Dombinjr .contmueis, alone with artillery. heUcoi,te,r jcoashipi tuid other firepower, thoosands mote civilun* wiltlx; killed, wounded and made ttonwlesfi as we nirjrsuc 'Vietoadizattrm." Tiu-A- human exr*t&, in my judginc'iit. cammf be justiiiixi, Tlu- Vietnam*ie people do not want their war- uVietnamized-T1 They want it: ended.
!*.)<. k(>Lf IV DCTEBXIMXC OiVTIV\na> FICHTfXC

Then- are those who suggest tiut we have no Tr>!f in detenninin: hf>tlter thv 5>out)i Vietnante^e continue to tight the North Vietnaim-^. I completely dtKacTM. ()ur refiiial to .sH a daU* for withdrawal, %nd our unyifldinr supporf of the Thieu-Ky repine-, niake a ne^nt-iatcd settlejnent to tnc <xwflJct inifMAKU^le. f iglitinp will continue as long a our forces arv roinmitted in fliat country and our policy id to suj>|x>rt that regiute, In oi-dcr to cud the fightirji. we must et the w'rthdrawii] date and .seek t h- <stal[isliuwnt of * erase fin-. At the twine tune, future political p*wivr in S<nifh ViHnain would haw to b- dctecniini-d. The revo!uti<jur\' <roi'errn?jit lias offeiwl an interim coalition pui'i that would conduct elntioris. We ml tlir >/>th Vietniiflic^ trestHl triUrriatuinnllv KufM-n'ided eWrlotw. 'Hjese diffi'rc'n/n.'K can w nefiiiuHd. in iny jnaj^neiit, auionpthi' VutiuiwH' . ft I.- IKK txir rwjMj\iili!ity to dirfxte or iiiijios- UK- termg of that witU-iM-nf. Hut. we must reioow our urfitrarv suj>joii of llw ThieuKy H'-jriiiH1. ffr<-jji|f it to rely only on its ov n inU-nnl streu^ih, Jn that 4Himsfihere. a yettuiop M>4tk'nu*>it n-^-tin^ tli hl:(rn'e *f for'*! HI Vu'tjiarn '*;:ild I* oUaine<1. Tut'jioiTU it tlnt wt- do have -ontrf>l over wlu-tlier the i'unit- or -iuIs Tiidtfliina. Ki^J if we persist ill our jtoUcy th*

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If Wf adopt tht- h|>|'rdtt<rti <>f the Virtnarji IHse.ucapewient Art- we initiaif the iixurf na}jrtic of>jortnniL- for n iu*ofiatd end to J-f v/' fvlicve thai sfl l i f e - Aniaij grtd AniPri'au --iri wjnally valtja!)U-. Jlwii j i'imrt<if se<- !w>w Ihe liujnuo cutita ytf t curi rxili''V rim lie morally ju*lifi*d. J a<J\/xfd<'. an altcnutiri' toth.t m order t> avoid t}joe </*-- iu j/rd^;:1 i<' wive iiuuiiiu Jif*.

._.

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ooNsarauTioji mutciyo roe i^ouor CHAVGB Tim aecood: .consideration arguing 3or a derisive change in policy is <x>nstitutioo4l. ~ .. . . v v -ThesjM ooiunderatkiosharc taken .OH an entirely new relev.^nce- and ..ense of urgency witw the. repeal <>F die Golf vof Tonkia Resolution inst December. I do ant understand what constitutional Iwtsis thertls for our involvement in Indochina since thaf time. -- -Yorr-eomniittce lias already had Jtc&rings i/n the question of war 'powers mnd tLe ^sponsibilittesi delegated 4ri the <?onre^s by tfw Ooustitutior for au Jiorizinir niiliUry adionl . . Furthennore, witli tlc -Jeadcrship of .your commiltw, OMigress [Asncd tlie Kafional Commitments nesqfuBou .lune^5,,199. As you . will recall, the finsl version. W that nrsr>Iution drafted' ^argely by Senator J. W. Fulbri^ht artd Senator Joli Sherman (!ooper
i. That M> national commltmrnt for the purpoi*vof thf nod (2> it |K tlwr'MMie of ttw Sciwtc tbat a natioual CumniUiMnLbr O^ United SfHCcs rrbtiltii'unlT from nflJnut{v<- action txbrti iy tbe rTwotlre aa<i W^istati- J>riM*wi ,-vf th*- r.S. GoveniaMiit by hioa^ of a treaty, utaiote. <r c<%ncurceat rwxAUtiwn of JxXK HOO^MI of C'tofrnui rp*riftclly ]irr1din|; for

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'Hiere is. of course. np-Cresty. uo Htatnte, and m> concurrent resolution roinniittiiic us to pulitar>- jnvolrcnu-nt in Vietnam. Wlwt l^al, oinstitutjonai basi docs the President liave for our involvement? Ilon-ard K. Smith nsked the President that question daring: theJr interview on -July 1 liist yenr. The President replied :
Thr I'ri-iM*-nt of thr CnlK^I Ktar<f> liax tlje nouotirmlooa] rUtit uot <ilj *l>* rlgltt hat tlw- wponlllllty in prr-tw-t Amerl?*ti frmv* when tbey are jitHd in military 'arrloos. " -

Ulieii Mr. Smith ^ursutnl this question. uijcin>r the lejfal basiK of our involvement ou<:c ^t!5 Guif of Tonkin Resolution was thv. President stated
JK tr "tif j Imto glwu uiJ (liat )k tl of ttw Cdltwl Atiite<i utrirf tit* Coi(K(ltu(lrm t i>r'>t<-ct rlu- llv<^< of . Tlmt IK tlr It-fit.} JuKTlflcMtiirf/

N*ov. Mr. Chairman, I afar* nviioieneM'rtedlv that the President bas IK* legal onatit.utianftl HHthority for proterfiiur our trooj*. And, lie certainly haK the constitutional utlionty to witfidr* w ( IH-JII. liut. (In- iHefiu* j^thst tlie I'nvident's'poli'-y includes fr more, tlian that,"He i* pursuing "Vit-trii.iji/4tion'' li<l"vvMhfs tn ^ive the W*naifx-sp "a fnir chanc*- 'o dujVnd thcrnselvt."" His [M)!ic.y. th4i, is 'oifjfjiiltcd to OK-military mip|>ort of tinffy govi'ninwnt. What mi^iit thwenlnil* i< will include the continual use of heavy Iximliiiifr Vj<?tnani. T^aos. nd Cambodia. It miffht inrlud*1 future iucur*.'iotr-; into I>HOK, liintcd u recently ly (ion. Creiphfon Abranw. Ifccotild includet.||p rHif-wi-dhonioiti^of North Viotuarn -And if wiil nteuci-coniiniw-d IV.H. rnilir'ury ofx-ratio/ih nd *ponil;nt nd' "firpj^nuT for ARVN" ojumhonw tlirou^hout South

we may agree or disagree with the policy of Vietnarawatjon. fit.t\jgrdlo!8s or<Hir preferences, I do not believe, the President haa -.*he-lepid, coiutfitMtional authority for pursuing the objectives and ; goals of that policy, .^ '"-" j" . Them is a decisive dlflejrwice between protecting <jur (mops and witkdjrawing the^i from Vietnam, and pursuing Vietnamization. If wlthdrawa} is-onr only objective, that can be accomplished in a mutter of months. And, our troops can best be protected by setting & date lor completing our withdrawal and seeking a cease-fin:, Then is-Qo/ptefltion abouTthe President's constitutional authority to take these, stops. - .- ' : ! - - . But, tne President lias nude clear that we are committed for t least some tune into the future to supporting the South Vietnamese <]r0vernnjent by our military involvement. TTis authority to do so surely does not conic from his constitutional po -T.T as Commander in Chief to protect our troops in hattk. He IMS cited no other legal justification for.tltow policy goals. Ja my judgment there is none.
TOXSTITUn/MfAfc ASPECTS OOJCPW/ AOOPnOV (IF nElTifAJC DI6KNOAOEJCEVT ACT

If we sot aside all otlicr considerations, I believe that 1 he constitutiouai asjifccts of tliis problem alone compt-l tlx- adoption ni the Vietnam Disen^anjeinent Act. EVMI if WPIV to wrin >me victory in Vit4uani. if the cost is rhc integrity of constitutional government tlicn the. price alone is far coo high/ Tbf res[>onsibility to redeem tlie viability of the f institution rests at this point solely with the Coupvss. In that resjiert, this bill is far more a challenge to tjie. Congress than to the President For <v>n8f it ut ionit I -rra^otis alo[u>. it 'IK iftif >onU i ve that ( Vrfiprr>i tuloj it soon: ie^iislativemf-asurc jij^ardinp or involvement in Indochina. The pfifx^il I HJII ip[K>rthj[fr corn-sf Mend's most closely witli tlie vishet? of Americans, and offers 'the O^st Ijope for an enduring oettfemenC to IbLs M-ar. It would revive tlv* constitutional dilemtnn that facos uw and end the 'vmflirt ht iacrodinpr (lie foundation!; of our Government. 'flu? cli-jtr iirfeur of the (Vw>litiitioi). in article I. srf-diou R. is to keep th* pfwTK of wr decisively in the hands of ('ongivtw and. thereby, the fMv>pl>. It was for tJiiK tvaw/n that appropriations for ani^ ajv the- only appropriations Kpwifirally JimUed to, . years by tJie l.'-onst itiuiosi. The fnurKTs of tlH- / 'onstitut ion did ins id this to insure a cont inued i<i vot(>) lyth tV/n^n?Ksoi>r any military ap|r>i>rifctioiiK. As jou know, tiw- Founding Falhf-rs consintvnt 1 v Ktre!ed the con] n'sfKHiwIulity for wunaaliin^r jowers. Maditton saw tli*1 danjfei's of ex-wii\v Kxw:utive jower in he <aid :
of fo tt'H THUrtlt liwIIH' ttl-J ran Jrf- COfKwIetf "r iliwiOta'd IK ttijrlt |r(K nd t xiHti /ium MY ulll Iwnt wjit |<arUcuhtr v)iiri: u/id JMT-JUV r)i>* Uxlf f>f 1lw> ifyAf nn- V-SH <-jij(i,U' '< judjcliif. an4 *!* 'lUMlt-r ib- iufljjUK* ( j.n-JwlUw. n tluil lirawii <if tlwir affair*, (lu of Jj'T, fVrtiaj*- i< in * uiilrirul trulli - 230 O 71

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tint the JOM oK liberty at borne is tafeM&aroed elost4ancr, twtf from "

This is a Jrttcr-iio had written 1o. Thomas Jefferson on May !% 1789. I'ndtr (irtK'H, section S. Conpre^ is empowered -to the nonunion defense,'' *ttt declare war" and "raise and support . Commander i Chief, outlined in The President's powvra.as section 2 are to be conmnmdier over thoao f mies raisedijy C/onjjress and sent, into w ars which are deJared

As Alexander Hamilton ^id, the Commander in Chiefs power . ;


Amounted to nottl.i'niiHuryfo*w.Jthe "v than the Suftreux' <V>mniaDd 4*1 direction of w i a n d Admiral."*. ?

The j>ower and ..rity lor d*.tf:nniiiiii<r the purjxwcs for wliicli hccx^^i^^esthis</)Ilt^ol over t)k'trooj)cclear!y rests witli the Congress. the representatives of the peojde. 0\TEKin;XT' ABIL1TV TO MAINTAIN 1 FAI7II OF (XlV>3JVfD
1

T"

There is one final consideration, Mr. Chairman, that snunt vveirh hcaviiy on all Members of Congress and should, 1 U-lieve, ^nifK'l us to idcjrt ttie legislativf initial ivt-s outlined in this bill. Tf^t is the ability of this Goveiiiinent to maintain the faith of those whcftu it _ ~" ^ \\V would ail aprw, I liclieve. that tliis war, like no other event in our rwnt past. las undermined the belief of Aiwricans in the viabilit v of their political KVstt-ni. . ConfuH-iiof and trust in tl? pruoess of re|irt'Scntativ' rovennent, and in the Office of the I'n-sideiwy. art- all sufferiup as-th- casualt'w-s of this war. As I tali; with omstituciitK^rna people throughout the country. I arn constantly askwl what baste Uter*1 is for continued faith in our sj-Htem. ' I - People, say to iiie "thrw- quaittrj of our jieople want th' war oivr by the end of this year. Hut the Pr'i4j'Tjt <r<N>sn't listen ami Congress 4ix no^ ad." - '" _ Pailirularly in tiir j>at yr, sim-f thf >|M*pitions jjito <sm]Kxlia aiul i<s aftermath, tlw diwllu.sionnM-nt of jv^pVfrom ull walks oi life has jirown. And. I fv.ar f<r a country wlion1 jx-op!*- aiv losing fa^fli in 1 the words of iU Jesdei-n a->d tin dn*ain.sof its founders. it it> liard to kno*' whut tliis will ali 'wan for tli<- (l<-stiny of our liut of this w-i- can U- wrtain onr U<'|>n1i!ie"s most M-UTV liallviip'-iti to rerfon.' it ift'frrity in tin- eves of J IK .^jveriran jx-oplc. Tlat will takj- mu/-!i eff'irt, J^ut it can fa'jrm if .Coiijrri-s takes tlwPeople wajit toN-IUse in AM-riraV ideals. TIn-v wa/it to have fnith in our sytein. Tlwv vnu;f to Jjave hoj- in our 4 Joici ijiif.iit'n abilit y to and lead. Let u-i.not (Ji^j/p^int them. !><- us pre>e;'Ne their n-new ourown .

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OOXKEXDATIOX or WTTKISM* Thc On AIRMAX. That Is a very good statement. ' {Applause.] : It is an*icel]ent statement, Senator Halfield. :

lot]] on Senator Church. '' Senator CUCBCH. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. I want to _ commend you. Senator Hatneld, for your statement and yon, :Senator Mdjovernj for the excellent testimony that you have given. I am, of coarse, in complete concurrence with your argument. It is a tremendously persuasive argument. I have been and am now a co sponsor of (fie. McGovern-Hatfiekl amendment: I have voted for it and intend to continue to give it my support.
KETEXTIOS.- OF RESIDUAL FORCE IX 8OCTH VTETNAK

I would like to focus, gen: men. on the crucial issue of total military withdrawal from Indodtiru. I gree tliat it remains far from clear that total withdrawal is the objective of American policy. There continues to be talk from Hie. highest quarters in die administration about a residual force bn South Vietnam, fhe size of which w a matter of ooujecturc. The length of timo that this residual force presumably is to remain in South Vietua-jti is also left unclear. We have had a residual force of American troops in Korea, ever since the. Korean war. Although it has been 15 or 16 year? since the war : ended and since the Chinese witlidrew tlieir forces from North Korea, there still remains a substantial American Army in South Korea. : In view of that fact, there is good reason to be concerned about the <:ur!iit talk of a residual force to be left behind in South Vietnam. Do cither of yo*: gentlemen see any long-term American objective that i.-ou!d he f*rve4by leaving a garrison of American troops for an indefinite jx-riod of years iu South Vietnam at iiie doorstep of China ? Senator HAtnajt. Mr Ch5ri>ian. I do not for tlirce reasons. One is as long as we have troops tn that an>a witjt this type of war that is being foiyrbt. namely, a guerrilla war action, llvese troops will be sI>jfct tn attack. This iniuHvlietely ]uts us in a situation of Juviugto take action to furtlter prof<r-thow- rrsidual forces by eitl>er bombing or by r>t?iec7uiUtary a^tioos '..'hioh could trigger again eiscalatory inVnJvemejit Hifc.kintl of invoh<'H*l -which w are trying to conclude. No, i, rince r<; h*xe liad a snulJ window opeiiing in this China. jiytithoo <.'-urt aiif, Ti -itKMiK to me this is the time to take all action. uot only the uuinediate goal of dipoigsgcment from Vicfitain, liut T/ui)itlng H bridge of mmuiimication in rile Far Kxst witli tlK- largest Thirdly, it iteejnx to me u^ fiavt- to look bftvixwl mit only ence of our n-hidua! forces in Korea I mi du^priHSJ^lity tiut exists e-veu beyojid d>osc Ho-oittcd rraiduul /on^-s in Vi**i)aai, fuimdy in Tltaiiand in eurrou' ^iiig an-t. Tht'w forcci- could -Ix xYrfifejiienily aod ' hd in military action in South S^t-Juuun

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let me remind the committee, then- have been extensive Ixunbings and military actions coming from Thailand and from sea-based forces into the war zone off ndochina. So I frel for ihose reasons, it would nor serve our purjMise of either stabilizing a. South Vietnamese Government nor of ending tbi* vw Xo retain residual forces. -\ Senator CncBCii. .Senator McGovern. . ; Scuntor MrGbvutx. I agree with tlio* observation*. I would just add ' he point 1 made a while ago that I believe. the retention of American -forve-s in Soiirh Vietnam backed up presumablirby air power antl offshore nnval power also creates a whiation where it js very unlikely tiiat onrq>ri.soners ers wwild be released from Hanoi. I cannot ^OJKVIVP of. the other side agreeing" to the release, of -American -prisoners who. in n real sense are lining hold as hostages; so long as \\olriyt1 Amci'iww military -o|*^tjons in Wing in South Vietnam. Neitljcr *TU 1 sec any rchil end tu tho: killing" in South \Tu-tii>ui itself. You have-t situation somewhat dtiF^rent tiian W4: had in South "Ko*a. 1hei the .\JBiorican forces that iv-maiiiied in .^onth Koren \\ere in '....v rf-oojvrat'ion with the .r^oiVrJi Korean (loveninienl. It hud JitHp or tut o]>|Mjsition from it? ov\-n jwople, that is froni ilie .South Korean ix-dple. Wiereas in outh Alotnjun vou Lste a major civil war in ]>ngre<s in which tlial goverunifciit is being clialleuged by a sizable ^rgnient of its own i>enj))e. <*) as long as .\ mcriran forces remain in Sfmtli Vietnam they arc going to I>e caught up not only in the. dialIf-nge from Hanoi but they are, being caught up in a very bloody civil war and \\e delay the day when that conflict ean I*1 brought to n end ,'iader riome kind of ;i cfiajitifin irovernnie.nl. r If.sTFiMJt, Senator ChiircJi. could I' add one posto:ri|t '.

Senator Cuntf n. Ves.


Senator H.\irJFi.r. It n\~f> ff^iJi&esiigairi on this whole const it utioaiil JHPS* ion- --that iv- what jxjwer juid imder whai authority d<xrs t],v President h;uc to kv\> sucii ivwduitl loms t IK.- re when it i^< longer isstlie olijwtiie of jirotec.ting AiMC'Hcaii fon-ew. whieli i^ now his only <-onsiiti!iiom<| duty c< 1 sej' it for rliefomuiaridei in Chief. Senator CfHWti. V<*. I wuyl to get iiito that very aspect. J. -"'egurd file Argument you have n:idc in samuiaiT fornu though a^ HK>st }HT.utisi\e. In the lonf-terni mtere^.t of tin- Cnited Stiit*.v \\e should [early axoid establishing a jnilhsi'v fo<itliolil of our owii in Indoeliina aud ;ittemftirtg to justinta-ix it. 'Hi at Ijejn^sit. i( seeins to iff. that ilu fio-t ol>{ii;a(io!i of tlw ^Vmgress, p:ijticipatirigacj.-/>rding to itxron-.DJI^JOIIH! role as a i-itMpn] braii'-li of the Government, is to make if r-|i-:ir th;it tlteobji-cfive. of our poliev is- to coiue out of Indochina, not i'i-t ilh ground forvs. imt will) Jill fo.ree.s-- air. na'-I. logirtical. mid <5r<..iind combat of <he I.'nitcd StnteK. Semtloi If \TnKHi. Right. .Seirifor Cnirjefli- > nd the n-ed to do this i^ u> fitryaile/1 by the '4,-iitiiimng )>-t:itf-iiwjit>. tli-.it i I>\HI> from the jnliriini^tntfi'.ii. Lfci nw j cite .1 rj(i-.tiou ;in<l :.iii tiiiHV.fi titki-u from a pre>;- conference,

45

tarv of War. Mr. Laird. The ^nestion was put to him on April 13,
1971:
- ." ilj qu*stion is what, does Vtetnaiifizatton ami tbe Nixon Doctrine in -terms of T.S. air support, th* presence of U.S. air rapport in Indochina after

Meaning ground troops. Here is Secretary Laird's answer:


I would ?nvifdou that the L'ulteil States presence a* ttr an Asia i* concerned, as far ,i naval force* are concerned, as far as air force* re concerned, that this T*V.VI tc a part of the realistic deterrent wbfch we witi continue to "<"*{ ! in Arts.

It is statemen1 , of tbis kind and statements of the kind that the Pivsideut. himself msd*? in his interview of last Friday with the newspajjor editors that setm to me to mike it evident that the Congress must define the id objective of American policy. Let ine just go back, Senator Ilatfield. to what J-OH have testified to on the first page of your testimony. You say, "Further, the President -<! last Fnday, April 16, that we will ie.p a residual force as well asV.ur air povrw rin Vietnam until the Xorth Vietnamese release our . \.nd finally, during that same interview, the President stated that our military involvement will continue iu .South Vietnam as Jong as And you quote the President as saving"the. South Vietnamese have i.ot yH. developed the capacity to defend themselves to take over from us the defense of tlieir own country/" I don't ee how such qualificatior,s can Ixr reronciled with his statenwtJit-that total withdrawal isth<> Aroer'n-an objective. How long have we been tmng to ^uijj the South Vietnamese to have a caparkv to defend tl^emselves without p^tive American participation? How long hfcs. it gone on. Senator MoCxoi'wji^ about 8 years now. and couldn't it go on indeS rately in t he huure ?
HOti;VTATIO>r ^F VIETNAMIZA71OX AS KEW POUCY <JCESnOSED

Senator McGovtjsy. Well, I think that is, th<; misleading thing about f.h- concept of Vietnamization is, tliat it has Ijef-n presented at> a uew policy wlt^ivas it is jjot. It is a rvturn to the jwjicy of iht' ]9(U)"s, which was HII wrtoil to assist the military forces in Soutli Vietnam to the jx>int wtifi'e they would bo capable of ranying on the major burden of v thoij- d>'iVu!H(>. \\ hcn that effort proved hojx-Jess. and we saw tlw South VietJiajjjes.1 militari' ftirws rnimMitig. it wa at that \x>\i\t that wAiucrirjtni/ed the iwr by sendiug in upwards of half a million America1! forws, Now, it Ai>ms to iu'1 we HIV returning to the old policy tliat in K\W lirfit !/ !/ years of the iOCo'sof again trying t r i n to \"ietnamiz? \"ie war. altiwugh tfjjstinw with ej-onuout-' American airpower and nsval KU{rpf>rt ami artillery ui)jxrt. S'liHtfjr ("UVKCH. Hadn't the French once, liavo a program to \'ieliiairii^tJH' war \vaiv JM-foivtliey wcrvfiuullydriivji oiilof Iikd<x'hina '. Srnator 5f(i<jmTJiK'. Yen; they did-'Iliey went through the same -.S.-natorf'nrft'if.'nu* ^'a^a^v Han. wasn't li '. Scn&tor M^JOVTAV. Tlu- wrf' jrattcrnK *' followed and with \\w

46

row ARKCXEXT rrw REMOVAL FORCT. Senator C:ifarn. The second matter I wanted to tourh upon is the argument that is bciug used that we have to leave forces in South Vietnam as long as there are American prisoners of war there. Isn't that a [>erfeot circle. As long as there are prisoners of war you have to leave American forces and you have to leave American force's as long as there are prisoners of war. That is a circle, or a wheel that keens rotating indefinitely. Yet, the past experience out there has leen that you get the prisoners of war bark when you agree to leave. This is what happened to the French. The release of prisoners does not precede, it follows, a commitment to withdraw. Hasn't that lieen the pusi history ? Senator HAITI H>. Not only the past history, Senator Church. but also it has been clearly stated by our opposition, the enemy, that if we will t this date certain they will make meaningful negotiations that relate to the prisoner-of-war release. So consequently we have had the statement made frequently. and that is why I said* in my testimony let's put them to the test. We really haven't jiui them to the test on this, and we are still in that sense on tli,* defensive. Let's take the offense on the prisoner-of-war problem. I urn concerned about the prisoners of war. The idea of .sending a man around die world asking other capitals is one tactic to assist us in tlie release. But let us deal directly with the issue by putting them to the test by stating it date <vrtain and then they are eit her going to have to put up or find themselves thrown in the focus of public opinion. So;>ator(xncTtoj.Of all the arguments that 'laveWn used In justify the >Tpetuatiun of our involvement in Vietnam the most offensive to me has Uvn the prisoner-of-war argument. In a sense, every Atneri can who is sent out there to fight is u prisoner of this war. and tinlonger we keep them out there, we are keeping them there as prisoners of rhi.s war. The only way we are going In get our prisoners of wur who arc located in North Vietnam or in surrounding ureas ba-k is with the consent of the North Vietnamese ("internment, Pa-t history makes it |>erfectly evident that that cnnst-m can lie olttained only after we. have reached an understanding with IV.-JH-K to AIIUT'K-HI: withdrawal. To use the prisoners of war. ;ui emotional i^sue. a.-. :m e.viM' for staving on seems to me t<i IK- fii<- iiio^t objt-ct ionalilc of nil the i:iany Differing arg'ii-ieists (hat Inive IM-CII iis-d over the year- t^i jMTj this war.
OK 'VoNKTriTTlOMM. \\<ll*f

Finally, I want to get to the (question nf the constitutional vacuum. It is fr - iie then- H no statutoiv ssinction on the JMI-I of ^'ongress to authorize continuing Ai'X-riea'j [larlicipation in tin war ii> Southeast Asia. Siruv ilje n-j^-al of the Gulf of Tonkin n-^iliitiou there is ;t j'onslitutional vacuum. HIH! I t h i n k t h a t it i-, tin- <iul v of fhis<'ongres^ to fill that varinmi. mid to fill it in -A vv;iy tliat ilcfin*'-; u joli<-y that will end (lie war forthe I'nited States. T would only ho|x- that we might try to do this in Niii-h u manner a> will give some Iio|x- for reunitiirg thr |>eople of the I'nitrd Stains. We fought this wir bitt4-rly divided. If n-iuain Iiilterly divided us a nution, the |>eiial<y we will pay will IK- MTV heiivy. Kvc:i thougli

47

it may not be possible for all of us to agree whether we should have fougJit the war in the first place or should have gone there in the first place., it mighf !*- possible for all of us to agree on a jolicy of coming out of tin- \vir. I would hope, Mr. Chairman, that tins committee in considering the various proposals would keep this objective in mind. If we could reunite the people, reunite the Congress, and join the Congres? and the President together in a common jolioy for coming out of the war. then we would have served the country well. We might avoid the soil of bitter recrimination in the aftermath of the vrar that genuinely concerns a great many jx,-ople. Thank yon very much for your testimony. Sei.-utor MrfiovFjr.v. Mr. Chairman, I am very late for another committee 'ipcearance that I am obligated to make this morning and I u under if I could be excused from further questioning. The Cn \II:M.\\ Certainly. Senator Case. I thought you had finished. I )o you h:i ve any quest ions ?
< '-M I.VrCATJOX <iX MiM. Of ENDING WAR KECOMHKNDEn

Ser.,.;.ii C\sn. First, I would like to Join Senator Church in his empliii^i- upon the desirability of avoiding the kind of division amoi:^ ili(wc who are now oniinced that tins war mii-i now lie brought i.> an ejjd. We. bhould not Jnell on llie origins of tlie. conflict and its inherent in- tjn-r immorality. I think it irf iin|<ortant for u^ to conceu(rnte on the goal of ending the war, and not IK? led astray by internal divisions on any matters irrelevant to that single objective. <'<>vsTnT"ii<v\i, Mr. Chuirman. at this point, if I might. I would like to ask unani-

in tin- .. The CM \ J I - M \ X . Without objection it is so ordered. Senator (Iw. Vert useful article which )>oiiits out that the Con;i;tiitionV dfsijriiation of the PrcMdent a.- Comm-ndcr in Chief of In- A r n i \ and N'ai v nie:in< o:tly t h a t no j i v a l coiiimandc'rin chief shall In- cM.ih)i-hcd and t h a t the Armed Kor<-c should h a \ c civilian con!roj. Tin-- i<f!ie t!ini.>< and the purpose of tlu .constitutional pro\ision. und it <-:m't lie i-\tende4J to <riv<- the President jKiveixto c^iiidiict military o|M'r:dioii- unfettered bv < ongressiona) ntiirn}. I tliink it !; a ver\ -'Hiiii pK-ce of constitufioii.il doi-tritw.. and that t h i - article i^ wohhy of n:/ (.iri-'dtTHf ion iji thiM-onti'xt. 'The informafiori icferred to follows:)

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<Tust one question. jf I mu .'!,"? ftst- of us who believe in the apprwh of I hv Vietnam Piw-npa^onicnt Act have to nddl'ess t he jwbit t&aj the President- raised ngaju last njpht ryljen he said .if. is very easy 'to end

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The sjjftint is <a endttltc w*r in.SU^b a *'>* thn( tiifpcacv vnll bo pc^nan^M. I tiiiilh'we iiJivc an oblUfetion to denrifvnstrat* ;y; fai^xi} w^ i.'Mi'th^t Jliis TTotild t.v so. T wpnlu ue plad to Iwv> yonr corumehrs <m tint motpr. v- v , '- ' ScnWor Hjk-rrrr.r4>. ^nntor CasvT ihink. first ^iif alF. Ivwuld hacir to Tvsfx^^cbv saving -wo-^do not. liv^xin n-^rld -of T>rantvs. I ktowr of notli^ th<vf ,Vc ('ar.^do thai wouVi giidiiintei,' afeolutuly anything of tomorrow. I think hnt tlu> Prwqdont d*Id ppH'.fljB coa^d'Jx* "fterpnfttd ji^..cij-injr fc.^ft*"^! cnd.tiis vatr wiUi ivs|KJrt,ribilif'T a rf>?f.-<a.--" siblc kiruVirt nf lu^kntj-iiijt .,y"'&W bat?c acrl*?5t QCr -xAsia on toy Ume l*hKv'altH.uph scttln^-^ :lxfc'VrtiLirt as. s ti^oL'^,.' pursuing w^Mattrf WtU<vpn r-|n^nt> tl^ F^-xt ijyporti^sjrv.^^r ;: fd do,-is tft-lnok al. '~/.-\ ^ _. , ... inv*&iri^t! andtfv ^ , if thcn\:riyjt;jy. frtr Vl^ic we hare t\'r?dy cfot^. jh Hoirthwist > Aar 1 tTihvIc \*'^:iia(.v<> to IK>k at.ptfipr

wortli, wicjv wo talk .-v^oiit a {lurwr^lt},- {K-rtcf , S<jothcaef, Asia as tfaft^Presidtftrt himself has s:i-'lt dt*-.s niKvj^.r?f]n' chewiest thiT^t to wofjd |aRc be-' f ?f Middle Eaj^ pj"&d that jrretfo.st throaf". ^,">'3n see. as. ^ woirfd TT>s|K>nd, I ica't know wlat we would Iiave in trrnw f jnaranr^ri"'!iar we arv yoiri|r t.j hcivficjii:!' nAvtrhTe. I don't know'ihat wi* hatt- ^riinrantfCM we will ,Iiiuv jn-wr-- iji irvv of our major i-itins'today or on ^vrv cnniims in this romifry. So I think wjuit wr- hiivi- to {o is to Jook at the whole picture nf toe,. world and wm-n? tin- r*1!it-?tt ttircat.s to |Hpa'-c an- and f tliink we ha^t1 ,'i have a. fiw[on-il>lc -xit frohi Vietnam. I do not exjx-^t nor do I lic.lieve this ili.snjrajrcnien: ,T-t repn-^-ntri :m irr<*sprriisib!.> art.rt)3t it would in any way minimize tlir- jn.>.-;il)ilitics of |ien<H'. '5 I think ther.- \A no IX-.T-V thi-re now nd th-^ I*sf <*hau^, we have is to let thf.ie jH>o|>le ivsolie their rivvi war diiryrnc-> ivjfh our interest. of roiirw. in the future as to cci>noniic >)i|>|>ort aud (^ouoniic aid. Th'<'n.viKJCAV. Senator Coojter, -Senator fooiTK. Senator Hatfidd. I think you have given a power" ul ftnd eloriuent sbitdn-Tif, It i* u statement *W!KS<- ohjfi-tive I thhik 'Jfctff>|i>rViVed oyallof u. 1 ".TIw: ti^'/rtioiw I !Kik an not intended t< In- rinffl! U-r-aiw I know ytnr .jiurpr>se and ,x;>tfr siMwrity, but yosir firoj/osojl f.;r ending the war kaK rsiiicd quc^tioh^ which I think we have to nddresx ourt^l ve.s to.

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or AX KXD'TO THE rsirnxc ,., You spfnt a great .deal of time upon ^whui^jvu -btute was Uic ccrtainty of -wfc' fighting ftier w*. leave, that i^uf least under the Xiixon ' proposal^ tV&at certainty is there of an entf-to the fight hij: in South; -. 'Sejiator RvTttixb. J&nator CVjoprr. as I outlined IK my testimony. , bv letting a'date for^njr trttlidrawal, we create tlK-^m'iroiitnent m which a. f ^fitical sctBement csn moxt likely occur to end all the

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-:\'- ' "In irir 'judpnwnf. ^tliUry - tiiid ",to South Fietnaai wpuW lie -' : drt^rmiaed on t,vr> %tes^ One: it wjyiJd I* dctrnnlncd on tltif ^sl :_/ ' of \vladt -kind of^ <^wisMi^as and ^>tsc of iwiiiical supjwn that ithcr Chfc yhicu-Ky orsfcrfna succea-^r ivjrhuf <wJd-dcvtlor> nmonpst ^ its ona_p*ople and. No; ^andt?1 our proposal it vbtild bo ootebuined ; '^. ? , iy the Congress of thsae Lrnit;b! SWu1^, not by upifcitenil action by | he ^ ** :f*r^ideaw5it"prccommits u? ^nd.^ohrwi ns into tf wtiiHtJoa'of ha*ving i. then to iWifT tuat whtcK W Jiave not )md ft vof'viitdnternKnluii;." V\ ',&>-! would say that- fliis KI1 <Jes not;nili; 6ut-thc jxistdbitiiy of ..y^ ^fiitHre rrtilrtary aid of som^Jkind or ccoiwrrnic aid, Jml. our i>nt wtSat N: i^irtH- w^uld oft policies .dctftrmhicd-Jiy'-^'i-. Cnagrfst- 3 wf- did m ;-.- C<K>j)*r^Cliarch: \VTuui you u>td_ jfciiator. Olij.trcTi introduced ~ yn\ie ^ ~ juiKindnimt it witomakeiIurCV>n/<reoa .iticiionsiibk* for 'rCaina<'tio)t there ancfthat i all rftv1 propOfle*.,toxl<i. It ^lo'-S'not tat (l->t -,jire forer.toain|f tlc tNVSSibility of rfutttrr "invoU'enunt'-of " soinc
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* * Sojurfieast Asia ii there is under tK> \ixou p.rojioal. ." Senator 1I^v>nEiJ. Se)>('>r Toofx-r, v?e-c0uld not, in :oy o j n i 1 could not^Jfi^Iosi' or yotiinj^ a fututv C<>nprtMf or evwithis on thftt jrfiloeef.-()ur (a&k.-(iCn< and our oI/M-ctiv*- is a pimpfeone. a dat' ra-jtauj and to IIHVVKO funds provi^td for cou^inh>kl3 ^\n anilitary sijj>port aft-r (F^rt- f inw. Now; wli^iT.Uiat datviy^Pi^'und jirkl you will nvall at rtii^ last S'ssioi'oii- aiiirmlinciif projjowd x f l u - {xwwiliilify ;f iiriefly-t'it-i'iiding thai-date, w of < , . . Wiiat wfr:aiv. *ry\iiy in do is to cu../A this fn:iid orchis habit of ' f he J'rt^idf-ut a^kinfthi-M- coiiitnituwntn'tf/xl then t !* ('of.tn-sti liavinsr ,." to cntw w after th> fact with no voict- actiwlly U<rauw.v v aiv aln-ady . unnrj> TJ wmrniuWAi, AVD rn wrnox .Sc'ijator <f<x>r"J. f must ay I aprcc. wholly with tin: i'lwi whirh ninny of IIK hir.-ir utaO'.f in the past, and which JK'JU *Lifwl In-<* very c-li-arly. I d'jft'f .think t'^1 Pn-sidenl has any roust ftutional J^/<T to do iiion- in SoiiMi Vu'liiatn than to withdraw fora-H and profj-tt our forv a(^tin<4 itjinjinentdarjjr< r r au ttu-y withdraw,

. iK>int in ^!otr stt<nten) ;:&u teJk Aboat rout iiuutt ion of aid to 5 Victn'ttrn. -V<>* yoiir arrifTltdinmif f >*tia\t tie ffintinviati^p of i il to Sottf'i.Vfol&iini or voOid yon f^r^-Insr il? Itajtmio "xw stnder yonc proj^osat tlitvinere ia thc-anirtci jxi^iil/ility of r r n

THREE MATN PHIJTOSALS TO RX|> WAR

It decmb to mo them are three main projxjpals to end the war' which -been niado; yo'.irs a fixed datt^ire,- President:s Vietnnruization, and Cbifti, a policy statement by I lit- (Vi^jress and subsequent action l>y ih<\( OIIJJTVSS whirh would cutoff fund? except for the withdrawal of forvis, and for tliefr^x^isctKrti against iiiiru'uent danger. Tliis proposal tjiould nut atrenipt 0>~set a.Jatf, and wonld^ttr tO-pn-s6rve. the constitutional Uisis of jur.t actions between <hi> President and the /Congress. '"'..'''. 'BiitThave argued w^tlr myself about your pmjxml. I l>ave thought . o n i s t h i T i v thinjrf..tliul,l)oUier nii;,;Fitt*, tlit-^FiaonTjs f-f war. Now w Oii-'fi' aoy morS ifaipriilct.' ujkdcr your propoaui that ou.- prisonorrf of "
k.ir.uii'L jL'V.u'jr-i*' , .xjcmiuw *f**ii^ 9 -T*V au*u- u .njiuc A^*', .tiJ. -.

~ coj.'ocrooy'witih'Sjcxiaior 0^urli:fl<-ifiKf.df'h|^tiory of what happened C jiiih Vltf. FrtnV-iiLin thi-ir witlidrawal, aj)d t^B^fact, So. -2; that tin ^: ?-North VietflLmf^i! hdve. frat^tSith', statfd this s a jinSn-xH'isitc to f. ^ v ./J>nf"-l5jIiiiVtrv^ tlijs poinfc^ii^fiVycara of up^rotiaUog'iJiis Ht Paris $enriJ^ OOWR. Tou,kiiiM'the President ha.-, ^tatod that he.idH

follow th> h/$tory of risoDfr a tinuv


H i ^ ' O V WIJTrr\|, HfilTIJEMLNT

.SrnMor ix.^m^ My swOud-^'ntaim afwuf your-fiicinjr a (Lite, one wfiii-h if ?!f><ili' H^ul a few fww H*O. i that it wtents to leave ;io. basis l fur :i Ptr'tlrtiwiffof the war in .S'nith Vletiianj d Ind'n'Miia A'f.Jcli |H)I(fii'ftLK|li'niL'rit f hojTft ixfrer all tin's.: yeaw would IK- ouf h0'<t ' "- valii:il>r"JjrrCivt;nndiiU|'bsj;. ' - ~ ' ".'.' if lljii _ P, rfstdwif would pfale . w would withdrawal! ur fi-.rscE ;ix quickly ju^c could, it would /riw him the- cpjiorfuuiry HK n-tc>'i-t i-ffw-t iv; n^oriutioiis uufbrwriy xnd prcwrit the powil/ility o/ oMnT fiiijn(rifK Muss willing; to i[itne!i' and hi'lp bring a!x>ul..:t tctrli-iiicnr I kuf by.tixia^ >i datt we niipht I.^- the ix^ibil/ty lor. iimmjri'itf "r iuriiig:.or ^j'-ouru^iii*; a |>oljriral xpttlcin'Tit iti.SoQlfi* vast Asia. Sfn;ifor ]\.\Tvir.w. Senator (VXJJHT, u^ain J would n-Hfiftnd Mtnply fv tin- n-.T/ri{ 'f fL1* past, W- have \\\-wi\ f hut fur.J and fhut ob|w-'t i v < - ihnr^^It our Piii'JH ne^<itintioiiM and fhrou^h othr fontaHs und ii IJUA lx>rni MO fruil whatw^-ver. und if has only cost "'

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~'4r>v* and casualties. Tht is why further it scents to mo that ?ipct.one p.UVy has -iieeii siio.h an utter failure ttv^ioconiplish these goat1 Hat you ;tuiM>s}iatn> it is time ta thn wok a new 7>oHoy or a new approach. 7 This i wliy^I f?l rouvinccd this proposal offeisthat jiew directiof; or that ise.w Kojx; for son*- kind of a |>olitical seftlyuenf as I outlined- \ - T:J my testi^nony. '" ' '
LFI7UT Of 5.

quest:

Senator COOPET. Tliere is notlmiir itt tliis resolution ut off fuCfUxgainsf any nftw^CUmocHliftn or Laotian o|rafiMi-dorin^ rliis year, . . " Sf-naior KATHKU. Tlmt is riplit. Tliis {tcop(i,j] only sets a date" (vrta'm. :inl lx;t\vMi lioiv AJ< that time, if this were enacted, lietwet'ii fin- date of vna-'tiiiPiit and.th<- tim" of its f-rffillmt'ct.. the Pivsidpnf wtftild luive the constitutional power to do what >voul<J IK; to whiero th \vith'niwal of forcts liy that - .srtTyt<i OK CHINA AXI> S<-n!itor Cooi'En. T arn not here to testify on my own views but. ^ think it is only fair ro recall that Hiere is a civil war in South WtHatn and that civil war could not IK- pursued, could not #> <w, without rlie active, supjiort of; Oi'ma and fiussia. So I don't think we should blame our country- alto^sther for v.hat has happened and vhu( is in Indix-liMm, ON rRF>u>rXTiAf, IH-IWFJW srk;rxr> But 1 think cwr object in t lie Senate i* to find the U-st States ran ^ctv/nt of Vietnam, and do so in a wuy that will hold, if we can, the proper Ualamv U-rwefin th<> Kx-cutiv and tiie ('onjrie^ and therein' wjt a standard for the future. Your bill lias troubled me somewlmt because while the President i." intrudintf on our rountitu(iorjal authority now Y I think yours would in some dejrree intrude on liis. ~:
i Senator HATFIKIJI. Senator Too|er. I would (free with you certainly tin you comment ah.ut the uliility to Miatain tlii.- uur :i-: fur afe th- tnemy is c.orji enuui with tbf assist .-inr-c f fhina and Hu^ia lint. by (he raifif token. I would add on<- further f.:<rr- uj>on which tlii.war i* able, to cjjMimiu as fur -.f the enemy itV^ohcerned, and that i* thn-nuyort of I he coiuil ry-jide iyj.thin SouthVtdtiam, ffeni<:mber we have u/addLtiot! to the N'oLlh Vielnnmj-*, tlw 'Viel fj>n^uJid lil>crfi(io;i foiVpH wjthin Soutf, Vi'^najn^art'lJ if(Hi?"wp1cit<w'd o. jlUmVti-r of i wolufroiiaiy tjulics and philosophy frorn ifsiO' bi-d Mao
KNKMV Hfl'Jl>nr IX WITM VICTVAll

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'JC-.

"- oiict1 oUUin'fil that guemJliT'tfar is only, ff lonjr LS ft >^ut Jii'c n'tf the oountrj-sidr.inf have the'sOppoJt of

; J listwjrti ta.fI^',-C3tirmn of "tjtf Sjorot Chiefs f'liiefrf of'^ciltf of'^caif-J Adtaira} '^ . .' . ifixyrfer wl*o gs\t;a^lfctute at thr Sulgivyc Cluhtliciothf hu^ht and. .' ,\ ''. he w<ijtst<><i tha xwv/interesting: cotmn^t. that the nuioj\|iait..of;-."'" V x, H thi:.%nir. Ita^.f^ond the So>uth yictnwncse :ii ihe-^idc of^'^iiswu in .r. : : ~-,-' \i tho.fu.Ttln)r: qitri. v on ttwKJitrtf. of the Virtc^sr, at Dight.teiciaj^^t.fK'y ''v ~\'\ '.-' want to -' ;. ."^ to &Ofttht trimi^^:^o.Sot^viotL^yt^^ocu^yt^i^^iai . So not bccnr^blcta'Diohilrze c"en iiy own people fa sctaxtft. thru "ftvvsitfts} r " l~ . it' o '-T niilitarv and that is ^;h{ I f*l i'ON*sTiiTTioS".*r. REi-iTioxihfr
. PttWTBS . ,,-U.
^

f I would like t o also W . M r . C , Scnutor Ox^Jcr, has , raised rhis (jucstion. as hai r**-,rt raisw-d WoV> i my trstiwwvv jU>ut <.'.9jibtMo:al n?Ution?hip of the Comriniddcr Jn ffiit-ri p6.wrs ajwl tiwCwlijrh a iicld by _*he Congress, ind^ ^itator C5jcr has .<yfojsml t^> on JirJe wriftwi m a jovvrnsl. I would oj fr-n?fei"tO' i-wrv>3nt:ti - . cainff analysis of h<^e <ftftHutionalottu^^o6-.tiU:lmvrb<'t-tu-wbi< li have a^"ircd a " i r c d in tlk Rocof J as of last vcftc, ^blcli inciuded a 'o<jiila'o<ji|ilation by nroiDJncnt lcpl s^hoturs and foncr (jom^tnifflt oflKiiAfi, "in's o f U w anl fornH'r us.-:istHat JtftoiTu-v> frtinT,al AD<! wl personnel, ,td I wnuhiHiu.foledkjT it for the com-. s's consideration at this rime Wrau*- 1 thjitfc it. w v>r>- el_oqu!t_ . not. from thr newpoini.of ju^t OHI- iut vrry niy . c u o f U'w. " The C'M\ncMAX Jt willfMj iiK-ludedm the n-i-ord; (The hifonnation nferrw1 fo
A<T. Jn-^rted ID tLe'KKCOKD by lion with tit? "Autt-nrtujent ^r - pr.uiiii>-iif . , rii frti May 13, 1370 In <'

ocwi/. Attorney, A'ew Yorx < f iy ; form* Jtulw. X^*- Vork r'.
' ~"~ '

:, focaiw Attorney ^ Pa. n, Ati>nr. I' JJm Jonr. I'reildU. IVdfrtrdfrnxT A^NUiut AUorwy Oeneral Jolm \V. I3zJaK.f<rnH-f AwiKtant Attorney Or V f jniifai y , "A t torney , >V Vrk f\ i y. of . .. , t: 6/rrotT A'-' riil

A<wL*ant

*; 'j.<tr\: City.

<A-*

US*t0N

Senate
THE AMENDMENT TO E#i* THE >-:. THE CONSTITUTION At QUESTION i hUtoncal dXcriptkm of tbo _ May tJ, 107,0 '^ . po*-rr atkd a conei*e (tl*Husion. of C-. Mr. McGOVHU<Mr. Ftesldent..lhC efl*IaUv<;Uom whten hare been rc- two prof oundjMTet iavbiretf ut the to JustUr our po*ture ln^Soothe**t.Al*. With -ireipocv to. nor -amendruent. -it - amendments whleii -tave beon profcwed - to Itait OS. actim** in 8wiQ**t Atia. concludefthai,:;.-. . Piopoud rnitrlctir* "pri7rijil<xw (urn Hi* menu of wb**her ft t* politically. ai!*aacd by 4*uot UcOcrrm. Htfrauiil*eCy. or morali? nund for w to be *cusgrttd in that tenfliet wll) be debated <rol7 Itglitmif* nre^r M Coap**' a At 'lOnrtb. a they &* been debated lot .lntt 9 act <lflt; eft tofltctMr many" year*: Matt of as have xtronc our poUcy > tJJ*rdon IIIM-M- ,
The ottitf JMUC La* received lew atteu Uon. and for that reason alone It deserve* a jqnit Tocw. RCnI!cM of bo* An; Senator !- about the wisdom of our Invt>:vDRM)t. be bM oc<t eaw lor denp InterwiC In th* pMcJure through wljlrh it ha* -votw nbpn, and parrjcuiarljr in Ue cerfj iAt been cxprUMd >bout * truth "tbfc ortJC* Alr*<ly war U tft* .The atartpXaentary aAHUtaie&U' litrodiued .by Senator* CxtracM and John Dor. Kdfoal-3tujrvMant [ mysetf. and other fienatoa on Vietnam. OAS . . Cantbodi*. -and L*o. ar* practical atJohn W. Doafi*,, ttrtant. A)rtint Attoroer tempt* to auert proper conjtre*looal ' inrctBcnt-. In fa<t, ttier tue the-only V. Tort, veWchilimitation* on apendlof appro" otif>ted fuiKl-.Ui*t *e bare avaUable b>. cur. r>*c tw IkhcxX. toatat Attoruer ODrl American jntlitary pcwt^. abroad. Morer. A*(UQt 4tover, tt !* vrhlck *hlcb the founder* of .' our Kepi&lM^telk./td should be rigorlobrt V. ftanoj*. Atiortwy, Krw Tork City , , I - - . ruicr In uuc conp-vtion, M Peecldent. I woul/ Uu to make available tc ttae>Pul XT. forottr b^r* of UiflfltuM!an analyst* of tb* coo' (UtitUonal iMoe* broaeb^d by these M, ziouncnMc, rarmrt sttvndaint entitled "IndocWna-, Tb* v CottffUUtUonal CrM*/' il *uppUe> an exIn aodtUoo. Mr. iVe<lo>i.t. I wtvnt to
A by Hvctuer.

*ct!on V drconuuom . Mr. PrteMebC. d* authon ,of thto memorandom incinde -prominetjt Jvcal and fonoer tovernmnt--0ffl' I should like to read U(r n*aw*:. BKtal, RrortttflrflC!*', rJ* form+r
fcchvol.

(1) -IlMir leKJ4 c^rtlon vhicb lo^ xur* Ui Miftty ot our IDTCM and (2) BUT b OTrW<lr&

^ Vnr fort . T<rfc Cmtrt ( AppoU. XA*r. Tolr

39
10 pravld* for ci'/' ine ' Vc<.\*-ir UM- cotinoraridta dope br -<:>-'2 Ya> La* Scbocd ttuarou: u*vut "*Ay>k<--. Held L. rV4mMV Ctarjr PonUmu Tt* OmUtuu<- dow not wr Vraak KAciikcc GrtnM Hanwiwr. -hUM- UK nny"Tnj bv Mnit loto ttiJ n^we-rd O. Hunter Hi.Ct3i*topber Lun- *lwa Contra* bm aovMctand nur.\jr'U It -M*/. under W/ ctnaOMUjtoM -^od tf -?r.i.-,. David )4*rki; Jvfftcp Orleans, Rn- ^iVx* dMMoa. -r^ tnutpnuae J> Ooo..oV. Sfcepard, Irit fftuar uul Jobn c.ltuuoa on ttai* potat. ft m ttr ptyl-to look XI. Tainuteng. .0 V\^u munt of U> ma** ^nd tr fb anoctouodtne woijc on tills projof. OV men. aa flnc'put UM fc crtpiUff 'rfenonrtrttton ot ' rfotn* JnpofUnt, u*efuVand raifctmctive wort oa behalf of -the eloe rl*taf Cone tm cbe< p<rtrr to ; the >cux effort. -' . deeUt* war on Aofuet IT. 1717.* The cUuiv ottgtntKf .eoipomred Curiyeai "to ouke Sfcjv. deJeaUe ob>e4e4 ttt Utr mcmorantfuja to wblcl.'t h*e referred , !.-- >V hMikt 11* wtlh the exejU*. u R out be ori^teti in Iflt HKCO*D." -in rntUHut.1* Most of the Conotlon ead Th^re hrTrt Tin nfrjff(lofi, the ncn* flrmly of ^>e oplokm -tf^c rb power ebouM or>3duir. FI ordered to to* printed In U tta Ccocrea. tr^ Ut Uw rieeMeot boul4 b* the IWVM to dcfead (Uut thcR*coD. tt lollowt: , U4d>a jrtt*e, ^Je CObTenuon det-^ea tu n: Tin. CotautiVHovti. "jiiMtt 'decide/ itrtklac out "iMlW *r, H\ dupiieJi or AoMrtoMl UoofM UMO O4m- Iee,rla( to the enecJOrr U>e power to nyti to bT ilu PrwKUAl, wttboot ipaclfic o- wdtftev *ece.The Rpnen a*l la mUMl ai*Uion of feucMoA*. The Freefdcat. n. 'UM Mwdtt>tloQ<l *JJooxion or Ono&uixier in (%U . w>* eb*rfed wltb tl>e o^k !> l*r!lU JX1 CMCUUT* oondiKt nf baetrUtle* Ttr v* UmJlj ^ria^UM. 1 w max tcniflctat tactor la tte" Mfua Be. VM 41M <>>p*cttf Uwy t<j tel* mowun* to rtpel *DJ kCtutl stteCk opon Uw UDttrt ' at ^ ^AO> o< irtian *y octh bcueh. Stale. u en loeldent at u euctram pop; TV j*>*r !4 CMttnitr Annrtott foren to Jlut -toe power to (otUMe boxtUtUe* KM ctekrtf aM*fli to be irre<t to UM Ooncreet. tor wttb. tti I<r<*Meiit.prUol(ie.tlnr l tbM uucn- Uuw octjr w tt i -few elcoMon ww neceMWT1 W oonpcte^u Act of Ooofnee. Tbu*, tkt Prtiiteot, -wtUxtM* xto .<* ..... IHin. tnrcwd to or, tnct in. (***at o*utftecf to- W tie^ft* IMT. >'ropoii.nr.r before CoofrM* iorcfc* ID* The 1iuU<&d breoc* * !K> <jidck to <vn- ,. ^fxy p^rt.r M jvfi of awtfttnr ouowul Ifmt CoHfrtu flout an ttetvt tear 4ve/ uit bxiouiiAMc Wv. U Coocrcct otr- elude r>Uio opinion of UM Supreme- Court i!u< lit ntoMjr puwr to probibft tpvatte W n 1901tli jwiM cue. Ctotef Jiauo* Jobr. ^WH or tM tnttlA lore*, it wUl tMtuwt lu lftih*'> eoata4ed Cut tbe "vboto poven Jof.it <doruuut copcrlty OrmlT mo4 HUUUI<T orwkr" were "rMted la COOfree*,-" ' llm<t Ui pEMldmt'* W.1',y tr Tbere IM.J>. bowrrer, be boeUUtlee which fora** for ytupOMt WAleB Coofill tbon of requlrtae en tetiul <JeeJef*Uon - ' of ww. Ten yeeM ef tec UM tfopUf Of the or T X^wrUtuUou, the ni trouble between UM. t/nltod suite* And rrtaee which ItM btfuu under WMWOfton bKuoe'efr ecule tn*c Axaerfctn-iblpptnt-wM (reAtlf enrteogered." t)M COUUtutlOO Jtf* rrmrtdeot A4*au JJd to de<4de wfae to do In (ti T6 PrslKUnt Jj Aiexeodc r BeBUttOD edrtiea the edmlnUU> <-u4U<i Mtoutly power,' raid* ;lon ^[Ucut etittii vltlkout ConcreeiUoneJ '
C i. 1 3')4C il^gpftT|Qlffc pfWyj^ty^. ^^|^{ CibV

"lo M dViUcew CM*. 19 oit wtUOJ Involve* to idrtrt^it crtuerukOt u UMt <rt wtr. joy opialof U ibtt no doubtfa] jiufborttjr ouftti to. b^ ekercteed by tbe Pleitdrot " (o AOMU decided' to. w*lt for Cbaicr***- to v t ovl to 4-' ad It'pMtcd Uw* Mttbrllar'bU& to promore tt*B ',(ro /rtn> il ft tect Aacrtaia cMnotere* SuniUrtf ju ietti PTeeUfeuv Jdtfereo * f*eed with boeUUtMv tv provlM ni JOAJQCtiH of. tbe fumufCoMt. ut fell bu i aovld ior urder oolj- deieaelre axxtfte-act

tbo Aanf utd Kvj, Lnd tooMOt of Ux

r.

60
. : f,tt two Umftd wctt < *!<* thr Vmtte* StMttt torn** ttj*l/. bet* Aifmi fji Jtfferttm htt flu mem* to order nttOmtory imautflatete Pcrk.M tome * Beet e*4 inM^BMKpri refMWTOT !* MM* property voeJd km bee* MMeT he* tAey done ro But boe* rkariy ftlt the* the e>rteton (o commit JraerKen /area vet not eo**titui<on*Jy tlutn to make, end ; /<Lred rte prcarrrarlon of the Couatuurtonal proene to the mrndt of temporary military aoTnantaer ^""""* W. MnrroeJcu. evrB-oncnrt or not WAI ow> 4. Vert eU UmUtd man in the nlnetccsth century If the President'* power to encage Amertcan force* in bortUltlet on hie own Inltuar* It "-"r1 to defenttft action by a ttrtct eonttructton of the Conttttutlon. the (joaetlon of the proper rote of Coucne* arteee. ConCtt clearly bat the power to *. the with the fl.eH.nt relueuntly aeeentttc may alto ratify after the Met bcatnitM begun by the Prealdam." Tlu neevtrrc brawn *ry early reoofwiieeT l)u tieliuivt putur o/ Coufrttt to declare wer. in the count of a dlepute with Spain hi ItO. PretMent J**ertou told Congne*: Coaooenng that Ouejgnet alone It eonttltutlonally Inverted with tat power of changing our poaioon fror peace to war. I have taougbt It my duty U> await their authority befora u*lat, force In any degree which could be eTotded." ' Similar deference to the tole power of Cooyrtw to mmttt 4.07 dwCiiioo to coffita-ii t^e United Statet to war wa**ced by Pentdeut Jamet Monroe. Secretary of Stau John 4umcy AdaEi." and Secretary of State? Daniel Webtter.' . ta for 'msftimf it. In iMfl It had declared, after the fact, that a rtte of war exlned with Itesieo But the debate wa< HUer and thr war unpopular At the end of the war. thr Kouee of Miprem jag) -~ Preeident Wtlaon tent troop* Mexico In U in punuit of the Pancho Villa bandit*.* sine* 1B4I. the executive ha* regularly ueed military force e*fr"r4 a too) of diplomacy, Aatde from Indochina, the i*ete*c uee of American force we* In Kone. when eeverdl bundred thfrieand troop* wen committed w combat and major *tr"~<"n wen In* curred Then wa* neither formal declaratton of war. nor any other Tr-rtl- eaacm.tonal ruction for the Korean conflict.* Amerl4n force* wen tent Into the Pormotaa BMmlt , lt, , uoiaon In ItM. and mto tl** Prwttftlran Bwrpalrilc in IMft Tlw Kavy wrt iittd to bkrtSde Cuba dwlag the mtetf le crudt In l2. And. rrnm recently, naval .vtaaela wen <uepatched to the vtctoltf ^ Haiti ^^4 Trinidad In retpeaw* to inmto

During the nineteenth century, the tuc** breiK* ,*reoiratly recOf*b*< thr need ** canfr**antl urAorteaMon ett* Hmited military action*. In 1UT the SecneDd *"* **8UU " " " " * *hlp * * h*lp ^ Brltlth expedition In * fTtilna. became be ueked confreaoonal authority to do to." The ^.^ y,,, pntldent Buchanan pleaded with concrete for authority to protect traotn aero** the lethmui of Panama, but refuted to act without It." Kor In 117* would the fttau Department uee force to help American* in Mexico, beeaute It felt It lacked the power to A, ,0m At late at 1011 Preeident William Howard Taft felt that be had enough power to more troop* to the Mexican border, to be ready In caat Concnet told him to protect American U*ee and property endangered by *" solution there, but refuted to tend Uttm "*<"> authority gn*to*_?f_ j.** eonyreMtoncJ tew-m*U*t powerrntAelOtkcentury ^ *> ">' part of the twentieth century. I'l^"0.?. *?",?^"2f JES* ""L

KUon*

wtaloMl waolutlon. wen obuined by Che Preddent for the Formojan and Lewaoeee but both the talMltr i tho*trwjo'

A war unneceaMrtlr d UMOMtltuttoo. by the rtMtaf of U* Onl^ Amoo* the ConcreMnvrn wpportin, the amelmei.wM former Pte^dent John eerabo ha* considerable power, rtwrt

puvtM or action* ar.alaat prtCBttt**

61
prop:**. Fcnheraor*. th* United Ciatea did The lnolTetnnt of the Dnrted State* in n* h a sicnlfteant tanflin; army dunnr. Vietnam, th* comtnenoaBKnt of an air war pesc*Ums until after 1M*. and th Pr*st- In Lao*, and th* npwuton of UM (round mut was iim'.ted In the military action* that war into Camhodl* ham remitted almoM enhe could -*ke by UM aeed to approach Can- tirely from ttweatlM j*clilone and action*. arm \a ask lor any lncres.se in th* ala* of The execuuw branch of th* forcmnMnt ha* UM armed tomt. rod**. wttA e tWaeHdOU Jmtlfted lu action primarily on UM grounds mUttery maeiun* end modsnt transport ft of: (1) UM presidential pnrofaUr* to prohit mstudtefr tfii*ni*'. (4* rrtxidmt It tin- tect American security interests abroad by der flfiK wraetM*; pressure to srck eonfrtt- whatever means necessary. () UM 8CATO *IOM: othariMMo* /r ats tenant, *i4 treaty: and (*) th* Oulf of Tonkin Bewluthrr/or* 1* u vmJUwIp to seefc if imJcu tlon." JC oawiot b* *M tAt On reormt aeComprvM nuu<* that do so." titmt ty'tht txtcuttot in C*mftoCM or th* IT TMI Txcoamcu. BUB* ro cL*tnu. carUcr ectlraw in. bofA Vt*tn*m vtd Lew nusasarnAi. sano* er eltfrlf eomcrarv to tnt Conrtiiutton The theories oa which vanc.s Prcsldenta However, th rrpmvm o/ for war Imto Camhave rclld tor UM UN of military fore* bodia it the tettrt in loaf scru of tctt abroad without .-<ins,iesinnt approval 01*7 tuHuA, tnkn topctker, JUw mror^r strrrpti. b* divttM into Out* frxnl caUfortes- (t> Congrett o/ tt IMT fotetr. (1) riw fraUfnttul frercftiaf.Unthe >uddn> ctck thory; (3) UM n*utr>llty tntory. u>d O) UM coUacUra Mcnrtijr doubtedly, th* speed with which man. <U**lop la th* modem world ncirlu.c** a ncuu*e who can raspond quickly to (I) Tkr Budltn Attack TAcoryTIM suonc such rrl*. Th* need for a speedy reipoone. Pnctdnt the Cnlf liitcuUv* hM tb IA- UM need for Hcreey. UM aeed to protect bcrcat pocnrr ui defend tttc Mnoclfnty uid *a*flrir cttlzens and property abroad, and lni(pity of to natiaa luU cod to rwpood UM need to nrci*rt nnran aecttnty into ux crtaMd ftttick oa th urmary <tf to* terests U the f'f** o; power are a)I tued Cuiud StM> wttbout riqununc txxijim to Itfltlmlz* th* we by tn* e**euUv*. withtMAkl cppruv*] ror nunpl*. w* do not out confmalonal approval, of Amrrlfsn (jutntion UM ean*tituuon*l autnarlty of to armed forcra abroad. Recent United States Fwwi; to onlcr rauiutcry utk( ! actions, especially la. Korea and iBdoehin*. Ot *<nt of u> aiomle *tuek oa dM tnntory art cited to support great cteeuUw* dUcnuf UM DniMd Sc^Ui. la th t^utnci r.*n tton In th* *, of American mlJItary force krnwd atuci } AoMrlCBn tantory propir. abroad. The recent itrrs^po of Cambodia in* power or in* Prvidcnt u moc elOMly without prior oonfraulonaT approval or even eircuouenbcd.** nolle* is not without historical precedent (l)'r*< Ktutrfbly r/wory Alw known and not without JustlflcaUorj under a broad u 'inurpo>iuon.~ UM acutraUly tlMary M Interpretation ei the coOacttv* security dcvctopctf durlac Uw nincMcotb ecatury u theory.-* JU*UOCUOD for Aimrton mlljury involv*Kowtrer. th* real question u whether the mria tiQrd lo prouet Amcrtctn dUj*n* balane* has shifted too far la favor of UM ad property. Wnm American armed force* executive.* A war. such as UM COM In Indowere **nt Into * (orelfo nation, their pre- china, require* great sacrtflces on UM part cc wu tuppoeed u/ W "outnl" with re- of (rest numbers of tb American people; It spect to anr conflict* there TH* U difficult, 1' not Impossible, f prcrJVl to* tn caJaof twJi action, IMJ nrt ultimate outcome of any American interven"natang wer" (nil tntrtly duptteking trotrpi tion ConaeqiHentiy, .when there U a possifa act ftm*rtlti fUMft* /(' Annrtean cltt- bility >.< large seal* American in*olenM/it >< anj ffteir property TA reel di/llrvUy, and iim. a United risk of war. Confre** firefly imt tn rtmftntng ntntrtl r*4 *t>oi4- should pat* MI the deslrabiuty of American tuf nnfict military ae.ion.o 1 (i TA- Colteeittt tmrtiy TUttfy Since Tb* execM le Bas also placed reII*DC on l>tO. tne Umud 5t*U* UM entered into tn* powr of -be President as cnKf formulan.07 Mcunty treeiiM wiuj fortifa n'Joo. tor cf (orel<n policy and as Commander in Mai<r of f bw acreemenu have cliMM which Chlrf of the *rmed forces. Crtnttd tint thr lixllrau that the murlty of eaoh alfnaCory fretidtnt 4tj4t Av* prUiMvy rttponnbiltly 1* viui to UM security of each ottMr alcna- tn the rood*'* world (or tin HmjUutt of forKj<y. UnlUVrl preaUlcaUal aetloo under etgn voltey. /M thouU not fesi* tnt ttttxttftcM acre^oenl* ma> b* JuettOed a* necee turn to tnUMi iter mi mn tnttrumtnl of forur/ f-ir Uw proteouon of Amencau McurUy tign policy. evrn vh^utfh th* oofinict may ante U>ouUM Commander in Chief provision j< oil>.i ffn American noret, but, of nr>s!I7. the Confutation Is an esprewlon of olviJ. to it* nlrmt, Hu coUflift jn eoovol our the military; It do** not (Iv* tit#ir\i LiouM juttltv *l*n>tt n uu> wsr pnrer to tne President" -,rrt<t4mttvl KM o/ nm*< /we* i2i 7W SfATO Trta(y.-n* Southeast Tttiut contrary to Conttuutiunal tltadmrdi. AiJk Tnaty OricanlaaUon l* on* of to* many v itu. ivrtnctnoiif rot uwiurnui. cucxr* multilateral ol>cuv* ascumy Ueatle* which a* UM Umied te4* has no*d. Neither fcuth

Vietnam nor Cambodia l signatory, but both c"ur tries are within "proioecl areas~ which U^ ilgnatarlea cnnsWIer to be vital to tnelr >n-ur*.t. Interests " Tb* terms of the treaty are amblguoua. end It 1* t Irmil questionable whether tb* United Sum was obligated by UM utou of the treaty to rone TO UM aid or South Vietnam." Kara importantly, the 8KATO agreement raiiiux help answer tb* constitutional queaUor. . became It apeetflcally stat** ttuit action by a signatory lo response to an attack on another signatory or a "protocol country" If 10 b mad* only after a decision made ftccorClng to the "owwtltuUonal prnrtnei" of the signatory . Tbe more relevant Issue 1* the power of the President to Involve American forcea la foreign combat on to* baau of a treaty The Con*tltUon require* that ths< Senate must gtv* lu advice and consent to any treaty before it can become effective" Once approved, the treaty b. at the name nature a< any other duly peieed law which the executive Is bound to execuc faithfully " If. bowever, the war power U a congressional prerofauve. the decMon* regarding the initiation of war should be made by both houses of Onngrsss and not Just the Senate " <3> The youths Gulf Jksolutfcm FjOowlag reported attack* on American naval eesel* la the OulT at Tonkin in Aofaat at 164. Coogrees punJ a Joint naolotton which gav* the Praaldent broad discretion to napoad *o "mneelon" tn South**** Aala** Coofrawaonal action which do** not amount to a formal declaration of war may be a valid I rmiramnn*! authorization of boauittlai.* and aom* commentator* think that the Tonkin Oulf Rwolutlon .1* an adequate eontreulonal authortzatlon for the Vixtnameee War" There are two factor*, however, which make the Tonkin Oulf Beeolutlon an Invalid bull for continued CongMwdonal inaction Flnt. It wa* paand with (re*t ipeed and In Ute heat of emotion that resulted from the reported attack on American naval v**atl* In the Tonkin Gulf." Secondly. th*r* were few American troop* In Vietnam In the American (round combat force* (her* " It tiu alio been argued that confr*ional Inaction acd fallur* to repeal th* Tonkin Oulf RrKJlu'-loc fire Implicit authorization to the IndocbUMM War The logical outcome of u'-h an argument 1* that the Preeldent can do r.tiatever be wube* and tb* Congrew hu tt>e anrmatl** duty to try to (top him. ThU Hiilu the prenunptlon of tb* rraour* In f*vor of congr**alonal control over w*rmaklnK and givei the initial and continued upper hand to th* executive " vi. TMJ orruervumu roa UAVXITK^M or covc*x*aionAi. rowjca Tb* puwer of ID* pun* 1* tb* Ia'. bation of ijpu;r c'nilrol of the fiernmrtol" Congrvw now ha* the oppr/rtunKf it, iu* tbl* puwer 1*1 rotor* th* r.on*tltutlunal balance by lifiudiuc in authorization an* any of

a number of rwnnctum* on th* ua* or American fund* and, 'orce* la Inrtnrhtna. More forcefully than a resolution of on* or both houan.x enacting ipeclflc reatrtcUoaa on the ua* of our military foreM In Indochina and directing their withdrawal wool* effective^ rt congreaalonal control of the limited war in which we arc now engaged Tnpo*d reatrtctlv* provMon* (*uch a* thoat advanced by Senator* McOovwm. Rataeld. Hughe*. Ooodrll and Cran*ton- an not only a legitimate cxerda* of Onngr***' money power, but poe* no Jamai' of mfterlhlllty oommltung our policy to a wairdoa* eaan* became (1) they Include exception* which Uuure the *af*ty of our force* and (2) they may be overridden by future <mngTlnnal action II eircumitanc** change. A. Speetfemttf rettncttuf thf tat to mUOarjr /oroa m*y be put it a Icgtttmitt txtreu* of eaufreutomil facer There I* no doubt that under th* Concututlon rnntrtm ha* complete control over governmental ua* of funds Huiorlcal precedent, textual 'analysl* of th* ConcUtutlon. the intent of th* Pram*n. and Judicial coutrurtlon unambiguously Indicate that tb* -nancy power may b* u**d to restrict tb* President's control of the armed force*. fmtt ooafresMomal neetu tn tkf rcstrlctio* of Tntbtmrg pallet tArovyk th* us* of f f r a f c vrorMoms i mousy *cti offtr$ comcttutve support for th* ItfUimtef of me* meuure to control tilt mUltmrf tcttont of the frenaent Bldcn and amendments on appropriation and authorisation act* traditionally ha* been a devlo* favored by Congress to restrict and to control executive action Tbe most recent example I* bectlon M3 of the Defense Appropriation Act for the current fiscal yar. paeset in ItcV. which states that -non* of th* fund* appropriated1 by this Act shall b* jatd to finance the introduction of American ground combat troops into Laos and Thailand " Lett yfffi rider fione tttvtt * etttr frrftthit for nmtter restriction* on use of force* or funds its Ctmbotlt* or tn Vietntm ititt/. An almost IsJeoUcal rattflctlon was enacted by Congrsas In tb* Selective Serrlc* and Training Act of 1MO wulch Included th* proviso that: "Persons Inducted into tb* land force* of tb* United States under this Act shall not b* employed beyond the limit* of tb* Western Hemisphere except In the Terrttorl** and posseesion* of tb* United But**, Including the Philippine Islands"" II *ppr*rs l>. . <n ttie put PrtMentt tin* *Iiroy< ecmplit* vtth iiten restrictions, rent iclien tti'y oriffintllf tzpreutn an tntfntlon to ignore them Compliance by the executive u in fact, clearly djrtated bj the Constitution The grn ' grant in the Prnldrnt of th* exfrutlve < - Is qualified by tb* admonition that uall take car* that tb* law* b* faithfully cuecuted"*1 The power* of Congress to ralav and appropriate revenue*, to rats* an dsupport armies, and u> provide and

t..n, n*\y. Air a:) iaw-makln*: powA* afWpnmUcak ndtr eMctMf mto In* rt mpoit < clear oMMitvt4O*Ml 06; 9r<'ju on tike rrejldnt to *bufct try it* p<ri'wio" In MUtUoa. it wjuW constitute p-o tan'o repeal of prerloui utaiut** frarttlrc uu> Pvtudcnt ducreUoa to uw ftutd* {or ml'l^ary rni:poc*e. TA* Jr;<i*ti;'* power a* Cotcroandcr in Cn.rt O.K-I. D.,L fra* Him from enacUd raatnct,u;m. Tr> CcojrutuUoa AW granted lo Cooft^-i :ji* luidUfcoeutbi pover to cre&t* tn* bayed trjr Uie brancIHM o: tb* Tie CowwnOr m CAM/ cuw !i:t'i tht Pxiu/mt to <ft or inr *rrn* imi(j <UaWuftr6 by rfcr rrrmt t.io*c /ww. provided ili* llauu are Tli' I.rt.tliniri:.iiliJr.(xxT*nr of ti mocwjr frtxn lt> dtnnlntloo ot to plaar Utu power Ormljr u> UM FkriKuitf er wu takra to mmt-'^m ur.Arr con(rMool eootrol ttM luc >f funcu ior mllltarjr pvirpox*. u Indlot^Kl b> UM ei.nntit uuenki prorMIOD tb.t no moarjr o.*y b *pprop.-uved {or tic nny "fur ion* rr term tnu two ycwi." " Tb* ntltn1 :-< KI< allocation at power md by UM Fri&~i i..' UM Coiuuiu'lon U t**w to our oLirpt wf danocracr: that UK taflaUton. a* rpMntmf.TK nf the poopK. i&ould navt control <yr UK nation'* mouroat. Ut DMinejr power In mai tcrcr.* ' "Tim powvr OT*r iK* pjn< awty. In fact, b* r*Kr<ld aa tn mo*t eomplt an4 cBaetua] wapun with which any eotuututlon can arm th. immrduu rcprwcnutlrc* or tc p*opl< - " Tb* wlMlom of thl* (rant of power la born* ou; OT r*c*nt butory Tnc ettoduct of in* lodorhlna War baa prwlpltatvd t wld*aprud <ii>i:iulonmcnt witb tb* rutwrnuwnt. and atundant UM* of raapaet for Jaw // tht people itiroufli their reframtatlvtti. hv no mntrol oittt ihf commltnmt of th*ir rtlourrn to ifmr-mtlctHf, tht retulz u liuonttilrnt irttti :ht trmocrttie principlfi of tht Conttitiitum Tji Si.prrnrf Court pukc moat directly to in* Uiw In Ilir Sltcl Setiurf Cojr.i cxrtlci.idir.x Idai Uie powira </f UM prw)dm. tK-ll) a> Coinman4*r in Chief and In h> riwoutivr capacity. w*r not unllmltwd and c.>uld LX> rtrair.*d bv uioUxr branch ul tr>* Kov*riinvni ' Ai: uj* ju>cic* in tb* majority In4ica'.i><l Udt UM extent to which Conpawj had *x-t*d to control tb* action tak*c oy tb* rrmidrti! cUu/ of mual of in* nation'* (Tar; mull, wa* *I(nlflcani in dt*rn>lnlnc lh cuMtutionallty of hl actloj" Tb* <>;m,i'in. linp;y that W/i^n Congrtii iptfki on (':' yu'-'HOTi o/ ftt /orm mevtive Kn<>n mu> Cat.'. >ur pou.rr lo tct flout ai /A' P'nt.trnt may /it unW b< clrrumterLbft In ttM S( ffuurt Coif, th* Ju*< tic*. d-fer<*d on th* proper murpiwtaUoa of Coti^riM*' fiMr* (o act aa r*I*vaot Iafla> la'.Utc. lo cor.^wi. I/ Canfut tftcu t eltff

clear, cmtf prMU*m(Ml rower mould

locluilon o/ *Iqu*t exception* to r*tf rtrtKjt ox mttttmrr acllom ruxfc tt* m>.'itarp mottey mW rmwtit <UKMc Tb*r I*, o* ooora*. a paamlbtUty mat cbanc*d drcumatane** will fore* a tweoaaUteraucm of UM wiadom of oartala apaclfle llMltauon* But tb* **n1nci ot coop** aloaal eootrol by """^""f tb* propo**!! r*atneuoat manly ahtfta from UM rroldcnt to Coocno power o**c totura mtllu<T Jnvo]v*m*ct In TnilirrhlTift Tn* tVavtdeat would ntain th* power to euft|Ee la untnatttat* **lf-d*fca* usdar tne euoitlv* power to r*pel iudo>a attack*. In addtuon. xeepttoo* to Ul* rwrtrtcttooc of th* >CcC*rn - RaUUM - Bugoea - OoodeUCrar^ton propoaal permit full asei>U* fn*dool 10 protect our troop* and prlaooan durtnf withdrawal But m*for ttctotoiu vxnM be rttfvfA f<ir Comfnu. vMt*. it fullf ctpfbif of mtlanf au/or eVlciafoiu quickly end. competently. A*t by tuerttni tu fraper role ta ttctnon* Of wn*lcinf. Cotfrtu act to -c-etttbUiti tht trarfttMwl (im*J bfUnet. Tb* current unJlmiiad fniilmji enjo/xd by tb* **cut|T* to tugttCf In military action I* largely in* rtwult ot InacUoo by rmnuiaea* pat A* fiuprem* Court Juatlo* Jaekaoo ~W m< asy that power to I*f1alat* far *m*iy*nct*t betonfi in to* hand* of Oosfrea*. but only Concnw Itattf eta prevent power from allpntnr through tt*
rOOTHOTB*

tto^ ttmttat. t. Contnunf eonrrtaUnul control m*4. tht

of UM CnlUel !( Of America. Article 1 . \ \ . lint ArUcl* 2. 13. cl 1. /Me. Alllcl* 1. 13. Cl. 3. /bid', Art.cle J. (*. el. I /bf AtU.-l* 1. IS. cl 11. ' irnd ArtUS* 1. II. cl. 19 */S4 ArUcI* 1. II. cl . '/UU Artlcln 1. II. cl. 14. '/hi* Artirl* 1. 18. cl. U and el 14 ' r>x an hau*ll analfmU of UM blatorlcal d*v*Iopnwnt of tb* war power a** Uw arucl* by rrancU D WorauiU), Th* Vietnam War Tb* Preeldcat var*u* tb* Conttlluuon." on wbtcb UU* papar draw* heavily It la rcprioUd lii Falk. *d . Tht Vietnam r*v , rrtaortoa Oalvenlty "Juan Madlton. Holtt of Dtouttt to 'i rrtrrti Convention, Ohio Unlwratty fT* aiuon. iM A tranacrlpl of Madlaon'* not** on th* dbaU on to* war power 1* included In Ut* appendtc M uu paper. /M*t, ***.(* of Aufiwt 17, 1WT (ObM> diuou pec* 47O .

/(wi. Artifi* i. M. ci 10.

" In 1M1 Vawall art** tb* Uatted Btatea lor protecuon from Fraoor. aecxUrj of fcuie Dame! WelM refoaw* to bet?: 1 ba*e to ey tfcat the wWHeMklnf power new entirely wtfn Con>rwM and thai (be Ftwldcnt can tataortm beJUjereni opera. Uonc only In tbe ran* eipraetly provided for by the Cottvututlon and tbe law* By UMee BO power 1* gjytn to tbe KB*cirUe to oppoa* an attack by on* Independent nation on tb* poateieioo* of another." J B Moore. Difttt (>f lnter**tto*l Lt*. Of JO vol 7. p 183 wMi okw. JWtn coRcraw). )at Sratlon. pace to. January >. 1*W The Mexican War had been ptadpttatnd in lUt by Freldent Polk'* dupatcb of American troop* into a tmw*r wtuae pnamalon wa* dl.pul*! wltl Ittttao After hoatllUtai erupted. ConKrcai reluctantly declared tbat a state of war edited bitaiaea an "nlted fttate* and Mexico TtM resolution referred to wa ft vote of tbanks to Omeral Zetfbary Taylor, tbe Oon>nander of tbe *ueonaful Anwrlcan forcas. Tbe eliMUe oetwurlim tbe President was moved att u> amrndment to Uiat resoluUoa. Tbe aaaendrnent was adopted oo January "Dnautliorued by Wx CowiltuUon. vllb1. but wu dropped when tbe revolution came out the lanctloa of Outifmt. to ft> beyood tbe Ilnr of deiefiM. Uv >*Mel !wln( dirtied up fur a Baal v<rt For :t* ;7M leglilatlon. ** note It from txxnniltunf turUxt pr-jj)tlee. wai lib* er>t4 vlih tin oww Tbe Laflalafore will abort Coup all aulborlaid toe Frestdeat to uil4A wrxiUj*T. by auUiorlalrK m >/ (eTitnae alto, Uwy *lil place our act aalniit Tripoli In tbe Art of February (, 1(03 <3 S(t 1MI ou wi equal fo/xtnc vlth that of IW

/uf. renarks of Kr Sutler (we ani Foe a dlKtutton or Uw EnrJUh :I.* hMwr or power. uttl accurate ben the O<iiou!ini. wx wr'iwn. M? John Locli**. it .jfii r-vJt on Govrtntr,t < (VOOt cnapteri 12 and II. I }&. Mr Oerry remarked that he "ntvcr exported to bear in a nv .me ttw - to empower the Executive alone tu decUrr -r "Jinrf. uw mor-.n paned i(nc *utc* on. Vlauachusr- u ab*nt. <Me appendix). <-T*r AnurCj. 1 Crmnth it USl 1 <1M1) ChWI Jui:irr MsnhAlI T* "The wb\,i* powtrt erf war toelcf . by toe GunitUuuuri. rmtrd us Congress. the sjt nl inat bodp alone ran be resorted to a* a (ukfeft to thl< inquiry ' Tfc* atM Involved a ship wheat *e!WJre would hir bn Iet>: under the FresldcnV* pr:v:rin proclamation, but wtxMt Kizun thr Cttirt beM u ilJffal under tJx Unix uf U>r Art ct Coocm* whlcb utliarteMl tIM pr-v Vimtioa The pnrfttecr wu BUO* to pr cm'^t" to ttw *hlp' owner. ' After UM outbreak of tbe wir between Fr*n-: and tn&aA la IT92. American hipping ru molwwd t>y the blocIudjM oC boOl uUuiu Pmrtdcnt WJiIn>on DWC tlw cbmlIrnjr r:-.h hl funou* Nmirnllt? ProcUm*u<<n. wai' B kept tbe United Suiv out of tb* conflict. By I7M. bovriwr. frtoeh deprad> uc> no Atnenun eomnwron had Ucome ma*ckD( taat action WM nedid to protect It The <jue*tloa van vbetber rrx)itnt could do to cm bu own uihonijr or hp luwded UM JOUwsrity o( Coocrtw. A!nttndr Hamllvoa to Juae* McBcnrr. tbe Secretary at War. Majr 17. 17M (qooted in WormuUi. op Lit ) "ConCTM* aiupeaded commercial latercoun* wlUi France In UM Act of June 13. 1TM. au<m*ntrd by (he Act nl February . 1799 (1 SUt Mt. I Slat 1J| It drnouneed Uie Craatr irlth France In tbe Act f July 7. 17M (18ut 7). It created Uie Oepartment of tbe Wary bf the Act of April 77. 17M II Btat U3). fnl n ettabluhnd tbe Marine Owp* bf tbe Act of J-aj II, I7M (1 But A*i>. T2:c^-.>uTr*7 trJUi Frauce 1 dencribed in cot 17, aoorr The Bubarj Et*U. pkrucjlarly Tripoli. bad b*a mara-udiof Amerfcaa ablppto(. in an alXnpt to exact a parnent of tribute from the United Ot*lee When tbe pruolaed tribute *a uot paid, Tripoli declared m-ar oo UKI Ualtetl 8ttei Prnldeut Jtttmcm eent bin* to ibe MedlMrranean. but autborlaeJ tbem only ia defend tbetnariire* and otter Anrrlean ihlp* Tb Wary captured a Tripoli' wn nip, but r*)eaacd It

adtwiexlea" Tboma* Jefferaon. First Annoal December t. 1W>1. Mntapn *** Fcprrr o/ the frti*e*tt <I90 w I. 338. Art of June II. UI3 (1 f <X 1M) . "Act ot April 30. UM (JOB** 731), cootalnlnc the iiumatum to ipaln. tod UM Act or April . <*M 130 at. M4,. dvelartBg tbat a itate- war bal extate'i atnc* AprU M. - *t of May 13. ''- f *at ) . atd ACT or Auifun . ^-. (13 Btat, **). JTcnepn aiU Fcprrt o; tfte Frnde*tit. m>l I. p 3*. In 1CM Oc4ombto uotined Uw Pntte* Statci coat It m-aa tknatefied by Franc*, and aakad fur protection. Tbe Monroe Doctrtn* bad been announced tbe year baton, tout tb* adtalnlenatlon would not coairn.1t ruelf to defend Ootombta Fniliint Monroe wrote to Former Fretldent Mertlanfi thatTbe Executive baa no rlfht to ocnpromlt tbe nation in any queatlon of wr.Liviter of An(uet 3. 1(34. tpuxiA In WorttuUl. of. etf Three day* after Monroe'* letter to Matteon. Secretary of State Adam* f ormall} wrote to tbe Minuter of Colombia to tbe Unit*. Statet. -By tbe Constitution of tbe doited SUtea. the ultimate dedakw of thin queatlon betouft to the Lefialatlte DenartaBcot of (tie Jobo Qulncy Adam. t Jo*e Matla 6aJa*ar.

never n*fleo, IB 1890 tbe Ctntfffn ptmd an act. vblcb b*cime law wltbxit UM ftK'-^mf* *lgatur* authorizing UK J toco* to extract aa Indraimy Jor :be eelzur* oC a.irMrtran ahipn o(T vu*u*la. Act of JOB* IT. IMO i?< n:at. 7i). The indemnity we* aecured by arbitration. Secretary of $+ Lewi* Out wrott tb Brstuh Gowntner.b ...s": "Under the Cannltuuon of tlui United Stale*. UM executive branch or UU* Government 1* not UM war-making power. UM exercle* of that (rut attribute of *ovBTelgnty U vetd In Coagre**. nut UM President hM no authority to order aggnewive borOllUe* to be undertaken. . . . Military expedition* Into tbe Cnlnme territory cannot be undert-n without the authority of UM Rational I*tulatur." Moor*, op ctt, 0l. 7. p. 14. Mrrauilcnt Buchanan told Confrw* tbat: Tb cMCutlv* forrnmiit of tbu country In lu intweoun* with (orclfn aaOoni is United to diplomacy atao*. Wlwtn Ul XkUt it can go no rurttter It cannot ugittmauiy rporl to fore* without authority of CViiiya!. xcrpt in rMUttnc aad rap*Uinf bojute atS. p. 610: M4 -** of D*cambr . KM. ArOof Sacntv '.StAUBunttrwrour "Th* rntKtent k. -ot atithactjtrf to order .or appear* an act of war u a toatttrj with wblct. w arc at prao*. opt In atlf dfna. Tbl* U a paemianty of our form of fO*<n>m*ct. wblch at tlma* may b* incon*aal*iit. but which it MJ*y*d to t>kv prated and will la UM futarc b* found In UM looj run to to Wl* and cawntla) to UM public *Uar " tt'ictt. op. a. iol 7, p. 1(7. In LU Third Annual Mauag*. Pt*n*i>t Tb kuuniptlon by UM praai that I coutcnipi^te uiKrntM>n nn Mexican Soli to proMet AniTlsan lira cr propeny k of count CntultcTu, beuuM I irrloiuly -loulJl wbetlMr X havt aucb autkorUy under aay circuoicuncm, and V. I had I woald not excfciaf it wiiliout eiprwc con(r*jMioo) apv>roJ " Oe*|>iu pre^dentUI proUrtaUoo, to th* OMitfary. a diluted kut eusllar rceofnliteii of th* end for ConyeerWrmit approval of United ho*uUUe* lay behind the requeet* for tbe rormoia UeeoluUM of IBM. the Middle bet Reeoluuun of 1M7. ana UM Gulf of Tonkin R*r>;uiloe tt 10*4. See centrally. Re-ietey. TnatdenUa: WaronjAitutloual Pnro(atJ*e or D*urp*tk.DV" it V* -t. * 124>. iUT-U (1*4*). Ptediieut Wllaun cent American troop* Into Vtn. Cnu lo 1514 uo bl* own auUxwity. but h* had aikcd Coocree* for an eciabUOf act tr.t d*y before tr<* troop* w*re u**d. and tbe lay after UM landtag Concree* ratlfled ate

oj Ufcru a. in* ( sut. au>. Tore* **

. I.i :*. la it* con* T a dbpute over r^c bouadar; o.' Mala*. Caagree* authorized UK 'ic o-: rare* kgal'ist Imlutf in th* Act

See. -Congre**. TtM President and the Power to Commit Poree* to Combat." In ra Vttntm War end /murnetwmel L*. v 2 <elk ed IMV at dig. CM-IT Thla article originally appeared a* a Vote, in UM Harvard Law Bevfew. 11 U*rv. L. Kev 1771 UM|. Much of th* content and many of the axgumeatt in thla memortfUHrm bave. been drawn from thla Kot*. Barvtnafter It will be cited ** the "Barr. Kote" with peg* d(*tton* to the PUk collection. "See. MOOT. The National berutive and the Oat or Armed raro* Abroad," In Palk. aupra (n. U) at MO. n. Thi* we* originally an *<Vtr*ee given by Profeaior Iloore at the Kava> War CoUeg* on Oct. II. IMg (Senlnaftar cited a* "Moore Addre**" with page citation* to the PUk collection).; end eea Barv. Kote at dl? U.S. Department of State. "The Legality of United Sttu* Purttdpatlon In tbe Defente of Vlet-Kam." M Department, of State Bulletin 474 <UM). reprinted tn "BympoaUjn Legality of United State*. Pamdptto in the Viet Kam Conflict.- It Tale 1~. 10*1 (ItM). IKerrmarur eUed a* 0tate Department Memo.) A* precedent (or Vietnam, however, the majority of the nineteenth century naw of force do not aurrlv* do* eeniUny. Moet *er* minor undertaking*, deelgned b protect Amerkac cttiaaa* or property, or to renege a alight to -""r1 honor, and moat Involved no eombat. or even It* likelihood, with force* of another *tei To u*e fore* abroad on a aotaMe eoale, the PrekJem would of nafee etty have bad to requ*r rnngreai to i the atandlac army and nary. * 0e (eoaraUy. Bar*. Kot*. Be* gnmUf Mar. Kote at H. 1. la the mnt of an armed attack on the territory of UM Doited Mate* proper, there la little qoeeuon that tbe executive pooeeee* the power to rcepooo with an me*m at hi* dleyrted. rnngreartnnet approval of rach aettoB would probably be imoMOIate. When, oo the other hand, an attack la made on American pertdtu or property abroad then tbe nepoem abould centrally h<i prt<oorUco*J to the attack. Tbe recent 'TueMo Incident- 1* utrtkinf example of the fact that not every ue of force acainat tbe United Slate* to an aot which ptace* the eoontry at war and that a variety of factor* abould enter Into thf development of an appropriate r**ponat Boon of an attack which threaten* tlte life of the country, therefor*, K emme that the Prealdenf* power under UM (Udden attack theory U fairly limited. There le aia tire danger of provocation, either planned or afrtdntl. The mere pretence of AmerUian force* near a boetlli nation may provoke a ">ud4ui attack." Comlder, for InnfcfKK. UM C-3 Incident la 1MO, the vartUUM XtV-47 Incident*, then the TueWo Inddeot." If tbe reeponee to aucta an Muck I* not limited, (ben tbe country may become involved In a much larger aoofllct with littie or tto exeevtlve-legUlatlM oollaboratwn.

evder. enpra. m., at 1JM.

"8*p (rnmllj. KMT Hole r 1*7. irprn /n. 94) i iM. t_ nq; and Velrel. Tlv "War la Viet Men. DncoturtjtuUonml. Jd*ueta>>) Vfd Jart*JlcUonHy Attackable.- 1C Ku. L Her. 44* (MM;. (CM&i: ProC. VelveTa article to highly oueatded I Modem amaloffe* cf the "neutrality theory" were tb* landing cf troop* ta the Dominican Republic In 104A and tbe Moot dtepatcb of Amercan naval e***K to the around Raltt and Tttmdad. TIM rml problem with th* theory ta rematntTay, aeutnl. rXBtevpoxttton" mty eacUy had t* lottmaOoo.- aad th*
.

Prwjldmt Booarvatt -iBoopapllilM* an actual ~mtervntt;i:' In Panama to M by "t.tarpo*in(~ American troop* then under ui **rutlw order ocUodbly to protect American pnfiertv and cttlxea*. bat e'umllf to *uppott * {rtcndSr jiniiiiiit. Hoei*r. *jnertn ettimn* who KM or o*n proptrry. >teMtf protablr boat* t ftkl* to xpKt MOM d(twi C ld QOOB thitr (orernmMt la Uia* of conflict. Sot If UM Pmulait IKU a unfrtMtd debt to nploy DM tracdeu atfluarj uywtwer t nruf to po>trt AaMrfeui proptny, our *>* >*ft withottt. ju ippanuBl^ * wrt lu lwt- And. in uny CM. tta* of dcptoynxM raf U v*Mtv UULO ttw cuki ol rMUatat BM yen*n>lly. StoM D^utoMDt Kcao; AlfoKI. Tb LHPCKf of AnMrtou MlUUrf XnroS*M0t tn Vl*t Item: A Brodr Mrfwctl**." Tata LJ. 1100 (;*M>: brv Hot* t (W7 t wq^ cf.. Mcmanadum of rvym* CcmmltM* on Aa>rlo>n FoUcy toward Vl*t Mu. fj Conf.Itec 3U3-M (Jtllr do W> , 1W). AloMt *nT ntttootl in tb* world b* tcmn clumiUd M frloMtlr. bocUU. or n*utnl. tod oonflleu wnleb waned minor fifty or hundred n now utlfo <i*d d*n Uwf und to upMt to* prceartou* world order and tmluie* of power OonMqiwatlf, Uw ld of AnwriOMi Meurity tuu erpanded gmtUj *o Uuu mn wnMd conflict in a Ur pwt of tb* world BUJT ppnr to tit threw. to U> Mcurltf of to* United flute* Iteetr. UnlUteral rmtdeoUel employpoetrt of mud foroe* ibroed. under tne oollectlre Meuntf theory b^. tnmfura, been juvtliUd oa mucb Uw name (round* * uUlMenl executive eUuo uitder tfa roddcfl ktteck tneorf. Tbe pUjr*lcI terrlurr of tbe United 6Ute* nujr be In no Lumedute. or ereo dlcunt, dancer. Tbei* mr be Ao Immertltte threw to American force*, ciuarae. or property, but a conflict ma; lemn to cndanfcr UM worldwide ec-urttr ymm of tne United State* Tbe aiguBVebt for freddeotial acttob uoder the oollectlvr aecurltjr Uvorr I* tnat tbe execut(t-e tniut have tb power to reapoud quickly n4 forcefully to attack* wulob are conaMercd Important, for a variety <* r*eon(. to the oialotenanoi at tbe btlanre Of power

Th ez*cx>tt*e acuon tn Indochlnk ha ben pmnlaMI Urgely on tb* collecmr aecurltr tb*orf. Th* Indocblnete War and other norm American military tcMonx Mne to lt>dlR*.tc that the neutrality th-ory le no kmar vlbU Jn a world which I* divided into rtJMUj., hoetlle. and neutral cooatrlee. moc. uroed oonfllct* will probably aOeet tM xiOln( order It I* d-Jlcult. If not- teiDOMtkle therefore, for Amrricui InMrvmtlon In >ucfa coanicu to nmair wboHy'nentral . , , . Th* notion that the United Stwe* po**e* > cxUaurrltorUt atcurltj Intnreet* 1* not Bore' Tht Monroe.Dorinnc of 1*33 U a clear tTfUjple. Bat ttu .proliferation of bilateral and muttflatentl *eeurttjr a(iement* alftce tke end cf World War n ha* widened American Mcurttjr Interest* to Include molt of the 3r(d. AcccpUnf tbe general pretnla* of tbe colK ctlv* necurity theory, tbe quettlon to: wha determine* when tbe eecuricy Intereat of the United ftta^i I* threate.-Md. the PnMdent or Coojr*-*? And who determine* what reapanM ta 'a be taken to protect that Inrrertl 'See feneralljr. Stale Department Memo. ' fine Ten and note*, aupra. "If tbe balance fea* (timed loo far'In favnr of the executive, then Oopgraai mu*t hare the Mam* for It* failure to act In tbe pat la there any real concern or I* It coepteMe for -me FieaKent to bo** prUMr/ cMoooatbUlty for the us* of American force* abroad* There le certainly a trooz arromant la faeor A pvlnf ** executive tbe abOttr to nepond with epeed and fore* to ertae* whleb oonetitute a Areef threat to the atcurltr of th*. United Statee- rSae Barr. Mote at MO.) But. there are equally rtrooj;, U not *troo(*r, artnmenu in" favor of Increeaed cocupwi Monai control o*cr executlT* action* which may Involve the United ft-ate* in lenfthy eonOlct* that are ooctly b- no Ji taru* of live* "flee generally, Moore Irl<ra*. " Velve,. eupra (n. 411 at 467.- The full text of the SEATO Treaty may be found tn VJS. TraaUel 81; TIAM.. No. 1170; aoo UIT. Treatf Serle* ; and IWk. upra (n U) at 161 and **q The alfnotorie* were- Aunralla. Frarvce, New Zealand. PaklMea. PhlUppinee^Thatlaad, tb* United Klrdoxa, and tn* Onlted M*>te*. The Protocol to th* SKATO Treaty prortde* in pertinent part t bat: Th* partle* to tbe outbceet Ada Collective Defence Treaty unantmmiily tmlfnttt lot tbe purpoM* of Article tv of th* Tn*ty the ctatee of Cambodia and tan* and th* fiw* territory under tbe jurledlctlon of the (tate of Vlotoam " 0fl Treatle* 9i, TJJt*. No 1119; .* UJT. Treaty Kerte. J. ralk. jrupra (o. t at M4 tao* wa* removed from the "protocol area" by toe Oonera Accord* of 1963. tut. Protocol to tbe DKlamtlon on th* Neutrality of tao*,

67
V J Ai. M'O; ra.it. m^rs (no. i) at Ml. -~ Artiri* !V |ee to UM.ore of- the eolkcave "I. Hscri party recofnlaie that ty mewl* of armed attack m the treaty area against any of UM parti** or against r state or ttrrliory which UM paruen toy unanimous afcretment may henafur deslgnste. woulA endanger Ite own peso* and aafety. and a<rec* that it win In that event act to totri. UM roTAHK^i dangar tn ecooroano* with lu <xmii uuoQMl prooeses*. Te>snres taken uadcr~tbU paragnph than a* Immediately report*! V> the Sacuruy Council of. the UtJUrfl Nsilon*. ~ "2. If. la ibe opinion of any of UM parties. the Ini-loUbtllty or UM Integrity * *h terrtMry.or the wvemgnty or political ladepcodenee of any party in UM treaty aiea or of aBfoiberjitaia or Urrltory to whK&^he provkwnv of paragraph I of tin* article from Unw to Um apply to threatened In any way other chaa by armed attack or U affccMd or tlucttcaad t>y any fact or r.twuioa whlfJi mstfil ntf-x^er tb pac of UM ana. t*i PartiM *titJl consult Imnudlau'.y In onter to ap-M on tne m*a*ur*)i wijtch inould tw takrn for th coinmca dcfaoa*. "3 It u understood that no action oa UM territory of any tat -doalfHaUd by unanl> uv>uf nftnciamt under pu-afrapb 1 of this vrtlclo on any Urrltory to amcnattd aball b* uikWi xpt at tne tnTttattos or -wttb tU ooiucat of UM fovaramatii conoanMd." "So* caatally. ralk. "International taw ana tb< Oalud atatw BoU In UM Vut Mam War.- 7 TaU LJ. (1MM): Palk. 7nMma> tlMtat Law and Uu Dolud StatorBol* in Vwt Kam: A lUaponn to Profavor Moor*." 7(1 Yal* L J. 10M (1007) ; but d. laoora, "Invnu'4ooal Lav and UM Unit** Stata* BoU v;nnam: A Boply." 7 TaU LJ. IM1 *Art. TV, II U 6CATO Tramty. fupra (a.
V

D.Art.3. I 3,d.3. Id. Art 3.11. However, tbe uvaty It rendered of no effect if It conflict* with subsequent legislation, slijce tne lawmaklng power of jOon* 4^<we Is equally a* potent a* the treaty power. "A treaty may auperfede a prior act of Oongrtcu. ar ! an aot of Congress may supersede * prior treeAy TTU Cherokee Tooeeoo, t VJf. Ml Wsll.) t. 3I (1*70); acoord. rifftm CotCo..Ml VJS 1M. 10 (10M); v. fnUctf ((<>, Ml VM. 41, tt (18*1). Ber Barr. Hoi* at Ml-4f Tbe possibility of giving the war power to UM Senate alone was epedttoatly considered and rejected by the Pramer*. >*, oo the debate In the OoxwUtu SuuthMet Aeta Beeolutloa. Auj. 10. 1M4, Public Law (a-MC ^mj. Be*. 1146;; 7f Mat. 3#<. Tb- BeMltUlon 1* aleo np,lMed la falk, . opinion of Obiei JiMdc* Maraball . leemM, TJJJ. (1 Or.) \, d, a* tonur >e*retary ejf D-

fenw UeNamara ha* amid. There hm* not bn a normal declaration of waranywnera'. In the world no* World War H." Addrie* to Amertfian Society f Mewapaper Bdlton, May II. IW. *n Tor* Ttwut, May 1*. 1M. p. C-ll. oo*. l ^I.T edn4 at oo J. -See (eoenlly. Moore Arf~: AVortf. eupra, {. O); Moor* and -Mk ttdea. *op(nr4]. . Whether UM Tonkin BeaotuUon to aafflcni axthorltx.for ibe CaabodJan tnractoo and UM air action In Lao* na* not been oonJ*>rd by the lafal oowiTnenteton thu* far. but. the lanfuafe of the BeaolBtton. la *o broad that It oould. rfuably. aathorue almort any American action In UM WeeCern Padflc area. See. remark* of.8enaton Ptlndcbt -and Cooper durlnc defeat* on MM Xeaolutlon. 11 Cone. *. lUH-4m <UM). One ooeMMnfa tor. bj0wvar, dtie* that Cootreu bad ewfnoteot Information to lorm a reaaonable opinion about th poaelble onnaegnencee of the Beeolntlon. and that 11 wa* perhap* an nnfortnnatertout not unoonatttutlooal actiBon of reeponelWllty. See. afoon AiUreM at 3L. and aee (enerally. afoore and TJnderwood, "Tb Lawf olneaf of. ' Onlted Otate* AaUtano* to the Bepuhllc of Viet Mam." Ill Oonr *ee, MM. 14MO-C7, IMtU-M (dally dn, July 14, 1M I . "H 1* at.leaat ^ueetlonable whether a resolution pa**ad in reeponee'to a relatively minor at tact on American warship* was nfflclent aolhoriaUon tor a war whlob na* wuHed li more American eaauattlat than aajr war exaept the Civil War and WorJl Wan I and fr. . it ha* aleft been arfued that Cuaffmf has given lu ImpUeel approral to UM Indochina** War becaom It ha* rrimil mffiury aathorHMIon Mil* for (Le .area. The arfttment beeed on enactment at military approprtajtlon* la*;Ulatlon 1* iperton*. Tne authorisation of xpcndltura* tut the support of the Midlers In (touthcaet A*la War neoearttated by tn* exectulve fait aooo*oe>ll In dispatching force* tber*. And. '1 the rramer* had thought that the money power by itself fr Oon(ress ruttcU.Tt control over the military. JAere wouid nave been no need to (rant Ooncres* the exp'iClt war power. 4ee (enerally. Karv. The power of the pure* wa* the weapon. used by UM English parliament to oombat the exerelas -Of .deapotlc power by CuarU<r and JTame* n. The Pramen of the Conetltutlon-were certainly aware of lt uuiny as a soaraotee of the powers and prlvtlege* of the MflAaiur* : ** The resolutions LOW before Congress, tb<>u(h ftfrylof important political Impict. would affect the eon^lttJUooalltf of *ubequent necutive actl)D.'lf,re*o)uUon we made before the JnitUttvd of hostilities, Presidential conunltment of American toree*or alfniaeant exneaaton of the war would be precluded bo*ue* the resolution would lie a-le*r assertion of the primacy of.Qnngrees U Uie oaUnf of war. ee Y^tnfiMfn glutt *V mp< 00. r, Umv, ,' Vf. m IIMH

'

i.

i-

<ss
Vn> of Secuoa . Tb* porud. M iqulr*d by tb* Act. and acracd to dcly *cuon ID oeommodkM jOoocnex. And rter tb* ARtted, Scrvios Saboomuttt** et

(Jack-on. J . coneuTTtnc) . One* trnat Invoivr-t to combat tb* neotutton would prohibit eipaneCin .at ho*u!ltM*. Such netrtvtlon* ihould be dlrtlntuubrd from U *>-eaUd "feglalatm wto.~ which leeim* to rnnu" or on* of la component* tbe rtfUt to tletemiliie tlM ec'Ttal u*erof tba neirirtion by lutieeqmnt action falilnt; tnort of actual lejialaUon. tuck M dleap' prtwml by commute* action or a reeoluttoo of one or boU boa***. jri"l arguable HIM tbe Inctntfon of apectflc dat*> on. wbtcb theee nctrtetluc* take effect. ic tnmtoo cf the Inherent powcn of the PifxlAmi * Commander, in Chief. Accurdl&c tt>V rtjict enoKrucaon of the OcjwtltuUau. the Prwtdent* inherent power may b* Hmtted to the pawt/r to repel eadden attack* only by irrm<llt<r nid tumpteary action. Tb* expan.tion (4 hi* power-through iwjBttappoeedexcrue may be 4*t*nainaUv of tu oonmtutlimaUty 4M& Oonipcw dot* dot *eC but It any b United bf Coof Mlnnil cttuo. TlM liaporunt qnenlon Ii wtMOMO- the propaied Umltttfon U nMoucbl*. Sine* thm It no -HutloaHfm tbt onmpllwnr* with tbM* nttrlcunof "i not fully fMdblc. tb*ra li no ritni iiy UM wtU of. rnngrxi dMxdd aoc IH fwpcttf tja tbto IMIM. TIM Jithor tbut

-oally d*ai*d.. t opiT>*oo ni|.lojln( drtliuu, tb* FMldeos od. tb* DefiiBM IMpartBuot-foUoiMd M dtreenon* durlcc to* ttm* thac 4*T4 t*mined law. Carper. Tfcc Dcrcue-jlppraprto;no JlldVr (1MO) . . 'Tb rapooM of tb* ConiptroUff Oaaetal to-Ud* crtJto add* nptbar nppcct to tb* poitoon-of Coacnat.'A month after tka PrMidcnt bad wad* U* tbitaC.^ tb* Oomptretlar O*ncnl InforfiMd CtanjtnM that XW tbe fondaiMOtal ba*U that tt H' for CODfnm to >ay bow and onbat oonffi. Uotu poboe BMQlaf (boold be aptnt. tb* poatttoo of tb* OAO. a* tbe af*M -of Oontrte. tettst b. In tbJ aia* and alay, to. oconl faB effect to to* dear patnlrn *t an -n^mr- 'by tbt TaognB* a loaf aa tt leawtn* unebanfed bjr la(Ulatl*a tdttta aa4 . nntmi|ialrad by Judicial interpretation. M." ' ' Tt*T*Ian, b* coDdaded. wbtra & rtoUtton wan found to* would eMceta* bla power a* Comptroller General to dlaaUow- credit* In tbe acancie* tcanaU and bold tb* ofIJCt tb* TftUMBt. ^lUiTl*. Confrttitona Control of 44- ficer* penonally nabl* for tb* cort of tb* mim*tr*rw*. SU-315 <!*); 'Hiuar. ' iHetaS actlTUy. Id. JOboab. |M wa* an vamp)* of tb* oar of tbe :*fl*lau* veto, tt 4, an. aao, M <MT* a* a valid tndtcatton <rf rpMt*MxTtw ineliuioo of > phrM "in llo* wlta ecotlTc Tacponat to an ttneqlroeal rxtncUon, Uw MCpraiMd inwntkm of tb* ^mtdtnt of partlcalarty Unc* tb* ltltlatl** *to 1* open tta* -OuttM **t.- bat*rr tt* mln* M to poe*lbl* attack u a circomrenUon of to* lo-4lin 4*rlo for tbt nvMect. itctncu oooctltuUonally rrqulrad lawmalflm procaaf. 0^. Cunctltudon. Art II. 1 1. nut *t ui frum Ui* fate* of thl prcrtljo. Tb* ~VS. C<vietutJon, Art H. JJ. full tact of U>* oMndnur nwfe: "VA, CoMOOrUoo. Art I. fit. B. "la Ifo* *Uh tb* *xpt*Md lotootkn of E*en If tbe Treddent act* beyond tbe tb* Pt*<ldai( of tb* Onttctf MM**, aoo* at tb* rut** cpproprUM by !hl Act *b*U b* ooocUtutlonal lloUu of nl* poer*; ",Oo&"UKfl to'flauu* tt-> Introduction of AaMrt- (raar ha* not tnmfcy loct 1U io;* oonvfi (toitnd *oa>'j* troop* IIMO Lo* or (ttttttioaal autnoclCjr to make law* oiee* ary and proper to carry out the pow*r>> Act of ScptrmtMT M. I0 (M B*t. Mf ). veated by tke ConctltuUon In <.b* Ootem-" In IMS. for sutaaot. Coognm ^tt>pti~1 aatnt of tb* Catted State*, or any DepartA rtor. f M. to th* JM*BM Approprtatfoa ment of onerr thereof ." Yonnfttovn Tube Co. T. 5ate|r<r. M> TJi. . Act probibltlac u*t ( fund* pVfOprtc'vd (&*rio 'Tor tb dUpaMl or trMfr by-oatf* Whatever the merit* of the arcumenta tract or otbtrwl** of work tbu bM b**a . . . performed by elrJlua ptnooarl of tb* Dt- about the Prttidenf* power to Impound prtmit of O*f*ow nnltji ]iMUfld to tb* fund*, cucb practice* under which the eceeAppropriation* CommHr**'.*) .,.." 8Ut. uUde ea*rci** dlaowtlon wllMn the Umltl 131 (166). A tbreM to OMOW odwUtit- et by Cooncrea* In appropriation* aot* can b* tlonl powem ara** *tMn. Jn ~m*aBft to clearly dletlnpnabed from a more clearly noOoortn. ttM PrMU*bt tUtrd Umt OU WM on*Ututlonal breach by .the exacutt** of unonoctltuUoAil Hid rt*ilnm tn*t "to tb* . rertrlcUon* ou podtlv* aeUon, Bee. ff. ecubt Ui*t tbte Metioo MK* to tre to tb* ruhrr. ''Presidential luproundment of Appr?f>rlA3ott OootmltiUiei of tbe D>n*ti rund*.- t Gto. ?ra*b. L. Bev. 104. 1M nd to* Huw rt AepraxatAUrei MitborUf (IfOB); Oavl*. "Cooctttutlonkl TOmmr to to ru> prurrnt tx*ciittv tctoa. *ueb ecc- qolxe DefeflH jCcpradlture*," f) ftordbaa U Ui vurb* ropwtetf M'lavcJM by tU wcu brftocb of Ux vuvvrnoMat . . . urr > /n tbe.art-d* of /uvUot Bladri detonnliMd oy > oourt of ooaifi*"Tn,^ ConitjtuUon 1* neitbrr ' *Un4 nor ctwo,." 161 Con* lUe t(H(*-0. equivocal about t (ball make law* wWcb IQilt. Xth Ooo<.. >M.flMrton(July U, lS). tbe .Pneldeni- U to ntecute. , . . Tb* CcatttBut deeplM tbl**'{br*ti. .Uttc DrteaM O*- tutlon dot* not *ubject ibl* UrmaWnj power cunpltad la full vtth' te* provi- rf Ooneraa* to pr**MoU*J or eaiutary Miper-

vtatcu or control. . . . HM roooAun of tbte .NaUuUjttuttdUi*lanakUipov*rtota* "ttiVM.tlt.tmUO}. Oocana :on in, bota good and bad ttaMa." Yo*ngtlon,t>K*t A r>b* Co. . Sfttf*r. T* Comnunov or tmm don* ftraiM Ml tSS 679.OT-M (Utt). (Oawee related t*> 4W) OUwr jwndjLl proaottnocmeate' on tb* .__,_,' *^aia* and Aipporf >"t aaprapciattbna ' -^ - ^ _ rTiiiiiii lii> nfinMruad Ttimi Tn jtr* oy,~ '.flection 1. AD ljHliMn aovnt pavnir ^0 ocAtroi *|*r oeattoa of niatary *jnt*d abaO b* v*jt*d ia > OOB^MH Kror. Oo* earty opinion *tat*d tbe area- OnH*d 8tatee .. . ;--.- icert raotlnctly: , fleottoa . Th* Ooncn** ihall -feat* Power - -Tb* po*r of oonffne* to rate aad amp- to toy aaa eollMt 1ta*i. OotiM. fiapoiu; "poet jemltt . . <ta otaar and urititputib)*. nd K*C*M>, ta prorld* for -tb* oa*T>fc lanfuafe wivd la tn* 'otna'titutton i& non.O*f*nocii .-^. ' ;oaklnp u paat of powtr i* to plala,ipiTVd*elai'Viac.4pBnt>*Mnof Ifarquaaad dWaad eompraonatU. a* u Mart no room oonuoitMd on tt* hlfb a***, and Offaaeai (or doubt or oootroramy. aa to wain tb* acainit tba Iv oTMananar njir^a*- control o**r tb* nuutary Con* of * d*eU* War, grant l*n*r of Marqo* aad . tiui ooe-trj nli1*i" . B*j>ri*aU and Btafe* nil** oono*ralitf Cap/ nt Ortoer. U Wl. 4. Ml <1*H). . - ton* oa Lead aatf Water -7 A*j**f court nai tat*d ib* imfli^nn "T ndM ad juppon Arml*. tat no Ap. iuor*acclui'j': propriatloa of Bonvy o -that. Ox ^aball b* *Ta* porpej* of tb* appropiUtlon*^ th* .for a loojtw t*rm than To yar;" ~ - ' ICITM and oaodntona undar waico Mid *p- ~- T provid* and arnlntarn a Karr. oroprlatloiu w*r* mad*, tf a mattr tn. ttM . 1K"n>alM-JBl** for ta* OonmsMnt and bond* of Contrail and B,4 tb* plain and gntt me of tair iand aid naval ftaro**; cipaett duty of tb* aootrtfti* teucb of ttw TV pii>*14*ibreatUng forth tb* Milltta ,.. pr-Mtummt to comply wlOttharanM.' Tto jcorM* for organltln*; annlnt. and <a>-' fftutdtng- w. Dotiflo* Attaffft Co, *0 y. otpliolng th* 1HUO*> ... ftora 0W. Ml (4D. Cat'IMC). attiaiad 1M To mat* an jw wMob ahall b n*ear. Id 4l (BUkCiz.iM0K .; ' *>ry and praov for earrylnf lato E*oaueo U4.CantMlMoa.Art.Lf>, . ' \ b* a^tioa j. n^'^aeutlll wr rttfl to ( roumo.t AMCC no* . JTawiris', Ml '*for 'JitaM*. Juo rtaok&srtW '-* -'ii*1 to -^* * * Wm ^ of arono>. MMVtMJtOMBOl Of FMMdftttUl S>OVr WOUJd Mttan x Tn* Prvjlitaat *bn to Cam-

i j . "^ j ! <

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spUddy * in Chlaf of tb* ArtBT^Bd Mary of B aufeorftr ia fomal r'r'r'r' IxiraMt *?rrl-r? *y ^~a* ** ib* ontj*d BUM*. ad of tb* .*nia of tn* luXTtti* to* tor. Out tb* Oomnj*ndr *gff j^T rSSi^tSf ^^ in CM* elauM^pport. -any rtMtdaDOal j2Tan;allbaw^oW>raod vritb b adotion, laurnal or at^aal, InTolrtng tb* UM ^ aad oaniintof tb* SBaStTLafc*

.1

a>euu.tt>ranaatwq>etAiraUwryaad '^nStrCTBf"?^?^f^f TT'^< fM^ .. nrjj pcccumowt" M. et 64*. ^^ TT .^ . , ."111* oiBcn-aotaJ ooncurriac Optnion ( era*appropnaaoBioai*j iiMttem Jackion '*tat*d tb* propoaltfoa la amcKK x moredrUJl: i>tlnn . Ko OB*y aball b* 'Pr*ddotla> pown ar* not flx*d but tb* TIIUMJ, pot in mmnqnm fltjct.uAtr. d*pmdiac upon tb*ir dlj^uootloa *Kia4t*B* aMd* toy lav ~ r COD Junction vftfc tbow of Coofraai. . , . '-'" Vha tbc TnuMtot UkM *a<un* inoonTtn Da^n on na* W* Povro nr na pUb> ltb UM iipfMJid or implloA wtil *f <X-miauuuiM. OonmnoM Oun^rnx, bit povtr4 at it* )ovt *bb, . . , JVM*B M*dl*o*>'i ot**) Count coa MMtato tauivMi* pr*H<1Tiil -.ui., Mtt lit* < oajirol In >veb a * -WJr br <*!a*Wln|! (b* S;^..Cr^- - -

i^tts&tts&i s^iSuTAn^^iisns 2s^^ !ss?a ya ESsstpfiJasLSsr-.s'

<iiun claim to a powr at oau *o cooctu- JJJ^ ^^t*2!*u^*ptS^fl. Uv and pr*eloj<f* *UMt * eruitniMd with C^TfJ^ J bmlld m*aa b^a^Mi cautlou, tor. vnat 1 at 1 J( U tb qtUJb- zTT * ! ^ ' ** T??-^S_SlL^^ riurn t.!b1tab*fl by our eoorttuOonaJ y- JTT' " MjjpMiaui.
^g^ ' 'v*^^*^. Cxc^ptiofii broader ttiaa tbe** ar* aot tit A All^Cft* M 0> *
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*^AAlA flUMl4 ^ CAM V^Hl *^^***COW ^MAflff ^^^^ ^^^^ * ^^^^^^ ^"y^^*****< _T

tlou b*rVaMUi 1*tiiTi.<f>ta Mf^^Aft.ta wvu 0vyc*w ABuiwvtp M.^H*^BMUBW*

U oouid auibonaw *K AC/ ttm* mjatvy"**?- mm\^ S?^ *F9 T?T^ii^r^^.J!.? .^Si'^ m^ufvj V*|KV^H*^ i*^ ^w*, *>! Ov > A4f*%Bt*M> t* te>V *M*tfM*

70
Tb power will afctwltrtateniltm be cafe, aa at nome u to Jx cbarnd to pi taM <he amall ban their all at (take In uoh dancer. raaKdr pratanded. tram abroad." 1 CM*. well M the Ura* ataia*. It would ba Letter to Jaffaraoo. May IS. 11M. Taoiua JmBUOk: "Ooauldatlnf that atiurular for on* authority to make war. and Copwn aloaa It eoBstitutlonally ln another paa:. Mr. BTrrvXB. The objection* afalnet the with taa po4r of *""f -g o LctttUtor* 1M la ftea* decree afainct tha our vondinon trom paaee to war. I ha* aeoete. Br war for .vafUnc the-power in the thoufbt tt my doty to await tbalr autborlty FrevldeTtt. wfco will b*f all the requlatta for ualnc tore* In any dcraa which eould ba quallUecrvM win not make ar but whan avoided."Meaaaf* to Confnem. ~TT- t. 1MM. . .theKatlonwlM rapport tt. C Joaur aUaawux: rTha whole power* at war Mr tfwauw and M*. OawJT mored to In' ert "declare." etrtklnc oat -ma*- war beta*, by tot Coaatttntkm. *eatatf im Oolatrine to tb fiBKirttve tlM power to repel (nam, to* act* of that body aloaa aa ba *aauddcu attack*. ~ -;- ortad to aa our culdaa la tab) iBajutry.'* Mr. Sauaatair thought tt Wood OT wall. Opinion in DU 4aMlta. HOI. JoaOoa Oucun. P. f^-nir- "OoDcnai la emThe Enqutrtt ahould be aM* to repeal and not to eramerae war. -Mate- battar than pawatad to daclara a ganaral war.w Ootttraai etoclar*" tba latter narrovlaf tb* powar too nay wage a United war ttmltad t> atee*. la object, la tlma. U a cwoaral war at demuch. Mr. Ocaar nanr rp*rt1 to baar IB a ra- dared. Ita extent aad nperartoaw. tat only jruW'c a mouoo to-empower xt EucottT* reetrtcted and regulated by the flu Mat, : famine pan of (toe law of natloni; bwt lone to dadara war. llr. tmiwoerm. Tbar* t a notarial dlfltr- U a partial war U waged. Ma eateot and op<u>ce tHitwacn tba ca*a of BUklot <MT aad in*kinc_pe*ce. It bonM be more a*jr to jet OptnlOD In Bfi p. Ttefey, IBM. IXono. Wara; In the flnt'plaor. T out, of war Uian Into tt War alao tt a Upl and ovart dadanttoB. paac* ttani wtta cave to jay that :oe war ralna<r-yower Ut lotrtcata atxt taerat aacoUattooi. - tola doranunent -reata anttrelf with Oonr. Uuo -* cfhtoat (tTlng tb* powar freaa; and that tbe Pmtaant can aathartat of war to -tba Kuoutln. bacaoa* not aaf al j beHlfereat aparatloiu only la the ceaaa ax> to t truitatf" wttb tt; or to'tha.0aoat. ba- preaaly prortded lor by the OooatH MOD and, -eauae -not so eooatraotcd aa to ba anttUad The laws.'By theac no power la (Ivan to the to-it H wa for "t^fnc rataar tban ftelll- Kwutle .to oppbea .an attack by one " t*U< war: but (or facilitating paaoa. Ba independent nation go the poaaeeaton* of anotber..We art bound to rafard^bpth Praaea ' prnwrcd "OectM*" to "coaka." On Uw motion to Inaart declareIn place and Hawaii aa IndapendeBt atatee, and to m*Jff, tt wai apwJd to. equaUy Independent, and though the awnHA no. aral poUcjr of the Oo*emuat Blent lead K to take part wltb either In a uoanuierej Oc.abaant Cunt, no (On tba remark by Mr. Klnf tbat wffa the other, aim. If thia tnterferanoe be J's-jlc" war mlnt ba understood to "OOB- an act of hoa4U force. It u not wttfiln the diict" 1C. wnleti waa an Bneutlva function. eontututlooal poww of tb TreodaBt: aad Uf- ElUwonb i up bJa objaetlou. and the dull lea* to It within the power pf any aubo<* of Connecticut-waa -ehanfwa to/.> iirdinatxl aejeot of ep^emosant, dvti or miliPa ay . tary "BKtemetit je7tV< Secretary or Btat*.Del f \UH. .. - lota Bvaiaiar. "The ececutlra fowrnUd ar - "~~ ment of thi* country -In It* Intercourat with - Va ajr ^ forrtfn nation* 1* limited VP the employ' NC. ar total of-dlplocaacy alone When thle fall* U - . ar Oeo. r. " - .can proceed no furtbe- If canno* laflbM/ rHnkncyf^ntotion to nrilu out tba mate-iy reaen to rare* w^hout the direct aubole clauie. ningrwifl to amoout call 01 toarJlf of fnatnu. exewpt In ntirU^g and repelUnf boetlle attack!. 1C would have-no authomy to enter the terrnorUb of Mloa.OOMMJCI'Tt. OK T7t tlfO rm to prermt the deatructlon -of UM tut f**uu>on IK JtaJT*r uandt and to jirotact the Una and property of our own citlan* on their paaajfa! It JUIM ftUbiaON "Tbamca(*iuu>t-cf -Air. U true that oo a nidden Miariwcy o( thli fjta r*lUcmc appear* to br -lha mtiat .MU> ebaracter ttw fn*Utat would ellraei aoy n^Ubl* or atom* of til toe trura cooualUad arnted fwo in the vicinity to march So V t. (uvenuoeot, baeaua* tlwy can be oon- their -niltf. hut In dofc< thl< he WOKU act ~ -<niilff) dlc]Qaad In ruth paru aiul at cuch ujxxi.Ji owv rripnnittitilrj" M~am to ^ t-rj* M U1 beat eult particular *li. Concnen.-Xleoember0.lilM.... an! bnai>#itj< body of toe people are Ie*> awuwAK bococjtf "te* nv 6m atat* .-ev&M* nf judflnc. and arc more una>r wb*t I itrderfana-tc'he yuur ocalUoo, It U> Lcfinm jjf at*]ud!oea, oo tbat i( r.)t if it rhaU- Le^omc o^jaaary *> repal of ttwlr aCaln, loan U- u>y aOu>r. lur/uioa, ae rrauaeat mtf. without vtoUlki of (be 0cuutit,i>jM oratf tb* Uo *JXI

--.'-1

invite u, tenttorjr of another country. ma . u I -understand it. by tb* o)toriat m whallier ' icn necessity cxuu In anjr 'giTen, cif (he President 1* the vole Judge . . . and. lmpO7crlabin( tbcir peopto ic w-i. pre. . . AUate Ow PtKKteai to InrMie *lfb- tcnrttnir eenrU]r. U not Ir. :rt*t the boring i-i'Joa wtieuever be tbal! <M*m It food of toe people WM Uie object. TEA* out nrots*irr to repel *a kaviuIOD. n3 you kl- eonvez.Uon undentod to be to* mc<l oppntlow Lien to do 10 wtieotTcr be xsvtj CAOOM Sw o7 all kingly - opprtttlont. kad tby nto UT be at*na tt aeecMur lor ui pur- tolved to ia mta tne Contututlon that -oo paw. end you IMw him to nuke r t ti* o* man *tiould bold the power p>uure Study to tf. i; you cut fti. x>jr oppression upas us. But your itow Knitt. co til. povcr ia Uu r*<p*et, tfur b*T- tne wbole nuiiur. and place* our pretatent iog f.vtu hire a much potng * you pro- vhere klnji bave *!>/ stood."t*ttr to Herndon wblle in Coz>greM. Th provUioa ol lh* Cm^ttlutton firing ire wu-maklcc pown to

-72
Memorandum on tbc Ameudmeut To End The TV'ar" irop>rd by students of MK? Harvard L*w School under tl* dJrtvtVoo of-members of tlie Harvard I*w Revlt-w. Ina'rted In tbi- RECORD by Senator Cranston on May 19. 1#70. Faculty Advisers: Abrtrn Chaj-es. Pritfessor (^ Lav. Han-ard Law Sofaool. former K>cal adrtser to DKpsttmont of Stale: Frank Michrfman. I'rofe^or of LAW. Harvard Law School.

(Faculty Adrleer*: Alma Chayes. Professor of Law; Frank m-T.'-- Fiulsawjt of IAW. (Oeaenl Editors: Jerry fV'~". Joel Klein. (Contributor: "tulip Bakes. Jr., Bobcrt TJenham. Ed Glaser, Booert -Oordon, ftob~~ Hager. William Koiaaky. Frank Kramer. In' Lnpu. Jsxoet MeOlbboe. Mark Ifoakowttt. William Plcf Michael flrxlman.) the doctrine <tf the separation or powers wu adopted by the eonvcaUen of 1787. not to promote efleiencr but TO preclude the exercise of arbitrary power. The purpose was, DOC to avoid friction. but. by means of ctM Inevitable friction incident to the. distribution of the (overnmentai powers among three departments. to save lh people from autocracy." Jriw . fieited states, 313 TJJS 363. a <1W) (Brandels, J- dissenting). concrete can alone nlM armies; and may put them down, whenever they ehooee." 3 J. Story. Commentaries on the Constitution of tb Uniud 8tu. Mctloa 1187 (4tlid.l87I).

Term than two jrcan." It cannot, then, he contended that la eondlttoninc pprgprlatlOD* upon UM orderly withdrawal of American force* from a foreljn field. Cui'itruei would be acting beyond Tbe noope of Ita poweji un4er the Oonatttoon. The objection, if there !M one. mot rather br that for Confreo by this mean* to deny the Preeldent neonroai required fur the rapport of troop* In the field would be to encroach upon hie prerocattrea under Article H. eecUofl 1. a* "Commander In Chief of the Army and Mary of the United State*." The Contttatlon eeema to endow both branchee with aome relevant competence and mpoinbuity: the queebon la whether taflaUOv. appropriation! powen may prevail over executive powtn of military """">* when the pollde* of the two branenee are la confflot. It It poeatble to define, a eomewnat crudely. the reapecave apberee of aupfwnacy of Coccreea and the rrealdeocy In "i>mUre" laiini In terme. that la, of the leawa to be decided. The band of division .<pp*an to lif between, on the "con>ieialunal" aide, dedal one a* to whether a war to Justified and desirable mean* of pursidnf *ome Tni* memorandum cumlnf* t)w ooo*Utu- United States objective (or ff bow much tio&&1 bui4 for the AowsdnM&t to End tlM and what sort of war is to be wa>i1 la purW*r. Mot oontiitution*] debkto horctofon suit of what objectives) : and. on the "presitu* tooiMd OB UM FTMldntli *at*jrwy to dential- atd*. dedatons a* to bow those rent*(c AnMrtcaa troop* In noitUltMi *wo*d sources oocnmiued by Gonarsss to warmakvltacut ooofrawlonAl kpprov*).' We do not Inf ou(bt to be -nariaed eo an to achieve odnM tbi* quMtlon. B*thr. w addn the contemplated c>>ca. 13 Ufht of this Uw quuon of ooncraMloiuU pomr. R(>rd- analysis an explicit conaressloual dedalon taw of the Pnndcnf* povcr. Concnu xuy that no interests of the United fltaue jus' urcto* 1U Independent Judfment on UM ooaUntted American milltcrf activities ' . (-M of Amerioa fcrcee ttbroid. Indeed. It fau dnrhlna and that accordingly -we ' ^uld wiUtdraw, oufht to prevail over a contrary a ob]l*>uon to do o. Tbera 1* no doubt tbt ConcreM bM UM eompeteno* and roponstMllty. tlioufb not A pMsnecuvi United to toe doctrlr* of acludTe of pnddenUal oompetencc nd ic- separation c<f powers, however, yields an U.ponilbtltty. to make decWon* recurdini; UM oomplete analysis of presidential and eon> commitment of U.S military force* In for- treeslmil prerocatlve and responsibility. The ftfu bottMUe* By Artie]* I. auction I. Coo- Constitution, while li sought to provide a (nat 1 (lan the power "To declare War." harmonious framework for Interaction, also "To nke Kul for tne OOMnuneot and aimed at a system of checks and balances Beculatlco of UM land and naval Fatotf." amonc the three branches of government. d To prorlde and maintain a Vary " Nor Underlying this doctrine of checks" and bal! there any doubt u. u> tne powr of Coo- ances Is the notion that each branch of the CneK to uae toe Approprtiitloiu prooea to (ovemment has suflcient power to crjck oarry out confrea*!aaI policy on matten the action* of the other branches that It wltnln toe concreuloru) Cbcnpetenoe and deems unwise. Tne Idea I* starkJr simple, mponMlb)]l(.y. Under jirUcle I. MCUon of and is to* purest rendition of the eonsututhe Constitution. Cfnitnu It empowered Uonal text, only the President may deploy "to lay and collect tan-id. . t, pay tne and command the troop*, rtolle only ConDeMi and provide for tt-- coaiir>r<n Ocfruoe crass nay appropriate the wnerewltbal for and fenecal Welfare ->f the Ucltott Ctat< their subsistence, equipage, aod transport. . . .", and H t* provided by Article I. oectkxi What the PreslJent eriooses not to' command, tbat "DO DVXuy (rbll br drawn from IfW Ooncres* cannot well buy: whtl Centres* Treatury lion in-Cw)eequMe of Approprli- cbooees not to buy. the PreaJderrt cannot tlow made by L*w . ." UorJW the link well .Amaia.od. betwoej rriRrwlofial reipma'bUIty Lo OvfCTire interplay of tbeer two contending powKmmllmriKt iOa er* lUuMrate* the wisdom of the framers Tie j-pro^r.ntiJi 1< coscmltment of men and treasure to extend' bj 'ftf provuson Hi A.rcci I "Jic*too *d rdreljm war is ttwr crsveat exaction a f w(i t!;t Ojrwrr thai) nv, prnvn '-.Co rI* eromeot nan make of 1U people. The ooarfftijfl >n^.-;rl ArmlM. bu,' ivj Apj/roprition. allocation of pavers Insures 'Uat if Motirv " lHv lTf IL^.-J: bf lor -wimt both brancft*--**>'uC' and

74
legislative-concur cut cueh an exacUon-be ing ablpc for UM navy. Tbl* attempt uiumaintained. mately failed.* however, and in 16*1 TarUament emphatically reaaaerted lu right to a of control over tbe ralring and Congressional power to enact the Amend- meaaure of armle* by outlawing Ship ment to End UM War must ultimately de- deploying Honey.* Chartea I wa beheaded abortly rive from the power* (ranted tb ;sglalallve tbereafter. branch by UM Constitution. The conflict over Tbe early year* of UM Bectoratlon montbe, xnsxltuUonallty of UM blU art** because be Constitution divides authority archy were rotorlou* for Cbarlea II' aecret wer military affair* between Congras and pact* with foreign power*. Parliament onre the President. Article n. section 2 denomi- again uad tbe moaey power to Invade tbli nates the President ai "Commander in Chief clceed policy-making proccat.' In 1866 Tarof the Am>7 and Navy " Arucle I. section 8, llament revived tbe technique of placing however, grants Congress UM power* to "pro- condlCoo* on It* eranU or revenue by makvide for UM onmrnon Defence." To declare ing a grant or 3MjOOO and peclfylng that Wax." "To raiM and support Armies.- and If the treasurer of the Navy diverted the "To make rules for the Government and grant to anything bat warn* of *eamei> be Regulation of UM land and naval Force* " mould forfeit treble tbe value of the money The pbra>e> on their face establish both a By I67g the technique of Impoelng mcrlcshared and divided power with exclusive Uoni on tbe grant* of revenue wa* aundard PresldenUal control oer troop* In the field. practice. In that year Charlea II eought freeand the larger area* of war policy declslou- dom to maintain or dlkband hli army la makmg falling within UM domain of Gun- Flanders a* he aaw at Parliament Insisted on reU'.nlnc general control over baalc military crew. T< original constitutional undertaking policy It responded with the Supply Act of did not occur lr. an hiitorlcal vacuum, but ]<7 which granted a sum of about C 303aeelnrt tbe backdrop of tbe 17th century 000 and specified that this sum must be apEorli*h druggie* between King and Parlia- plied to disbanding tbe Flanders forces and to ment Thete struggles were in large p*rt over no other purposes The Act even specified tbe power to conduct foreign relation*, moat tbe date Of dlsbandment. a date less than especially the power to tnilntsln and u*e a three monUis from tbe date of the act It standing urmy Detailed knowledge of thl* was. indeed. Parliament's Amendment to End hutory was put of the common Intellectual the War. berltaice of UM framers Tbe Founding Fathers were well awar of At the beginning of the 17th century po- this exercise of parliamentary power over litical men accepted almost without qur>tlon military declsK>nmoklng. Tbey were aluu UM doetrlue .that the conduct of fore/gn af- aware tnat Parliament's role In foreU" affairs. ar>d ubove all the making of peiec and fairs bad deteriorated just prior to the wnr. were myntrrle* of cute, tbe cclu*!ve American Resolution Alexander Hamilton re. business of the crown, By tbe end of -he cen- ported In Federalist No M thst American^ tury -a century of the Stuarts, UV Com- derived their Ideas about the control of the monwealth. the Restoration, and the' lion- military "from the nstlon from wli-_/m ui<out Revo' utlon all this bad changed "v- Inhabitant* of the** states bare In rtwrai llament had assmnsfl an Important role Ja sprunj"" tttn like Hamilton, a ur< nr nuvocate of executive power, and J*rnr* DIK Uw> policy-making prooee*. The devtee ParllanMnt developed for a>- were determined that the American CI-^TC er*4nr lu conuol wae tbe. power to vote would maintain the authority over warm**Ing that Parliament had once acnlneri but revenue Before 13 Parliament had In time of wu then In danger of losing' w>r, granted tbe King *ubldle wtthoui rrThe almnor the Can*tltutloiinl C"'ir."'" " ttricun a> U> buw tliey could be rpcul In In maklne tlit Prrxldent the Con--r,ur.ri-r in tne bubeldy Act of 1624 ' the Common* f"r Chief were two First, the Cunien'rn a/u>e dm time condiuoned tbe grunt The Hired tu conccntrvte in s single cl'.ill.'ii ' ! nM/nry Wk* to be cpeut only for drfrndinx :i>r tactical conl/i>l of armle<. rr.K."O .. tnr.'ixl and IreUr-:. ;.nancin< the Navy, and h^ule But this war. no plenary yr >TH .( aiilliijC the Di.^tj Such retr)c'("iir. wrre not I/jrr to maintain troops In u [)jri,fni.ir yti ripe ftit cucceac. the Lords pr^tr'trd But theater of war once Congress had ilrocjed ' PurJikfoent did wring from King Jamei tl>e d:r^)iKKr" As Hiunllloii ll.tr,,>r<M'-d t i n prfimlM> Ui make nc treaty wl'-non: lu "ad- powrr. H "aniounted Uj nothing n.'-i' U xi, vice mid coAaent " Oiarlea 17 su-fetr/ir to the r.upreuie command aod dlre<-U'>n "[ -,Lr Juries I. tried to waxr war without Far>la- military furoi. ac Cr:4 Oei^-m: *r.4 Antrnt't ttf\p When nutiilntr w^i vutrd fi<r w^r r/ural tit HIT ro'iJnlTHry fin . < '<<' < in IC'Jfi Ite XMRM to f)n4iire lilt pulley place* UM clvtluui President at tbe top of il* through forced loun But f.he Imr^iulhilliy military corumaful. It contain* no grant of <S c. u.io.iloK ibe war withc/ut it pirlu>nt.(- power to define UM purpose* for which tbe ary rrnnl forced bltn to yield V* the Pr'.il.nn President, may exercise hi* command over of U!,:iit (I43t>. which dclarrd Illegal the UM troops <-<>!lecttun of taX*k without f > rlni;itrlilary Second. UM fraoMrs sought to transfer to i <iiiiit Tbe Uue a> again (or.tetixd over Footnote* at cud of article Ship Meaty, a tax on towru In Uru &f build-

UM PieaHiur a check OB an overly aurOal Mgttahoe *a a* *e taoore further egatnet or Brao]pMte ooBunt&BWBt of oar force*. TlMy naMeatMreCaU too B*a the very broad <M^M of i eeyunell.nl I j for warmaklng confemd by the Article* of Confadention . *>atog tor the propo, either the yiwjil.ut or A* iteooM !> (two vlM * veto *bjb**<** action, ataced UMt poo* end < Boat not b IB UM DM*; tf tkte If tro*. ud tbc Lajtoan aoto to alttMr to UM * Th vatbrno MMatlf* aar adnpoattloa of UM amf and nar

face ot their cmnrtnimia. Tbcr ere aoT'at Bbertir to e*t la the encutt** dertruocet permanent fund* far the up|)au ef en army. . . .- A deOaltlt. practical (km on UM tetea000* of UM conMUrttaoal fimnar* to pfcneed by UM earir rl*tWw.lilBi between n Hli.il i iT nnjiim' in

vwofloa dearly tedlcate fimt thing: wa* to be t**B olttmtte control over the waimaktog powai with a variety of mean* *t doKinaw, oonelder whether, by It* menanam to enforce It* view* At a mini- BMeeuiai of eeTea** aJeo. they win i mum the fnmen would hare viewed an force on an equal footing with that of Ito aypropriauoB reetrlcted to u** to dleband- advenarto*. I (inmmiratoet* aM material tatog an army and Bringing It home e* a proper tonaatloa on thto aubject, eaerebu of nniMjaw/hioel power Parliament erctoe of thto Important ft bad eordaed thto much power in U1B and by the Conautatfea to the < the eonedou* deelgn of the Canctttutton we* to give r ingiem more power over foreign a knowledge and eonatderaaon of every draCala and wacmaktog than rarll*mnt had nrmelanB* of weight.-* poaaawed. The OonetlUitJon. read in light of Again. In wjndlig how to reepoad to UM UM aletortcal context and the framerr fear potential apantoh threat hi Florida. Jefferof a military eatahltohment. thu* ettahntbe* eon aaked Confrem to take certato atefe. aethat the Prartd*a could command the tee- knowljdglng that "the oaun* to b* purmaj ttcal operaJon* of an are.* while engaged, will require command of rnejw* which tt feebut that Pringieei bad the power through long* to nnngraai ecclunvety to Ttoad or to approprlattoa* to piorld* an army, to die- deny." band 11. or to ijecogaga It from a particular jeOenon'* tumemon bf*dj*nB. theatet of operaOon*. aad even Jacfcao* all ackBowtodg* The reeding to ooaArmed by the dlacumton Uve rleference to the legw.le<iire oa < of UM raleraut oonrtttvUoaal provleloo* in of troop deployment and aimed b the FMeralut paper* The cotoalvte had eeen Indeed, the nineteenth oantory to general to how wvy U wa* f or a king, with a euadng replete with acknowledgment* of army at hi* dlapoml. to angig* hi* eubJeoU Xontl preemmancc Uaeotav for to fonega conflict*" Tbu* maay objected to wbea he wa. a member < thi* Oonmtul^ei drafted at Phlladelpbl* "The provlatoa of the < beeeuat H tolled to prohibit a Mending the war making power to army * g-i'~- argued thatfuch problJM- dlcUted. a* I iiiidar*t*n< tt. by the MB ** innmeaMfj becauee UM CMUUUI- tog reaeon* Ktog* had alway* been tovolvtloo gave UM MgtotoUtre the power to check tog and ImpoverWhtog their people la wan. the President In hi* capacity Commander- pretending generally, if not alwar*. that the to-Chief through UM control over approprU- good of the people wa* the object. Thto. our Uoa* attendant on the power to r*l*. and Convention understood to be the moat opupport angle* The requirement, unlqu* to preealve of all Kingly nppreealon*; and they the Conetlt-jtioo Uu>t "no Appropriation of reeulred to go tram* the OooeOUrOon that afoney to that O*e atiall be for a Longer Trm no on* men *bou!d hold the power of brlagthan Two Teen" WL* dedgned to Uuur* re- tog oppceeMon upon u* " " view by each new Congree* of jM*io>0ueI V>*9tntr, Coagree* wa* aulefc to protect tt* exercli* of commard orer the armed force* war power* whenever the** wen challenged In tb* red*ll*t Mw M. MunWtn uid After fteridtnt Polk dUpatctMd aa army to "Tb Mguiauir* of Uv CniUd state* will tUtioo to "hot purautt" of an toradug ***be o(*fl*d. by tin* provWon (two-year appro- fc tote*, but wtthout go.m'.*a)uael apiirtetloDl. oo at to*M In vry two yean. font, the Houa* pamed a naolijUoa ataftog w deliberate upon the pro^r-rty of Harping that the war had been "iinniriiiarflyaBd a tfilllury force on foot, to come to BF uneotMKuUooally begun by the rraatfeeoiulion uo toe point, and to declare tt*1r **>' " MUM of '-b matter, by formal uu to ttx Tb* tweutleUi century, particularly dur-

76
um UM ertau. momenta of ihe Cold War. aaw Cumiw*. ba*e on- i incmsUic con^reaalonal acqateecence * to to eurcts*. detailed cor*ro,'aer (he'minOroaj preaMentlal aawjrrlneii of power. The ou* ef .executive;-*..^.- Z >lb-wa,ter mark of thlt tceod came when. Richard R F*nn<>. if, pitta*. Freaidn Truman committed troop* to-Korea ~Tb cnuclxc CD- ear Cor^teMrrrsairf lo without prior or aabeequenx approval by a *ped*xr and -de, >ia* taabloa^la t stock Concnex Thereafter Klaanhower ta 1M it. for dome the. owiy Utfnc *t can do 'te ef(ftrmou.)> and 1*57 (Lebaaoo>LKenaedjr fecutely aaaert IH influence gpeciAe* and la 1M2 (Gibs)** and fntinenn IM (Ton- detail* are UM Indlspeneablr TtnY'tc whle* kiBkl .* all couch* approval of military action Concreearaen me to work tajdoctrra:? toward ' by ein>Tawaenal reaoiutioon. Some member* broader luade of ovcnoght judgment* . . . ef CaBtTem bave hit UM lefkustne, -Die la ConcrcaiionaJ cootrol la ot w not appropriarc ineee CM** waa simply to raboer-atamp exec- la. UM context of UM realm** of legm! Mr* oue acuoo Benitnr Iforae. for emmpie. and executive *rrlr1iTnrr*fc'rt Tht- lefialaur viewed UM Tankka Gntt HeaottrUon a* a ought not to be crlUclxed for oatac; thow> cana blanche for pnetdcntlal dlMatOoa control* watch, are available to RUU ana Bat no one ha argued that ttus sort of wbich bl experience telle him ervoe; UM ' power. frcatnt Influence over raecutlvr i Kven when UMre IB need for rapid rwponae Supreme Coort JueUce Bobert Jackaon. icf^UwCabaxtmiaaUecnalsl.anacaamo- formerly- Attorney General to Franklin dauoD between the PreMdeni and Concrea* Booaevelt. leaniiuau plenary can be reached Co<Hpr.*a' rerponalWtty la -power over afreoprtaUoa*. with pertlcular t evaluate the eoiu *o4 pctorttMa of mill- reference to control of Che armed foroa* He tary brc1 Cjucma. can exercle* 5W wrote:" max MTK ft dedaleamakin( lTfK e/tr - "Conipo* alone control the ralalnf of tor rallla* -*-.uUve eammitmmt'haa been rrenue aad thetr approprlattona and may *ude at wcD a betort Tnrteed aoly then can determine la wfcat manner and by whei C-jOftmt gal poemnn of an U data rele- meana they abaO be spent for mtutary and na\ to the ooanaltmeot invoivec and make a naval procurement . . . While Cooereai caocvaluauon of it To altnr the not deprtfe Ue Prealdcat of the eoccmand ve peadc in military action of the army or navy, only Concrea* ran five I becauee be iemi It awmtial w> UM blot an krmy or a navy to comanad.I aacvncj even after Coogm."oc the I^M (enatal power of Oaiai'eei aver approi oc a tun evalKatlon of UM threat and prtations la reinforced by UM apednc rrfertb* oatt of matttng it, ha* ooncnided rnce to the approprlatloo* power w the Arti, la ( eareud OM PreetdeMa "de- cla I. aecuoa traat of power to Cootm* .Mnrer aijuond nmiutlon. The de- to "raise aad support Armiesr , t rr*'r'"t'T a war M illlTiient f-wn - There are numerous precedent* of carer oaf to aeeara a> war, tt Is nooerheleei within falljr placed Concreauoo*! reatnctlon* ofl cutcreiatoaet power. It Je the Uejalatnra a milirary appropriation* aanctlofirng th* UM nudirt neaa> check afamet unbrhlled of apprcprlatton a* a vehicle for achlcvinf ,' Ba>uiMa MUOb. auhaunuvt policy. In 1906. Pivudeni TbenIori>. the present lecliiatkm atUmpUnc dore Booanelt *cufbt or exarutlve order u to ectaboab. broad umetahtet of V3. with- reatrtet the UM of the Mann* Corp* to ond.i*J <s an appropctate way for Cooarea* to ahore beaee. apparently te an effort to ri,# rnfon* 1U pwlicy rafarduc national prtoo- UM moraie if the Kavy. CotraO dlnacrred tMe and *Jn rvmoval o< Of. military- pree- and aatifht to .force UM retention of the acce- firocn SouiMae* Ada. It I* a mandate Marine Corp*>on board bwttlofhtp* and cnu.t- of nation L wtU wtdcb the President aa Com- an. The House of Bapreaenutlvee* version of (Utnder la AM mast follow Oonfrawjlonal UM Kaval AppropnaUvn* 901 tt loa. M action will not ttxtrp UM Pnaldecf* power: 3*3M. aOth Con. 2nd gee* (IKWl. Included he may still dedds what la tactically the -UM fodowlof prorUC' and meet effective- way to withdraw -frtmttt. fjMt hereafter oaVer* -nd enHh p(rU u( the i iniiar iinT luted men ot the Marine Corpt ttuai wrrr tijiaw, will have -^rfT-^ us as heretofore on board all battiettBe . own paverc**** the war pokxy. bowvver. it >c drucrit^nu of not lev than elgbt p^rrx^lAs jnartlm one* the (fueauon f woop 'jlum tf the w*.nrth of the cniitd awn totmnnmutt formal!/ raised ^f th naty oo tiia veueu " ' Tt pririjo ms wr.i-M'C a* a C. tfnuf/no" rr>wia ;:ii u> c.w penaiiy fr executive i

vldee a parUcululf apt nt*tlT ot-Oc on been tr>T doubt ">K Caiie/aia has t^ power u> Hout evieutl>e actluo Chru<b coctrol of \ii* pwrar The CooOt<rU4C explWltly state* tkat Mr BMioey aftalf Me orwn frutn the Imnvj but in rgtMnqiiente of approprleugo 'm"r law.* sod buUi hrancbe* of

r.:- Mtrt.v Cirp* ppr->jjiini,,n e' '** <Jbt focu*n on te Oi; >'K- '.." and -"jVi-. wxtnniiinK p-m .Sr^''.rs Lod^i*. ('Lnus^ru and Borar. al. < p-^d :i^ pjrucuur co:->4;ti><n: a,->pr3pi t^'-' M9r*r under 3vi*f.K.>;i/>K ; ar tat; the ur>4 mete cr)t.ai touk

maniM eorp*. mak appropnatloiu for Ma pajr. bat proTld* that radb apptoprlaxlua aban not b* available vnlwa ta* martB* oorp* b* coploytd In aom* doltiMUd way. and I tbcr*for* an of tb* opinion tbat tbt pronaloa of tn* itatat* ta wtOeb you dlraet my attcottoa ta constitutional Tb* par^lll br to ta* Anwadaunt to but tb* War It o>nou. Conjrw would br urelalnt t'j, control orar xptaOU.-jnf to nforo* lla policy dedalont a* to wbrr troop* bould and should rwn be without dctalllnc Sam* flcoatora went cootldcrablT farther tLfflr nat by tne Commandjr ta C.it*; whU* In (MOalOf Concrete' power. Senator rufuo 'btrt ^nc>|etf. Coacrcn vould be txtrettinf wad: IT tuttonc aad coaatltattonal nualoa a a |Io dou&c . . . Goner*** ha* tb* power cback on t&* VMOUITCS power to *nf at* to ar ttat oncer abeuld m/t br *pend*d Anwrtcan rorcl la asajor coaflc: Kwoohtr MI Parian: of a parUealar corpi of tbr -vatf j war be r&ctrrtnac w%n tn* fnautaon r it-taould b* U-4ocxJ la particular tactical control o*r O coop* dnrtaf ih* ducafafcnt proccu -Acd a* cmpl* Act ti,nt UM rrtatdaat tt A moo nan/*- example ot Confranonal tfrM^t tMd MK>^ K ny tlMra would nof' effort* U> UM to* approprtaUon* power to prrrl^V Ccofmw) i.oci.f-'tti nrcMaf *- control military poUcy tm proridcd by tb* ot ordfttoc tt ra- *f- 70 Ajtnud bonb*r conflict. Tb* MOUM Arm*d 8*rfloi* CopU3l*-t*^v>atftf to inmir* if llo* btwta tbat tn* t*crrtarr'Df .Darcnat infflTid dUi power. 5ro- ralopment of a *up*nonlc manrxd lumber - ur'Pultoa eontlnmd: ln*t*d ot ntjjtf txcluatwly ou fvdJ taltv -I onoecd* that COOCTM* cannot ateolotelf fi'M Tn* ConmtlM** nnammtm,Oy airf*d control and f<,Ur U> ProMcnt. kut Ikat I* ta* power for Concr*** to n* approprutionc Unplj wtKn ( 3d vbL- )M act* a* rooimamt- nstricuonc to rcqnln afflnoatlr* poUcy d*r IB UM fialtf aAd tMa <jMrf4 of UM *- claion* by tn* et>U<rr < Ccrtal nlrtlx powwr m*pt * miUtKJ facet* and nutun of tbat to reo^Ur* aOmat^i* **cutit* action la ma . tJa**?vr that ptrtala tfistloctl? and p*cu- frtmMT than t* ncfatlv* power lmpU*d ta '*'*rtj to WMtfotiOTof a Commatcn- in Cblcf. an ap0ropr:alJn wnlcb merely rrrent* prior "^ thaw uutttrr b* U tuprnnc bin aftfr al* Pri4*nt4a: action ^ h U robordtnat* la all ea*tf t *uch rsta* A final, and moat relevant, mampl* of Cocand nfUaUob* a* CottfDi** atiall auk* ... (rww' cocdRlonlnf appropraUon* la order to IH|* u at^IUDf DOT* than any oUi*r com- affect military action la tta Defraa* ApJ.-Jmaoilrr In pofbi ot pawn, nernt Uiat b* I* prlauow Act of IftTO.'Tbc Actprorldw. -In Ua* wltb tn* en>mi intocuotf of UM uprwn* oncnnano>r. ... I* Ui propatM atorndnntt anjrtblBC aioi>- than ux- muornt of tb* Oeltctf StaU*. noo* or 1 rpf jUtloc It. u a ncuUUqn of tb* narf {n* funds KppropilcMd by tnl* Act aball a* *n< pA./i*i3o a to la vbat nuranvr tl<* uMd to Sovae tb* Introduction of AmarlKaH3<'"borp abkJI *trrt tB* rui:. vlwn c*n pouiid combat troop* Into Lao* or _ ( .It toairM plaa*ru bow 1004 Thailand." . at if*. -x wDfttxrlt ih Tboa frmpaw) na already u**d lu tpoprutlon* power wu UM *cqoi**o-io* of UJMo _i conditional approprtoCon paued Ft*>td*3t JTUoo. wno >icn*d its* Mil entftbocb hr-i cr CoafttM and va* part of Uw out corKlxrUanal objection, to revtnct pr*bin :r&Mj into law t>y rrrtldent BooMrelr ldnts*: KM -K mlUMry appfoprtaHow in a If u.* ^.a-.t*r bad OM no fartbvr. *c would way th*l (pttM* Conpewloaal policy jeh* oclr &mfim*' aid* of cb> p^ver jcruf jjftUnf tnt conduct or O Allltary intolv*. f I HOMVCS. U>* 3*<!r*tarj o^ Ux lUry took mrai m 0outbc*>;t AaU. UM prori*., i) UM Attonwjr Oracral Otntgf p. ccriex.ci<r far a ruling on 1U coniUtuMraben of Concjr^M fas* it* nlima doty bJd U>* fi! uuooal. of ffcutlatf tiethu' -so alMcatc fanber natiooal ret/urea* to t>M war in SouUr*tc A*i* Ve 4o cat *>fu bra on tn* wr:t*-oc' J.'. it,r^:or'?. In thr di:r.ar( of h; pow- tnat qu*e (bat 1* fur CoQfjaw to drm r.d du'xc r Conucandf >i Ctittl. UM cid* Wt>c we do argu* i tnat Conftmi bM r rn.-lTit <tti\r*r to dlrKt ttM Karirv O>rp* tbe pow^ru>o**d. dutyrxpreMy to \x> prform D7 'unction B!ch ft>!i )nolf mmfe* (bat wadatar. UM Tn CSooeUtoUoa ww *'* U-;'ii '( ririxl to align:* corerjutMawU power. Oner allocated, tbai power remain*. *r*B r/j.i" '.-.r " .-if to,'or r Mwuih irtnc oo-|an*i:; <v>opant. witlie -.p.. Ui* brnncl** orliciaaUy r*ertvla( f, TO* I/ j.i> i, h K Cjjr ^Uc<l puwer a* Commaodrr tn >f n':t fj -r-_r a* ir -. to direct M Am*rie+f, irx^n U an- . tn *r.r. C'JT^> It tai fftrmrr fj crca'-r Ucin* In *fnpJorinc tl>o* '.roo^t- mar ot Ki**.

Coopm* power wa* a very Urnmt our 3t*Mr Bacon uked tbm whetbcr Coacm* <wu;0 ralfe to* President to rotor* tr,-x,jj f^oji in* WstrlcC of Culmab:a after tb> Pnuoeai bad pUcvtf ibera tber*. Senator C-intnlu* and Ifcrtuwr Borah both ekjxric.*dced that Confreu bad tb* coniOtutlcoa1 yeanr to do ao; Msatcr Lodge *l*p. Admitted mat bt* objKfltne wtrt on policy no? on whether Ooncmc heft ttM power to to renrlct ta* va of ap-

78
, not have beta eBceeatve la recent time*; that tlone acta that condition the approprlauoa question > Irrelevant to this etady. What la upon a epadftc nee of the money panted relevADt Ix that nmtnet too. received war- Third. Confreai under the CcotUtuUon maklaf power, the power to determine when abould accord tiie President enough leeway and where the United States win commit lie as Commander to Chief to safeguard the arena* and Its ieaumu to a major conflict, withdrawal of American foreee leeway The Confutation also allocated duties, which the Amendment to End the War The President baa the duty of protecting carefully preserves. But It la for Congress to Amcnratt troops during an engagement. Be decide how nstrletlvely to curate the epmuet therefore be accorded by Coogrees a proprurjons power. certain leeway la controlling tactical dad- finally, it la Incumbent 1900 each mcmaton* effecting the safety or American sol- bet of drmejees to fulfill his oontUtutlooal eOers. The rVeeldtnt. howeter. also has the role by eierclemg the coogrettlnotl power to tfatr of maklnc sore that the laws are faith- determine the military poUey of the United ruQy executed. Be mast therefore accord to Statee. Onngnes the lawmakmg power that Is eon- in the twentieth century strong Presldcn-s msmoaany their* to aerdae. and be mtwt have eserdaad their powers to the fur it. napect any tmn'teeliwiil mandate oa the whu, omigrteett aO too often have qnletly aaofatlon of wittVan resources, acquiesced. That each power has sometimes The ppllcaMlKy of these eoaclnatons and lain dormant does not mean that It ha* been ef the it h and analysis upon whleb abandoned, for to the coastlutlonal scheme they an based, to the vartoue amendment* of thing* rnngTese cannot sba/idon It. The now baton Coagrea* eaa be (ncdnctly put a* power must always rest la Congress to decide toOows. when the ncUoa has had an the war that First. It Is entirely appropriate under the It can afford to endure. - Constitution for Coagress to denae the scope If Confess) does indeed wish to restore the nan objectives of commitment of military historic beltane between Coup ess as arbiter Soree* to combat abroad. It ha* acted accord- of American military policy and the Preslindy la the past two deud'f The ltd* Ito- nt as Cnnmiander la Chkf. It must vow tt-^t Ctsmnltment* Rrxo>auon ssseri* the *eek to Implement Its derisions by use of irnot C' HT *ote- thti no such cammli- the key tool K wee given for this purpose: Unit be made without espttctt con- the power to aOoeete money for natteoal Sccood. CXnijeai may eonetituuoniKy ef(*t lu poiley determination by app.-oprta-

79

coicriox or AXTi-G4>\Ticv>iKicr>niK>TE v
, Senator CoopFJj. T have on* rthtJsmstmn which interests1 mo, >>ry ji. I suppoau it ht vfrv, difficult^ fm- us to inow vrbat .the actual' " weigni.^of, public opinion is .in support of the'vrkriu .South Vietnam, ; 5oif. I note tla* lastywtr Wtieii the Senate was elfif|efl that the "V3el,\' ;ri"hi*e pople votetl against the Government, They i&rtcdL no ^uiti- : *. Government Senate:"?? tbt correct? ' ' -.-""- --""" ivMiutor H&rjKUt.-1 don^t recull what the majority was. Tb'eW'weiv " Menjberc H*eted to that-Seb*le't-Ivich -ha\-e.btiic'r viewpoint*!. C :- ;:" :-' ": -Senator COOJT*. An anti-Gcvsmnwnt slate won, which indicates rouc-y Arrot " In, theycncih8t-ire should i^ll out all our foniCif, and I'mnst say :> 1 tWnk vcha*c-ve,i' ilic. Presicteht says His policy of witbdniwinp forces v. s means that the. rnir^d States wiil p]i oit all forces. 1 tliink there '; is i-aotiier alfern.*tHS even iraft\ rt^niilitury vJevpoxnf^bcfc a^-iitnc we tib putt" cftii all of cur tw^fv* ia'thne-anv diftVrrrnce, would thcre.be~ an;.' rhang* in our public policy i*nd TOrpipri-jQcJity "aboi& jpvjrur i -iisiar.ee to countries, in Asia or elsewhere? Would thereLe.a distioe:-, . -on Ix-tween our poIic'V toward whatevereffort rljevi-wde toward thcii-^ own s-lf detennina'tion. it ikVruaeh abuswd word^tharv thoseVei ' al>out assisting Western European nations to' keep-., fJwir SenatorllAinrxo. Well, Senator Cooper "V Senator C^TOPEH. I sense a difference, I do. Sejator HATFIKU*. Yes, I a^rn-e tliere is a \-ery distinct diference. Senator COVPER. Tliere is an important difference. Senator HATKIKJJ>. I think the basic difference is the tbimz'hat led to this i-onimittee's sponsoring the national commitments resolution in which it K[>ecincally pointed out the fact that if there arc any commitments to which you refer in other parts of the world that they should !* leased upon such, based upon, treaty, statute or concurrent resolution of lx>tli houses of Congress specifically providing for such a coiiiinitiDent. Senator C'OOITJI. Senator Fuibright and I. since the language i ou^ understand it. S-nator HAITIKU>, Tliat is right. Senator COOPKK. Anrl I agree with you so far as any action under taken militarily, but I sense in manv of the statements that have been made that we will, and we have no further great concern in Indochina in our own interest, but this withdrawal of our involvement in Vietnam is quite a different situation from the interests we may have in othi-r countries. Senator H.tinKU>, Senator Cooper, I would not want to imply or leave the iipn-H.-*ion that I believe that we sl.ould get out ana have no further involvement or concern with Indochina, I think President Lyndon Johnxon made it very clear thaf he would offer even great rnassiie economic aid program to both North and South 'ifter this war wa^ ended. I think President N'ixon has iridsiuifcd very clearly

.'tiiis wjntr^s.SefiJTtL-lM hfclp.'n-build this part of -die "world, H i tJntkil}*fci Vre-mttters,thafr.slipuM he rnnstdbrcd irad determined A>r th*^af jCopgrff^faiioBae form x)f legislative process. -. ";&Brtior^oof^l,thirit^/F^ ti is tp get'out^Sjnicklj-^-l^seJWe, but in * way which wilj give 'rwsoat6<^erc6iuifrics,^a*Tc,~tlie'rJN'.thii Asian countries, kncwing.thst vre are getting out, to step 'in and try to make political settlewT^Jit. ia SqutH*.aT. Asia. If we fail to^Jtt political agreement. 1 ,thtrik w^'will hu\-c lost A-carJ; nd years nU tent* of thousu-ds of !>. ;W.TnIlb^>J-tJwe<|<rtqf20.vcats: .. " l"he Citinocvx. Tho Senator from New York, - C Senator J^nrs. Senator Hatfield," I tr a cosponsor of this ,i. ap*l I wi*l lo>Wount-e that immwiiatcly. ' Scn.".f or HTHELO. \V* are rerv pro&d to have tour s^jpjwtf .^ ?*jiAfor Jjivrv^-Svtlien are no fa'jc colots in qiWstioiHitjr yotubut I <!< thliik some jyiints we<i t>lr.^r<u^it-oul. y , \ .' ^ . :^ J thmk : D^ Senator Cociper^ ix>V^ &*&> t*"ar i$ un -iustrurocril xf ^TS*nator..lAvrrj. Kx*f ly, ind tan' fjtfthat we end, tV- war In- "Ret- :>^. "ntinfdoestt^.iiK'antb'ai-wthawA*<i^jiht.'ortal|tfil^y.t*our imrtkrptt- . ~ . . s ;'i5^utheaffaiof Aifia^doe^jL?,-. z > " -," ;; ' v -" >. ;-!ScnJiroF HATTTETJ). Eittcity.^1, ; - . . ? - ' --^-;A-:_ -7,"' >, wriwiTO/We just pwujfcitanothwway. .'". \ , ' " , i KLI>. Exaot'ly. - ' ' . - 1 " ' . " ' , ' . . ' ' ' ' ' ' , . -, .''."' ' i.Bcoaurfe w-t(fin<ithis iKilicyliigldy improper., - . " ^ That is the ^jurpwe of this whota rwoJutKm. "" : :.' i)inrEHEs;ci'jTtf rtacMbtxrt WITHORAWAI^ p>ucr I i i J.vvro.- yoy: the Iwiflic hirtoric ditfctvnce between us and the I'^wideirt is setting tKc <late for withdrawal. Tbt-n- is nothing ls^ >vKfuiidaniciitx] (!mt we ditTef on. The. President M\V. you quote him tm \i>ri\ 1, Vffl. "Our goal is totu! Anwri^an witJidrawa) fpim ViAt:'' tint u our fr'nl. The only ijuettion is rfial! we act a datf or shall IfATnRi4>. I would disagreeSenator Javita." . Senator J.vvns; Plcaac. -v , / Scjiatur H.VTHKIJ/. Tin- ifs<rretfljenf 'nutiM U> Iwstd on a. furtlxcr 'otnmojii or ijuufr that I niad ntti'tbut>d to tluj Prwder.t anj tKst is in rflatinc this whot niatti'r|o'to likHibood fr the fossihihtv of l he Thiuu-Ky rtrfritni- to iiutmtntiii ifsi'lf. In *tl.'i-r words. I am nt the that.' the- I'nwwWt 1a= an jfddifJAiiuljor.nnirK^nr or an addiit I* TIiieti-R\ or t<oi(y>if(* pirn-, caHVrthan ju-t - -. . S-nittir JVvtTfc. V\VII/ir. VJKW of thV farf tJi th Frftjc*<imr >**!t no ifuf* 1 fit a If. ttwi\ auv i*oncHtir>ri.are inip'mpashi<fivtj.in the utlainnwrit of his i/oal.. You _ttCr.re*IJy jirorin^r niv poiijt. In other words, ; to ( jtoal wUhoiit'a /Ifif*i> to w t ILO ff/jj il all. h&'aiiyi' if i'MH h* ''

h*riiaiortiATrtsu.utn.vw!Wttu'y. -

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.'Senator JAVETF. Vice President ffyiells us tta.ti'tf could be 15 to .UO "yean*. Th*i. &Sifi ehconi'tsmd within Presidcnl^XixoTLSgoal. The goal x< totiirwithdowaUMvH it can be Attained in, 15 ta'^rt years. It . ." Senator... HATF:U>. Wefl, Senator 3avTl3. if 1 mighj. inject her*. again- .v would, tnme back to that questtoii as to whether or not the rtx^ido;)! is acting upon ft constitutional basis of commander in chief (>> a^hitsre thai pu)itj>l . goal or whether it is merely " to protect the

rent KEmsr, WITHDRAWAI, DATE


Senator .fAViTsr. In view of the 'fact thy: I am thr author of the war > ill. 1 would like to go into that constitutional question vritli . Hut finrt we havv to nail dowc ^by <lo wti set a datr. and I know that yoti have not ca vilcd about the'. ".Your date was much shorter uittil (x-ople like myself, and others of us -on the Foreign KeJarioiw (V>mmittee joined you. last year and tltcn you accepted a date which yon didn't carr for too much but. nouutheltse, to gHt the maximum sup porty6u want for the Dumber 31 date. ; .You mijrht jro for January 2; Chat isn't the oritjcal point. Th? l jw'tnt w, is it not, that you wanf.to fix, the whole eaeenoe of thi* Senator HsmKUi. That as far as ending the military involvemejit in \rictnam, yen. But H objective is also restoring again a balance between ti^ executive and the legislative. In my opinion, and discussing this (natter with dmtingnislied lawyers and. of course, I am not a lawyer. Therefore. I would be presumptions to come here and pose as a cirsitutiofial expert, but the point has* simply lieen made by very (ii.xtingiiixhcd menders of tlie profession that tf rhc Congress wants to g*- in a chivk nd balance action on thit j>ref nt war, we must enact ty/ip of I#^ri>lariqo- A dJarHtioj nf war powers is already a moot its hts* Vi*f IJAWI id concerned. ily place we have to move is atifft- jmrw rttine which is ;lcarly ' wrthiu the. cniisfif utional it^jKiui-ibjlity and I<OW<T erf the ( '-ongrcss, .So ro/iHeqm^illy. in additio^i^tt* setting a date, it ha.-* as 'Us' objective. tl>? jtfcft of bricging the Coogn^s bark into a responsible mle in this H-lioIf iiiam-r of war. Senator JAVITJI. ( d/>n't think then* is any question a))out what you my i x.-i'jH that I Ix-fieve. UK lawyer, fhaf the power of the ('ngivj fo make ruW for ffie Antwd P'in* of the L'nifed States wuttld al*^ "jcti'nd hi-re. ,iud irn(trd miglif be a mon- Humniary power ev-n than flit {u>i\rr <vf rhe [iftcs* InH-niix*' if would make anv a'-tioii without cont'rvs*'irtiiftl tt{iprovtl to deploy tin- forre^ of the I'niU'd Mate* "nlawfijl. I would Uki- to jo,nf out thcfv have l^*it cwx of Jaw 01, the !xv>k* wJii-r*- wi- navy infiiliJN'd. for x.impw, Uw tiw of drafts* in given |<la'- ,r r.acii- 'rflter ivgulationH re|>e*Jin:th' Arnkfd Korccn. liirt juxt iik* >iiu fwk a ]orkger oat-, I took your coiirw 1^-aiw I think we have to &i thf rnaxifiMini amount of agrnor.icnt on it raj*>rially in the b*!! of n war fxwvr* bill 1 know vv an- vt-ry nMK'li for it and BO 'an1- nu>> W!K; an- with you. a&d I hop* we will altimo/4rly ger. a

But. the next point, so flits date is the- critical factor: is it not! Senator HATTIELD. Yes. it isSenator JAVTTB. The objection m.tde to a date by the President is that it telegraphs our punches to the other side, et cetera. Is it not a fact that the reason you want, the date is precisely because you want to notify the other side we are gt&ing out at a time certain and theivby do two 'things: One, put rhe South Vietnamese on their own where at long last it is they not we who have to negotiate if they exjtect to survive? Senator HATFIIXD. Exactly. Senator JAVITS. And. second, meet a condition which has heen established and which you apparently can't shake with any kind of an action acceptable to us. to wit, once it is clear you are going to get outthfj) other things will happen. Th>e are the two things.
UCPOBTAXCfc OF TEUKKAriUNG ASTOCtrAX F/.OPM:

.Senator H.rmno. Yea, those two things arc into. Let me advert to one other Urea, we ought to telegraph the American people. T think. first. and"f/>r? moifc, it is important to telegraph to the American people our specific .'^Lntefy Ijecause again KB the President stated very elo- quentty\beiore the platform committee of the Republican Convention .in l!)0*>, the .rohnsofWdnijni.stration had failed to take the American people into jta confidence on this whole-issue af. war and,j>eace and. therefore. tltp. pcoplf lost faith in the Johnson udminist ration. I !*li*'Y<t Cuodidate Sixott at that time was rigiii in his call for^Aiidnr. afi I Jjclicvt- he was right uiicn he. licrfliac Pjvudent and agair. referred to the re{Kisih)lity of this gowrtfrnent to. arm llu\ Ameri people with (he troth and give, them tl candid -fa'^si^of rlw war.

Let me comment, if I' rould /urthvr, that- (/-If graphing the enemy about 'j. date Kperifir. is not quite as cliiir ciir u sittiation as it might imply, hncftiw;' first of H. thr liable objective of withdrawal h ly been felegraphed Jo them. Soft in nor as if * are givinguway . very " important trrrt or soim- great .itnUegic advantage tlmt wi. -Sol KrUrk vchcii Aay that- we telegraph to rhc,em>iny a date, it vf.>ntd trltrgrapli thi ineKMigi1. it tcjids to im|>ly ^tneho.v we ar*- giving awat n iniponuut jrarn iri our dMc, and I l-lievi- that irf ) ncrunttorvycul'xik^t the situation. J a^r.-pf flhtf. Srnator. and agrw wjfii you.
>rf

ITir th-r t-hinjf f wmiM Rkr t<i axk yc-j alcr/ut irf tFii highly vexing i|U'S*ion of nationti] hotxu, Tlwn' in ulways wmi implicai'um ihal iho*- vt-|;f,K-ajjt tnk-nvi- Vidiiaiiittn. coniproiDi.tirigthfiia/tfiniti lionor, N'oH-, it thl'i, in yw jijdgjjK'tc. i- war it whHi the nctioral. honor of t.lu- r"n>td 6f ati'-s '<"- inv'ol u<l i j H ay"* sty i M^nnt/ir Jf \*nrjjr. N'n, S>ii&ti;r Javit^. f do uM ^-lii'V it is, F'in;! <rf ull. iinfiitul honor would tiau>. (< Ix- pr^liciitcd ii|x>n HOCK kifi'J

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.iI or-other kiii'l 0 ft t i r j c ^ r w r h i c r i tT*-P were violatingor v c . wVtIf \'f. bi*akirjand when-you tyyjk at w-har, our commitment id in Yietiwnuas* yon so well \avtvt t n\*rfttaHjnf history, tlnf this most w .outdsxywfl^u letter 'rit?nbyPitisicl(ini:,loliitinn1:n.Prcaid'n. Diem in- !bse;ir_ of a treaty ornu iffrwinent or somethinjr tlse. alid on that K>ti>r tho*. rhv emphasis .-ic&iiy statx-d was ryxwi i-Tononric aid-pred* ;rate,d upon reform:rwhiVh never rarne about.i :, : Therefore, i find -we have no :oiitcactuil reti^ooship that we xmild IK-Yirtlatinir to }r>& on^nutioiutl hohor^':.' ^ -- > SLrr-ndly. 1 jhink apnin we, *an Joot to history. When thc^attlp^of I>i^j; lifi-ji Ph |W\dxl and Uy-thc way. at that 'pouit ihe French hud ^ .'. (o 1 kill rti<v irt .tlw-if JTa'vor, for those who.-have that litnd of nifutiility'to jiKlgc.JniHtary profrnims hy kilt ratios.-J-lwttcrf. one can !; ok at tin- iiationai-prert.!^ and Ihe mrierul world prestige of France, :i( riirtl riuH-, and I*j wliftii they l&ft Alj^ria. Instead of losing nafi'wwl honor they enhanced their iwtionnl honor in those cases. In the evvs o.f the world we ha* e- t:onrrvtcj irrcvocaWe evidence that we suffer rinhiy ir; tin- world's pnlilir opinion bermi* ojT otir continued involveiiK'iit in' \"i(naiii..Thfi wnrJdTa opinion is not pro-Unitt >iatcs, it is :(iiti-l'nitd States on tht nne<rtion. AVhcn we get out of Vietnam. rah> tlnui wntiiirte sulferinc in the loss of national prestige nnd imtionnl honor in the ryes of tTn> world we would gain national honor ntnd riarional ])rt-sHge. Alul, IrtstJy. I think at home thnt whifh has-divided and that which . lias rri'ntf<1 so much dissent in thixrountry, if we had this withdraw.-il fn>m Viffnanr onn; again I (libk we roiifd repiin our national honor arid iiatiofixl fiiitli within this country as well as in the world. .ScnHforJAtTiv. Ixn't it :t facf that oneof the tliing-s that is dragging u- down and that makes, for cx.unple. Knrojxr fhink we have ]<rst our Diari'If*" in terms of effectiieiiif>s as a naf iitn is the fact that xve do not '(Tii f< ] jil^.lc f/i >xtricatr oiir.'vlvi-s from tin- fiiiapnin- of Vietnam? Sen:rtr HATFIKIJI. Kxactly. As you lof>k lit it without any nspiralions :it nil Init usinjj the vernacular, when the- greatest nation, the iimst jx/wi-rful nation, in the world is tied down l>y a rinky-dinky oiiiktry liy measureiiifiit nf jKwer Or prefifige, any iiKSisnremenf we rivi- :i.- to [Hjwcrful or prestiyeous nations, this itst'lf givt-> a loss of li'iM'tr n> V"1. wi elfHjuently stated.
IJTtXTs nf Tilf. WAK iV f>. fxiJJKXnf StTl'ATfOX

S-n;i(<ir .f,\\rr.s. In ti-nn>i of tlw: domestic situation isn't the case nimlr l.y t i n - f:n-t t h a t Vietnam i-tiic Iwmc in tlie throat of this country for m-yf hinjr if iloo, frr ils halaniv of payments, for its production. f-<r flu- iiiofiintion of its youth, for the amount it 'pends on defenw:, fpr it-, ;il>ilit-y to rlis|Mi-K' its own influence and forces everywhere in t!if world, i-n'l then- lwai> the IKUU- fif Vietnam in if* throat? Senator HVIKIKIJI. Kxncily. S'liator .favits. you put your finger fin id'- MTV imp'irtHnl national insuc und n<it just an international issue. f M;I-> ntrHmir tiiis morjiiny w i t l i the Huildiiifrmid Trades f'oiincil of tin- On-gdii AFL f'[O. and their gn-at roru-ern and emphasis, of HJI. on jf.Ir, and economic problems they wen- sun*i;ring as rng men of f h i - country.and they were talking almiit various ways (ey l reili-i-iii t|ju( economif sifualion, | f i n u l l v snid t o them that

in my opinion tht * ? ** Oeorpe Meanvfl3$dother leadership of thf AKJ-r-CIO were shooting ~ri*ht on" as ut*stheV*r.9otoiprk. figumtm-ly apeaking. giving full support to ilw war polifjy. they in turn theuwottJ'd hv* to realize some of the implicit lona iuad nunificatioiw ind repercaasioni) Within die economic system due to that wr policjvThey could not hulivotoed. . -. - v WhW-yoo talk today to itmlrnfc* and their diShtchantraent. disillusioiinieot with the svtftem again, the bone of contention i VirfnnL Look at'lhe *cr))ojnoil proUtm tod*^ tlmf lias bec<mie the nttmbrr .^.,. r>u ^ v ... polky. lint we U(j'X dt^V^ntlt the eeoiogicil /prohlen; wffectirely in *hw country: w*aiv wi)y-^oinj to give nodM<L? trtjott aurgery i?do< Uxansepf the ov^r<iiunitojenl in Vietnam. ->f>, w-yofi wy. e\ery isaui.'. medtetne, hi5'T<!^, iood. education, all of tbcs^ slwiwl i'\x^ <i; this country, I think, 4re infentlatwi to; t bis cottntry*s policy m 'Indochina. , v
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Errtvr ov Twt or coMit-vsroot n . JAVITB. Koiy word about th le^al situation which I tried to deal wif.h. I )wve ttirays felt wlicu the fiulf of Tonkin resolution was repealed then lite, question was of origiotl constitutional [tower between the President and the Cojiprtw, that i where we stood. Notr. I would like to a*k you this (ju^ion. Do you feel, and is your case based upon, the fact that there U at least a serious doutit as to whether the^Miwer jf the CominatKU-r ID Cliic f extends to a continuance in \rietnan; bWd ujn cooditions whkii go beyond the security of tltc AtiM-n<.'x t roopd in tlu- condition of withdrawal \ S>utor HAtnrx. entor Javitt>, I n-^ull on the floor of the Senate yt/ur aritunM'Jrt ut. tlte time of the (iulf ; Tonkio rejN>al in which you mif ihwe. |x>intii, and I <vrtain!> i^rueti with you tltcn a I do today on that point. And the very'^.icart, ihc very theais, of my appixwJi today, besidtitlic moral quection. i^tjie. constitutional question. Tin- Pivsidrnt dM- h\v rlir ripht iu ( 'oninuinder in (,'hief to do everything netiiwar}- lo prrjtect thn; troops in an action of withdrawal. Hut miicn In- aildto that irrtflin ^litjc^il inil'li<'ations. Mich a#the support. f the Thicn-Ky n-jriiw until 5' cn,tskt? can- of itsrjf. or oibiT political involvement or other ofTk-miive military actions. I fr"1 h- lu-; tlici) ehcmfad hiri constitutional dutu-n jw Commander in Chief. rovoBWWiovAL AUTHonrrr TO KT ptat/r.rvr .Si!nti- JAVJT*, Ttareforc would it IMS fair to say an, tlie Pn-Mdnnt liab not aimc t*> UA tor a confinutit jun of authority ttiat vt* arc n/>' only art'ot^f in w.v to not ptf fundw. Imt * arc crwreicinfr our rtwwUtu-. riouai nirtlmrity. At )u> won't uk UM fc %. A'H-i'utiwi to i>xpre~ci>njrtvMionn] autlo>Atio;i for hi* <'i)djt;inat mir jiKJ^rrt-nJ :+)iaf we have Ifw fon?tifot4oii| jitfiii to Jurt w i t h ret-jx^-t lit M"tfii>jr a and that m- uiv c UYinV'Mif H and ^rii |j -the din-rtiofi that we <i". Sfnafir If.vrnr.1^, Kxot-tly, und |cf ;w <W ow yj)ii ey it. in ft 'linfabtv('i) t-fdii^ ru Itfil n!Mfit rurtinjL' off finuU ft/"
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*r<' j/MM(f to

thcW*;i*.-<tal. SMiteiicw we are undermining, vet- are pulling tbe /ut frmn nnder the lx>v* already in Vietnam not atthrir o\rn will but Stvauwf rh.ot>dt{3 of their Government. - , . ... I tut K-t UK point our the fact tt*t by settiug" this dU% nnj as you argued with u^hut year when we extended the date, vcegivttbe Prfcsi- ' <tent & muotufbir timr to accommodatr'th* withdrawal program in, oT that a|Mvific titlr. So we would not j>ufi the ragout fi orQ*jVf eri tlw indication of awcli. J rbiufc hu Li. tlic \ kd mmiav'o uidiUt* tlat tlrit is not <>nJy rcurstjtutipnal to joovr au. but it is aim a rreuonpUilr m.ie io irUrion io oiir Senator jJAvm. Tbank
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fOiTWcV IHOKWAI. At AX

My i<MC qu!tioii w thie, I Qk naturally so deeply n^iwtful of tiwr vio of Senator C.'uopvr. He \v UA a*n alferpttivc. Tlut aheris if tKe Presideiit would HJwd birnsolf of \"u4n3iuzxtion. cndkioc. th- HOW condition, am! simply maki- a fiat rommitmpnt of whltdrawal. tbaf that.niigfat be a more thinjT than setttnjr a datt-. Inu't it a fart that that ut jtrt another aitcrtuUni: ( lit Ulirr rlut tht- 1'rwidwit's conditioned withdrawal is hi* WjJution: tiic date concc{t which is haded inwn pos?itiv valets whirh wr claim for it is an altprnmt i v- to that or tlte Pn^idt-nf. S'natwr ( 'ooju't's oiicefrf is in. alternative to bcth. It co!d <vtur<-ivably b- offrrrd us a (\ th Sjt' floor. bit in [i iixriplr, foo. it a<vvpfs thi authority wliioli w<> JISVP ami our rijrhl to jmrtin|>aUt in t!i<? war decision. Senator H.\Tnrxi*. Seumtor .ravitij. I think like many things in tbc Irgistatiu- [>njcf%. jx>Iitici. jri-u*-n<l!}'. a lot dcprnd* U|>on tmiinf. Witii all <(w rtHpcct and rppanl and fniltuSfctinn tfwif I lm\i> f>r Serwtor I would disajrrv*1 that \\ ri-pnat-itf^ a viubFe *Ircriiutiv<> 8t thix _ It wain to ffii that we !>Jtv^"laJ tmt niu'-h of ti irx Vieliii eiuni^iatotl from tht- Whit* H'nut' 'u'0<f>?r two tfoto. i-Vv san'whar ha i*f'urfi M'lw?b f \u>, i . <iiiFi|i hut lU !'nim' ilcicloi*",' uiiikr tfur. J>hftK'r; wfni'mi^cififfir. I thiuk t'>1ay at l>a>4 K ym-n bv ti-rtsiu poli< t.'uit tlif 'fivdibittty nlri'ad> a major f aMor withOiin d(ii;iL!.-rt cat ion 34 it ri'la*^ t> I fhJJik, th^rvfort', f" Wrirfy of Senator wi/u!d 'itiin!y U- an (u/d^rxfn(l*Wi- ulf<T:wtivi- within (his within vn sreu of fH'opIc wlio Iiaw (ui;Mifll ^ifiijffi''f ii lint * an* not 'Ji'slnif with tliaf ^iirl^ in thr ntuation now a* n-laf^s to tb* Wliitr j|i>usf anl ilw [oj>U- in J.hw iusifrx'. A* f*r J thr PounJry ^nTally ip-wnHvnn*]. ami rtn \i<^ of tFw? Whittf H*- rii-.lio; i,{ t'n^iibilii v *x a r^li*<t- /n', wbHluT A- s^ ffr'Hi ii iwl. TlM*fr''lv. WH}II' to hate - ; ''!* \\thi] \ i'ir- oh JartTKt a.sto v*a''liy wbai 'i dniH:il rttiirft \titti jii-4 putting it en jjcjw-n*) r vni.-. st-riaf/.r ,f \\ift>. I ilwroM^rlily ift-i.-jii wJiar ru -IM n'l I tifirik it fhc r.itjoii{f. If i* a ftftf nlwr h'mi-ii-r. tii*f ;( .St'rt'itor

Oh, yes. \ ." : <"->-r .Senator .Urn?. At least cojolntly with Che President" r ^;. Senator IJATfTEU*. Exactly; .-. " ' '*." ' . . " - -. '-]"' Senator Couwnr. TTonld th>. Senator yield then:. I-said liiat I :<Jid not bdieve the President hod nny constitutional power excepttu -with-draw thie troops, and to . ouly that power nca-ssMy to prot^t:tbttii againstinminent danger.Thi**yifw wouldruleout aiHhorily f^r the Cambodian and Laotianexpeditions. .-. ' ' l . - ' v . ' " ' -.' *-\ ' -i . rinrnvo OFF nrxua EXTTPT WTTHOHAWAC AXD PICOTECTIOX or IKOOPS ' " . -. ;.-' W)t I would propose would cut off funds nfept ro provide .for withdrawal of troops aiid to protect theoi againf cmmbt^tit dangerNo oUtf r funds could he used tx*pt for that piirpow. -'. .^ I ntisod thest'. questions with you t)dnyJ*Jiusc;I think it n>ight. better solv*? these questions. We would^lop^thc President^hcn would uppr. H \*A'w.y of complete withdrawal and that IIP would negotiate for a date which could bring about more sui-ely the release of our prisonerHthan jiftSKtiinjr a date and leaving. \*^ ; ; . .ind.Itjtink much tnorv important is an oplwrtunitj- to negotiate for A jtol^JrAt Hfittlemont for all thfe states involved h>- the war in. Soutlveaat Asia. That political aettlement is to me tlie mtvA important object)r<inext to fretting out. Other count rieswhirh now f di)ft"t believiare very^aipiimis to negotiate berauso tley don't know wlirfhcMr wu aiv " ever goin^ to leave or whrthrr wo. wil! have a rea'daal forc% if tl>ey know *c art not poinjr to htn'e a residual force, if -they know the only policy of <h United StateH is to ppt oirt it would tlnuj be *n oppor-\ tiinily Co Mjf^urap^' other countne* to enter to help make a s'ettleo^nL lliese third countries Alight Iw Me. to n*mvne soinelhin/r like the The qi.tinn I raised about n^atbp .Conditions favorable for an international settlement hns nivd o^c-^ions in my wind abcrat your Amendment brtcaone I think it Iftsi\efthat issue KS well as tlm prison"!? cf *ar snd the question of-^ODtinned hoxtilities unsettled ajnxt a* much a* the Yletiiamizatiori Approiwh. Jusl jnovj'tig out on * rwiain dHte.iriii not itwlf r*aiilvf fhow, question;-. Senator JJVITS Mf. ^J.-iinnaru ?f f may jurt any in re&pons^fo wluU -Sentitor. Ift1krtd and Stutator Cooper WK|, I consid^f Hie ][>n/JXM! Sejmlor C.'o>f*r has incu?ioned an alternnfjvc wirhi: -the j>r""" '!^ <ht tliie KcOovvn):Ha*fioId resolution <yt to uw*'rt. T' "" tbink it verj- itnportn.rf that a thinker Jibe S*>nator.C<x/{ i the Mine, concept, alth/m^rh \\K. I;H a different formula for cJea!i;r~ with jt. Tle < 'aA.nA>. Senator Pel). S*'j*(or I*W,T, Thank you, Mr. Chairman. J u[>fitojrixe for <if fdnff with yon throughout the mornirijr. I wa <rJ)nirhi>( an fxliwati/m Sulwurimittee licarinfr, ami I urn prwwtily <lsm'tic!illy managing ^ hill on (lie Floor,

wKi/vmK TO vrmtAKH tx ACPIBCTI: 1 v.anU'l. real I v. to mak*- a Matcmciit (o.wel<:orne the veterans* who re in thin rerun \iffnuw, I tliink. it i< the. veieraim wlio ran do more to hnlp rlmuj(K policy and to Iw-lp uffa-t puMir opinion than any )thi m tlte c/)unf ry. Tli* vrt*rli know what *ar in.

87
J fctioW.'I recall in piy own experience coming, back oit-ji hospital ship in World \Var II that one of the thinps which made rhe irer, to war was twin}? what if dil to thosti-ltocky <MIVS who iiact o;>iv lost limbs. who- had only Iwcn wounded, t.ot to mention thoM- of cr friend:. *'ha<iid nttf conw. fnck. I wns struck, too, at the statistics showing that in the Senate those f us who are rharartfri/ed ss. doves pentrtTtlly have a hijrtier perrtntngp of veterans amomi us titan those who are the hawks. : For hisf.Wv. b-2 pcnyrtf of the S[x>n5&rs of the C'oo[>er-ChHrcli >itiifnittf.'jr;t when ir was nrfed Irwt ifav, 197<\ were veterans, whereas only ',() A-n-ent in the innate n n whole ro veterans. Tin? (KJi)it I ;mi nnkui^ r is that you veterans who lave come, down lien- cvs 'lUp a jrfi-at deal all of us 'who hn lone: opi^^sed the war. This- Kir, ns vou.Vuow, , just as wron^r some yeare apb^s it is today. It \*i$ bvin^f <it>.~tji<; ron^ pn-niiso, ieain'/rnl [irc-fnise>> if you will. rert*/nljk laJ: f^iiuKonal inttrftst. lack- of iTiiiwioiwaess of what our friii- riiterust* tfert 4 fir V yvsirs aj?>, Hut. at that tin>e. ptthlic opiniuu wan very rmich apainst us, and n jrreat delK is owefl to the c.fiainiA -J of (his conmiittir who a-f the hearings wliich j>nxiuced tlie chanirc <f climate iii our country, whit'li made jK-a<'4- no tonpor a dirty word. 1'iitil th:it time, jn-ace was confu.^-il with NYm>ns Nellies, with an iunlvJla'Mtiuich aiul a r*riety^f things. Senator Fiilhri^lit sliowr-d that J>efj>pU' n-ally lMlieved in jH\tce, that it was not a dftty word, hut a jrnod word, anij prohi<sfJ tin- c]imiitff Imf prodiiivd i'ivdh]i>nt>IfthM.s0fi*snlMJifaiiiin. . Tiicn-, is no partisan \<ui in thit statement Waiisc most of iis at (hut tu6- ftpre of th SUJJK> party as our I'nwl^it. So I tiiJJik that the U't-ran.s ran do mon- to carry our nn-ssa^i- fo (lie country in what they are doing lyre toilay than AJIV other Mnjrlc ^roup. I would ;t.itfhxt tli.- Jt-ss wrolfv the unifonu ih<> Jtiof*- effwtivt they an- in t!it* t>rof/n^nn<l i-xcn-isK1. fLfliiffhtvr..) But another [irofilt-m IHTK ^/Jft tlii.i I -would dtn-ct to th<is thr<|)ii-tion of ending tbe war.

KVH
\\V all know that any ti'cie this war was WXIITK! to I* ended in the hi rf f- \<-ars, a niajo. it v of yn in fii<- ^ 'or:yrf>s had tip 1 |IOWT to do^ it. \Vr DUs^-d tin- liiick to tin- President. ! In- a IVino'-ratii- or Kcpuldican rn-sidrnt. hut wr w-n- tln-oiie*-* who hud fh^ potter to do it and we . 1'ln- rcanon we d-c'-iM-d to a'<->4p^ that nsjxjji-iitjiHty was that the (iiftjorify of AmpricAM^ (Koujrlit this was a jrrt-af war tiutil a coupic of U7>r> n^o an<{ \ alii afniid a lot of AIIHTIIMII*; iruv still a^n-f with ilirtf. f /! ti'ft know. Kven U" the majority of Congress an- not tr^i; to ukr rlic l<it l*y the tit-th and terminute the war when the approach '^ a ^tcxl one. I t h i n k S-n;ifor ('oo|M>r's and Senator rchV aii[>riKtch is a jrood one. J would only hofie we could j;et a majority of t f u - Comrret*. So far we h a e ii'.f, and th* resjKin>-ihilj(y n-rttrt with us.

tffjtgnoy or ACTUAL PHTBICAL WITHDRAWAL In connection with withdrawal, while I lean a little bit toward Senator Cooper's approach, Senator Church, as opposed to yours, there is tli* question 01 Actual physical withdrawal. Has thought been given as to how long it would take to physically more oar people under nonfleeing conditions! Could we really do it in 8 'months, which is *vb*r yoa think, or would it take a little longer period of time?. : I read somewhere in the press that it would take 0 months. That, was the logifatic.nl .dement. J WAS wondering what your x-iew was with regard to that, Senator Hatfeld. Senator HATFIKLD. Well, Senator Pell. I again indicated a while ugo tint I did not come here as an expert in tlie field of constitutional law, even tfcoofh I have some views and have done some study. I -weald not pose hens as a military expert, either, but I cannot lielp but think back to Dunkirk, and I happened to be in World War II, also, and I remember that wlteu the will* tit* detenuillation and tlie derision hul been made to evacuate at Dunkirk, they found a way to do it. und ir was amazing the capacity that they demonstrated. (Applause.) I would certainly not want to sec us in that kind of a withdrawal, which was H frantic withdrawal, and I certainly only draw that analogy to illustrate the fact that the logistics can he accomplished if there isthe will and the decision. Secondly. I would refer you to various military experts such as <i*nenl (ravin and othere. wlo have written extensively on this subject, jtnd would indicate that withdrawal could be accomplislied.in a reuHonable time by moving the troojm to enclaves, by developing^'he water transportation, the air transprirtAtiont and all of the syweni e have- for that evacuation purpose. The question i\\\ comes to will and decision, . ; Senator Pxx Tltank you. Tlie CiiAiKiic.\y. Senator HatfieW. you have been very 1*1 pftil, indeed. The cominitte** appreciates it. W- have another witness, I would only like to underline one or two pointft. Ottc iti this question of the nxrtivee Uiat came uj> and which disturbed Senator Case. QiTjmov IM or pownrAL *TDCXBVT yor MOTI\TJI If do^ net seem to nu- that the tnotivetiof the person* initiating the turiotw niove* that started tlw war are the quention at all. It ..vac: a <|uc*ti*iji of ttieir jolitical judgment. I think tlteir nxn-i\V8 wer? nn in qurrdion, I do rtot think they arc now. Surely we do not. an iudiridim!n, tuinanw n Ntatr or an attitude of infallibility, and I do not know wliy the country should. I nevt-r have been able to HW how honoris involved in having made a [mliti'-af miHtakc. I d> not know anyone -iio Iian not made ony niiitak* in jtolitix-al lifr. I do not think H IK relevant (o the wcMKify of our ending the war DOW,

S9
KTTINK DATE XORE IMPORTANT TIIAX DATE ITSELF

The other thin was what came a/ with regard to this date. Experiemv would indicate that, as .Senator Javits stated, the date is not so inijtortant. Having one is ini|ort;int, l>ut not whether it is ! months or '. months or 10 mouths. The important tiling is the decision that you have incorjiorated in this legislation because the probabilities are that omv the date is set. negotiations would take place much sootier than the date. Senator II ATFIEUJ. That is right. Tin1 < 'II.VIJIX.YX. In fact, there is lurdly any reason whv they should no! U>^in almost in the immediate future, once that decision is made. Then thr time of withdrawal is not ilic time from now until Dcivmhi-r. The a'Tangvments for the details of withdrawal would U> a matter of settlement, as was done in Geneva. It fronts to me the historical pat torn is very relevant to your bill, :uid the bill itself. I think, is quite relevant to flu- decision made bjr tli' p'lvnclt Assembly. Thank you very much for yur contribution. Senator HATFIKU>. Mnrhaimun,luav I thank you for the privilejrv of rominj: hen> today and for your hoJdinp these hearinpi. stormw OK rjnr>nKVP? NOT qnarnoxED I uant tor underline what yon have said in that I have at no tinie i-ver ipiestioiuHj the motives of either PivsMent Johiiaon or now with I'n^ident Niion. with whom I have disajrrced on this issue. I know at th Governors' Confen-iKv i<i JSM;."I nhen a vote on a n-xflurioji to>up]N>rt Ptvsidcnt .Tohn.-on's war pr>Irj p y passed by A niarrin of !'. tf> 1. 1 wa> a.sk<'<i by 'vrtain iiK-mlM-i-s uf tlie press afterward when I i-ofi*] "No" whctht-ror ir.A I U-Iieved tliat President Johnson wa- insint-ere. I said.of coui-s*-. I do not. I do not (pK-stion his motives. I thin*, he iBsincen1, but niiw*-r-ly wronjf. I do not think |-<f.lc huppcn to U> sinr-i-n-Iy ripht al*ny/.,l think you < g an U- siwvp' anil Ix- wronjr. but it fak<-> inon- thai, -L:ivrity to resolve this problem, in my opinion. ^ ,'' 1'}>e f 'IIAIKMAN. It rcffainly if- ii'it uii-Anii-ri^uii or nncoii'4-itiitioniil to (|U.-stiu thf judgment of any jiolilicul official: is it M II<I|M- it ha.not IH-C* ..wthat. S4-iiiitorIlATKiM.it. Tliankyoii very much. The C i i t i R M A N . Thank yon v ry rmicir. Si-n:for Hatfu-Id. (Ap . Will you pIi-a.H- limit your ei idenrr of uppl;nis<- iN-i-an^f we do
.^er w:-v4-.

Tin- nt'M wilin"<> } Senator Hartke. Si-nator Hartkr. will you takv (In- Kt;iml pleased STATEMEVT OF H0. VAVCE EAETKE. US. 8EIATOK FROM IIPIAJIA Senator HAHTK>. Mr. Chuirman. let nw :i\. fir>. it i* a iinoi for to>- To }M- H i M i yon, luit I would juM like in make one intro lll|i^";r/ reioark U-fo/e jroinj.' tn even a ijiinniury of rn\ prepare*!
71

90

RECOGNITION- or VIETNAM VETERANS AGAINST THE WAR Senator Pell did call attention to the fact that there arc in this room today a large number of veterans, and I think that fact should not go unnoticed in the record itself. I would like to call attention in the record also to the fact that they have been standing in an overflowing committee room for more than 2 hours now. This serious discussion is making us overlook another essential fact, and that is that we must get out of that war and get out now. Every day, even- minute that we stay in Vietnam we arr destroying, ourselves here at home, we are destroying our ability to d^al with drugs and poverty and housing and pollution and unemployment. Like the Roman Empire, our own leaders have been mesmerized at what goes on abroad, and we are falling apart here at home. Let me say that these young men in this room are not Vietnam drojKnits. They are not draftrard burners. Thev are patriotic Amerins who have come here to vote, to vote with tlieir bodies in the only way they know how to express themselves, that they want this war over now. Sow. they are saying it not alone with their limbs: rliey are saying it from their souls. They have been in military action in Vietnam. They expect this committee, this Congress, to gix-e them action, just as they have been in action in Vietnam. They are tired of words ami (tolitics. The actions they want simply are these: They want the Congress and this Senate to gfci on and end the war. and get on with th* unfinished business at home. Mr, Chairman. I welcome the opportunity to testify Ix-fon- thi ditinguished committee on behalf of Senate Resolution W5, which I had the honor to introduce on March 4.1971.
SENATE RX8Of,tT!OX f.r,

That resolution calls for the immediate withdrawal of nil I'.S. military forces from Indochina, conditioned only uj>on agreement on arrangements for the safe withdrawal of our force* and the release of our prisoners of war. It would end American involvement in the war at the earliest possiblerather than the earliest convenientdavit*. It is based on the proposition that no date i-too soon for extricating ourwives from what has htvn an unmitigated disaster from the outset, and that every day's delay serves only to waste lives ami Uxiics and treasure.
FVEXTH OrrCBKINt; MXT, 'XTROOIVTJO.V OK vF.X.m. KKxU.ITloX fin

III fiie nearly 7 weeks since I introduced Senate Resolution M. three events, or series of events. ha\e occurred to strengthen my conliction tliut Senate act ion i essential if we. are to stop thisiippulling wastage. TbewcvcntK wen-, first, the South Vietnamese delm-le >n Luos: second, my con vernations in Paris with representatives of ull four delegations to the Vietnam peace talks: und third. President Nixon's television N'at ion on April 1.

91
SOTTH VIETNAMESE INVASION OF IJIOS

Of the South Vietnamese invasion of I-aos and its abnijH conclusion, I shall say r only that it demonstrates the murderous futility of ~Victnarnization. And if "Vietnamizaiion" is the option we are asked to choose in preference to an early, fixed-date withdrawal, we are in effect l>eing offered no choice at all. That seems to me tol>e the principal lesson of }JLOS. WITNESS' DECISION TO HEAR FROM PARTIES TO PEACE TALKS The outcome of the Laos invasion was still very much in doubt when I decided, in mid-March, to po to Paris to hear from each of the parties to the peace talks their account of the status of the discussions md what, if any, pros|>ects they saw for a negotiated settlement of the war. I wts especially anxious to pet a first-hand explanation from the representatives of North Vietnam and the Provisional Kevoliition.iri (lovcmmcnt (that is. the [>oliti<-al arm of the Victcong) of the terms of the peace initiative put forward on Septemlier 17. 197*'. by Madame N'jruvcn Thi Itinh. Foreign Minister and Delegation Leader of the P.R.G. I thought it essential to have such an explanation because, contrary to what the administration had Uvn telling us of the ripid inflexibility and total refusal of the other side to engage in meaningful negotiation!;, we had legun to hear an increasing number of reports to the effect that the terms of Mine. Hinh's pro|>osal were at least worth considering as the basis for further negotiations. II\<-K<;RO( M> FOR ro.vvfKsYnoxIJcfore leaving for Paris on April J, I received a thorough brietinp from senior officials at the State iJeparfmcnt and had a full and useful (li.scusMou with Ambassador I)iem of the Republic of Vietnam. And on the afternoon of rny arrivil in Paris. April :i. I had the pleasure <f a lonjr talk with my old friend Amla^ador David Hrmv. the head (if our own team of negotiator- at the jn-ai-etnlk.-. S< it wn-. w i t l t that bat-ktrround that \ ent<-red into conversation^ with ivprerientuf lies uf the otlnT -ide. Mr. N'pii^^'ii-Minh Vv. de[ufy lit-ad of tin- N'orth \ ietnamcse di-lepatirtn at Parir-. and MmC. Xjniyi-n Tin Hinl.. head of the I'lld delegation.
Nfji-'TIAHU. \NH NoN-XKHOTlABI-K HiISTK

I can ii-]>ort that 0111 <li.vu>sion-. lantint; four-and-a-half hours with tiie Vortli Vietnamem- an<l three-und-n-half hours w i t h PUG, were Itotli frank and cordial. I wu- i-^n-ciallv struck by 5fr. Vy'n refx-a^-d nisist4-ii-e on his owi'i flele^ation'- flexibility. My di^finct iinpresion a- t h a t the only nonnepirfialile item- in ]'UCi |M-arc initiativ> uhidi. iif roiirse. (fatioi f u l l v -up|x>i1^ aie a firm withdrau-ul date for nil I'.S, military -fore*"- anil the cxclii-inn of President Thieit. \'ice t'te-idi-nt Kv. yiid Prime Minister Khi'-ni from any coalition .'oicrnnieiif in S<nith Vietnam. All otlier |x>iiif- an- negotiable. But most iiii|x)i1aiitlv. fiom our ^tun<i|K)int. tfie .setting of u mutualls bli- date for w i t h d r a w a l of our forces from Vietnam jh an

92
CONVERSATION'S CONCERNING CEASE FIRE

Both conversations centered on the two great issues of a ceasefire and the return of <-ur prisoners of war. Regarding the first, a PRG statement issued on December 10. 19"0, following its fonnal j>eace initiative of September 17, says:
A cent*-fire will t* otaerved between the South Vietnam i*-ople'tt Liberation Anaed Kurces nd tile troopa and military personnel of the 1'nited State* nd other foreign countries In the t'.S. camp Immediately after the Government of the I'.S. dccUres it will completely withdraw from South Vietnam its troojis and military in'roounel nod tbcme of the other foreign countries in the I'.S. cam]' by Juac 3f. I'j'l: the inrtieft will dlscusj) at owe: Tlie question of ensuring safety for tbe total withdrawal from South Vietnam of L'.S. troopx and thone of the other forehrn countries in the I'.S. camp and. the question of releasing captured militarymen.

I first asked Mr. Vy what the word "immediately" meant in this context. He replied tl ' it meant as soon as word could \>e got to the forces in the fielda u. ;r. he thought, of no more than 4* hours. As to the date of June .'JO, 171, specified in the PRG projxwal. Iwth he and Madam ftinh stated that that was their suggestion, but that if it wad unacceptable to us, we should propose an alternative. I might add, Mr. Chairman, that it was my distinct impression that thenwould be little or no problem in arriving at a mutually acceptable date. And whatever that date might prove to lie, lei me emphasize for then- has lieen confusion on this pointthere are no other condition*. The ceasefire Iwtwoen our forces and theirs coul<' go into effect within 4s hours of its announcement. The killing of Americans could IN- ended just that quickly.
fOXVKKS \TIO\S rONTERNIXO RFJ.KAfiE OK POw's

As to the release cf our prisoners of warcalled "ca[>tHred militarj'rnen" by lioth Hanoi and the I'RfJI attempted to get a* much clarification us |x>ssible on just how soon a f d r announcement of a withdrawal date we could ex|M-ct to have them returned. The language of tin- I'H<i pea'v iiiit'riiive says only th;it ''the jiarties will discuss at OIKV" the I'OW question. IV>th ComniuniHt delegations n-fused to '(M-'-jf^ a fixed time [x-riod at the end of which all our prisoners would lc Iionie. They kept insisting that the setting of a withdrawal date i-edc >n!i-rfanti\c di.vu*ion> of the issue, and that il is only t XixonV intransigence that lias created the obstacle to AH i-arl\ --ttlenient ofthePOWijin-stion. IA-I rue go on to say. however, that loth Mr. Vy and Madam Biiih gu\e broad indications that the issue would ' resolu-d \ery s|M*edily once the Mithdrawu! date is n-t. Mr. Vv culled to my Htlenti.in the fact dial in r.."i|, at the coin lusioti of Vietnam'* war of indfjiendetice France, large imnilxTs of f'p'iich iirismers wi/e ivleasecl Ix-f In (relieve Conference -l'en con-ened. alitl tliaf once the formal IM-UIV inlk.-. did Itegin. the entire i-.-.uc was settled w i t h i n '.', weeks. AIvi. (lie two delegation* took considenille jiains to assure me that i h i - v h.ne no inten-st M-iiatever in kw-ping American [irinoners H day longrr th:in j, ijei'e^,ary. Mr. Vy pointed out t h a t our men are Iteing g i \ r i i .1 (<Knl ration ihrei- times HS large as t h u t of the average Vietii:iiiif-j mid that their living conditions generally an- more comfort-

93
able than the prevailing standard in North Vietnam. And Madam Binh said, uYour men are a burden to us. We want to be rid of them t he sooner the better." "I car. tell you," she added, "that if the American forces withdraw in .1 rapid and appropriate fashion, your captured luilitarymen will \te returned in a rapid and appropriate fashion." Let mo summarize what I learned on this very difficult issue by saying That there is now no doubt in my mind that all of our POW's would <v returned to us by the time our last troop contingent is withdrawn from Vietnam, and a sultniial number particularly the sick and Bounded would Iw on their way home within wccksof the setting of a date for final withdrawal. In this as in every otbrr war in human history, prisoners are exchanged when the war is over. For the. administration to continue to pretend that there is some other solution to ttie problem is to perpetuate a cruel hoax of its own devising on the families- of those men and on the American people generally. A.nd by the same token, prolonging the war only adds to the toll, not alone of prisoners but of dead and wounded as well, Let me now touch brief! v on some of the other significant issues that arose in my discussions in Paris. DISCTSSIOX6 coxooryiXG rosnjrrn> noimxc Ending American involvement in the war will not, in and of itself, end the Indochina war altogether. IV>t.h the Hxni and PRO delegations made it clear that they would continue fighting against the forces of South Vietnam so long as the Thieu-Ky-Khiem regime remains in power in Saigon. The Detjember 1" statement issued by the PRO says in paragraph 2 :
A <*aw-flre will fw ..ti-wrvcd ly tli*- rinath VMriam I'X-A.K. ami tin* fi.rf-wi .f tl- Kaiffoii A'iniiiiMtr*tl<'ii immediately aft-r the I'Hf, f tlw B8VX and a Kaljcn AilinlnlKtrxMoii without Tliu-u-Kv-Klil'-m. Iliaf Maiid* for jw-aif. indi-iH-ndciicp. urutrallty mid dcwixTJii-y. aeivc on tlu- foniuttiou of pnnihlurial K<>\ <Tiiai-nt nantf>nfd <>t tlin-*- MfSrujf-iitw with a rlt-w tu rir^miizf toii>. u iirn|M>MiI in th*- sVjit<jliil>T 17. 11*70 Htatwiw-nf ( the I'KO

The question of most immediate intt-rest to us in this conwvtion is wheflieriiny part of that paragraph would have to le imiilcmented U-fore ;i cca.sefuv with American fonvs and tin- return of Americuii jirisoners roulj take i<lu v. I can report that no Mwh condition would i>e inwi'.ved. Tlie killing of Anwricans could stop and the present Saigon regime could cm tiniic its own struggle for survival without jeopardizing American di-vngAgeiricnt, Mudaiin 1 Hinh told me, \HW.IT. that the TjiiU-d States would hav to ln-ar ri'.sjonibility for prolonging the war, even after all our own force- were goiu1, *<> long as we continued to .supjxirt the Thieu-KyKiiifin government. Tin- war can never l<e completely s-ttled. slie naid. until the T'nitj'd States withdruw sits Mi[ijK>rf fnxnthe j>ren-nt rcgiinc. ha|>| a|>|-iis, Miuluine Jiinli rejnarkcd.tli*' fulureof South Vietnam could !* sHtled by South Vietnamese organized in n proviniojinl 'onlifion government coi^i.l ing of thrw clfiii'-nth: fl) "ix-rs^ins" of tlu- I'|{O: ('2.\ "JK-ISOIIH" of t i n - Sai{;<in "Administnitiiin other than Tiii<-ii. Kv. or Khi'-m: and (''>) "pcrrtons" of all :vligioimnil |xilitii:al fii'rtion.-. in South Vietnam "standing for jx-ai-4'. in<|ej<'ii(Jeiir-e. m-ui ralily and di-mocracv."

94

There are. two points worth iiotin*: in this connection. First, Mr. Vy of the Hanoi delegation wanted to lie certain I recognized, !i proof of his own government's flexibility, that they wcrx> n<> longer insistra<r on cither reunification with the North or on PRO domiimion of the prospective coalition government in Saigon. "I myself," he siid. "din a Soathcrncr and n Socialist. No poal is nearer my hearf than a unified and Socialist Vietnam. B\it we all recognize that*events of the. rwst !."> y.-ars have crcattsd dinVivnt social and,economic stnicturcs in the two parts of Vietnam, and these differences will .disappear only after a long period of tune and as the rr?ult of careful negotiations between the two governments. :; "But really, you must know,'T lie added, "'that even a unifie-d and Sociali Vietnam would not eonstl'litc a throat to tlui Unite*! States.'* 'flic second point to l>e noted in connection with the PJRG-proposal forx Vietnamese solution to Vw;tnajn*s problems appyais jn'-tlie text of thir SptcmU.T 17 statement and concerns tin' N'lxon admijuistm.tionVdiit- warnings of a "bloodbath"" that would allegedly follod- >x'ir witLdrawii]. ^ , "Tlic provisional coalition ^o\vrnment will." it says, "prohibit alJ acts of terror. ivpri?al. and di?criiniiiati'm ajrain^ thos' .who have coIJalioiated with i-ither side. . , ." " . No doubl i( would lx- foolih to take any ^ovfrinnent's'wordinI'lndhip 1 >nrown--at fw.v vn{iw. Kiit fc is= worth considering that^the coalition government eiivis'uuied in this document would include Buddhist aiu1 Roman Catholic leadt-rs ai? well as anti-Communist fi^uros: of rlif stutoiv of <ii-n Xjniycji Van Minh; and I Io not. MI*. how_anyon<- ifiuld weriously .supj>ose that such a iroivmuienf would counrcjtautr a r>olicy of ( ommuiiist-ins|>iivd ivprisali.
(ITIOJC ISsrKs OK JXTKKRsT A.VD fO.NwC'EKV

^Wln-r irifiiics of inteivst and conccni arose out of my convei-sation with Ambassador Lam and Minister Phong of tli<- Itepul'Ik* of S^t.h Vietnam. The burden of their rejiiarks was that American opinion was ln-in^ mUIed i>y "fVuiimuiiist piopa^anda, v esj)ecially in ivjrard to the Laos operation: thai the South \1ctnaiiiesc were U-in^ w-ivrely liujidifi'.jijx'd in their prosecution of the war by the "inferior eijuipiiwiit" vhich we have provide*! them mid by our continuul dift/losure of the uiifinv and extent of nil militnry ojM-ralions: that tliey foresaw no end l'i the fi^ht inland no ho[H- for negotiations: and that America" role us aiiti-Coiiuiiijiiist world leader oblitf-s us to continue pi-oi-j<}in^ South Vietnam witii Jmi perix-nt of its needs for carrying on the war. Some of the flavor of this nithei disiyun-ajrinir coiner.-<:ition may IK-eonieyeJ b\ &ii i'X<'h:in{!c I hud w i t h Miui-li-r Phony. Wlieli I st;itl that the American public wa.* U'comin^ ini-reasin^ly impatient .with the In-,.-, of our vounjr men in Vietnam. Mr. Phonjf replied u-ry he;i<c.dlv thai then yoiintf iiii-ii were dyiny too- Jo time.- us ucuiy a" ours, "Hut ii i-iuil .iiir'-oHiitry." I ^n\. And he replied, even more heatedly. "I'-ul yu :ire :i world leudei I ft is your resjxmsibility'"

'
L /

" " -

95

:}voy ?juite^a|/aTt.fTorp. the misstatement of factit is certainly Hot . truf thar South Vietname^ losses have been 10 times :us hcsivy as our ^ 1 . o\ni-f rhink~wtr-mu<& all be dishcartwipd by the "success '-'two ad\ulhUitraWons "have had in convincing the Saigon rejrinie that their . survival continues to IK- nioi>> int[X>rtai>r to it? than it js to their,own people. 1 wonderhott many Americans aut^idc the White .House and th'vPi>tita/>oniyontdsM)jbcnI)c to that disgraceful notion. . N .Jfu any ease, nothing! beard in my conversation with 'he South \~iet.iiHJnes*. dclejration w-ould incline, me urlieliovc-that they are well on their way*to assuming the burden and responsibility of < Itcirxtwn self-^x . defense after Jhese long ycare of American sacrifice. ' " _ - ^ . 0. coKcu'Bioys REsri;rrs TKOH COV\TRSATIOXS IN p.utis " ' -

Let-me no\v attempt to summarize in ix>int-l>j-point fashion the ^inclusions I reaclwd as a if suit cf those Itfri'fconversations-Jn P^ria ." witli the four delegations to the f<eare*-taUtS~Aiid with other-dftKplj; . -knowledpejiblc obseiTers of tlie Indochina conflict. Amonp.tlif 'afler " 'jvcrc the venern!iW"TIncJ^Xli*t Huah, official representative in Patili of-Mie. Unified liuddJiist (Church at Vietnam: Mr, Froment -Meuricc. licail ff{ ttic Asia desk pt'-the Flench ForeignMiuistrV: and a inunlx-r of dwiin^iuisbt-d American anaEurcixjan journalists, anting them Mr. 1 Waller Lippinan. 1; Tlie setting of an agreed date for complete'T'.S. militriiT v^-jth- ; dramiJ from Vietnam is tn' absulutely indi^ppjisible first step toward a ncjrof istiefl c-tfiWi>fUJt o/tUio .vir on nil fronts. That date, in my judgjnt'nt. could be \inywljfrft from- ?A da^ from nowas my resolution \vould have it--i/>-the middle oT iOT^.^A date later riiantliat would of course lx> In-tter than none at all. but it would not, I think, produce the immediately desirable effects we all wantnamely, an "fajW'fijv and the early release of our prisoner? of war. 2. I't-o;! thcncttinfrof a date whhinthe.liiiic-frame Ihave a <rasi'lirc \vl w *vn Aiiu-ricaii and Communist foives couji] <ro info t-fft within 4 K hours. C)ur iv.iire.-vntatiws and tiifjrs would wrirk- out mutually ;i.-<vprj!>l' [inx-^lurc.-. for the sift withdrawal of our force*. Kven ii it . hc-n took us a yea) or rtion; to wjtlidraw comjiioffly. no more -ri'-diis wmild IK- killed or juaiim-d or taken priisoni-r. (v|)o" the x-ttin^ of the daft1, d wnioiis would Ix't'in "atonce"- i-drit \-rv day if wr -wi-.il--ivincerniniy the, n-lease of :\\\ our ra i>f war. I>ji.tl rial ion would very likely occur in *4;i<ri'-, with fhc r-i<-k and wounded U-injr n'iurned very i-Jpidly and-vll prisoner hoinr by the tiin*1 Oil. la.-J^forcis were withdrawn. 4. The ajrrecmentf- upon which our withdrawn-] would In*, nondifioned ur- fully M-If-jx^ii-iiiir. For if at any time we found thi? ot|ior side not living U| to it-; commitmi'iitu. we could simply -"top, or r.w7i IVVMSC. tin- w i t h d r a w a l pr'x*hs. And indi-.-i in the 4\wni r <- />f thr- kind of aunvmenf in whichp we could ivpost M)iue"liicfi,de^Tei>-of ijnfidemv, rt'n w.)iild riot ei-i:uU n:in tfiut pr'xvss. . ^ ^ ". Fijtrhlint' :injon^ th- Vi'-tnume*- ihtJiiwlvc-^ will continjie nnUl (lie. TliH-ii Kv-Khl.'-iii {ro.eninu'uf i* f?f-\wpd by "a coalition Di'uj1-!, r;ou.-( 'oJnroii;i.-'t.iiiKlAHTi-C'(r fl'i'tiin-i' leadeivof the prrN-nt p.-jrimf.

, .. . , -, , v. --' . *, The Paris peace talks ace totally deadlocked. vwLatevn-"of.:cndiiig tho^ofiflicf so long as the Ignited States, persists in refusing^.-* ifiscuss a^dato for the complete withdrawal of om-fofres. ^ -"".' -' . -. "^
CENTRAL FKATCEEK OF V&2&a*i3iT NIXOV'fi APRIL 7 SPKECII

V - ^ ' , -. JPinaJly, Mr. Chairman, I should like to discus* the <y>ptraj features C of PAiHent; Xi.von"s April 7 speech m the lijjh't of tJtfr-pivqe-ding 4ix , points and tffth ^arCbrulAr-r^feivnnf to what it tells u?Uf thV fetwd^'tadopt one of the tijftjd-ujY^ resolutions now before this committee./ j .Let me begin by djsmissing1 {(j; ''almost, wholly irrelcvwit the vsry ".-.'uttOjSfet increase Mr. Nixon announced inTthc <roop withdrawal raU?. ~''Ev>h"l/-l< were to continue IhrougL 1fl"^-r-a>id, we have no assuranotf' that, it 'wiIJ-*Jcavuyj only a residual ^mund Toccc by x-lcction day, tlicnis still the l&elifcood of hary Ainerioun participation in au air war against North VietaJvK-se and PR'i forces. And > long as tltftt <y>iitinucs, tljerc will be no )>cace in Indo.>hina and no retni of our prisoners of war. Moreovt-jc, when our total troop strength drops io * certain level during the. withdrawal piwess. those remaining will be. tenibly vulnerable;to ^tt*rk:Ju;>po*i the otlier side launches such an attack and it smtvt><*is' in brcifiing'tbroii^li whatever <frfen*e Hrranjjenionts ha\-ej*m^>'iuad(i: wFal thcji-wiU we do? Will v.v pull out pre-. ci^rfJoTislyjand j}inonfuimsly. a la Dunkirk? Or wi'I we reescalatc to " *trfl'a w^/>Jciv^w rouitd of blocKllerting,this^'m<'i>o?!5MycvcI:l using. "nuclear- weapons \ , The President' gave no hint. Instead, as is increasingly his custfnn, 'lip.turtrsd the \oe\c of the situation uj>side domi and said thai lie could not (rive * firm date for total withdrawal U-cauw to do j-o wouMfnahlc <-nny commanders to plan just sudi an attat'k us I Imvi- l>cen jati/ig. Tlie really outrageous afcpwt of this upioV-dav;n lo^'w- ii> ibat Mr. Nixon knows full well that :i fundaiwntal |K>int In thither .side's pcaa- projK>sal in that diocusrtionbv;>i) ensyrnig the safely of -hir -departing: forcfcj would Ix-gin as 5OOft as a vrUhitraY'l date, in agrepd upon. And a$ I stressed in point- 4.'irM.!^ absence ff aji ugr/j.-H ]r<>(\exlure satisfactor)- to ourselves, w^'w^nld withdi-awuls. ' ;' ;\*. ' Mudi the AUIJC vynii:aKu of *n.- pri^^ier of"^-.ir is^n-1 it* ftc cx;<1i>*"jur invohvpwnl^iij Vivfimm. In nn cari>.<rj slrt^-) he i, y rjr'isojj camps. Aiui-oli AjiMl'T Ti^awhtbHt to foir.-4jf>l wifljilriiVN-a:! woptciixMo fiimu' ^iwui^tli;- oiilv,'lItir<BM}tjJ;r I'ountf rlie has wifli wlwcfi ^udH*'.n tbe.ret-af* fjf Ol.'f .1" - Once again tJw* u}ii.J jc-d(^A^r U^ric. Oui n^.uu Hu"' "

do not even existis that yiV are le.ft .witJii absQluty no Jiint as to what his ultimate ohjectives^n Vietnam jniglit l>e. For my'part, 1 am forced to conclude A.'itchc does not in fact intend to briti^.tljc.war to an early *nd; had-he-wished to do so, the negotiating path jju^Parialay open ro him as>arl\ as. last Stpteml>er. But he chose not to take it.., He chosn. instead, to piiisuu the will-o'-the-wisp lie calte "Fietnamixation." And this. so far as I or any of my European friends can determine, amounts to nothing less than a desperate effort, to maintain a j>erm;ment American presence in South Vietnam through a residual military force, as in Korea, and H client regime m Saigon. If tlii* is indeed the purpose to which he, and Dr. Kissinger have :ommittod this Nation, then. I say, the American jx'Ople will riot tolerate it and we .who are their elected representatives mus-t not tolerate, it, . - " ..
CO.VCKESS HAS IWVER TO flUXCE WIHXF.XT POI.irv

W* have it in our power to fon-e a change in -this sbwkingly misguided policy. We '-AH adopt, a resolution such as mine, demanding an v end to the war at the earliest practicable dat\ And if the President chooses to ignore )t. we can enact legislation such as that offered by our distinguiBhed folk-agues from Oregon id Soutli Dakotsi, closing the. public. ur.v. d exjienditurvs toy carrying cut-fh- var after this w;ar_ K'ther'.or ,both would lijuv \\w effect of reclaiming for "tie .-.-_ '-AjyuTJcan people iJiat ultiiuiU.; ttutivl onr forc-ign policy which lias Fivrihc people tji^y,vion if;ri?ir President d/>c>.uor. tfiat we have , I'tayodH'jt* J(>vf* i/i'-'/fjetijajiV'SiniJ have bled too mii'*h and,have p<*rj)etntjcd too miuiy horrors \\v hqiv.sac.nfto'-d not.oniy (>uv men and wealth n;K W {rood landing uinon^ tlu? rivlti/>sl nations of the"world^. ._ JUVliJttrtHvH) oar own civLJdi'^n-iitU^'ViniUa] cxil" ;in<l tln-relty moil', * . N * .i *^~ N . * ^
-

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imist 'imf (ftifKtuf


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through this first derisivt'. st/:nCoward i>&w.


.,,

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Tin- f~)\ vift.u.;v. ThaiiL ycy..l-t.iy Ujucji, .-nthalor riflilfcfj. I rerlaiiily icfiii .vftH.fur.y<nr Hjitiii'tiiv it> iir*crri<>wing tlie re|)j-e--''4'Sh. -,V^<ri'ha^ve j'tougiit us SOUK^ very -*-ful, liisr^jaiS*

S")irl>,t H vjrrki.. Thank you. Senator,- ., ,_ - x ; ' TJii'X'ji-iUttAy 't'iti- ijcicf wj'.netw.'A Scu^;j,-( Vanston of <'alifonii*" : 1 -V Ki'Mawiv. ('iaii>-to.'j. wr are v<rv p.V'fiso'd t<> ha'/e you, f urn w/'Tj. f'.'C " " 1 ""tur -latrrii-vt o#;lliVJioui-. but this is' a ivn ii(ip<ct<iiiC t-ubjut aiic]\v*.r - - i !mj.r |;>tii Mini^evtrcntfly nit-juvitinj; ferflmony. ^'u-itd Oou pr<xp<H.'d. ";
_ jjii'Hiii'*.-KT. - ' ' - ' - . . " - , _
i

STATEMENT OF E09. A1AN CHAHSTOff. tJ.$. SEFATOB FEOM : -^ <5AIIFORHIA CBAXSTOK. Thwik you very- miK-h.Kr. Chairman; . It is a <rivst privilege lo bo with yoi. I first want to thank you and vour wmmittce for all that von are doinp. Your leadership has been simply tremendous in seeking to find a way to xlrsw tins war to an end as far as -American involvement is concerned, if we cannot end it far us in rolvoiwnt of Asians are concerned;
:

TO

The fact that you bare called this hearinp af his tune in an effort " tn-se<? how Congress can exe'rise its-responsibility in a way that, will <-nd oor inTOlmncnt. sin> rhc Presidi-rif dot* .not seem to he embarked upon a Bourse, that will end our involvement, is s most timely _ mow-. I am deliglited that present with us today are v^tpraiuf wlio IQIOTC _ jfirst-liand what tins war is doing to America.ioyoiinjr Americans, and owe" many obligations fo these younp: Anwi Wsiujj tJtis .war is something thaf_I think onr^o.unti-v .nms>t--ncrf r ft*>;get. We owe theni'much "m terms of nwylical care i<t ^duj'-atipAal : poiiuuitics ariH job opportunifies^hat wfCam notpn'Sentfy./ar^itf p;:f or aiKHr j>pf- ive caiLmovf' Torw-anl-aJsoConi that pjxJ>lfji> "" . I am -lie if primurilr1uAnjj[>or5 jrhc- IfictBaro Diaen^retiTcnr^Act of . of whidi I am ono tf the prime sponsoivr'G^jt'a.a'jJther piwses ejrislation hefo-tvvoti,i.avJj as Senator HaT^Jve's'wffirlt, VrhinJc. also c'naderation of this eoirnnifttavand its ~ ~

-1 Jx-t nift stf Jf vm-bricfij^r/rcxj>tcssmv Uiou^rhts to you, yt- ^an oJid *tie-.kil:n^ 'wd ma5nv>njr oT Anjeri^ansrrinA'j

.j>uby.*'/itttc jsert'iin** for American "" ! :r^~-H:t'_hicJ*iir tlia^wc-i^Rnof:-RfiJiiariIy forr-i^l^.K'.orth VirtaaeA-an3" ~ '>':: -. lnriytwn-?-t^>!giifi'-~~~. ' ' f r ~ _ - - - ' ^ - c V

\_ . _' "W# Jiavi-iutf-u Jrttnjf~rr>-do thisi f-y-^hr last K ycsujijmd: O^Jdt)-<- ._. "" - . fi&fv\ -."- , '. ~ ' . ; - - . . . .-.'" 1.- T . _ " " -'.. T" " -

Y;rOy.ftrtt, I beLw'w, *au rJ^-v Jrf'-^w/wjVded to "JJ;i*ii'r"^'imH*p7fl.JwaV,^afcier'toarnuj^>1ieu tieiijrbtinjf ha:- .h^)^(1t!i;Hrwnn^tV?l)f.rijtrri07irsl^{roii)^f>Ti^ . . i -" A (. i^jraijHv t-nuiut ^JH- to oblah' thi- n-l.TaSu.trf-Ajod ie3u.f*OW" j v-'hf .'Y f\{ft\: t>^ tiff ind)<-)iuoji-f)ii jO>j|"j;irt-ai;.UV ichwi *vtLj/laii tof^rifri^lfftit /:/.ifi/iilt.tW7'iut''ilv'j}nftut. ~ ". '. ~~- ~-- ~~ . ~
- iC'.u(7rx>j-i'jurpris')iic^c - . ^ " .__ . . - -_ _...--

. Pcesidect ICikpn fats failed to realize tHitAi'ocrican trofjj:jn*he South have "not sn ibs iwst and will not .in the future bnnjr^iom't ' " " -. ^ur fofcestwould vinspire tlwi^tuni of ourPQWfi .Opro&TcXiTT FOBCITC.VCE WTH reopi.E's RWGBUC . . " . ".. "" . . . "Mr^Cfiairman. I wouLi like to toucJv upon one other aspea-,of.this ~ v tbat inv-oU-es* different JSSQC, an i.ssue that know somewhat newr m a . -Tiew form, where the.ni:-ws a.newbpeain|r.anCI a new opportunity for p-ac>', pcjuse: tx>YOnd Tietnam. iM?aoo ck|i<j?h ina in terms of ^reductionof-ibc^danger of oonflirt-wiHL fh Cliinesc. Tliia is a tremendously imporfanr7xcWL*s^^ to tLe ^S^nam war.-I believe that only a paWic finipr4d>]'"foran American wjthdraiviii] is'capitble of finally convincing the rhuifcse-of >Vjtt<>rican good will and of the Aft that we do not - intowl to threaten Chiesciiati(mal security. of .the table tennis detejnte. we forget that tlie ChiIn the. euphoria -aw our: irivolvjement in Soirtlieast Asia as a threat to their r_-_V .__ j . _- "--t / - ^hincso-ma^nrjfy is tin- trigger .to Chinese, aggressiveness wt'-Tui'R iLTliei'0c-p,-rappnclK'nienf-intoaction, onr 15-man table fcn7is4em"s tiuirSl iu Ouna cannot ohsci^ the presence of 285-(K)0 Attviilcait <iops J^ijiin easy striking range of Xorth Victaikiii aijid _ _ . pzssagfcof thKJUfutfipfd-McGovcniljiHrthis year could the-ivorld tov.-anl:'"peac by LJ ingin^ aUiut a new era of timtuttb trust' IxM-wcfen the People's RtpiiWic uf.Cliina and the United Jptates^ Dfsplfo t^be-ijrcyuiis'm^ progress we've maiie in the last w'eraj .days. n<) Jastin^; ^uiaers-taiidiiyr witJi China is possible while ounnVn^cbn isiMe to \>f engaged iB:hostiIineL dose to China's Boutliern borders. lit-lalion-r Ix-twewr mainland <'Jiina and the -iTjited, ft*tes "will M a!wai^J*^anjttic" " s-ifdpv-of duw'tinjlita^ confiVHJtat ion.so : ae A/ncri''aD.s.fijBrhT-Hi)d-lxnwlso Hose to ChTriesu ijorftefs; ' . f i4rcpe fc>rtruf Mwld {jetu^e is totjp fdlfillwJ, tfie- iQfist ^x> jirkijr in th^-VorKl.-niust slojM'Hjra^ing in Combat on the doorstep /> """

L^st of cJL Mr, Chftinoxn. thi' .tm^nfaii people will not be fooled-. t a withdrawal of Anny ai.id Marine for<'*s, in the i!r and .-ictenrjive Ajneriraf. air aiui naval Ixrtnbardpcwejn Viet-naaior^iurud <<3 Air^-ivan in " involvement " . -LhalV rfatVajf r.t tlist -our air and naval forces-will form. "-i"4.1J-tir di-h-rrent" aji^r Jlyvbisr_Aiij>ri'-aii solder leaves Vietnam. i iiot;th*vadU!ustratiou vlcarfy ;J/-*s u/^: intend' ' end Arneri. _. \-Tli- S'.f"ftaiy"s coouawits ou Ajril 1-i Wt-rv fallowed by the P-resi_ donJ's rfiufirfc wi April Jfi that v.-c- w i l l ais'mfahi farcr* in 'Vietnam Tinli.1fti-".F?OW.V.ar-e np-J'-scd. and untr! -tlif-Jv/urii.Victnanietic have

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. loo

I have already diVnssspd the POWasypcl. On the other point, malting the.pat.e of American withdrawal contingent on the l>atile successes or failures of ri> South Vietnamese _ Ar/uy <-ould mean ooi.timiinir American air and ground casualties for months ahd,years to come. I notice-that Vi- I'resident K> said ju?r yeslerdav that they won't lx? r'iady to do th'- jol) th msolves for jxrliap? !" yeans or more. It L eltvir that the Xixon administration does not intend to end American involvement in the war the only way it <-an l>e truly ended: By publidy^hnouneed withdrawal of all Army, Marine, Air f-e. and Navy units from Vietnam and the Mirroundin<: waters.

. . In, the jrbsencv of Executive in'tiative and in the f*e of <rrowin<r p>->]u'ar n-vKleion with the war, tlu- (Vm^rcss must pliy the derisive

.*" "-,--"-, ' ^ - The time -li anivoii uhi^'tlit- CVm^j-ess. clof>si to the people and 7-fib-Ir, wishes ~a"nd doirfi and dteani*. jimift i^jxind to the wishes of t[ii> peopltr^hd set dah ft th^ eiiji of Ain^rioan involvement iu this , _ . Jir. -Chaimwn, wo j-<>um on yotit- <-i>nuHw to Lead u? in tliat ixftioji.. , "._ . * " " J think . voij, ~ ^ "
StAttVKST. OF RCXAJOB -A^AK CttiVS-

i^cat^d to .p[nrar U'for<- (1^- For4;iffD


. ---JJ!Briat.tije last tx'tssfon '<f Cunp-pi..-'. I Jolunl wifli sk Uufclu*..afta GoovJeJJ ift {K)aKirinc -Ute arucudu^-nt TH -ixTflif war .1 ma f>siIii-WJ-Hih'>i><>tai. '1'^ 'k.-^lrfliili'.'ii wlifcji, nviuid wt public Uu fr da- safe ucl ufxtfuuitu- "Tilrawal "f TH .Viuc.rl' c it "nj JtvffUi\u-f rj.1. ' ~ " . " " , , - " . - J "Iwlifvc nvran fuj Ujt: kiihl^uiiJ WJtjljda'jt of XinrTjiajis l 3t%'talu irltltin a yc/ir. '.l>Ulu th*- rrfc-a*- of -nr -f'/>V"s vitl'iit >t i/iar *ii<t TJI -flit- riirt'at uf Ui *|M- KouUa-siKt -Asian Kttr icitiini / V<a/;-iJ' fb<- -t'-.myttr** . from. Y5c'tuan. ~, If' tJjT4- JK-fv^rM wJk'ii then- IK u";m!ilii-. "iLifr- vi-rt*jn"_iur A Ir Is dear llinf--*v i^uii<.( jjiiinarJIy TV&v tli<- X-Jrtlr \lc<nm-v .m<l tin- VKt . -fJirt HM ivill lisvr all of unr ID'-JI .!it vf Imlc-'iliw b> n -, :izid wslrii'j; tLaf datn jiubli'-, <-.iii (- < (iins<'<' *!" V"ftti Virtiini'u-^c ii(<-'J lo-Jran-. . . -^ of or
fllllli V.'hilr UfTiKllfiiiK-i-- rflJ.'l L'''IK'"<. " UV /vrtaloly <ajiii^ Jmp<--t" <ilfj(ttJi-rlj' n-J<viH;' 1 is IKJ iiwtli'.ifl.'ii i-ii <i\ir i > j i t ;JK l/< tt'Ja. !! ' J>luij In li-ruiiiintr (ir military

101
President Nixon has failed to realize that American troops in the South have nof !n the itand will not in the future bring homo our POWs. A wjfUdrawal of our Jo-rces would insure the return of POWsnot their Mr -Chairman. only a jmMic timetable for an American withdraw*) if capable of 'Anally ccmvindug (lie Chinese -of American goodwill arid of the fact that we no longer intend to threaten Chinese national security. In the euphoria vt tlw table tennis dttente. we forget that tiw Chinese see oar iuvolvemuii in ^Southeast Aria ac a threat to their homeland. Chinese Insecurity Is the triggw to Chinese aggressiveness. Cntll ice turn the rhetoric or rainirochemt-nt into action, our lo-man taMe tennis tesru cauuot utacare the. presence of 283,000 American troojw within easy *trikiiig range of Xonh Vietnam and the Chinese mainland. I heueve that prtssage of the HatfltHd-McGovern hill Uu* year could move the world' toward peace by bringing about a new cm of mutual tnm lietween the People's Republic of Obita and the United State*. IJwipite the promising progress wXve made in the la>J. several days, no lasting uiidor&tauding '-with China is payable while our men continue to l*e engaged in liot.til Hies view? to Cli i na V southern border*. IWntioiw hetwefn mainland CiiJila and th I'.S. \vtll alwaj-K U- rm Uie razor'x edgv.of direct 'military coiifrontalio]i mi loiis ax Anx-ricans fight and bomt> so rlose to tlur Chinwe torden. .- Jf hfif>e for true rorld peare :Js to ooaif ftbout. tjie mOfrt iVfU--rfuI Nation in th<- vrorW uioirt jrtoj' *<J^aj:(DC la -comiiat on tlie d(.Hirsf<-ji of tlie Aiost populouK nntion In the world. - -_ Jjiirt of all, Mr. Cb-iltaao, the AjuerJcan )K*OIIK w-ill not (w fotdixl iut belk-ving thnt a vrithduu'al of Army and.Uarine turc^s in rhe midKt <>l contlnnlng and :xtire Ameriean **r and iwval iiornliardnx-nt nx*an jap in Vifjnain or an *!>} <(. AiuTJcnu involveiwntiri SoitUca>-t Axia. Sfii^ary laird's rttU-meut Uiat -ourswr and naval for<*s( will tonu a "realwtic cletrl" after the lart Awericac ttoldier J^VI-M Vietnam 1 proof that tbf AdmlaJHtraiion clearly does ao*. intend to ud AniejricOD inrolrntteot in the war 1 1 tliewrfufur-. - . - ' The Secretarj-'w ci>muu-D!i. oit' April 13 *</rf followed !>>' tlw President's reiijsrks aa Aiiril 1! that we sn'H mt-Jntahi force* In Vietiian* uttlil tmr I'OW'w are n-leatd >iJ until the S<iitth ViKnamest- Jw- J^velM*^ ttv 'ajAcitj to

ie jin<\" <.f Am^ri^-an Kiibdrawal cvrntingrnf ou Hie lattUf - '<r {alluri-.-j f tlie South VirtnaiiM"*- Armj rould u^ati c/ijatinnln^ American iiir ami proprnl raKuaJtitti for uonitiKH^id }far.- u i-nnif. Ir |K -clear tbot t)- VJjcon. Adidni^ratiw) d'rf-N ;ioj intend to eud Ajiifrioiii i!iv(th ejiient in tiw war tin: /nr>~ur<l>-l( r^in ! tnily *dtMj : By ti piiMIdy an'jounf<xi withdrawn! >{ }\ Anwy. Mnriw. Air Kr<r-. .-inil Xav.v Tn thf- almwuv <<f Exwiitivc iniiiiliij-'j'.ii'I In lhw.-{i.': <>f tc nwMon with ihc war, tji- 1 Vi-jcn-<>t -tiia*^ :Jn> flw ilii'isivr i-l' lij '
of Vifi.nam with the <".i&jfr<_M< 'oTujfj-sti have jiuMHy a;id jirivad-ly a>.k*-d liiui tn d' w, Tl(c viiiw ha* iii-jJ^t-d MfJu-n tJu-^VijurK-sn nicrf r-'KtKnirt J tin- wifhen <>f thia dut- for tlw -nj of A

w rrs-j:-t.>
Tin' <'5iAii;f.A\, Thaiifc 'yoii/St'iiJifor ("rHiiston. I think lhaf -'in a ,vi v lfl|>ftil Atfifcj^Jit, I arrf Korry you were not al/lc tfl li< i ar Senator % if jitfirhT Jinl ?*efwtfir ifj'Goi-cni. They made u-ry iinc
.

'I In-. riiuKMAN. 1 t l i j j i k your ni-tiliwif- :trtij voiir ubiU-iui'nt w'A\ Inry Ji-^-f'j! ia-fliix.i. 'puifltto'*: A> 1 iiw-d ;x>f ''-il \ov, fU- I

102

y OF VETERANS Before we recess, I do wanv to join in commending the veterans of the war in Vietnam who were here this morning for their very fine tehavior. We are very pleased to have had <hem and I know they have a very deep interest in this. I think what they are doing will U* useful in influencing the attitude of many people in and out of the Government.
HEARING SCHEDULE

The liearings will continue in this room tomorrow morning at 10 a jn. The witnesses will be Senators Miller, Stevenson, Javits, Mondale. and Saxbe, and our former colleague, Senator Ernest Gruening. We hope that we can have tlie presence of many of the veterans at that hearing too: f t hey are able to be here. Tlie committee is adjourned. Thank you iery much. ^'Thereupon, at 12:55 pjn. the hearing was n><vssed, to reconvene tomorrow. Wednesday, April 21, 1971, at K) cm.)

LEGISLATIVE PROPOSALS RELATING TO THE WAR IN SOUTHEAST ASIA


WEDNESDAY, APRIL 21, 1971

UNITED STATES SENATE. COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS, Washington. D.C. The committee met, pursuant to notice, at 10 ajn.. in room 4221. New Senate Ofice Building. Senator J. W. Fulbright (cliairman) presiding. Present: Senators Fulbright, Church. Symington, Aiken, Case, Cooper. J avits, Scott, and Pearson. The CHAIBMAN. The committee will come to order, please. WP sire very pleased this morning to have the distinguished senior Senator f rom'Xew York, Hon. Jacob Javite, who will testify on S. 376. STATEXEIT OF T J>1. JACOB . JAVITS, VS. SEVATOE FEOM HEW TOKK S*-' ia*or JAVITS. I thank my chairman. Mr. Chairman, I am very grateful to the Senators who preceded JIM- on tin- schedule of witnesses today for allowing me to proceed this morning. I shall lie brief. I do wish to establish my jwsition as a witne.ss. and w*. only as committee member but as a cosponsor of the Hatfrld-McGovern bill. PKESIDENT'S WITHDRAWAL POLICY President Xixon in his television address to the Xation of April 7 and in iiis remarks of April IB to the American Society of Xewgpaper Editors. hat- refused to establish a deadline for the withdrawal of all U.S. aniM-d for< from Vietnam. He has declared lii^ intention to the iuas.sj\<- U.S. air rriic in the fighting and to retain some ground forces until certain conditions are met. In t fie two conditions he has set for total T".S, withdrawal, Presi<k.nt Xixoo lias reaffirmed tlie veto of both Hanoi and Saigon over I'.S. dii^JigagHiient. In addition to the release of all POWs lield by S'ciih Vietnam, lie has established Vit4narnization as d precondition to l.".S. withdrawal, defiixyl a follows:
fix- ^i>lijt> of ihf Kouth ViHtiHjiWbf 1 dcv-li>ii tiic '.iijcitf to defend tfceoi>-(t!iJul ii <"imittiuni*ff iJito-nviT. m/f (lie -urc iajirit)-. Nut at Ii8t tlw

continues to I* <!n? lai?* of tlie President ' jv>Jicy. i*Mje is drawi Iictween withdrawal by a tinu- certain or an open
(J03;

104
commitment no nurttt - how troop strength is reduced. To show bow loaf this can take. Vice President Ky recently estimated it will take 15 to 2o years for Viernamization to succeed. I will yield to no one in my solicitude for American prisoners of war. but I do not believe the only way to rescue our prisoners is to continue*the war; the history of warfare teaches that prisoners are released when wars are ended. To insist on retaining substantial V'.S. troops in Vietnam to induce the release of the POWs could result in a stalemate on the POW issue, rather than their release. The key substantive issue to be decided is whether a "time certain7* should be established for the total withdrawal of U-S. Armed Forces from Vietnam. The President has opted for i policy of scaling down the level of U.S. involvement while leaving it open ended with respect to time. I feel such a policy is undesirable for a number of reasons related (o the Vietnam war itself and also to the unpostponable need to iw.Jer |~.S. priorities at home and in the world.

Dosresnc DECTRCCTIOX AND DIVISION


The scars in this country will not begin to heal until the t'nited States has fully disengaged rtaelf militarily from the fighting in Vitntm. What could our Nation possibly win in Vietnam that would 1* with the destruction and the divisioneconomic, social and in rrorale- which this war i inflicting OR our own N'ation '. To cite some examples. the Vietnam war has so weakened Inter'ition-J ciKifidence in the dollar that our world financial posit? .n i.s rieing j^-opmrdized. It has so erode.] the motivation of the American worker that our very productive and technological superiority our grrau** strength is threatened. It ha>:*o dismayed A .>rican youtli tha IO-JJP segments have losr faith in the essential effectiveness. decency and humanity of our society in <>ur culture and even in our credibility. It lias M> strained our resources a to bring on a grc-at in*Viou n<l a dangerous ero-=ion of i-onfiilen'-e in our economy resulting in serious uneinp!'<.inent. Along w i t h thi- we have the deep aggravation of our urban jirobIfttn- leading f< fiie near "bankni|fr:v~ of city goveninienfs acrrjiw America- and thr fleep x-ns<- of alienation arirl i>s..-.iiiiisni now so pn- 1 a lent in what i:s-d to U- know;i ^ the most ojrfimi.^ti' 1 N'ation in tlw world. Ami fin-re ui. tho-<- ."m/Kki American lives lost anrl the l ja<i that >il<ift billion of treasure. " xrixi; IN \i.!t.)r.xTT\\';FXTi\i.Ti :'.. iNT>3{r>Tt IN Tii. \'^-tnani war ir. nov. an olso!rte st niggle as regards I'.S, irjterestf. in Asia, \\liatev* r justification tin-re may onci- have M^ineri to I*- for t'> infen fitt ion in what ha< alvuy- e.-.-rf-ntially lieen a civil f.tnij'gl*- ,n, . I I h a v e long regarde<| ;mv combat intervention a.-. ,ery imitrvi<.l.'rif i-otitinuin^ I'.S. m i l i t a r v itivohement in Vietnam would l- tangent u I. if rurf '-out i \ult'-torv.t'> tlw advancement "f I'.S. interest ^ in Aia. Th real iu -x of A-J.I in the \'.t~n\ and the lf>mV w i l l havt- little to f]o , t l i f.f >{ii>'-tii>n of who rule. Saigon. Jy way of reminder if
i.S c e r f a i T i l v toilav a Iliool i|i|.--f i - i l l whether f he "f " . i f l H l i I H i M " govern

of \\nzit~\x\ in ,'. more o[<[Krj-fl to the \>Hf\c |iriri''ipli r -> of our

Nation than the wiYitvry dictatorship in Greece. Tlie issues we shoald be. ronrentratinfr on are oar relations with China ami Japanand the shifting quadrilateral jower relationship in .isi* among the United States. Japan, Chii*. and lhe Soviet Union. The Vietnam war has done more to Complicate and strain our relations with both China and the Sonet Union in recent years than any other issue. Moreover, the domestic inflation produced % ibe Vietnam war is largely responsible for the protectionist claims which threaten a trade war with Japan. rj>. POSITION is OTHER AKEAR _^

The Anieriran obsession and preoccupation with Vietnam over the past deoade has led to the danger of 1-.S. policy being bypassed by. events in many parts of the globe. Vietnam has" contnoLT/-'! heavily -_, to the deterioration of the U.S. position iu Europe and in t& Mideast.'-' ' iV'e have been so disHicted and so ~Iorked-in" to t*.e struggle-ra Vietnam tliat we have lacked the energy, the resouro* asd the menUl , freedom to give onr Ust to the great cliallenges whw-ji have emerged in other parts of the globe. " \* ... "V . WEAKENING or UNITEI> STATER FROM UIUTARY vtEwroist. '' - '. "It is also time tnat we recognize that the Vietnam war has seriously weakened the U:ihed States from a purely military viewpoint. Tftis , TR A seldom iibMuar<{ aspect -of the question but it is one whttb'-! knoy.; to be ver>~ much on the minds 01 our militan' kad^it Th VirtrHiift war has nndermined the morale of onr Armed Forces. It las loweretl the |tn>$tigp ind honor of the military profe-teion In thceyesijf mknj milhons of American*. Tlw vast and improperly fuc<Vd <ipedi- -. tures ot. the Vietnam war have led to a iitrooe n)trv. fsr cijor cats in the def-nr budget. An4. *rliile the Unit| States was devoti/i^. more than i?l'Kt billion to the Vietnam war and holding the JfMV'i |u?f on it* strategii- fonvs. the Soviet Unionrnnenrnmbered l,v^ lias brought its nuclear foros uji to stralegi<- parity, \i3ti itn ronvnttioiMtl forces in Knn>pt> anj larf ronrtr^ed a. nat v whi^h now i-hallenges the U.S. fith Fleet for supremacy in the Mediterram-ur. ami wtlwr vital waterwa*^. .; \\iien vi i.ed against the jjRrsfjective of rompcting prjoritie^ "*t lionie and abroad. th*rv is nothing in my judgjjient w>iipl>^f .conij n-alisti< -illy ue*k or gain ifi Vietnam to justify an open-Hiicd bi ment in the Vietnam war. nrrABUfcHXKXT OK Ttur. TarrAiar ir* wrrw;<AWAf.
""

" The tiriie iian ronw for the Congresa to p^rabiisb by ofatu^e a <vrtafr" for the tvhhdrawal nt all U.S. A.nrf-d Ynrae* from tlw- Vietdam war. Iloj^fuily. fli'm ran !M> a<v>mpll<<lied in r<x})c ration with the JV-sidt-nf. I wi not believe that Showdown con from at ion on tint i^ntje \*-l*wn tin- President and tlw <*ongrw would 1* in the intfrvstj". of rlw J'tt'h'iJent. tlie ( 'orgiww nr our V it ion. Like many other Sen:itn<. 1 ''iint*' relu'-tiinlly t/ \\\t-. view that the Congrey. ^/itl<t .ii*erf if- iiltirn^*' p/wer i\w r<\.r <f the purw--fo bring an eud to thu war which hxt done siwb v^f ami inraj'-tjlahje harm to ch h
/iir Xitf ton and it interewts at }nntf i^Kl througfiou. 'th- world.
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~~-y'-.' 'iiV.-'Cu Lt- i^}Jw-t.-A^wl .tbiv"Tcit<yl ' .*^>tati?s will partith.?(. its.; n&lrinH " ; .\ _ r ' i . ' 'V -..-._' -. \ _ or* _, _V "T . il . , _-v". " ! _ . . .
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lioim^iVrs, figl/torx, <t:ni IKM.-II^TS |tlu\v(i s.io ft iitassiv*' a,(i iiTttmat*''1,'. ^, rr!o in,{JiiiJ-otnh" VietnaJnts* proisnd clforC.*iiOeil lirt-'faflffy of" ', J iuh.'aii'"l^j. ^vririidnmal to jTrotiO'I-uorflj^"fjvxxjjji'--:W "C-ft. "^iir.

T hf ( 'H.UBM.OT; Tlak yi -ry wo'; 'sorru-- of tli^n.mry.vj'iS'rtTiat }KI\-? 'l>wn ailvaiuvd. ft i>-n TV rap.miftl >t"iiii'iiirt:t.-J 'iar{J.-iilsr'_y, '-a'} -aftfifi<JJi to VO{JT s " ' -t .-K ^;iiii ii, \"ii:irirrt to inpvfy'juxy>pfjfit.*di invoKvurocf. fa tlt^ Viftinim war"-*iii1 y<jnr sra(^rn'Rt;il'w'-'ct-"-i tii^ That ^ u^ysiori U p J fuif{ 'I'tthiiiir witri tt'Iii.-L l-'cij^dhsurrf*; In ui'ir

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107
vT. a mistake, an error. in win- prVy. It is a kind of a ' \Wa<re|< <-verythinr you SAV, us I do. and I think most . n-a-Jlyvontr-s it. but they yw rcx'olted by tlie idea that '_ ^ -,-.; .'^{'iv^l.->u.ccMjf of this and yet for nn ^val Justifiable end. It bothers v .-' : > ' t V l e .
TESTIMONY or HARBI OREENTJEKt;

\\V Jcuj. ;lh<6v-tf{.. before^ I dona remember whether you were hero or Mi- i>nt Mfytvtvl^ytar tyn v had. I thought, a very perceptive, in feel-* fcwsl )rV>f(>;iiui, analysis of our situation and particularly the moral aajK'Cts. especially in the testimony of Rabbi Greenberg. Do \<ni n-iiu-mlwrthnt testimony I . Sfjrtr!:r,r^'nv,. I -ora^'hiuv-.- .T?j?-X^HAiKM AX I> think fliosf hearings may have been si year too S<XM. I think* .they wuiiVd"}iavc been more appro|>riatc today than they were th-?. hwjAjw*' rht- atmosphere arid the mood of the country and i^. '.-Vr^rrrs-: had not yet developed to the point where they realized >J*';tJj^iirn*riKK?.> of this is. I wondered if you would help raff ha-^iw sosue of the things that Uabbi fireenberg said. He said (hern -,Ho%tT<-l!. :iinl I ask. Mr. Rejiorter.That in order to jrive the background ui this lieariiithvi I&.^tajiiincjit^-xliich is relatively short, l inserted |n the n-c:rliiLtLlas-(fhk*-i order that anyone who rrads the record *ill KnoxViiatiK^ arc racking nbfjiit. ? follows:)
C" . -

tit rut bRi.fr, Cnrxmc. AKOCJATE Ptortftxt* or HIRTOBT. ^ 'ofwrHrv* l.'MVEMrrr


T.H.
the war in iu.:t,n('rc^rrfit t,K- rKtlizatk/n thit pulili.-? -Ufr In tin- primdry moral example 4ta'H! ttdn}. \VV lailF-tyra t'< ehTWinen auJ fb^jlfiglaiw in oine i .lltat ili^y t/p ! r^'w-JK'n'1 mid ntutp-nf* of ./>. ntoral qn<":tlon.. ~ttg* \ltfy havr ifttlf inrtct-'iiw firn|arKt to ib*- nxidcl tit jruWk1 life r 7ft tin- f'itrI Jii:^ trt;k- i N*< t<j' * I'lvrtdt-nt. tin- m^0iU>ri of ". i'iFtixn><. rji,- ju-l/rlar>,> f f.(*0'ra. Tli***- si'-rioo* and flif**- mfxH^ niv -s/it'l t-^-fjvii'lKTf fn the maw nili;i and ix>mniun!isition nviriun*ntaJlr ufluflxv tin- a-tlf' tlnrt\-tui<'li* >ind rlnoMti In AtmTlni reach u 'it tl>t~ fj'i^f rvu*-Ji<sJ i,f iffy;At.-tli>u f>f tin- I" H. Army r fjvh </f fin- Pnild-n' JJT" qn-<rim < ^>'ilij t:t> f fi-ui* 'its I{wji In j-ulillc llf- and th- warn.* thf ' tin. n-c 5 or <J ywirx fbp (k>roinant f('!- killine. HM- Ixxly '^ujii, ch<- uw <>f

( tin- liumun tl'M 'rrili/Kicit ciriliurw wVc ftaur uji'vi luncc a ;irt of -xfcl f(illinK <f >ivf l^xjc. TIri I* whr / But iif MI.K j-a*>: MM- v>r>' ti^rmi of Ttw war in wlj^i'wrliijtV.'-f '<ui"ji'Tr-l^ Uw KiJ jn/puUtlon i * (/-nt
'Jrit**, , >JK.f'/ ^C^IOW ill till* . It WJW ?U H dwJKT D<r Jll-

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108
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nsi*is tr It down and CM; coer*.* ft. Xoi t.V )>ust I-ad morul ff I* n -~ irho staud in the mliWte-sml 5av.r t'h-rignitVan^vwithout cummti'ii^ : lint wbo*- RK>riI eiiinl>IUci* arc y^wixn; l>y It. And thi-.long l-OT^r " fi*fon> fflrtJutavw* afv id*nliflHl or ,l>rwtrctit*tl <>r -ven coo^Bji^.tJ i< i of fnr IM dirret- brutality a.iv i>iiot;^- aa-l < f, sujar Csbivs. " ~ ' , - Tlif-*? n>ral-*ffotrt.s. fifiyrpft-r. nro I'j' jviw fnoly f^niilihr ! nil ' UM. ! w-itilit.-'. Ukf- t" 1>'iHl out >i>in*vnii>nil M'S-f<f'rtK wbiclj iir- l-^-< n->il--H<l t..-i an'Ji^tnfrf'hiS In jx-rsorj' liv^< arxi-c^iitlniul iminr! r.,uillii-lK i-n-a'-t) Jif^iiii li; Tlif>!*' bf *rv>nd>rjri vrtutt iln1} fntek a.f .xoc-~' "^ bli-ii(lit-^l< tl'/ty <\n- [/iIel morfilx-rs nt au attltimr i.{uy>? 'ir N It n->t p-jliy U'mu-i.- (rf thr "tin- MM.va "f tin- jVv/r unaliti- (< >;< t . tit swn-'i and Uic IQ i nr a-)ii<-n tl<- .tuditib- fe*J TR JHJutjU<-a unJ VVl;at t-t -tlift ffft,-<-t HE iuy <njiur-ty f.r .-J/Jii-t^r Jcilinwiit '<n |.ii|>b l.v'aff {ifltnarfij ^UJ'*' of lu- nffo^s at rtu-ir '^iv. rry U-JM-H I n.m'

.
Tin-TV an- u'.^tln- ftjuyili-jn ij>tfiMinrtMF^ i>tiil win/ rtal) l/K-lr rjirw.T* J <l^v<-to|ncfnt ir- -:ay ln^ote<rr>i niki (inHr r-jjtei, >-xi-ui>>t ttirru'dlihoBsb tli>-> ar. onir rar.kjf ulanlfi'^irf 1>^ J/i-!"- :'iiiit; [pli- Aiiil'xlmf "f ' flf" t n ^-i'lo who fi--I UIP 'r x 'iijuft Luf iiuirxit bru>^ th^a^'lv*^ t <ai'f] jji t' it i sip**- nf tlwjr i-ir i-t fJif i^s.^Or-n'-r^ .if !'.'. a/-!-*- -nrl tlwrrfriiv<< Ilkf niora.1 lira>Vi>'' Or >/.!! t-nioM-iuil c:><fv.'.>i IK-N i>.' <! " iijii-tr 1rix-n t-> !!< aiul -.-Jain. uriiv-rxaf 'liji;>-ti-:ri. r ti llnrv. *tl<l f**evr. <if t" Jail aft(.V"F'r'':"*J'Wl "tafU."- *'lil;i.- <utlllllr.>. irttxr-i I'jt-.'h irl.il - -tLtx- fffitt? AViat "f tii.-.?<i-ljj)K "f lai'k'.-of iwiir-tiui'dur hK-l sli i:K "!t tfi W"ji;it of tt- tli'jU.an<N <-f.-ftiiiiit<Tv fvjjf fill rl/i-ir jiriifi-s.i";i ili-iuiiudM in-ral V*Ji-/nv' *"Ju tlV'ft af' r u "ff rp(i/ -"H^rf:ci^i>i|:<--nri'I u l m "f Hi-- If^ill^iiif'^ w,'.'i rfiiiAio >ileiit <ir iii' Tj'Lfln-t JJid jir>- -<.ii- i\'itli Ih"- 'tn.i;rfgail<in lint ?!

Vrt* it ill ;
-fliif f tln< -wj. .(..-I Mr. t'l.uJKJUiIJ. f !!"!< ^t jflirav- 1. J tin 1 jtiin^rni.lj /ii- ju^f o-jir Tlu- f"ii, Cta'.tr.ncKO I u.iiilrt )* Ijaci.y t'-rnfc<',lcir.f.jr. i.'itr(;<>Kr.Tuuuk7<fj 1( ji:uri! IvrrnliiJ '

u.. Jt jiiu.<f ! 'rj(|r<J, >:-jrr>" f Tlil- n:i

tin- lnTj']ht,'A <f l'Hilir|i:i. .Vt.'/ti.-r xJ'Ji- *-fT'"-t ? i h l * wnr ia- l-i n rri'l"'-i:'.'.n.< l.jntv in liuf Tii'-i1 < -'<. r i--r)if lj;k'' l<<i-n int<i|;<il f"r>Kir-< nmi Ii, !!> "iif-\I u K-rir. '.f "iiifidj^ n i-ri- n- <!i--'iiri..->lif|'* IIP .S',iirii Vlftriaai w i t h a '.'-uk "r if>Cf\i>ti-of jijf:ilar li.i-. 'J'J.'-) Ji.iv- tvii i.^-ij ni H;.- {i(i-nt f IM>!|||I-|I( figuri'k '.rlnj IvJti^jpv, F.'yli- !!!'! ii|iriii||i-ij "P Id flu- ifuaw <>f .1 Jn.In j (-ri-'-fn-r ir. (in- ,'ji-aJ n t f b - u f '"il --r nn-r/ > '/'li<- r---tiif Ifly I/HI- < t U ( t ' It}" -/""'urK'ii A i J l i ji [M-.r-y i-rr-'T Iii:<N f'i n ! ni:il "f rii- v;i;,<l .ii-i-jir n*i-\f Ami r' f.n-( dmt Mfi<(j>ti!!/ (Iw iii-rff c "f flji- tt.ir i'-i > ;'"''i li-.:*r r-jif.l.i- d. UK- /;-i-i|. "f y j/ ( (l n-i|>-in|irinfi :ii ij'in.i- !(./. " f i ' t ifijxr'ju'irfl ((^- il;itjm'tiri'itl^-r <lit ifl'if! il.i( !i rh,^ tv';r ii.i" fii'r'J'liI'1'11! til" "lir '.'i "f ;.*i"riiii'' wdlfii (ri*I> .oor/i.'ii)-. m-iin'i ;ir,ij I|T-H in
i f c . IlliTf i AV. l i - II" h^Jlltliy !-"<J> ]'lilic. Tll'i art.' f l o - Iif-!ll'iil 'if J

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taadeqaar* <dnca(on. broken f-alKr*> nd Uck of Adf-reapm. When t>, n>Hvt t-n* dbr 'Ktraordinary tat* of rf.-t.tv.ou. vin-trwnlc wirvciUaixv. training. tfclevrd 6y our nuI <<# .tud t<**<iiiulogT om- dnraras of tbrif <.M *UM& awd ID rnifiatbjr ? fret? iar own sufft-rrrx. Tbe jcUat in tU. aed"*f<!{carlirtj t^*** war"bn poverty ad tin- Indu-Curoa war hiiMkA to ioptfe t>tM^t vac raora! priorities. And **ry *tt-t,i >I<vper lnt</ tuU war Uftwufnt*! lb million" aroand tUr irorld trbo knowing Uw- rlU ud &*wo<-irt.vf tOisUt&rbin ^ntfciu. irlcliotn ronuzrU-lxin*. Iook4 t-> ihv . nut V*t r^t irf th-'.j*c;a* ito.-nl i*tb^wtuc to tror toclftr it it* rt-ri-:.T:k>ti of finr inbCUj' to 34l( ror, or fcovrft tbe traffic and ironic t*te~ njjr.lr Ii-utorj- o-wr dokv oct to M i"it wj dw fo*;: uwa. Let nx- mte clear thif >>u> Btlr-K/^?c Jewish irad;tVi>n ha* b./t l<vt>0 i/aflflst. !>* U ih* Mfltnf. tlir> pxxL But Ja4Um bad the mrocl ;iUa> (u ix-coffDize flat uadt-r <vrrBbtjinc*^ war i* & ni-^Twa ; otf JiwtlflabV1 irvil. , op^>fM;lif o( tlte war wa'd <fi *ll*o nrowd.'.r ih*- loora our intrrwntlun. V>,rjc 'r-ly oiif-i tlic roU- of of -imrr.-cjn rei<oa\i'li}U'r for the ivnrM ur>b.-r. Tfaeiv WA. a ptusr Lu w'r^'^jliiiBunlKt 'iliia-j. ij-n in ii tx>uimj> jwrlud wliidi wvnv'd to he cU>airTi"illi diRnrry of lu^a. * X(n.><J"niHt an<l \<>rtb Vlrtnara as purrlj ,- .rlll(r. {u thl.i fjbaMe the ft*ur of BDOtbcr Mnoicb >u't tbf cnnrictlon * iwt M-ll <xit. or PC Jndiffrri-or lit W,rlrt \\'ar II n-j-a; itm-liU-'lfr''*! )t of Biai.y Hot !* flw pit,1 1**; UcU. of t-vciitu tirf fact)- auQ ^>mruf V Innate n-rcal<sj UK.' fUhv f war . nwoaU'tkiiw. fbcu our H:ioil a nit-rial bunion of n?nponilihhj oo n to <v>jEa:*i- onr >m>r n<l \f jJiodU /ucc- admtltM Ttm: OtronjunUt CMna vr n-at ioU>n>>Ir. thin N'rtii \'i^!Dini Litorlcjlfy souglit !( In*>pid:ncc frf-m C'tiiou. -i)ut the >k,ntli Vii-tnxm f> 'vcrnuw^t coaM DO* <rr wuuirt not oiaxtcr populur .*aif>vf!. Tbl :lk- Kiirv. JIT** .ind ClirKInax. alik<> havr tfU>Hy<l r. Snul, it nraa I>uv; trr-j:-r mi.*cak*<<. JM iij.'m- tras'c -ril thins*. Tli-ii *\*f wn* .Snul *f riifwd of tlw.-nr- anl lii ic<ist i'<.rrful c,ri:r,'tion (urn lln* U tlrf- fpj<- xtrenxtli wLii-h J ii>r.il trailer mnf. liavf. lal wa to^' IK- w.>uU nr;> rxrl'/naliz*- auJ j-jntlfy hN -rro. fwrtr rorrofrf* and )x in v,t iljlj nliuvnl. (>rilj fl.oH- wL admit ujlrtak^.t A(>d n.i>^it thr Irr/li; nud of rlw arn(itl'/iii> -iii] ! fnifitfl wlflj jHiticr wj iirlt:ihlj U^.-tr/>' OM- <,fU<-!> OfhT'l'. MV liavv u n;j>tia'i* -in ih>< t-inE liutuiliatM] or l- j< if ili4- Kr'j(-r liuoiiliiition In <> in i-rr.r an>i tin- ^n-at^nt L'f-ji In nut in i'urin gMi in *< i j t m ^ i-rin-lf f <{ frustration wi-kins t/iu- iant Kni kon(. Siti-ij A nmcci>ll<.-n
Vjollll*.-' Jl'll l,'l !i(i f "lirjl-ltjKl f t l l K K <'f fflVff flljLl-

It ;. triii tli-r.- i <iM' irrfjt f-pi- f'r -'nitinuuit i)- v.ur If I- tin- ili-ntii -f n.-r I'H Auii-ri* jr.- uii'l many llo> fiiat iiwiiv Vii'(nam-- -iii-l irli-r '.? '!,< <irti! fliaf jiny t.ufjm:, ;n r)(|ir .'^ji f</r u,]-ink' r^ MI f t i u ' ('*.>*. tor t 111'*- :)^^ AJid pvki- farflii-r N--ritl.v ninl nl f r a ' t!.<,.i- u-|i li:ni- a-m<- x<.ir-. Shall m- u-.w jf> t.i tlt- ;. i ' . - n f II.-M! MI> . u<- i.avi- i-rr>-<j /u<'I your '-LiLIn i, li.tn- >]i<I in % . J K I - *(mll nil finI nuli^/- 11^- full fop i- f t|.t- iliii'ii.iiui .; ! Xlmll in<Jr;i:ii aiiifii-r I'M**/ \ ic*u.'iiin/Jiti">i ( ";!; ik-si^n^l tn |Mirlib < w liintuii'l (INI nilrfiit Cailur-- "f in- i|ri| ii-ii i-fwf nu,\ tir-ri- ln* in fh- i n l i - f j m . '!!/ jirM-li ;n "f n-(ii-ii(:irii i- i liiat tiii- ]*-r<'.r- *|;i. l,;i j-ndi- ;ilrny fi-l In- l..i B"'!'1 *i fur a>l ir ha>- ! - iiifi ti fl.i.r In- i-.uinni turn l>ii'-k i-f w- an- t"l'l '(urii .ii,<l I)-.. Tli-- mill j r i r u t - r i t'li- (i.-ifj.l --uni^i- ! <-i-(if" ( tin- n m r . <if (J.<'N'li'l (!' c i>ii\ inf< rili'.ii- .ir.'l f i x - jin<l;ik<:li 4<>uriiii't"li' a ('I lli' J Z>'ti'Jtl"- ji.i ""!"'i-r., >'-l.|'l. ni"iiKi(--'J lli-'lr lx-l"i"<i n;ii'-' c)"ji(fi Anil Ji pN-u (' tlwiu, (lut If i-';)|j li-iirii trni,, i,ii" \fAn ftrt-r. ',( i-ni. li-iirn ( Jii'nlul;ifr lii- HM- i-f !(, :( vi..-in - i c.< fii.iruJ i x ..... |-li- "1 lunijirv ,i.- ..|ir,m i- ..r <iiTi-ui nli'-n- if i* f l u - milv I. ..(.<-' r;:in; l <)'> fiii-u j !,!-< ;(.([.! mil f r u i t - NI li;ir.- i|i--.| in i.nd T'H y "ill , > HIM" i -art . ,f id,- -iii-nli -\|ii. li i-r .ii/hf nii'-iif <i 't'-i-jn-r inliTli:i'l":inl in Till "T'l- r j t n i ;i i"n;ii-i| stjift-^ (i-ii-jn-n-il !> Iriiu'ili (- n-r ((>. r-'ii(r''i ( inlinii' (11 ikl,f|| mrlliT ttllld tl'il U l l d i K ' 1'lii*

no
heal tlw worM nnd It*rf. \l MU-tv 1 Jinr ton-awd i<ar*nt>< .t<V> poo^Uwp"rM' >f |>/vi- otxl uitr * i^fjtKtfi/c anl a>:'vi--atnv triiirii Mjrli ovr.lff. Wr.<-uly )n>-k ttiM.Rii<rnl lMidpn>hi|i to hav- tr nj.ul-. bus tirvvr Mi tlk.r-iwirtyd<im r defeat I" tatrlnM<-fllly morally >a l>rtir tn rficiit'ifiiA-vM.fry Hut inability .to a^vpr rV trarlr. tin- inmlr. tinjfOs^Wlitj- of (uptake !Ml tsfynrr- ii. tir (y U-ry. t!ii -fully liooian ivrtmrw Mil* Is our aafiouui prnMctu. Maybe, ifcfs rtj>lu;ni. ur (i--k / fmiuifliy for il.f Bufferhue. ^.f>rl*v& *n*l defnit-d in >ur rtvr. e>tjr whffrfon- ofi-n <iuiilcuin tlu-ui to n-e!fir>-~*tfh'*ut ntK> eLarifj-. deprivation nlttt^ui lm[- an<l .vtutu.t tiitbout faitJi. '* friwt in Um. MayL*- 'p nr<i ffi admit .-* ami tn. vt" t*u rriutniiti (tv-^r jd-n-rt^ -j rui-i-im ni^l Iit nil in our (mntry liy >ur tmttfrrriti.aiiil'pTi-ufDt dcf'Ht* In tlii -Aragzlf \>n>.TTiT'- i* "t;- la*t morn I d'at.c.T I K-int t>, pulnr-to ali>. Tlu-rc if tinfUiUj'-r 'Jit frfiu'lbf fruxtr-tlon ami ruilirulixatt'm nmf Ifuil tn n m-w llutli>nlm iinrt r"Jr.-Ti/:J ,f m<n->Minr iiari->iuil wi-Tlft'Kn l"r "rid IM-UII-. I l<cll-vr ihur tr U Un- -niun-tPO >( <nir r-;nn.** in a uiUtukfu an'n' n'nl tnittdtult-^ i-H that !**<!.< t> tlw wra)-<*i;il:c of our nv-lvi> t> h<-!i> tlin"*- u 1 .iiit fn li-lji< Uirf:]'lvf>. \\'< (-"i nrifj tin- fjsirnii-* f thont;lttIfH int-rrci ( tlr . nr total inv >[itii>'ilillity tiu-lr on ii -i[>trJ:>>- aaJ corijrfTjfii-n riltli all I>>iii><nt>i *!i (lit- \v/irl(l OK u cut lot In^TtUiI rapport f'/r mi-.tatm i-jux,-*. uh'-n- tiu-rr i.< no nmrnl f-inim or national Intercut \Vbui VIK u.^J )/i >ittr t!:ii- i- uut tU- iliisnunnin^ of |t>>\rcr lot gt>-at<-r s n't ri-al. r j/r-.-J^.ii., *l!I>ru'.'i-n.an'l j.pjjx-ritir.Tti-in In lfn u-*i^nvf IIH fr<'iii iuUi->ii4l uiornl iljMuotcr l< tin- r*-^i-ii>- of million* "f ali kirxl* uim Imvr -|.k.-n ii|i. takvn rrs|H>fiVi)itllt> . iiunlr- ni<-nil ej-;r].int-- *.* riRli?. -nir wrnz The -oviTinjt uj of t-rr-r l*r jf'lnrizufi'iii. l-rv.n. . vm -u-izlriK U|H>II n--tuul aim.-.-* fo nr>mw ha'< . .ii niu oiUv rai.v Uu- rinli i>( iitoral Jt-cjt.-r. I'l.'il^^s u;/D i''fi N n-'.nt>tl t-> flicilclitlf- 1 lii,riire -if -.tful-r;i uij<l in r>>*i'irn- of imrit.K 'l' '= -r Idlml ilctni 1 t-m. Tl.i- 'xfn>tiort nf iin- wr i|irmfi; (/ i<vfr\vli>'lin tli- fruit il:L<r >if ninml -cn-rn arnf 3t<- inii>ii'aii^*<l ni'iral Irjtitrnuii r anil <1>-:no ralji- f'liM'ii^u* Hi >.nr oonir.r. Tbii tl:iul i:irji: dlo-d-r luu-f U- i.r>. v. i.l^l All of n^ mul i-llnff i-;i.<rrn- r w l tl,i> iii-u. i- n/iiil. l< m.n nrui-iiM-d HI f.:ir mn d'"> o "niy )>r l<'<-i>i:ur;/ one >ni,u>iinll; IVri'4j"> . lsi lean:. aiiij^n' l:iiili>iil H<!I-I. fn rn '!'*! und ( M"U' uii"Ni if ItJi'l iinrwil 'Owo l f nitiuif f-ijc'*hi.T ti iu p w wu>.% *('. t'i 'ir^ri'^riM' tin- *-\jK ? tin 1 [.**.. i t^-Lr-v*- iliitf "(ity iu ilii** wui 'f w it f, ru ''i*w iiT*t\ jk>vi f*^ !( fv*-r.i*iK** iu p*cr *>''*,) 'and

I rraily ftrl th.-u hj- ! what lH>th-rr not only u> but tlu- I'-i-&i(l-nt.
n wji > tin- bi:iraiiatiiti fu lh- ^001:1, "y f-fttiljinjr an :*'i''Mi of tinkiiifl jtt3 3'ihjr''Ic.s.' (lian t'oiitpU-tc >. ic-torv. Tlii.-* fl'*'?1 <-r.'nl- u most tf/i|H'jt;riit hul UTV .^iililU' {r.^t'lu/l'Jifii'uI lijiwk tu our f;iki;iir ili- art ion wliii'li .id of tii<- n-:i!<oiii \ou have ;.'! M-II af.il otlu-rn lliar h:iv>- IK-PII o;i; i'ii ii-lc W nil III il;ilir:it<- ir-iii tin 1 ififrli^f of our count IT, Scnsif'ir J \viro. Mr. I '\miriiw,. I Ji-unl Kaf>hi f/n-rnljcr^'. HP wn n-iy i'|iHju'iif. In- *|mkf fruiu tin- dc|>tli of ."i."'in vi'.'io- of /fcwinli xj'i-rii-i/'^- wliirli Irf-.iis in iiis K-iji, Hi- yjul. in I'rfct-r. Jlic hijrlif.it nioi:i!itv it '!) inoraliry rtin.-i; iro/irni/.-- a i/iist;iki-. Jfr sai<l von ri)i/;|'-u'i'J Mini iiiitLt- iijiini/iMl wliai ina; Icivi- IH'I-II moral, if yon |rtTM-t <iiil of -|>r->-r htilMinrdlirK.-i in :i |*>liry l n i l i hlllllllll ' 1 .i-|if J !i:i\c ilcuion-tnifi-d to In- ;i |>!i'-\ wlii.-h i-, dcstrii'-liu- ratlicr tli:in
COli-tl II.'IIH',

III' f"'. i ! Ii-<l to on i v i . - w tluif riif iii^||fi diit \ of in;in i- t hi 1 morn 1 it v -A a iiiHluk'.'. ul wlijrli in s-lf rurjvj'Moii mi'l 'If-

Ill
censorship. He beggpct us to get over the basest part of our morality which is persistence in error. Most people feel very deeply about Vietnam in terms of so many lives lost. \\ ho knows, many ether things may have come of it. Maybe even our own sensitivity to slipping into war and how dangerous it is not to realize what trar can do to a whole people. ow even we, with aU our strength, could lose our Nation in such a I think the point is, and I certainly subscribe to that fully myself, that tin* Itiirtiw morality is thai when you recognize th*, the time has coaw. seize* that time and don't out of stubbornness or human perversity ]*'rsist in a course which cannot then be justified only because it is a course which you undertook and pursued heretofore. I believe t hat was the message of the rabbi. VATTKE or THE XISTAXE The CIJAIBMAN. I will read in a moment, a few passages from his testimony. There is great difficulty here as to the nature of the mistake. It strikes me that the mistake was purely one of political judgment. It was not great evil moral motivation that led to this war. What bothers people is that they seem to feel that it would be the admission of a noral mistake, that u that there wa* something wrong with the motivation. This came up yesterday very cKarly about the motives of th<? Country or of our leaders back years ago when we first '.ecaroe involved :n this war, As long ago as 19.>o there are certain high points in the history of tlir development of our involvement beginning. I r/ould say, actually right after World War II in 1946, in our attitude toward this area and toward the development of Ho ("'hi Minh and the Viet Minh. I would Uke ifrlft, then J9.14. then 1961 and 1965. There were different periods when decisions were made. I don't consider any of those mistakes to have fieeii motivated hy anything other than a political judgment. Unless we anpirc >r presume to be infallible, this is nothing unusual in political judgment hy individuals who are Driven a responsibility for derision. It dia not involve, in my opinion, aiM great moral degradation on the part of the people of the I'liited St'ates or of the Congress or of the Kxecutive. Th y were simply political mistakes in judgment as u> tin- JJitentttn of tin ''.oiiiitry. whini every fount ry and every individual has made, and we need to disassociate that from a feeling of pjilf. I mean that in some way or other we are. UK a community, very tiilf y of mmm jtrreat ntonil la;js of wmic kind, I hgve a fex'ling thi v ia more imjwrtant than the psychology of makj-i-f thf dwiiiion, HiK-1. us you have urged and other* have urged, in a littU- ditferent 'v>ntexl than has hci>n rvcjoitM'/*-A. That is why I think it in worthwhile, ej>ecially with you h'ir, and your having been on thn rwmriHirr ut th<_- time, to fK>in> out a fi-w thingn RnUii OrwnU-rg Maid, if you will allow iw.. Jt won't take very long, and any time you wish to curmnent on it I would welcome it Ix-cause I don't think there L-; any one in the Senate more cnpghle of cotmnentinif on it j)i'f)jerly, Si-nnUr JAVITH. Thiink you,

112
MOBAL EFFECTS OF VIETNAM W.\B

The. CUAIBJCAN. I want to read a few passages. They will be- a littU" isrrwuuvtcd lx> aiwe I don't wish to n-td the whole thin^r. He said;Tbr ijcefrflou I nculd like. to- foriw on ther. ' jmblic lift- Dd \\ir nar tb*?. tnidvt pcdfleoKtif of America of thin generation. - , TfrH Tealixatton j>olntK up the moral dinaswr which is tbe art effect of UMtragic trrfrr of the Vietnam war. For th* pa*t 5 or 6 jvar* tlw dominant moral mcM.sn;;>> !m been tfw continual futile kilLtuic. thf body cminr. tlw PS* >f tuiailm and civilian destroying , projectiles. the 'k-nsltUuUoa of counties* Ani^rlcou faif* in VU'taaiu and i-"ant!<-ss people here to the human <iu:illtie* <-f the enemy and of the Jntiooent dvlHans who make up so large n jrt of tht-

I think tliut is> pertinent, especially in v'u-w of the testimony of the Vietnam Veterans Against the War which I loard last night. He poes ou, and says :
Another side effect of thin war IM* been a trvnirndnufi <>U>w to thf rrfpert tr j.alrioiisrn., Jt-ujixracr and fnreroatlunal rcpn<ili]llty. Without i-omtnUmour Co Micii cif>n<.flt*!. then- can '( 110 health} tdj |>ollr<i*. They art- tin- Ilfrblood tit a lr>*- Hocu'ty. But tbp.v ctiucejit* Lnvi- been IuvokH<l for yi-ars now 2n tfuiinti-xr 4>f upholding n s-rleA of ililfting niircsshv dictafi)r><bl|i^ lu v?ritb Vietiiaiu w i f l i wvak or uoncx latent [Kijiular tin*'. TUi-jr liavr ri^ii u*#& in tbroriii-xt of politlrulflfcur-<itried k4Bicarn, xtyle and imprl^iml <ir In the Imuciof _u police <'-Llef KljiHHiujr A ciu-rrilla prUotier in ttrt- head itln>ut trial or uvffy Tii" n-Htilt i a treatendouii cynli-inui and a }>'* t faltli in arra.<< nblct ure Hleiilflmnt and wlilrli keep -MX'ii'lj iie. (Jullr liy aKfejrlaflnii with u poll"-)' error leads to A denial of the Inteicrlty of the valid 'oncrpt ItAtlf. And tlu* fan rimt KtalNtl'-ally tlie omre oncrewih'f HiipporterM of tlio war havp been Ira it re9pob)iivr to the oeedi of deuiocnii'y atld reileujitjcil af \iuttf iiflK only C'lOI(K'i'jnde<l the da mage.
MORAf. CLlkATT, OK F.ARLV HAYS Af IXTWHT.XTlfl.V

Vow I come to I think the most im[Kirtant part of it:


Kveii opponent* of the -r would d-> well to rrcrottp tbe nioral cllraaie of the eurly dayn of iur Interfentiod. WV can freely i-iriifenH tiw rol- of itlenllMii. Hie feeling of American re<{)")nil>llily for tlir M'rld "rd<*r. There wa> a pltas4in whlcli MI- wiw Touitnunlxr ('hinu. tliMi in it. rointuuije period wlil.-U to den> tLc clcaiculal die;jH> of ican. HA espaa.<ili>nit and N'< rfli Vlefiujo li'irely n ("biiieM- :itiJJite, In tliio |ihii- (tie fear iif another Miinlrh HIM! cfiniic(ii>n tliui we dare not -H mil nr If- imlirTereut lent Wurld War )I

IVAHJMTV TO AOMIT EKtlOK

TJiin is wiicri' j think lie pur sn veiJ the -n-or in jUfl^nuMif ar ifi fron: the i'leuliitin or pur[osv :
Hoi when the pirilpw lithi of Tty.t* aud fu<:u and crowing !. iflamii rc\caU'd (|M- faUity '>f ..ur H*uni|'ti.m. tiien HUT intrfit j.t. 1'iirileii of rei>poiiii|ljllli> mi n'j ! re-ofuixf "iir irror and wlfh'Jra* \V- fb'>ul<< hme iidmlrtii] th'if <'<>inoiiiriit Ciilim wa* renf int<'j-i,uHy. <h*r Xvrtli VW-tnaw lii-tt'iriciillj ixxjKht i(H inc(ej>etiileuce fr"m ''in1 J. tluif ! **'il|fli Vietnam Oovefli incut i-<,i,|(| nut <,r wiiiili) not rnuxfer jn^mlar Ktijiport. Tliln imil>Hitr !- admit 'trt ha-- lieen flic trn|(ic fi,r<-e f l m t hil drill ii U df-per Uil /ii-rjh-r Into tb* in IP- Jeu> a tul <'Urk(i;ii<-i alike Imie ld'<I>/<-il /'uvid ,he Klutf "f Kllilinil fj>i' ;i HI-' etcriuil i))in'-l). UK uiicej>r>ir iff t i n - .M-T>'inl, J.-w|p|/ tradifi'M. i*>lii'.* r.ut hi-, prolecenwir. Wn'il. it u,i*. Jjv)ii nh ' 1 ei II (li)iiL'< Then w|,j M J . i Kmi) frlii['il nf tlu>
: i \ t / J - < ] ' ' i'.il-.l'l^ 1>!IVL'J o.llll) Tf'"fl,i/Jlll.ll <"llfc.^ l l , -

irmt: ini'l in limit pnHerfiil <nfiiri'l''U f n r t i fri-ut in. * u j ;ini| reilrcnw iiijij.fli.. Tl.j i- 'li- 1 ( r u e tp'ii^ili w l i l ' l i n iH'itu' len-Jcr ""!' lime Xunl vm !. w.-ak in- Ht.nl.l ifiil> rjjil..fj:iti/j- mill j u r f i f ; ht i-rr-ii* r->wer r-nrrupf mid i iri.-vital>|r

w*
wfri admit *)i*Uli*> *u0 J>fpt UN frwiy and tragedy of rf AKp *s*npCJoBii cab V tnwbft Kith jm: <Xlier*Le. d# pow ttv oOim. Otl*-T*>-, ,we ! * " or nunltoe* r-fcWi placw cmtt <anJjiL<n5 t. uat beiof tauoUlatrtl or ju it (tot *re*iv* LuniBtatioo r* not to ttaxtrHits to fcr-r- M ovr up trn/r unt the *nwtt iteftat U cot In poarfn* faod Il and raK nuourer* (iftf a.-, -o-nUmiiar rwrify < fmtratkxi wtAlaffVxw lavt kKocfcoot. Sort* * eon,v|.tkm T lfU:>- Jtm t*it and rttrtUan tffeta ( pwrtr alike.

1 thtnif thsl describes what really is eating no so mahy people, an'f in vv way of doing what yonr re9outto wtnte us to d<x
ottnocA, or HCX4V jUCKincx so YAR It i* vn* Ut*tr ( on* <3* fonr /or contlnaiiu; iliv war. It I* tbe tfcatb of uf rfo H-pfKt tAl 5* nmmn *crtrf *r*n for mistaken cut* becoflw *roi ftc^ fr tb*r .** tp< crfoJMr further1 wcrtflct* twJ n*ii*^r-'Wf we l*n*r tlrfc* rfcakiri- BWI* beforr. Wiaii ice no* x^' to tbe (*reo?K of f b- 40.000 aod ir: '* lMv> TeI 1D<1 y<r (-UlWren have dta) (fl v(n? .Slwli all thl* l*trlirfi'u ml crffi<.- toHin aottriii*^ I raU;*v th^ f ..'-i ton.*; of till* dUrauuL . But (t*- cioljr vomtitK^MtiDK oitMftvr must lx- : Kfulll w rtiaderao innfhrr 10,<MO >Uc^rkun t>4 *n<itbr^ SO.OOu VIfAiiiMV to J*tb raUW-r tJwujiot admit? 71>>it xii rli" r^rni Vfrtkursi <rf a VietnMinttkf tar volley ttMlgood to pordraM tim* nl nK 4mir foiliiiv t Hi'-.ilffld ht>C ft*t many roor* llr<>s .o tbr latcrtm. The - pn-twrn c.f rlivortoc'.- J>ltt thr {cc<c whc han gone avtnf ft*l lie ban KIHW *> far ui.it H Iita.'o.xt m>" mnrfi that be ranuot him back. Yrt v are told "turn '
nil JiTC."

Tbi- ->!> aiifwrt iir t(K> moral eoontKr (o roo/ran to tin- urvlron of tbf dad fn*- x"o<[ im-i>Uons and fit* rnirtaluii aampti<nM aivt ti<e ff .liiw p*UloUa> nDi'-Ji luutUaU^ rlu-ij twlartd OOM* rttath. And a fit* to th*-m. that if *f CXH Icwru rr.ii/, Cbtx tnudr ftisrf. If we <aui U*rn to nvxloUtf Uw OK of power, tf '*v ran xrf tliv moral pffltn(le cf voluntary accepts ice c>f defeat when? it In UK; ocl>rKinic tiling t &>. then fix** p*>pW tr'JI *ruly not Iiarc dld In vain. Tber *U1 l*wr,fr i*rt of tbr MtcrUhv wlilcii krocslrt <ibout a dee]r intrrnatioiuI.nHira) rIT aurf'.i I'aitMl ffutrft tonpemt >or traiCKiy to u- !U resources - nubHw f:-f f.-al tln> world nd ttuplf. I W*-Te if twreavrd parent* add wur poarf* arti .A^-alil*-- <f th ri.tij!* of k>r- uwl ubftfi^'itiMliov nd i>t*no1 wMok ucli fl amfrvl^u Kirfild Krok*- \Ve on!j Ui 1 'uini\ Irad^r-taJLt to bflfe if tna<]f Jn.^fHUi U' o-vcr Ml that uuirlyduai or dKwt IK lrilrio>1<itll> tu'-rsllj- *uprrt<r l rijjrtifunin rltor)'. But fnaWUty toacct-jK tb< tragic, tlrt) IriXtic. Ui*" JHJ*T}WTl:r (if .aiifTako aod failure I* to Ix- IPXX tliaa fnll) human. I'prbairt tliic I* or K"*1l^'i Muybe llil Jj'UIii.i our taok r.f <-ni-ail^ for tlw MiflVrlnK. awl drfthitcd In our own nucM}' wbon-for^ < oftMi condemn tttcni to N- without rnw> <iirlr>. <l^-ri ration without bojiv aod tato* vrftlK'fjt faith nr ''[i*f m ll'i-m. M/ixl*- ** nvd t ddiul'. frror tlxJ know dt^i-at U-for* we can JMuiui'li ovrr poverty giwl nudm and liatrnl in our country by '-oufcMLn/t our }jac vTT"n niul |M-f(>t: drfft la this *trvucle to.

<>r rou/'iNu KBBI OKKTSBOICV ADVICE


. Tto-it i* a iprcal tlcal ni'/rv, but I think t h> *<m np Ijotter than any>nn hi vi- fivr huJ what rr!J> w> an- famj wif h t this particular \'WA- ;n <>-Jj ts.itTK. t^ * *'un jjK <ivrr (his aud folJow what I IwJiere I/, |,.v v-ry H-ih- nilvjlc, ffr,ra a yrt-at moral f(>di>r, * coulfl gvt b*r^k on tV ti-iirlc i.<hc piifsiiit I^l:-faditioji? und idwbiof thigmtnfry. ''-T.jrt/r JAVJT^- f am 'iv|ily :'\-/Jf <WjiI^>' iniprt-MVed. My rccollpv t i'* ** thju th'.f W& ft'Ijitt 1 h- Uaf>r>, ?.4xJ said, fin>hably U'ranse it i* 2 {jji)jnxoita) u-tfrliii;^ with which I httf^?ii'J arid am n^ IflHi thuruntfiiiy ln-li'4v iy it. It j<t fljp furrtivarion f,r'>lmh!y for rvc.r rtt ir I urn trviii^' <o rjo nfxmt <>.!> (irMli[-tt(f in Imtili'Tly I'lnbr*/ jy <<{!< ^^1^:^. i^n/j I only h^m arid jiiuy hate' iJic I: -spirit ir/fi do o -}M-II it. will dot hi- m

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. The Cwaiai\y. If we don't do it, i can't see. anytliing very hope.ful inihefrrure. Senator JA.VITS. I agree. The CHATRMAX. I appreciate your coming,and I think both vun Ifebbi Greenlwrg have. made- a- great contribution to our thinking. <.' Senator JAVITS. Tiiank you, Mr. Chairman. The CHAIRMAN. Senator Pearson, do you wish to address any questions. ' , ' fijiatoc PKARSON, I h/trc \ud the fortunate opportunity through frktidrfip and association in the Senate, with the Seimtor from New York ti aorl of watch him reach this noint in the last few years: 901 haiv grtttt resjwct for his ttfatem^nt today.
WITHDRAWN Or AID AND -VAVAL fORCES

In your statement you nude the comment that we would continue to supply financial, material aid to South Vietnam to assist in their nHfd^feiist-, if necraary, togi^her wHKtlif. proposition tl*t all remaining U.S. militarj-iorceji in Vietnam be withdrawn. F/iXstiw Senator mwin b}- that that tut and naval forces would be withdrawn and l*ve only logistic and supply u>d matc-ridl f:oplp ? Senator JAYIT*.! Exactly rij/fct. I think that at thisrap" iiothingcl* will i\i>. T ps no jud^TTK'iil uixn the dispositions of Anterioiii na\'.l and othvr fon-xv throorhout tnp wc>-ld astju-y haw been disposed for it \onf time; V\rc will have to juil)f<r them on their merits, but I believe that under present (xmditions if we leave anythinfT el*- in Vietnam it will only result in the t ripwire j>|>ent ion, I never brliovrd that you can blafT *U)iii fiM'Se things. In other words, 'f yya iiavv a tripwire, and it trips, you arc in. Tlire is no fooling nbnirt it. Great nations can't bluff, and any )iu- wiu* thinks they ran t v^rv ilr-advised and thkt is my poinf. Whatever niay have brt>fi the situation liofore. now if you left any operabl* force, there of any kindartillery, air, groundif would l eftabliahing tripwire. V'ou mnrt exjMvt that yon mld U- drawn back in. tvnd M I don't want Out. I on't reromfr>end it. lint rnateriai Fupport. motley and .*> on. f iJiink wv should prr/vide Ijeravim- of our having brouvh't tiH'm. or at least joined iti bringing them, to their present pObture.
RKAMON* Mil! KZTf.VriU> IIATK

>Scnat*r PI.AKKOX. I)o I unilt-rxtand vnvtly that tJu- extcn-ied date that you profiose. \t in n'l'ojniitiou of the pnwtioi] probletn>r of withdrawing, togi-iher with giviiig tlic alinimtrdtion And Snigotr rftill nunv {'in* tog* it over w ith ? Senator .1 AVITX. All throe, but most importaritlv the hope that the tjme niiglit \n- found, n-ally tle time the I'n*i<J<fit himself has in mind and. Uierefon-. in eflWf, we will be doijiff this togptlier, <""ou^^Icring tlw eonwjiKiwvK of H-S. tro/ip withdrawn], und anything I'ati hapjK-n. Home of whirh could cuuxe great resentment in tltt' rountry, great diffirultie*., we nn't 1* afraid of it, but if we can avoid it by Charing tin- n*x|>oiiHibUitv fully w i t h the President then T think we ought to fry to nvoid it f fiat wa'y. i don't think that uji extra i', month* i*f<M> fiiiit'h to pnv for that, I think if iuwMh^irnble jf we huoiunfycan to yfr,-I,-!, oiinx'lM-jiiii tlfCongreNutoiiu'et the President half way ami f o ngrw wit h him in cffM-t tifxin a date.

115
Senator PKARSOX. Thank you. The CH MBX AN. Senator Aiken, do you have any questions! Senator AIIU.X. No, I am sorry I was delayed getting here, but unfortunately I had two committee meetings at the same time. nwautiurr or FKESIDEKT** AXXOCXCIXG COMPLETE WITHDRAWAL Hie President has announced withdrawing another hundred thousand troops by December 1. Do you think by December 1 he should be *l>)c to-xunounce a definite date for complete withdrawal ?

Senator JAVTTB. I think he should, but 1 see no promise, Senator Aiken. I *o no promise in the conditions that he has set that he will and almost that he cm. He has set conditions which take it out of his luuwij. and unless we take him off that spot, and it seems to me that the President would be anxious to have us join with him, bear the joint responsibility for so important a decision, but he has not, and unless we can take him off that spot I think ho is stuck with a formula that has just got liim bogged down in this quagmire for God knows how long.
PAUT PEACE AVIl AGREEMENT IN INDOCHINA

Senator AJKEV. I noted in his last TV taJk. to which I believe you have referrtJ. that \w did put emphasis on remaining tiiere at least with tin- Navy und t) . Air Fore* until such tune as the jKwple of that country arc able ti handle their own affairs, including their military affairs. lUve tic" - done that in the past? Has there been a time in the past when ttv '-eople of Indochina hare been completely peaceful and in agreeMcrt? Sw it *r .TAvm. In all modern times they have been cither under foreign tutelage or at war. ^ Tie CHAIRMAN. They were* colon}'. Senator JAWI*. As'l nay, under tutelage or under war, so thus is really a long, long-range objective. The Ainen-'aa iieople just can't do it. If we were the guiding power on earth. and able to keep order on earth, iti the tradition the Britinh did for 300 years, riavbe you would undertake it. Imf n if IB jiwf tearing our country apart. Senator AIJCEV. Do v 'i think it would Iw another hundred year* before they would be able to ? Senator JAVITH. Mr. Ky sap 15 or 20. S-nator AIKJTN. I am not urv tliKt Mr. Ky'n sUten^nt is going to Hhorten tin- jteriod. ( Tim article referred t'* follows:) ^
York TUM, Apr, 10. 1TII

Kr wi <*o Uotti T Hrjj'-IimtxBK Mt'T Hi S*T I'ACT or l'i LUOI.T rr I'.K I


.S, H'.i TM VirrsiW. Aj/r. I*. -V> I'n-nliMif Sxujfi-ti Can K> MW Hut it i>uld takr ).-> or 30 f**r* \w4mv Xo\ii\i Wftuim wan In; 1'wlf. I'lK In* uildMl HIM I lh rurivjit ;ixv i>f Atufrirau >r<>(ii T)M- out|x>lu>n former ulr vl'v uurxdul, *i^ir^riwr at a Unj>rtu[Hn i>.v 'iHtvrwuv. <vtiw<l rlw Cnllwl Kful<- of *U|ij/l) IHK Mniifli VMlwiu writ)' >A*nArir lrcruft Iff ul*i njMilu- NKHliixt K>i; > ' < i r <j/rxe ilft/'ivt-ru. Jfc-WKrjt of 'uk-il* wli" )iu wMiidit )iif'riiuili"ii ilHitir cliiiri^K flmt Itw Vice
In i.|.|UOI

116
"Tt,f day b- routf* hew I will kirk blu out." Virr Pn*ident Ky Mid of XriiUlor MefJnrtrn. "He dww't uwd to ar, 'et oni of Vietnam.' will kick him out p*-non:iy." Senator Mi'^irrrn. * critic of the war. In UK- oaly formally announcrd ctndifor Kie Democratic uomfrwtion for Pmddeat in 1072. *-a: 'FOB WOUE.X' on aircraft xuppltal liy thr t.'niird Rt?tr*. h- rrVrn-d to tbc A -37 trainer aud swld.-Tbl* in for women." Tbe Vin> Prrnldent Mid he diet not want 4 cou'inuinjc Anwricnn -flllitary pr**eruf in South Vietnam for many years.nd slfliiKith lir mid that tli- rurrr>ut rate of I'niled Stairs Withdrawal n,a. tvaODal>l-. ho qiwt<tlotu-d the mfiiDliie nt ! Viftriamlwtkij pr<4rn>in. Hit- procmvi under whlrh t'niifd State* f<rv nn> trimrfrrrinjc c-miliat aud ilpfcnw rr*|M>n.il>lllty to tin- S-xilh VU-tnunu-w. v "Tbo VJKumlath>o plau i* nfrt 4mplftfd y-t." Ju- Raid. "* V Will have QUIU.T thlmoi to do nut only In rli<< ' military flfld but in otbcr flfld-'. -.So If Vtrtnamlxntinn aj-an.\ Snutb \ MuMtn ft rone, caimlil*- tx defend Itsrlf. ii III take IS or :5> mr' y*-r>< "Hat if VU-fMuiirjitlon m-ann only to allmv the ^\itbdrKMl .of you mil (lit- V-tnanilzatl<ni |ilap will 'nt i-omplotrd Ocst y
MAY MXK

I'i>-lifc'nt \ixon "aid Krlilay nlKht tliar Aiiit-rim would kwp onji- f-iivrs In S^.inh Vli-tiiuui until tin- S.iiitli Vlnnain*-*- lutd tln-mimoty ! <l-f.-inl tl-u).<<rlri-M Viiv l'rri>ilM>l Ky xW tltrr a a "K4M| |Ulllty." ttat lu- -nuuld ,rou fur tin- i>r>>i<lrrir) upiin-<t the iiiiiimlx'nt. Veuyt-n Vim ThU-n. in tb>* i-iii-lion in Tin- Vi<-- I'n-xid^it t'M>l, fillt fr initiatlnic tli>> Viet naiuizat Ion and iiiil h*- uen-i-d with Mr \U<ni that Smitli \'ietnani"<' tr<Mijin ruld jt" i' a loll'1 in I lx- field. "If we are not iiipahle." he .111 id. "then the CommutilxtH will defeat tin" 11- xui'l T'lildil StiiteH Krounil trxip* could leave rum. l>tit that air *U|iport HUM Ktill needed He Mild thai bou lone the Rii|i|>rt would U- neetb^l di>|N-aded uri "how <|uli'k you ure fin it to Iwlji ui> liuvc .1 otrotix air frre to iirnvlJf our own tiieuno for nii|i|Mirtinic mir <-U-iiM-nl " "Alone u l t l i tin- e<)t)i|)tnent have nu." lu* wild, "we cannot fight North VietiDiin n l t h it 111<; UT" We ."ily hav,- ike older trainer, the A.-37. Till* for women. ThU 1* not H flehter plane."

l|)^^lBfr.r^v <>f Kfrrn,r.MK>'T TUitorii Do you tliink tin- prolili-ins ran IN- scttleii in I'aris or Cioru^'a '. Senator JAVIT-*. 'I lii-n- is a diKiici-. S-nator Aiki-i and it i one jiiiltrrrii-tit if they nn- nj apiinst tin- uwrl for iii^otiatijijrtlwnisi'ln-?. :ind if tlirv liuvr to deal u'ilii tlii-ir own future and tlx'ir own skin*, tin- likelihood i.-< ^ivatrriiut they will try to n-'ike H M-tflenifiit irion- a p 'nj>tii!)lc tn the jxiwer itiutKiii as it *t:tnd* than if wv are around with all rl/i- (tower we li&f to pive them an tKtf H '
MrMPI.ni.

or A I K K X . Vo. I Itelirve, hnwevHT. tJiat you }JHUL dot n-'-oininendiHl and do nor nroiiitik.-nd roi;i)<)ete wifhdrHU'nl. almndoninen! of n hum- which HI- may have in SoothcM Asia or the SouH. ]'u'-iii>: \'ny would iwt advi*n witlMlraviujr from thrtt ate.i. S'Miit'it .L\up. 1 mrjvfe <-Ii."ar I wim .^ekiriv' in.-f t<; I'^ei-i ricfiirtfy und I'.'&pi'Hrnii'nr dei-i^ioie: we miflit otherui** ncik*' ouir-ide of

117
Senator AIKCV. I am son yon have < vered the situation well. either in this ^totamettt or others you have- made, and I have no furtlier qnertwms, Senator J A vrra. I thank my colleague. The CHAIRMAN. Thank you very much, Senator Javits. Senator J .\vrre. May I* thank again Senator Miller who was so gracious because he was first on the list. Tic CHAIKXAN. Senator Miller. 1 V> you lia ve a prepared statement. Senator MJlle~ i Senator MIUXK I do. Mr. Chairman, and it should be before the members of the committee. The CHAJEMAX. Will you proceed, please. STATEMEKT OF HOI. JACK MILLER, U J. SEIATOR F10M IOWA Senator MIUXK. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I pnreoicte this opportunity to apficar before the committee as fa conaiders various (tending legislative proposals relating to the war in Southeast Asia. S|>eeincal|y, I am here to urgv the committee's favorahlc consideration of my .proposal which is set forth in Senate Joint Resolution A2. In <*wew*. fhe. resolution calls for total withdrawal of all I".S. -military personnel in South Vietnam within [-2 months following completion of the exchange, under appropriate international supervision, of all prisoner? of war. A cardinal principle of the Charter of the United Nations is that of m-lf determination of peoples. The maintenance of that principle is reallv whv c an- in South Vietnam. I am certain it is why the U.S. Senate, by a vote of ft-2 to 1 ratified the SE.VTO Treaty on Februarj- 1, l!.*i." Keveral years l*efoiv I mine totlie Senate. NORTH vrrrvAMcse HEAD STABT Our Ix-st intelligence information indicates that since 1901 large numbers of \orth Vietnamese troops have infiltrated into South Vietnam, numbering it/. the hundreds of thousands. There is no evidence of South ViHnaii(5'.se troops iiifiltmting into Xonh Vu-tnain. Commencing whh tlwiJeneva Agrwment in 1954, North Vietnam wet on ac<nirw of <|i-t doping a tnng military power, while South Vietnam did not do K>. Thus North Vietnam had several yearn Itead start on South V id. urn in recruiting, training, and equipping HII urmy, so that by IWi't tin- prosfM-i-t of Uws of iu fr<NHiotn of w!Jf detennination by South Vietnam wax imminent. It is g<>ii>rall.v agreed. I U-licvi*, that without the buildup of I'.S. military forceH in Sr>uth Vietnam, that low would have oivurjvd, ntmi'iHjt or r.>.vw<T or WAM
of ( I w mfinberw of tlje r/MnmiMw will rwall that following my vinit to S^xith \ p ietnani in January of lOGti. f 1^-anw increadingVv l of th' wy '!* vi'ar was |**ijig conducted, J warned re()eatedi/ tltir fhi- prolorigwi *-jr stnittfy lir-iiig followi-d would lead to greater rajtuiiificK ^ud greater pn>lleni*. And I publicly obwrvwl that if tln?reurre ^.11111*" tn-fftt reason for w-Jiditig our HM>H TO fight in that I* li-agucml i't'untry. with one hand tiwj In-hind tln-ir ba^'lcs, tlien we nhould IK- ' r M-n J them at till. My word* Wl on <Wf earn.

118
ADXIN'ISTRATIOy WITHDRAWAL POLICY

The Nixon administration inherited an extremely serious and traumotir war. After seeing this war jrrow hirrer and worse for nearly ."> years, witli almost 'iSO.Oflfl American military personnel in South Vietnam. I am thankful that the number has l>een practically cut in half and that scheduled withdrawals announced by the President for the omiiiii months are very suWantial. The reduction has coincided with our efforts to help the South Vietnamese catch up to the military power of North Vietnam, which has. of course, been sustained bv the financial and military assistance furnished by Red China and the Soviet I'nion. I am reasonably satisfied that hv Julv 1 of this year, jrround combat operation can ! handled by the South Vietnamese. It will take another year, however, to complete the job of enabling the South Vietnamescto operate and maintain their air force. Meanwhile, of course, our troop withdrawal* will undoubtedly continue. Our goal, as stated by the President, is complete withdrawal of all American military personnel. The timing of that jroal has not l*ec-n announced, but has been left indefinite dej>endinjr upon action of the North Vietnamese, including their willinjrness to enter into seriour negotiations in Parts. This indefiniteness troubles many of onr crfi/cnr and has laid a foundation for some wild assertions that we will IK- in volved there for years. Such assertions an- apparently premised on the idea that regardless of what the South Vietnamese fo to help themselves, we will remain .there. However, I have always assumed, and it is a reasonable assumption, that we would follow a time policy which would ffive South Vietnam only a "reasonable chance"" to catch up to North Vietnam and thus le able to defend itself and maintain its freedom of self-determination. I am satisfied that the "reasonable chance" will have Ijeen Driven by .Tulv 1 of thi- jvar insofar as jrround force operations are concerned: and bv July 1 of next year insofar as the more complicated air force operations are concerned.

raifioyr.RK OK WAR AVI> foMri.rvr WITHDRAW H.


There is one concern uppermost in th^ minds of most Americans, and that is the safe ret urn of our prirriers of war. No Nation with n conscience could dewrf the-*- brave and '.iisfifish inn. J're-idenf Nixon has stated that u "residunl force" wonl.i reniuin in Sxith Vietnum until they an- Kafelv returned. And if does not r<'"(iiL"e much iniajriii.ition to M-e that this residual forc^ would rout a in ^unVicnt airpower to muke it very costly to North Vietnam. However. I am troubled by the in.lefiniteneHs <>i such a policy. Likewise. I am troubled by the no-called "fim-d date" nnijifisuls. U-these prtn'^'ii on the HSni.rnu'ion t h a t North Vietnam '"in IKt/> ni'jrotinfe and Hnanjre tin- safe return n{ mir pri-toiii-p- b\ tin' fixed date. Hv its fla^nint violation of the (fene\n uj;reeiiieiit on tj-eatmerit of prisoner* of w a r . \ ^lIJrtfe.t that North Vietnam is not to I** trusted. It would In' cruel and inhuman to commit the fate of our prisoners to leaders of a country who have demonstrated that they can not U- trusted.

119
At the same time, it is obvious that the concern uppermost in the minds of the leaders in Hanoi is that all American military personnel he withdrawn from South Vietnam. Accordingly, it seems to me there are sufficient inducements to enable both sides to get together: The inducement, on the one luuid. to make an exchange of prisoners of war in line with the projxjsal made by President Nixon in his address on peace in Indochina last October 7. And the inducement, on the other hand, that upon completion of such an exchange, all American military personnel will be withdrawn from South Vietnam within 12 months. It would be my earnest hope that such an exchange of prisoners would be completed by July 1 of this year. And. the complete withdrawal of all military personnefbv July 1 of 1972 would coincide with the "reasonable chance" proposition to which I have earlier referred for South Vietnam to go it alone aa far as military manpower is concerned. n.t\;ia> nxixriAL *VD MILITARY AIWISTAXCE NaL.-r' '1v, as long as Red China and tlie Soviet Union see fit to proVKU, 5na, ".I and military assistance to Xorth Vietnam, similar assistance would have to be provided South Vietnam if a military power balance is to be maintained.
d.J. KM. K2

I have offered SJf. Res. 82 in the hope that it can serve to bring men <>f good will together. It ran get our prisoners of war back safcl.v and sxum. It can get our military pei'sonnej out of South Vietnam according tn a fixed timetable which'will enable an orderly withdrawal of some 27'VW> nicn along with such equipment aa will be removed a logistics problem. I might add, which would require a great manv months in anv event. And it can give a ' reason able chance" to a fundamental principle of the charter of the United Nations to which <he United States has, along with most of the ether nations of the world, pledged its support. Thank you. Mr. Chairman. That completes my otatem<?nt. The ( 'HAIKU**. Thank you. Senator Miller.
KXCffANCM OF PKIKOXEB* OF W1B

Senator Miller, isn't it tlw usual rule in circumt4ancg such an this thai the exchange of prisoners fake* plan- after'he. mwafionof hostilities 01 an unniHtic.e rather than before? Senator \\tisjm. Well, Mr.*rhairniari, thin is lint a usual war. I am not at all certain that then- have not liwn exchanges of some prisoner* of war during other warn, <vrtainly insofar UK puttingtlwm in iieutral i-ouiif ri'-1 '> < onwnu-d. It in mv n-c/ilU'i-tiou that hapitcncd to a limited rxt-ut during World War II. but I don't think that we ought to bound ton Him-h lv prm-dmtH of pn-vioiu- wars IH-CUUW I think moot of UH rwognixi* tli;it thin in not a usual war at iill. and it not being a usual war I t h i n k it cull* fur unusual action, and I U-licn- that we have the imiiKviiirnts in my proposition here which would enable iin to move n ion- rapidlv. We are not moving at all n Park and it Is quifc evident that N'orth Vietnam wantmo have all of our troop* out of South Vietnam ; that JKthcir \o, 1 goal.

120
It is also quite obvious that most of our j>eople want to have our I irisoners of war return safely, and the soonerthe tatter. So I offer here, n.-> I said, a means of bringing men of good will together, those who talk about a residual force until our prisoners are returned, and those who talk alxnit a fixed date. The trouble J h.ivc with that residual force is its indefiniteness. My proposition gives us a definite time period. Tlie sooner the prisoners of war an- exchanged the sooner all our American military personnel will be out. and I think that that would be an inducement for Xorth Vietnam to engage in serious negotiations in Paris. At least it is worth a tri, Mr. Chairman. HANOI'S AND XI.K'S rosrrmx The CHAIRMAN. Yesterday, Senator Haitke testified that he had recently been in Paris and talked to the representative* of. I think. loth Hanoi and the N'LF. He said, and I lielieve I quote correctly, "They ke|rf insisting that the setting of a withdrawal date must precede substantive dis-Missions of the prisoner of war issue." If you could accept that as U*ing their position, would this make any difference to you? Senator Miu.ni. Well, Mr. Chairman. I think we have found that positions change, and I would suggest that that would IK- the owning gambit, but if they are really interested in withdrawal of American forces, then we have a chip to offer them and, furthermore. I must say I am not at all impressed when the leaders of Hanoi Miggst to us that if we will only fix a date for withdrawal of all American (jersoiinel then they will talk aUut an < xchange of prisoners of war. I. for one, am not ready t<> commit the f a i t h of our American prisoners of war to jieople who cannot lie trusted. Now if they had demount rated their good faith bv living up to the Geneva Convention on the treatment of pri.-oncrs of war, that would be one thing. Thev Mil>scril>cd to that agreement, and by failing to live tip to it, and I t h i n k it is trcnerally rccogni/cd they have failed to do so. I .-uggest that they forfeited the right oj the privilege of U-ing trusted. The CIIUKXAV. I>o you feel that the others involved in the war have liied up to the ficncvn Con vent if.n' Senator Mn.r Mr. Well. Mr. Cli:.irman. you always hate ;i mixed liag in a war. But I hiven't syeii any news in (he new-.papers alxmt North Vietnam taking any action Mich -m we have taken when any violation* of the Ciciii-iu C< mention have occurm!. This of course is one big diffcreri'v Itf-twen a closed society and an OJHMI society, I t h i n k that mos' of IN would ruther lake our chance* at l>cing a prisoner of war "ii om side I Inn a prisoner of war on their side. The C H A I R M A N . Is that the principal reason why von suv they can not lie trusted^ Is there unv other reason why von t h i n k they cannot Ix-trusted? Senator Mir.i.ut. Well. \ t h i n k that then- are other reason*. Mr. Chairman. Hut the r.-ason I offer ties in Kjecific;illy w i t h the priKoncrso f - w u r i^.-iue, I sun UK! Caving they conl'i not IK- tni-ted in some areas, but I HIM interested in the |iriwmers of war, and thcv have demon si rated f h a f they can't Ix- trusted w i t h rei-jM-ct to the prisoner* of war. in,il ilifiefore. I suggest ,i iscniel mid iiiihiimuii to trust the:n and to c/irnmit the fiitcof our prisonci>,of war to them.

121
I-OSSIB1MTV OF NEGOTIATIONS W1THOCT TKPST

The C-UAiiiMAX. It seems to me if you cannot trust them, then there is no point in even contemplating negotiations. There is no i>ossibility of negot iutiuns with people you cannot trust at all. Senator MILIXR. I think that we can have negotiations with people we don't trust, Mr. Chairman. I think this coes on all the time. Wnat counts are the deeds 'hat follow the negotiation and that is why we are usually very careful to niokc sure that there is a quid pro quo in that deeds on one side are matched concurrently or very closely if not conciirrontly by the other side. I don'r for one moment suggest that because we don't trust the negotiators on the other side of the* table that we can't have negotiations and negotiations subject, of course, to deeds that match the words of the negotiated agreement. Tba CIIAIHHAN. Senator Church.
TIMING OF PRISONER EXCHANCK AND C.S. WITHDRAWAL

Senator CHCKCH. Regarding this quid pro quo, Senator Miller, is your projut-ul that they should give us our prisoners back now and we should end the war later 'i Senator MH.IJS. Well, not quite, Senator. My resolution calls for a rotujilete exchange of prisoner.-* of war as outlined by President Xixon in Ins statement to the Kation on peace in Indochina. Voii will recall. I think, rliat it was indicated at that tinjo that we ha\e about ^.".,iM>u of their prisoners, they have roughly 2,#K) of U.S. and allied prisoners. So it is about a 10 to 1 exchange. Frankly, I have never heard of such an exchange prop<sal, but we have apparently a greater regard for human life than they do, and so I suppose that a HI ti 1 ratio is to be expected. But they get their 25.000 back, we get our 2.".<0 back and when that happens", within 12 months we are out. Senator Citi'ucit. Then I was right when I said that your proposition is for us to receive, th. >ugh the exchange process, our prisoners now and then we would agree to end our participation in the war later. Senator Muxrjt. Well Senator ( 'fii'Kfjt. Is that right? Senator MILLEK. Within a fixed timetable of 12 raanths that is precisely correct.
SenatorCiimcic. Ve!.

If tlw;y made tliat offer to us. do you think we would accept it, especially after you Hiid they can't be trusted ? Senator Mirxnt. I think that defends u[>on how much tliey want to get the American troops out of South Vietnam. I think it is well under-

l v gooj joi> of swing tliu4 .-.urn a "uuhiiiKtion o)' legi.t|a.ii\e :md ive branch a<^tion i?s niafc'IiwJ by doeils. I don't think 1 \\ould h.nvc any rjiiHlin:-about it if I were in Hanoi. Senator C'nrwn. Von wouldn't. Scjialor MiuT.tc NVi, sir. S> iutt/>r' 'MOM a. ) ou think you could *!! that to tJm i>*^>ple of tlie (jovernment of North Vietnam I

122
Senator &buB. WelL, Senator, you know that it isn't a. matter of scHing it to the people of North Vietnam in their type of society, it is a niattcrof selling it to their leaders. Senator OUCBCH. Then to their Jeaders.SenatorMiiXEK. That is right. Senator CHTBCH. Do you thiiik that could be sold to their leaders? Senator MDJLEE- I think it is worth, a try. We are not getting very far the way things are going.
INCREASE IX ntlSOXEBS AS CXITED STATES PKKSISTS

Senator CHCTCK. On this question of prisoners of war in wliich j-ou say you are principally interested; isn't it true that the number of our prisoners of war keeps on increasing the longer we participate in the war? For example, just, the last year of our paiticipation, the total number of our prisoners in their prison camps went up from an estimated 1.368 to l/ill. So, doesnt it follow that tlie longer we persist in the war, the larger the number cf prisoners of ours they will hold? Senator MIMJK. Well, it seems to be going tJiat way. 'Of course, I think that this is one reas*;a or. I think, that we could expect as we continue with our withdrawal of forces that the numbers will not increase appreciably, but as long as we maintain our operations, as long as they snoot some of our aircraft down I suppose wo could expect then.- will be some additional prisoners. Jusf an Joirg a* they persist in fight ing in South Vietnam I suppose they could exj>ect that their prisoners will inrrpase. too. It i.* all the more reason for trying to wind this tiling up and the sooner the better, and we are not getting very far on it.
EETTRX OF HUSOXKIB ATTEB WIXDIXC UP WAB

Senator Cm urn. Ti.'pre is a place tliat I agree with }ou, Senator Miller. Wlien we wind it up we will get the prisoners back quickly. That lias been the history of past wars, it has been the history of this war. It was the experience of the French in Indochina. I think that tliat will aiso be our own experience. Senator MIUJKK. Well. Senator, you have- tru^t and Confidence in the North Vietnamese leaders that I am sorry I do not share. Senator ("iirwH. It is not a question of trust and confident. TJier** it> just one tiling tliat the \orth Vietnamefie want and that is for uto Jcavo. TJiat- i>. what they want^u] wjjore tlie French w<>re 'oncenied, and when a final commitment was made for withdrawal, then it was -ay enough to arran^f- for tha release of the prisoners of war. That was the. Fiviifh exjH'rienw. I think that will DP our experience. History is the witness of mj prwiition. It BWUIP hard for rne to understand why the Xorth Vietnamese, Jiavingonly one leverage on u, the priso.'iers of war tlw-y bold, and having only one dpir where we re i-orirt-niiil, that in. the withdrawal of the United Stat't, from active partiiMpiuioii in the war. would agree to release prisoners until tliey get a commitment froin u* with respect to our derision to withdraw. That i* the <imd pro quo that makes senw;; and it is tlw only quid pro quothat makes HCJIW in thin sit nation. Senator MJU.KK. Well. Senator, may I rfHjxmd by nayinjr tliat while \n t h i n k w<> would vet our prihoru-iv of war back after tvc withdraw, h:U liaj|*ni>if yon think MTong?

^v-^(v.i.' Cmi.vH.. lu.iriy judgment. tht question is silly, T.- jriitmViii. rKit tle French wad<^ when they finally agiw-1 ti leave !< quieilv to au anwJiici)r. \rith rc^Mrt for the ;pr^sojiftrr. Tliat it not sidifficult "TO cudej-stand; is it ? Once the President of the I'nitwl Stutes A makes, clear iliJtr wt- ni-e going to Icayj; and lie negof.ia4<-= a fixed date for Jtio coinjih'tion of our witlidrsw>1.'it- VBI tlien be a coiupatntiT' ly easy qucitiou tn jK^otialetUcrpleasc^of t lie prisonci1*,1 ; ^ -In the Fr-jjcli caac.-.tlip j>ri^>>i> weiv released -AS 1 ho tjok. l!iiC'-. "iV'i --(tuld insist ui>on tix-.iianic thing and, tliat. " Smite rlio ca UiC of your <xmccra, riamelv trust of tli-ni. Sucli au.arnwi:e- : inenr. woirii'J -p< :init the n-lcase of tJio iirisonors H* th.^ withdrawal ""ucCKvtis. and i s(* jio it> %smi why that i-honkl prwe.nl uny difliciihy. -flier- i* uothSujr in t)'<- -Jforth Vjefjiainoi' ]iosttion in .Fans tliat si^ri^ it \,\r<nld jirpac-iit aiiy diflicidtv. Tlir |tiid i>rc juo U a i-ohujiit\vitJ|i<cax\-. aiidto wiilidrawconj)letely. ." ; or MJMJJ::, And that is exactly wliat my tvsoluuoti jo-ox-ide? t<jf. - . . ' _ ' . s1 . ' ' ' .^ ' S..r. fits.. Si A KASJS

Si'Uiifir < ,'im.1' u. I'ut y~r rcaoJuiiort provide* gi-uiiig the j>f isonc'i-s iiixt. pulling wiUidrawal
rj^'Ji. I( L> im]ikelvv then, ^'h-eti most human to f-x^ert rliat that, .would jiir>Vj<Tc a vixMe lia^j!* for

'

V i ' . >i-ii:itol,w<- i i i ^ n u'uv t :i tr\'.

J iiiii-i .-ay tlii>. and I know my colleague fj-owi Jttalio wll iiio'}i<;h to kj'inv that tie is ciniiifiitly -in'vrc in iris opinions xnd v'Jjat hfrt-hinks jn-i ii?.I ;tnir:in(! w<- rpsjvwi each other for our view*-. Huf I ^ri'i lu-k to jy p.Ktjns;jiJoii. and that is <hat if !*! thinks wronjr wliar jjappcn-* t<> our priKoiiPi-s of war. If it is LiUsori or myaOii-u-ho ig a ]>ris<i!iiT<'f <iur ' x "-.. S-D;itir ( 'nrwn. Scna^H-. I think I have ajj-wered t'!ia(-.qiiesrio.'L. <-ifntinna)jr), Wr nn^'ht. t,i pel. them backfirt'b~S-ii:itrf'in i-.cn. I tfiinlc i anw<M<-dtliHt. Si-naMii' Mn.itJt. Wi'U, S^iPiit<r yon talk alniut phafsiu^; out troops. u in ! v.i- }>!i:i^- tjie cxi-lian^- of prLioncixif war. Tf>if has some pcvi. bilifn-. J :im IKI i.'"in^ N> deny lhat, but just .v> ve make SUIT- timt t!i-<; ji liners , ( f M ; I P in S'oiili Vietnam :in- inai<'hwl by /<uffi';i?r.t

' IK. nut !<<'k."<l in on if, ( don't <'h'.it'i ') have a prciuiniii >n U'liat toiii' a l;i>u fur. i. iM'yotJat'<i M'ttlern/'nt. All f aiu s;i\ in^' i- i l i n r fin: way tiling irc^ohi^' now. and thcwfixwd d;ii4- [.ivi|.(r.;il. pulling llie fat<- of our prj^ners of war on the whim". i'f \ortli X'ii'liianu'M' luiiderh. i*n't C"in{r Ui do anv IL'^KJ eiflirr ai-4 J am frying m nwli y niiuJk- fj'ounfDiciv which !ll lirin^all of uof

S-riaiorr/ii -WH. I IJUM- no niMicqur.-li'>i 'I'd*- TiMicmv, Scual/ir Aik'-n.

.;> .

- - w - - , . v .' , > . . . ^ v \ vcoXfiBEjsXE IN' sotjTir VLETNvatEffc oovmKHixr -. A > A l


:

Senator AIK^RV Senator Millet, yoa^niade it plda rbjfc^^'&jiyt^ >n-^--/l'.i!Wm^un Of Xoith:V.ieuiftia.^^l)o^'pub*ve>fv''Jk-xJrci^iio5 South.\^ieui*ia^ ,' -,; .;-",''" '' * " ^': ^" ' ; -' . v {/endwit i;)(V>u us for tilings. id mi litany Asastanc^, as X'oith \5 is'dependent<vi.t Cfed 0&.in* stod the Sovlfet Union f0^fin:meialand:ixiil. itary assj<*a.ct, that iti^ofar *- the proposal that I karo 'i <joiflic-ned:: we Ucoi't ;_jjc'I tfrvxorw tslH^ut the ittTiade of ' :. Yott haw full .lonfidencc in tjio Govetnna^ot ox s 5oatii ViijlihiiU so loug as it is wbo.Uj dependent upoa tjie United v lStatesJ.;",. -'"-' ''-,;' ' ; >f - '- - ''. ^ . " ^- Senator MILLET- We'i, for parjx>9Pp #t vue resotntiotV, and t|>it ifi wh*t I am interoUxl ic^-tiiat is what Ivaai ^peai'ij^g before the xJomiifteeoK4^i,ldo.-,.." - -. . ' v ' ~ -^ 3fow, I ini'tfiusay that I think uiost</f us u-ould fectiaueli better about #,#itu!ito^ ia Swfii Vkjtcwn if we had getxuiiK;!;; *tijwr\'isJ, intor^ tiomilly os]]!efvised, elections in Soath Yiettum. <J*t cdur^. thut Las.

have Aawrj'ctit i KationsacMip -tie jnfcbanus -xi thai. \1ye will^ ' ' nr sxrai ninxAjcj^wvTKxkvar- cirA3^,is Seiuttor ^AXKEV. Aflsu^Hng-ii the tlwdons wblck 1 believe, tliey pbva in (>Aobcr,~that ilr. iTk/or any k>f tiie otlwr wlliiiig candidates tbc Presidencyand rtiey liave Almost ?3 maay a^Tw'e have win the election aod tufr preaait txoVernniftntJte tda^d out of id-TL* oflice, (.v>uld we rtill-hAws ttj^r^nfedfence ha.viie Go^inK-nr, tbw we <ic now^>r would * still haveib nin tliat OovenuntMT in confidence in i
,._.._.,_ ^, , j fipi/.'Osatio.

-i/f Whj.fJi I hayeji!ludcdinjc:y c?n^cte .williaye Ien Kftted.iis far . A3 grOJpnii >pp.f4tions"are '^MaHftivd by ^futy 1 of this y^!ir,%>io J,ir .as x;rned l>v f oly-1 of next year, nd t!i cr'soujitn' cpnc&rneil-lb fcierciite tlwir- fp^edoJu y}; /ninatir/n^prudenijy, and If the^" ase /it'-ro, throjr it awjy, lJj\, tij&t wv sHMiid "be" Ii6uad iiy-tfijif^t^lo not tliaifc that * b!l)ujd ixt bound to.rfay there for.ycaW"jU9(-lcaueir; the eri-":-ia "f *^^v<-^ <lwii jf Jfiolf -oeieniiiiiati^/n tJifty tb new it away, AaiaU/T Autr-v. Vuu ^ VKOuKl to-cond?ti< o t not want want_tocondition o u r Sojith T.eu>oj,n . , jptdvfrmrjeftt.wbich "rau entirely Krtjgf*('ry to-w. thw ? '~ '

125, . v. .-, ^ . ' ; ' . v r' '^ ; v ^ -" ; 'AimtftM-Y- a,, t ru x dp nc ow of ^ iue)nT*iS>f the/Scn^Oj Senator .7 Aikea; who dons not foel tL vajvj t&n^'lhut tiiic ivfc.teca a policy C , ~;, ^i'-"-" y fMt tbe Seatjte, a * TP.hple,iBas ft^n.v5d ap^in and.thjit:lvas^wi adv
; v

'v ~jC!>^ii fot,Tlii.i.;e .never licMa-*J!iydisf(gr^m^tovrth*t"propositioi]f ( 0 , v. wi^el.bveJ^etfflin.ti^SefliEC^, v>. ~ ^ ^S , . . , . --.-.'-. t r' - "*rerJD^vi.TTJie^tl^-lhfej^f>fo<)ltl^t-<xni^ ^; '.. , .S<*wit9*- ytpjufx.dfftHi, wt^tf yo>\ ^ coiftir^^teiGrtbusiness,.I do -_~:-^. ^&c& -bcb^re Uiat tJhe- pcopoation has T>eenp!it. quite in fhAt fTatnfe.; I ~ ~, : : tfutiic -src. 6 avc-sUtetuoad Aiwi^lear Uiat V^B treVill in* ^.'SuJts 'of ji;cttiuticj.v ;fr!Sc clooSotfji ufitler iateni*tiottal.^v.^--.>--""-" : - "viN)iit4>; ^wnaro. sSbJ^^eopli^liavc pat it-up this wy;TVLel3, suppose -- . tii,c\\v^to fojfdio Viofcoiipr aad put-iJiera i control, au6^~otir answer ^Ser>nt<f AUKEN. T&e.va-y ^li^s arc going,.-hcxe. do you Ihink we -, <)t3>)3iJ^ {Laughter,j J^xt^t^rf~> oitidi^te'tQt'fa T^tnamthiinihey"voitr -qtKttjQ^ Ix>c%u8e I luire, T:thiolf'^dl of-sji? Imt^ t-eai in ojiuer madc.A little

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it buclrin our!} ^w jajggestojl.jpiJi^Aps tiiujgs night b<> a-lirtte." : .<!j^MucajioaiiidXfeffJ^'ts^.Vt '-"-"!," . -'-'_,-' -\ '-t^vwMAV.Tto&rtfalorfroroX'cw Jersey. ' -.' '- C iH'iiWor OA>. I suppose *e could^faaVe CAlled Uw Seiiator 10 order ,";-; undff.Jhi- tTjIi-s-.uf ti? ^ooat^ for his ^rattuto^s ccrtiuwent about joyc~ -> 'jiut<!tiert(>u><'.y, Il*avjoapoiojnwr-k)^iakft foi:X*w Jertfcj'^ftoC'juiQ." ' i icr<f0 dftfoid' it E-will uke <-Ttc oniadft *it hiwin,djc past. 3Jo ;- tlUf^loiis,tijunkyou: . " i . - - ' \ ~ , " v . - :.

;i)c .^rlvjirfcavc-'ty ^ Jf^-p" ><ith cw

r<f lo- fctijg war^

for

, ~ . K v i - j y T-iVs'uiojir. V.^ijwlr^' *iOi liow>f 'io;i> _.i<M'v~;lJjiij*d Bor.\ioi4 m>lid*jn-.Vk*i y;ith\*fy HjH> djftseut fr

120 ^ - -

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ic ins<:/ffvr years.,T sec & mari.sittiis&ere who does deserve - - '--. iafiwir^enator Gnienlng^vhicJ ?poko -ofit, wifli* few other - - i inflicts. Senate. " ( -__ . - --\ - --. :~ potmoiir, f. FOR REMaSE or
f VAR

i,L . ^ :,I uiitst'say,I"dofl<X.'sec tiiai any ofi-ihes^ proposals, wiicthor JHa .. : r : i ; - - ' > ' . " . yours ocHatfield-Mciiovvciittr Presideiif.' ^ix<vrt s,of fcepinjrV-tfis5d--['."-.'/';';. 3iaffop.;thtere.s.uitfl the pwsbners of war^re-retiirnrd; or u?^i of \:
;k

>

\-\ -.; ^risoncr^ 6j 3rar. I 'tJiink Ke^ocfiitii politval jStttlni?iit fyi- $1 b'f ; v^'oiitilor^.Aya^ffet^th>fH^^>si>oct." . : - - " *>'-- ;.:^\T: "'. . '".. fp:*-<iflxth.oa-'vrtnV -^itheroct to Ithy s4niX^i'^Ci'-a*''^1'aT"f<>nTOu^*,v"^r~~~ . '-^ <v Jlut that . n;a iiiii<r to" nr^o. Lj .what^wr japans poas&lt1 tuat jria^noi-s of tti?J Jiiunanelv on tv'liate^cif slc, and 3 bolieve '

_,. tm'cil^w^^'DK'iit fa biJocliina.is tho only way 3ve are going to.&e L '" L ^ . ^arvtirfd l^iai tltf;.^ |->j p j^our\-)f-rtrar will lx roftmi^d. ^V ~ ". C " - - ' -'I -.' Soiai-H1 MjJJ".w:^Tjiaj|ifi Vitis. Souato/. J llaui; y ou Jvi'ViJC l.sJMtwv^ur '; " ^- ._- " VK'vr:tlra.t"Th(r(|iibi;<'S( vox tofnd iliiVic a^-flu' ru^/^t^tiKSr.rabl0, TliLv ~j ?? anoffier-'riaia_.wLy I ant wn4^wjeJ";i|..'oil.f H-he so-rnlK^l h\ed date ob\fi(m-i 1f>:it
.

you :liave~sstdlba1' T still Wicvo that-.a-rtogo- ._""" ".".;

of mj5 n'^otiarions Li Pmw. Jji^K? jju cii v^> ou?it ,U) ^ r o ^ - i i . ^ optpo. . and, an,wlw^I . . . -'"'Jijajr j^jfjyjng //.wr tliorf-toiii(;iTo\^ or^iifit. if -it 1 .' v" " *" "; do^. t?iar .^{it'i|ii;ck^ ^v-flvMoc-fk) Oi*; ^v_ . . ;
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I "il'. !!'** fi.iv" <j;u -<jy(^l~M>ii-'. ^fj . C'ii.'MiTiuiii. -but I iw:rH-Ural thf-iv - - ! '.i*'* vaifur jji.w'tV-f1^ i'^ l / l f ' "rvifli ij I'otur, I U-ii;".v iu H'^VJ thf-rft was . - "i it'^vh>jw >' (rfv-H^-r-i <if v ar .iii-tin- JCor^in ''"Mffii-i -prif/r f' th<- . .- !
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. TKaukyoirrerv muck, Senator Miller. cMxjux: Thank you-Mr-'Cbainuaiif ^^Tho C'nAjR>ux-The aext witness jg-the Honorable Adlai Stevenson ^JSljiaiatfr^ncuiTenf Reaolriticm!17^ J" , ~" '. Svnator-J>teveii3on. we are vtry pleased to have you this morning. Will y o u ""
STATEifEHT OF HOJT. ADLAI E. STEVEHSOF III, U.S. SZHATOE ::r FEOH ILL150IS -.

T>in very jrcJa'Xid to you wr this oppommity t^4|pcf r beforethis t ' ~~ - '- '_ say it the outset itlws been a-^rery refresbin^experiance for . 1 am ft w to tlw Scaitfr. It a}w vs struck mti from in/ fonnsr point that we )iPar<Lpeoplvf,i! -vry little, about tha morality of our actions in. South Tietasra. Most : .of ir:puW:c:offi<uls seftniecl to be omp.ied\wi{Ji Ixnly.oounts, with 'shfvn.keUM military and ilhiod-expjMaicies. an<i all too rarelv with > i .aat4icj-fore vfcrj'irfati^e'itojieai'.thi- words that TOO and Senator Jnnts c^djjunjrwl this irw'mvine alwut Uw moralitiTQf cnr actions "in " " uVs. MOTIVF^ u* OCTH As you saiJ. Mr. Oiainaan; .ur motives bi South VJptnam^uw^ , rK.vnvv.il. Sliit-i- thi? vwy lH^iitiuij.r we Jia.v'f juatiiiei! our ^unitary jri_ moral cffoi*.<o >>riu^-fi*edom and .voireini-nt in South VioHuun ai!_a ai *?]f-ddx'nninarifm to the "-people of that7i)ation.x ChJ\' *his month, haLaod Iquote: . ;"-,in lihftor>- Ira itwa ^j^lit forJ^ss selfish motives, not for not-Y^' jrlotr, but <>juV for rh&.Hgltof a people.f ar lUffty.to ooiietiif; kind nf^wt-rnmeat they want.*' Just a^omeut *go Scji "" " ' ' f It s^msji-at jj^^Ajsd.oy^ir^tKi^-iJ^rthepwpleof Soiith Vietnam " ; in rfie.ii' sciirl: /or pfa^* uwl .fit*dom we -are instead 5itpj,0rtbi? ; a / "x _~j '*thu-fc5i! rom/y)iWe<1 to military victory-arid ta a prxKijroi. ar . . , ^ it w-^T"- r.* me. i iK*t to trtd t^ie warlwfc .to^Jtijnie it as r !')fttwoe;i .isia,*>.. x v - '' . . "-'" m^r ;i that i ur [MjH-y I .f^-tr-lliat rie drain upon mir lirwj Mi u[X/n (iir tn'aciiry.;ui<i hjxui/uu'VJHiCfK'iKui will mK<iiHW>,">faj-iihal Ivv 5;i<.-.;i{.^^. *';{ u'. j,^,'!V_L'aV<'nisiif-forfSrjt}| Vietnam raj.3^f*nd"
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iiiu- th*> risk inherent in terminating our military involvement 1:1 Indochina -without a. negotiated settlement covering amnesty for the rwoplfrof South Vietnam, the withdrawa^ofall foreign troops and the nuura of *ar prisoners from the Northfl suggest, .therefore, that we fasuat juonrsitCeutioirupoa the possibilities of a political settlement which, cuuld nor unly hasten our departure, but also leave behind i -luruble aud representative government which. oould depend for its >urvi raj upon die support oFthe people of South Vietnam and not the continued military involrement of the United States.
THBKATEXED C.S- JXYOLVEMEST Dn* SOUTH VIEIYAMESp ELECTIONS-

- Titc people of Sf uth Vietnam will elect a new House of Representative.* in August, to be followed by the election of a President in October. .. Because oar massive military presence enliancw? the power of those in ofb'oe, it throatais to involve as in .South Vfetnamisse electoral politxosr-if only by an apjxjarunce of support for the pjvsent regiine in the forthasmug elections. .The frequent visits to South Vietnam bv CfionietTjieinbers, Ambaasadur Bunkers-tours of the cotimrj-sideTvith Prcsidcnt'Thieu. the liieh visibjlity of U.S. material ^uid'^rsonnel throughout the nation are .pfcrceiyed as ^xpj-essions-of iJJs. support for the rocleoGoaj of Preside-ill Tlvfeu, _"- . ____ There ;ls, -iaorQ\er/>Mr. Oikiruian, Teasoif t<> Co condoled that rjJi-supporr^ijr Lhf- TLJ-Ky reginu- is as. real as it j* apparent. The "New YorkTidVS of February Ii rc-jjorf^'d. and I quote :
al wrvejs of Vjetiuiues<; public opiDlcm,. -Jj[,-li -fire. preptred and l>y Uic Cuitcd StaU'.- KJISKIOU {Ja Kttigon}, art' (t-iug-used to isjrt N'tfujcn >'*<(' -'f'x.'J- 1" li's ;*-Ji-tioH tt.:ul*)i^.i tJ>is y.-r

. Tjie purvevsi-ifrf red io &rc wijiducted by OOKDS monthly in all 44 jjrovbiCfcS^.ajid^ife' i'peult>i are tutiied over to lite Thi&u-Ky governaiiajt. TLc, quc'stionfaiit' made nvailable to the Xew York Time? con(rfir.v.d tJjr;e <nifs-tif.rti.-n relating !>rxK:ilicaIly to the. foithcoming elee^ cionK: wliich jjjeu are most jili<-Iy to ruiu what kind >>[ mun houiI Jx; elc.cu-d; and what ajv: i be deckiy*.1 i^w,4. 'i'o fri v .\fj'. Tliif u tin- au?w *T:fi i!i-v.- fjn<;5t)o)i>> iir t>j j.'.fon'Mifi1 iii solf-jxiritua<ioa rather tlian t^ie Eat)icr lh7i< i^ontli, our di.-^iiiguisiifj <-<jlleugut:, Se called our aU<-)tj<j to l.'jiited Si,ut-e.- Jnfonnotiou Ajrcricy programs wlii'-U liavo Ji^ljrtf/1 ilii"' Sdut-!i \'i.ctji.'iin<;.1 Miii'';t-rj'.fjf Information Jissojjiiriiif* j.yv>y/vertiji)tj|t [^ropi^JwlA, Jn rvpKns<i .to .questions from tln> ili^iniriii.-hetJ 'h.ai(;niin;f tfjl? ...'/j.nmjtuje tin- seaior I'.SIA.ofi/obl vu ?Hx.iit;i . Vii'>nawrtail in Mareb. l^T-'. Ix-font'liiis; '-onamittw liiat Jt'.C;Li.j,.'ui ittonUii.'t^/J JX^IK in SoutL Viitnam prcHiuuibly to di'U:rlu'itu; \vjjf i,j.c tin- pmpugaiidii was hii<x'ws.ful m fostering more J>o.-iiti>x |iulli<- fijt jtudi-.-. tow>uvj thf Tiiie-K.v governffjwtt, TJjose lieariugB Jilvj JndiraUvd tliat tin- I'SIA has ust-fl ri^ i e-'jniisr in .South Vj;tiiunrj to affiot fh VjofjuaiJ-''^' (/'A i'ii;,' '

, 1 Jo Mrt ]*>]ic\f. .\fr. fh:iiriH!in, t h n t the I'niU'd States <.:an bp tine <<. it.- foirimitwu-rit f<; sflf-flft^-riiiiitatifin iu <fi<- woj-Jd nrnl also i T'j./lo ^'i v. "iila b*\K'Mrtr:*.'J[i voiilij ivp<Mt 'n;-.?.'i!>- of

pt$t. ft may be^tnat other jrovernawrtte view free elections in the third twrid as ifcc^nastcnt with their interests. But, I would certainly hope ".wet.believe-- "tfcatr'Tt ie 4*tter politics and morally right for the Caited States to alien itself^iUi not agtinst^Qie rights of sclfdeterminatfon we ourselves firet articulated as ft yaUbn. - , i;-S. support, aJ or apparent, for ti* reelection of President Thieu could discourage- the caaoidftcies of men committed in South Vietnam t<> * STttlfmentind oiciistoQce with ~S<xtk Vietnam. General Minh has sa ; < i us inydi pubiidy. It could distort the free expression of the popuJar will ta the Alorfions by inducing the electorate to vote for those in power oriuKtov-otpaftaJL tw.'.cox. BBS.' IT S; Con, -3lps. 17 reaffirms the mvats^&y^f the United States in the^ South Vietnamfise. elections, cAllff upon the Presldeat to implement a p>>LJcy of stciat neutrality, and creates a bipartisan, 10-member Congix-ssional Conlniission^snpporteci by a staff in South Vietnam throughout thf election campaign, to oversee U.S- policies an4 activities which might interfere wL tite-f.Ioctocal J7iftcesa.^3ie GomLusnon's preseace would help assuBRjthe iM^leof SoJ) Viettuuii t&atweasa Xalionare truly Mmmitfcxi to their righfc as a, fret,!fielf -governing peopk. ITie'ressiJution coes~a,~-step further "by ixpnsssinfr the sefcs&.of the Coiijrress tiiat we shall as a. X at ion wpjx>Lt only a. freely elected government and Miat therefore no U5. mihtary assistance will he available t/> any government whiii'acquires or retains power in South Vietnam : y llltalJ^ of a foufj'or otUer corrupt or coercive means. Tliis clear declaration of jx>licy is a. means of deteiting those who would seek power through corrupt or undemocratic means in the fortlicoming elc^-t-ions. TiiH Commission would consist of five members from the Senate and nvc from the House. In all probability, they will not hold identical vic'ws about our m-erall Indochina policv. But BO long as they endorse the principle of U.S. neutrality toward the forthcoming elections ami i kuow of no Member of Congress who does nottheir divergent

,- rccit-d al l.'-S. uivolrftBifjit in the elections, leaving it to the South Yirtnunx:* themftelves to decide whether it> invite foreign observers t<> jiioiiiror the nitire election proces*. Tli8 resolution, if adopted, would not..interfere with the internal affairs of South Vietnam. Ratlier, it :Z-AUM>> HK- [xtoplc of diat nation votwg and candidates alike Hit-tiff arr- fflT/;u*}K>utnotintfrferng. I had tjiou^t atfir>*<to inrludi* five addiiiona) PreKidential apr, (h

\'ftiiajji af -support ing the rele<*ion of Tljiju and Ky. tiidikfi- was fjpwi&l in fj* Soutli Vwtuanwiw.' p w.' press lart year as saying thar tlic f'iut*><J Stat^* aipporth tlje reeJeti/i of President Thiu in if?]. Tin- Ajjierican EjnJrHsy 5 Saigon denied thtatement attributed to Mr. junker, but (he fact remau. tluit it how our petition i* widely IT<I M-(ii Hnioji^th< j(>pk of South Vietnam.

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that the people of South Vietnam are also more likely to ivsjicct an expression of political neutrality if it comes from the elected representatives of the American people in their Congress than through a. commission appointed wholly or partially by the President. Giv 'MI the sensitivity of the South V ietnamese people to any interference in their domestic affairs by foreign governments, I am hopeful that tlu> commission would be welcomed, not only by the people, but also by the government of Soul'. ViePiaiu. and would 1* helped in its eflort to assure tin- noninvolvement of the United -States in the electoral politics of that nation.
INTENT OF 8. 'OV. KES. 17

The intent of this resolution is not to defeat Tliieii, but to neutralise rhf political advantage which our military involvement affords him. and t> Injure that tbU advantage fs not augmented by the activities. i vi \f or c.overt, ot representatives of the T'.S. (lorernment during the f'^rthx>min* election campaign in South Vietnam. By affirming our neutrality in the campaign, this resolution may eJl encourage more candidates to commit their selves to a negotiated yMli'Girnt of the war. And by lessening the advantage which oven tljc apj>ea ranee of I'.S. *iip]>i1 gives the exitl;c regime. this re-olntinij i ' a \ i-iirourage Pivsidenl Thiou to heed the desire of the }>eople ol South Vietnam for pi-ace and reconciliation. It i^- to lx> hoped that ;usy uiL-ii \\lio gain j.owt"- in tlie elections through a br>ad exi<re>>!on of jxip'.slar >iijij-ort would Ix- strengthened iu their dealings with the XLF and tde N'oiih. If. for the first time in il.. war. a S^inth \"ietnaiiies"" I'repident t/iok the onth of office v itli :i broa'I l-:i><' of jxipnlar .-tip|Ki1. 1 do not Iieliexe it w<(iild IK- unn<>ii i > ed by Hanoi.
K H M I I - i i M I M . I l l X J I i t V n-l: vdl'TM VU/I \ \ M

In I'lo-iiijr, Mr. ('liainnan, les me sii'jgi I tiiat the ffiiihcoiniug election in South V i e t n a m i i; anytiiing but a ]>eri[>her:i] i.-ue, Wlii-ii viewed from the -tand|>oiiit of I'.S. inlereM-i anl I'.S. noiicy. a fair election in Mit only \ii-tory we eari lio|>f' for. OIKV having :i'-)i!.Mel tliat victory, we will lc in t h f l n - t pri^iblB po-ition to carry riir the t \ \ i f t . total, and honirable withdravi'al of T".S. forces. For t!ie South Vietnamese. tl<e election is at least a cnicial. Tliey cannot withdraw- from a bind and a culture mutilated by a Barter fcnfnry of war. And llu-v h a \ e no a^-unui' , that the uar will end for l i i e n i v^hen our t roojp- HI i ! loine. It i< ii[> to t hi* South Viet names' ^iov-I i j i i > " i t -a< I're-iiliMit N'i \-OM IIH- often pointecj out to hammer out
i J i i ) i | l p - : i l .Dilution :i||i] brih<f jH-ai-e to lildor-l-ina.

\t i d : - ti mi- and from t l i i ^ -Ji-1ance. i( i- in(ji-;-ilili- to jiredict whom :h> > ' c i i l , Vi'-lname^e i l l e-iect (hi.- fall. l>!;t a f j t i elei-tion i;- ifiP l.e I : ! le for 1 1 aii-lon^ili^ the det'ne of the fM-/i|)le of South Vietnam C-ii jeacr i n t o a mandate fop \wt\ for ihat rea'Jiii. a fair elect ion vi ill lie H |x>liti' il vict/)rv no matter whet win? a politic-il vj^>ry of iri '-:iter L i f t i n g Jmjwirtanc^ Ihaii all the real and imagined nni'tary victories '.vliich pnvede/1 it, Thank you. >f r. fhairman. ,Stmison"s full Bttement follows:)

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ST.III.UFNT nr SKSATOS Aram E. STEVESSO* IT! or ILLTSOW BCTOBB THE OoMMirncc OJT fames Bcunoxs, \VKDXECDAI; Ann. 21, 1971 F</r u docide we tare joeUfled oar military inrolvement in fc^Bth Vietnam as d effort to bring freedom and self -determination to die people of that nation. let it seeing that Instead of rapporting the people of South Vietnam la tlw-jr arch fw {nan* and freedom we are instead Up|>orting a regiTp which Is comnjitu-d to Yicfory and to a prolonged war at the expense at a war-weary people, Onr policy, it seems, ir- not to end ifcv war. but to continue i1 as a proxy war between Asians, for so Ion? a that Muiain>, our policy the drain upon our lives and upon m:r Treasury will continue. Genera! Ky has said it will be 15 or 20 years Iwfore South Vietnam can defend itself. I support the withdrawal of all Amejiear force* by an announced date. I tliat such a more could start serious negotiations and ensure our disment. lint I recognizeall Americans must recognize the risk inherent in uK otjr military involvement in Indochina without a negotiated settlement covi-riru: amnesty for the people of Sooth Vietnam. the withdra*l of all foreicu irooj.-. and the return of our jirlKmers from the North. I euggtst, therefore, that we fasten more attention upon the instabilities of a political settlement which could not only ha sum our departure. hut also leave behind a durable and representative gmvrnment which could dejiend for ita survival npon the upi>ort of tht i>eople of South Vietnam and not npon the continned military involvement of the fnifed States. The jieojile of S<.uth Vietnam will elect a new Honoe of BepresentJiUve* in August to 1* followed by the election of a PreKident in Oetolier. is.iause i>ur ouuuve military preneuce enhanoes the power of those la office, it threatens to involve u in Bo^tb Vietaimeae electoral politic* If only by an ai'i"jriiure (,f su|ij.rt for the |>re*ent regime in the forthcoming election*. The fre|iie;.i visits tn South Vietnam by Cabinet member*. Aml<a>-had4>r Hunker's t^.iirs .if the rnuutrjMde with Pr'id-iit Tbien. the lush visibility of r.S. materiel ;nid |KT>-<rjif! tliroui;hout the nation are perceived ati expressions of U.S. support fr tlie re-eN-etion of I'residfnt Tlu'et:. '/'bere j-. i-i'ireiiver. reawiji IK IK? fwiwrwd iliat I" S. xiiiqirirt fr tin- TliifU-Ky rejfiuie IN HN jil as it is a | <)* re lit. The New 1'ork Times of iVbruary '2 report<<<l : \jiii.iinl -urvvys of Vietname^ i^it-llc opinion, which are prepared and aun]y/*-d l>v the I'nited States miBslon [in Saicon], are being axed to arvist fftvidenf Nguyen Van 'Hileu in hi re-election campnitni this y^'ar." Tli.- oiirvfyjc referred to are <-onduct4-d liy COBJS montlily in all 44 provim-es, mid the r.'MiltK a:i- turned over to the Thieu-Ky fiorernment. Tl'e guextlonuain; luuilc avuiltilile in (lie New Tork Times coutained three qnct4)'>us relating *;*" ill.*!!)- TO tLe fnrtiK'omiDir elM.-tionf: nrhich uwn are most likely to run; what kind "f mu'j xliould be c-Ief-ted : acd what are the dacMve issues. To give Mr. Thien Uie nnswtTK t/> these auestlonn is to promote hhi ielf-perpetaatJon rather than the elf -determination of the people of Sooth Vietnam. Karlier r)ji ummli, inj dixt intralRiwd ti-illeatnw. Senator rourcb. called onr atTeiiiinn 1< I ui\itl Suites lnf'>ruu;itinn Awney j.rffCraais which have bclpm] llie SnijTti VlHimini-M- Miniitiry of Information diKw-miiwte j>ro-jfovernment projutRinda In n+ixiw to ijue^tlont; froui the dlBtingnihlipd (Tiainnan of thiK- Comlulltii- li<- sciijor t'SJA oOViiil iu Soiilh Vietntim >.t:it<-ii in March. ]!<"< lefre lluK <^,minii!e(. llp;if I'KIA )i:id <<r^tMln.t<'d IK>HK in Sr>ulh Vu4n:uu I'-onmably t dfli-nujtjf uhi-lher tin- ]>rc/jiaaiulj vra* Mj<t*-s>ful iu f ogteri ne more fir>K|tive j.ul.lif jtiJtii*-- toward tlie Tli leu -Ky Koverutnent and that I'SIA ha* naed ita rewiTjKM-s in Kontli \'.<^M.'iiii Ic .iKKixt the VietnHi;u>w fowruiwiit in df-vj-Uiitint a nwiint- of (^mmunieniinir wltb the elct/rjie and 1/1 j>rovid<' t-ljnic!il and jiroTJu- I' luted Sr.'it.-t. e.-mrjot lu- true to iu (-..uiuiitinent to elf-d. termination (n tlw ~irl<1 niid abai KU[ijK<rt tbe el"!ii.ii of .me eumJidate nr jinotlicr. bwever cM.-rt li, in Souiii Vii'idMtn To do so w.ii!rt |M> r>n^. It wmiM ri'l'iit uiMa\u-* of ttic |i:i.<( It in:iy l>i tlitit "flier xii\'i-rini"-iil* \ i'-w frs- el<-. f mi*, in tlie third w m l d 11- iiii'.iiwiiti-iif v-i'b tlii'ir intfTef* Bi. I funiH Kul'init that it li> bett/r ff>IJti<'i', Sin! iiinr.il'y nzlil. l'.r (lie ( rulM *i.iii- f \ H}izn ifm-lf w i l b m>t ML r :iilik-t UK? I n^jr" - nf-t i ,!(< niiili:it'' Ii e i;r>eJi<-> firI :i 1 1 icul:i l.-d :i- :i n:i(n>ii I'.S <.'jii|mri. real <ir a|'j>aretrl. f ' < r 1J>e n'-'Iei-tinn <>( I'rewd* nt TJiieii eon Id diw iir;;i-< '5n- faiidnl.'ifieK f tii>Ti <->iinilrte4 In Knirth Vietnjini t<. .1 Hpftb-iiient mi ".-cvlw'i iii- u j t l i S'oplu Vi-<Tjaiii 'ii-nenil Mi li bac :ild mii'-Ji jnjMlrly. J* ru'il <i>t<.' ""e frxr-etpFHiikii:!! if'i\u- \ n \ m \ u t vill In tlie electioim by lndiu> 1nif Hi"*-1"*1 ui '(U-l''r ilwittcin pew r or not ' t a l l

132
S Co.'i R-. 17 tvatflnn* :: -watmUty >{ :h<- T~ni:*<l Star*-* in UM S^i^h Wt>. its : rail* u;->n th* Prv-tifU-ot to iroilfwnt i;ilcy >f Wrlrr neujs-l !-?> '-u^arrioa t'-n hwmU-r Cnasraffiniuil forr.njr^ion. mpfxirt^l hj u uff in >-.ath Vi*-tna:turuui.v.ut thr portion campnisKVinT.-rx1* I"..* tmtmr* a.-vl .'.*. >:!.. wh.rii ailitit ln:rl>rv wiUi tu*- rlfotnrrtl ;>ro--*s. Tbe Cooun^wuiiD ;r>-.-ncr W-M'I! ii.-U' u-wnrv- ti* ;-ifrlr cf $m?h Vj^taam tfutt w* u <i aiti"B .rc rruiy c*>:amir:l TO thfir risbtjj a< a frte, wlf-S'iWrnins ;*pii. Tl- Mr)lu.i<',i ?- 'tt firf hrr lj> x;tv*iag il>- *-aje of Ui- Con^rww that we .ha:! a i tw:ii <n|i|irr <rfi,> a frwiy fU-rti^l
;n or d>*>rwiio

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133 .
ii;c wt>i.-Ti -r<-:: tin'i-lQ'-ti .; l.<.->urj;:t> TLir !" .imt rcmmllialir-ii. :l }< t > i*'-t"i-<i tuat uay a*. v " ,- ^;:s f - i A i - r i:i tli,- !-Ltk.;i riip.ush a l>ruil < \j.rr >;i-n I .ulur f.u;rf--,ri -A'.!!:-: : tr ---rf.'"i-<i ir 'Jjir (k-nlin^ wlfl. lU. M,Fan-! :> NVrtli If f'/r ii"- :l!>' TV*/: ;'i U.>- o.ar s Siurb VU-toamr**- t'ivr'i!pi NN-.. ,ht- untb f-f .|Er- v.;-!' :i '.r.:i.I !:-<. of Ji:f>n-ir .-ili-J-'rt, if n-it.!<i n<.' 2-. ULCnliCf-J by HaHfi. Jr. f '.'.11^. \-i t..-- j'tyrp'tf rlytv flw forNtfiiiibtf - l i-n.u j.- aa;Ti:lns bat a [-rif'!:> rui i--.iitt'lit-u v;,-\v.-.' fn.ui y> ffandlnMUt it r S- Int^-rvi-v! awl P s*" fiolii-y,. t Tair ei-r^. n i- Tb-- -fjily TKti.rj .- van L<^^*- for Oni^ luirins actiVri rf,m w; a ji; i.-- iii tio U->i jMMt-ibv jiosltlou to early cut tl- xwift. u>ul. f K-->r r!.- S* ,--.;x Vietnam*:.'*. tLr elation ! nt li: as i-rucii'!. Tl.c? .-aui.'-r rci!lnir.':?. Jr-nu R land saU n ruliure w.jtilaf-l M j quarter -.vi'turr <.-f war. An'J t!..r L i . ' - ;,<va-sarni;f<!r that tti- irarrvill rr.il for thi nJi*-:> nr u>i. s-: '(,.!!.. 1' ;?. ii> r<> ft"- S.>urci \ i-rii3ai<-> cf''.-*T:i-sr a ^"i~ i iIi-M M\-ai !m fr<-n >- 'if.r"l '.iiC f-> IinnimT >Jtif * fH.ijtUit! "-nr4->;> ,^L>I l-rti;t f*wv ! A: '...* r.ru- ;in'.i fr^ii V! rn::':i-*- i'l iS'"-f f l u * frtil f'Uf it tn.r li-'fmi: t- fh- I* 'I i.-!i:/-i- f-T tr;>i;r-ni.iii.' :>.-lr t.-s."r- fiir j-a .* ii:n a :.i.i;idati- far ;*-.!-. KIT tl-.f r--n*"R. a JV.r !':<-|j'ir. v.ii. .: n j-.liMi.Ml TWIory !'' laatt-jT who u.ni^ :i Jrfliljril t t ' T f ^ y of iifKitir :.ii: ii.^ imiK-r'diu''* that. H tlx: n-ai fcti'l imaeif:if<1 D-...i'utl ~n:lf-fl' * vfc:-o'i-rK-;. : i f " ' , " . ' . '

Ti. C H - : K M A V . Thank oti vir

mvj-Iu SenuU^r Stev-n?on. J tiiii

'ri i . t v c i.rouirhr a

<*iii tn.:.^ I mi ;!'!> inf. Jf ;; rh< rn>-ci::ii:i'> <if ii><v a ?>viiauii- <*r ^ 'onifr:.-_sJii:u}. ii'ir.e of nimin I biion .-tisal: liir- Iatiriiage or are faxnilUr n.-tf li iK- { i^ortaiifw* ;uvolv!. really opcrau* to proraore a fair clcc_ * S.-aitor ;frr.VK>soN. Fiiwt. Mr. CKainnau. l..-t nw> fii-t njphuaiz f^cf I 'im not sug^totin^ F'tf^nTjion of rhe Xlctiiauieiic or thr v ''ir'li;c( by tii*. VirU::inw-sL- o/ f h c i r clr-ctioris. I aiu tiiiipiy siigfres-finij \\r; ovi-i^o* our own in-i;.>!vt:itKin lit N>uth Vietttaiu to jruaraufw: f hut tin- <.>> >>iniii'-iit of the f.'iiJT.vl Saf<.>, doos not iu rhr course of the <-krt:'ri '-;s:if'-jiirr. <l.;:-i>rt tin: wtJf of i!,r jicf)[di>. It wrtiilii !/. far c;L-i:r for the. l".>. ^(iiit*1. t:i>- Houpi' of Hf ? j . < > . JiV- corrur.i.-.-';' TI icfin-.-^ntirit' *}. two JK^IJI-S. a:i<i a t.;t:iij to f.vcrv.- oi.-r /nvoi-.rrjonr a.-, or/pffntj to tlic -South Victriinriok coo-'luct o/ tlir'.r ov;it rlrrtiwis. Th' i"-*!u!|oii <l'.nte;i;j!af*'.- y s>taff of So'.fi. \ r i<'Tji:uui-c .-iti'iikin^ jifo;l-, or. t'/if grtwA in S)u<ii
Jip;-'l'f' 1 i X ^ ' l t l l l i i o i l . - *li-ivijriil 'J 0!J'(;v:n il> Vulvt-nifijlt ;>l -

af-'ir;!f;o- (' tit*.- [.<>j>i>- <if rrotiiii \'ictii;ifu tiiat - a.t:-' rva i;i 'in- t-!-i tK'J;-. Mi C'^.T fu'liuir from falkni^ with na.ft\ iow ii tli^t ;i {;: iiir:it'c,i of i'.>. .v i r t ; i i i r v HI (If clf^ioo.- in hiinpfy Jn>t -no(i2lj. tliat It ntx.-r.Li Tiiyrt- t< iria!;- ir i.-k. It rwii-'li' jnorf fo ar>tiiii- tii>- jx'Ojj[: of S '. it M. HI,: <-f ii,r !KII L I ii/h-n. 'Jiiftt i.-t t] i- furpoH' of tL*. .jor J !</ J.-.T i.'i'V, '.'. !iu{ inorr we can do, ttirrH.tt.TZ or TAJSM.-JIN>; N T:.'- C'_tJ U.iMN. If it wtjj'j !) done. cmiry*., Our j.:i.:iii/;atlon f;ffort ti.'-ir. wi.ii-ii ii v<rv larye ,i'l on which we h a v e ^;jit & ^rcui d'-a' ',1 t:ioi;<-j , i.s dftigmxl t>y pfer.1-:. yLr: tl! pt-op); of South Vi-f tisci t>;

134
i. XLatb^l- v,, ttctual military opcrt- '. _. . oulfcuh m .a sh".>r tinte now to say vc did uwt Jf; w r, rv)t\'e are .utnil ail **: do iiwt-'iirc wiic-thsc tbcy sufJKUf; ' '~' '' " "" ' " 4> Ssu' r .>-t^vi.N3fi>i. I-iiLii. it- shou&l be tried. J[ dtirtk i ~~ ,.covjr] if. ITciv'7t'-speoiiIJcif tlwrv tlic . i J- -7 . .-. "assmaiiasi'vcri'Jiair , ^^ . . T. > frojtr c " .. If we:do notliin^ monr than eiprei"l*JttraIitT; J Os>pect it wwild be >erj?*liffir.hlt fertile people of South Vietniuu.t^/listin^xhiEi between tii/i Congress tod the *secutfvc bi^anch of tLe .GoyieruaKaiiLTtut i f (Jx-. nrauluti<)a drtibr^'itfe'l & coiigreinional c^innassion in -^oirth Virtaani. I rtould ctrtdaS- hojw and think thjuf-tt ttyfld be'ol-soflie bolp iuoc >nh* in oinrumdcribing.ibrt'lctih'Jtioj' /{' 17.S. aire)ics5'I>ut in cwi>initiaIJy assurfng thc-[>euplK;:loo;':OJf our real nuutr^itty. "I'liis ii {> thr more necc5Ary after wiwit liaJ! -alreaAy transpin-xl, after theelecuoneerinc uiC \re have donr.iAnd may atili h*rir,iatc oh be-iial; of ljji^ii tud Ky. I'crhaps this omoision couJd find out wbttt V]aiHy t^ " ' - - _ ' -' -" " " of the rwiul/vnw-nto of tne "rhsoluticn 5*. that [>eri<j Jicanj" to th Coitgrwt^ so if intf the t'oKgf&a'-fnuld. tkp {J|r6priat j The CfiAiicoN- Triut woula bt great oc'.'Omplisbiiierit because tlt^ .jwnaiiiUw has Attrmfjited. 17 gut the result* fft the poH5: which >xc ' irwutiot.vi. Vi>it jm-ntioin-cit tl;<? tjnrst'oii- Lit wt-n: i*uv<i;:tiMi to a-iM-^ T Presidv-ct Thieu. but up tiH-nov the ev^ative bnm^L hx3 refiL'^cl ^> make tirt*sn polls availtWe-^o- the comuiinttc, Mayb: the cnriuiK^kfa w<>itld !vj" m'orp fit-nmao-ii-c oit tfe *rjcecutiv'vi 4>ranc. ;s{iOciff)]y if tlaiy i tim wirl^tFiejV-rw^i '
f, I W(7uld li

~ .

.,

J?enstorC;. Thank j'd^it Sf.-iator.tbftuk yoi, tw. foryourtxiijtribtition Bi/i? foJ goggeatwm fhjch you hare skillfully present^." r wxcnov iv un*rr^"-r^. rtrioE iv c election in S to r/rv/>tjjl IM- coqnu*tl vn tt> r o t " * /jrl urv of lhfc:wiJI of _ . , 'J are.r>t b jt^>ncilh' very <:onrrn>j i i rithst PJI rt of ilu- w>r Jt!. ~- j: ". j<rari iJicy b/u>ii -i* dlfl^ouraffv'd <rf aay i!en--<e. ?>:jf f. thinif" is tuir, ronv^r f or tis xi |>ut upon an election In ScrcaJ^Ti^.njf fn ,t?e ;ciit and 'vilin- that v- /.'ivc MICW t' jAifnjron nlvf -i.Tv Jtor*. . ; 'Hiin l^uJa iw Ursfate a <i*p><tori I Lavejuwj i Jrr>- nuiid /or a !on^_. r is-t^ whether w:.arcf1;rtlly'jirS'5h V'rfiiaoi,f.r th pjW.wy ~ ' , aa ' o
do Wh i& ttUUlJU'i*i O/ tllK WM?Id Wf.f'n1 th'.f

. .. I do .w* .tltiit it i tubfivjti*- ~ihil it Jf>^ iwvVr f.nG &>-1af tutor ' ibri one pitrpow-for bw/jjjf jSortfa, Vietnam^ it** teen to

"

'"

'*iictv'JE"'CTSaU VtjTieriiBV** utjsen >;e haw newt, closdy involved with ' '.Jr^at Brititvn at tjc cjo^ot World War II. fl> tln*.o:aintry w<.-uM f&yc snpsrestwi we stop

ri't r.Irvjtft-'-^iid this jvalft- f* ^Itfr'-wei^tt-of nij tvcrntthat we ought jfiiuip mking attioik wjs.tywik an? uncessarj -for our broad }>urj>ose jif, z*fntii Viet ruin Ix-cauje. thov actions: rr^v have the <w!iatoi:i{ ftlvct for the tfnw (c> 1* in Vj>rtrani>sfe <>6n a .vt-i-r tlKullufuI crfr^r-aiion. Senator

,,_

' jttfiw tlfc-jt thi-i v.x}--hw h-cn ch.isH:jr alf^r a purjxj^ fo^ a lone If tJi'rc ?s xny urnrfcliiv^o <-f fonrifaniy'i'ietvri^n aH tlie jUittifi^a' f:*Hfl firoe tp" rtflf* i*n uilvtrjuvd ?n sui>p*>rt of the wrr f i * - ; ^ l ; r c i l D a t t 3 ; - - - - ' - -<-iiiM'>r <'.V ;JF:i-n't it ixn'n Citl(.-r.fh:it If Wmld rt'rtaiilly not lit' Ol r Jaii for : J>, irfs if tl: Jfoorli.ViVhifrnfs.1 \v.tntU . , " of tlu-rui . Ves, ' . - - , - . 1 , I tliitik ^i-'iiuxv'-lio'rtpit o-ikHwri'iJiH' tor tlu-m their T.v'nTA'^S'..,Tthink ortt-nsibly w Jeasf tl jr>arposel..., .--^ynf: th'Uci a rJ^tf o,f w^-tictettiiinafJon.' TJ^ Prwident rcpwfed rr;i.- at K>^ff % mn-ntlf v^i>ril r- Thi? bae tiot^bcfn our j/mptM"!; v v~- -)>-rfiaps-it.;shf<l aow utccjie'our fnt-p<>i aotoflly in South Vietnam '-->,r>ut nwre-awitraU; tlinxtgbout tb* woiW.

" : . < AVtSy.".: point ;J)rif VJM a ilisturtwnce froai the audinjc.)
"jf!l"

. . . _ 'jfArLXA>^Wl[ you TU'i^li.-trcpf flu- mefftiny? W? "annot li^ " " '" ' *.-" . jff not [a.-.-i haw?

c^iv, S<rnfttor C'jirn. I wt'iul'l-Lk>^/' Uojj*1 ac.fl U-lii-vt' f-riJif fiif/ L^t/z otJLf" r>ur|**jiji| Jt Mvnir to.uj/* c"Jr (nirp"**^ j'^*i' "-li'/'il'? fi*,1 Vi''p'ir2n^41 fr'^rii js*>irtj. \ y.^.'iri/ii, i/jy rvtui^i of our r/rt^^ifTv. I'^'j-iiiif iu'i ;ft ir-.HiHiir*'. I f^.r-S:^ ''oiir<y{oivv>>; of uniLir^ntl wif}i4r:ivi;i|. .^ -*'!i'j'iu->- tT1^ (*f| it tr Wu(nruxjiti.oji >_<r i'^flJ;ifix f'"<" ^ f'-'ar -fr w-h*f. fo t ;,. ri^.u/ij. c-roar |.rw/{l*r<. or t''>u Jigrtiw;icrit on,

130

The device of ejections in South Vietnam may be imperfect. It }s imperfect in this country, but it is tlte only device '.hat the people have i ir t- s pressing their wil l'. JL tlnrrcfore, believe that we should not distort it. We should not intf rf-re with it. We should do the best we can with an imperfect device. abiding by the expression vf popular will in the* elections. n^ardinc a fnso election. and I hope that is what it is, as s fulfillment at lonjr In-t of rmr commitment which I Itelicve in. for self -deternination aiid frwdom for the j^eoplc of South Vietnam, and then withdraw and th^n there will be a better chance for a political settlement for a ^a~{- fin-, amm^t v foi prii-anaa. JIM! rvium of onr prisoner*, and fora government which is able- to dq-x-nd HJXUI its survival and not our military support. It U not a. perfect nnsxv-r. and it certainly w not inconsistent with the vicvrs of others who support a terminal date for the withdrawal of nil Americans. S-pjifur (.*A*r. I do ?upix>rt tint . as t he Senator knows, and I undtrrst:nul fnxu your-itatemi-nt tiiat you do, too. S-iiaiorSrrvRSstfOf. I do, Seissror C.VSE. What I am question inp is whether yonr propoul wn'ilrf not inject add<*d difficulty and complications into a situation w iiich in nlivady coini>liratcd. Senator S-JT.VK vw^ix. I hop*- it i:jK-.ht simpli fy if for as to jreJ dowii to ba.-'i-' prin'-iplesj lib- self-dftmnination. Si-uat'ir C.ISK. Thank you, The ( 'IIAIRM \.v. Senator r*cot,

r.. mi.rr-v <vxrn:yiN<i rf>RM or FOKKJGX ^VTRJIMFXTS


Sfimfor S*'IIT. Scuauir Steveaon. I. first of all. have verj- broad ar.l t''"X'ral airreeim-nt with what concerns Scnttflr < 's: h^-re. I noD; 1'imii your :-t;ifi'i,t'jit thn( your rt-solution include the intent tht. ii-i 1".S. inilitary nsHJ^tar;' 1 !- would hrf- available to any jrnveninvnt M lii<-!i n'-'jiiin-.- or n-tiijx \ntvitr in South Vietnam by means of a coup That. I tnk- it. yon would b* willing to let stand as a condemnation of fii.- f[rt ion nf rlii" CiftVf-rittnf-itt in frivlnjr considerable ni.l and comfort ro f h" ovprtlirow of I'r!*id'>irf n>-m, L that wmethin^ which yon would co ' Vmn a.', * wroitirf ul act < ^.ruifor SI/ATNM.N. It my hove Itfen A f<olit;cal mitak'. It i- in fh>- p^.-..'. Tratikly !</ <iot know to what extent wcri' a party to thnf .{) ;. Von iuivv bi-m around Jwri; iongpr. Senator, than I linvo, SfMinior S OFT. I li, a istronp fpr-Iin^' timt we wvr a partr to if :ini} ] ttt'init- if w<r w-i/fjr. J think 'In- jmrt:ip)tnon of the (,'nif'Ml r:iti--> v, v. v. ff.it-/. WI'A'e-.f-r tb- South Viftrianicfv did i> H matter for t. bi:.t. I ^rn trying t'* get at th; !*irt of thinj you an. - >-:u-or ^OT;-VKV-.,%'.. Vi'ifli h i L-nefit ' > ( h i n d . ,i-: WKtu^i .Tr. I jifA'iiot ?<m. thii-' has not lx*n al the heart of
if fi'-.r t.lt'i', .'i ir; <!-!>. ;,i'I. l ^ r i i ^ J / - U M f ' : i i t fif : i l l l l i j i / ou

w u{r jfj'iiEj". v,if}. unr-^Jl.-ir ;*cnrK'_ with n-pr < ll-.at forrx to ?'"*. '-ot'wWf sn'I r rrypt 1 jit, w* ^nould br t r v i n p to alim' us a r"--ulf of tin: x r -

137

st<>n of popular will and can enjoy and depend ujon popular support not om'y in Indoch ina bat elsewhevv in (he world. Srnator Scorr. That, if carried farenough, however, would have the effect of saying that we will aline ourselves only with governments with who*' form of government we agree: is that right? Senator STEVEXSOX. No, sir; we are committed to self- determination in the. world. It is a commitment this country made :2CO rears ago when we declared it was our purpose; as a Nation to set. men free. I think we have lost our wav. I would like to aee us get hack to that commitment we made to freedom and self-determination, to the rights of }>eo^le to stlf-yovt-rnment everywhere. Senator SCUT. Then we do have some obligation to take some putt in the struggle of people to be ft-te in every country whfre it day be going on: is that correct! ^ Senator STEYKXSOX. No, I would not want to generalize aliout that To the extent that I do generalize it wouid soem to IQP we should be trying to confine our support to those who do come to power peacefully, through democratic means, and do enjoy popular support and Arc progressive governments, and then try to help them be free and *lf-sustaining, not with our military support, not with military involwnwnt, but with economic and technical assistance.
l-OtKT OHJEXTATIOX O> FKOFOaOr COSCREitWOJCAL COK1OSBIOX

.Senator SCOTT. This (juestion may havf been asked, but, as yon know. it underlies the basis of my concern. In proposing five Senators an*! thv member* of tin- Hoattt to observe any TJ-S. mi'otvement in file ejections, would not the policy orientation of the persons aelcrted have a great deal to do with what they find? How can yon divorceaUitudcs about the basic pol icy from such a task! Senator STKVKXHON. J did add re* famt oanmentu to that knowing of Tour concern, Senator Scoti. _ Sciiator SfcoTT. I am sorry I waslate. Senator SrErewnojr, I think tlu?'rc it no difiagrccment, at Inxst I hop*" none, within the Congress abjv.it the principle here of nonhvoJvwtfnt in tlie intenul eJectorr.1 politics of .South Vietnam, flnd ihar to fh> extent the cofrmiwion was oompowd of rv>grpMien svd Sn r '10 did have different views about policy in SouMt Vietnam, he ojilp> und!rscore our eornniitment to that principfo of M>f*fI<tfrra>UtPtion.of American poJhica' neatrnUv in Kr>uth Vtetntun. Senator SOOTT. I have tJlke/l within th" last few dayn tt two .%Ht* ton* -vfjo have returned recently froto Vietnam. I sskt^l t?oiit of tlwirjudguMnt on f he recent T>aot incuraion. .. ' (h& wsignttid it a* a rcialiu 1 wn*u un<t tl* ofwr oatdeftignatal it a* a relati/e fnilurp, I'Ariiaps Mtir point of have ben governed by what they saw, r-hat thi-y *wtftto(d <>ff bv x/riw [rJiIcrti<^n which they took fo V|*tnam wi(b tii-v brought ba/i unimfmired. - -. \Voiildc-'t that U tii d>ftrulty with a fom^iniont Homo viIt My i relativtlr good and othent will ?sy tin* j rrlafjrt'h' 'wfrtia. ot h^r w*nw, wouldn't wrb a coinmifcion *JKiftJy Mlect tKf prcj't N Lrtiorwof tJi people inroJved1 ' - \ Senator HrrrxKy^v, I do not tlojik so. I think the predilection c (!u cnw iii American polUcral.neutralHf, If tbare are
tz &<> -71 I'J L

*>'f ojirxixioii,\t*M Jlar^itwiIivrO'Qrjto/' thai ? Tin?roinniU--Ln ' .' chc*jwj-icifll'* rvjiorfing ltefeto i.Vuijjrvw, w!iy!i .wmjd &.n'-W-<3ie tux) acJfft^r. Tite (Vmitntseipn woald'liavfj at r;jT t&at- would try 10 ai-are r -^ ' tfie p^n|^fc of oorVonunitfr.J.ftt hi the (/uh;rti>ii u n^ntralitv. a^d tbcrt>_ ^ ./;- -> . st(if>oM not l any <iisRr*wnAnt alxtt dwtf in il;o <MI'O( H|>ftr\'isinjC '' :" ' or ov-erswiu^Attfricar. n^tjvitjpA T^iould not. think tfiore a'tmld \M- . -' ' - an opport<c:Jtv for.*'-emit doal-^fdisajswrnu'iif-ov*j* iat oonstiliited sfiipjiorr fw tfi(S^ NvltHrt^i /t Thicu ,>r some-body else, and ', ft >tORe nruwi nv co^sttspiov* I'KFJVXCF.' f y*fdr iudxKicnt, wfmld Ili* prfsr-.nc; in Vji'tnnm of mum holjtful fa thfr (fovortunrnt in power or t r STf.vtJf*fx. I rwifly drr not know. I talked *ritJ a %'err rl ftud prominent general in .South'Vfltfnum, lie illumed from ^y?"tfi,Viptn6J rwyikUy. nnd h* i:d tiiftt-'iA would thinjf any one oCtfyj^wirtifcM. iiH-kt'intf Pfesiflunt Thip-u. vould"welcome tixw Uk-ause ittl.*f>s afford tb_^n alltlie opport.imif-y vJ.wrt irit<>7>owi.rjtticoog1> ui " " Aftf-r t!iflt\i:js })ftfprtied<,thc ftnctj<5fnr candidate whoever if in.~'!udhir"Pr-Mid'jf Xhi'i, wlionrj"^ nuntcd xf^jfk'Aily- -isiipht f)r ul<r^3viu->d to rimkr'j.**.1*. Tt misfit -Itt: poweiNe" in a way that ,'f is >/ no'v.^> make pic' with thft'JK'inh., ...'_ '.'-./ lie, njso [tointrd wit that whooivr, incindinir IVrsidrnf' IWT aftr an el^tion fa^**/ A/wrieftti liav hi wr.ti . S'i 1 mo Fiw it J>iild ;Is*r l-iwf:f ifrotfifr wa\v ot.^i" rands.\Jbili liis ?j*id IIH iiLti'-U- Jfi' liu* riprtf*J . jniWJpl a, r . '.UrtiVthfi Cf'Jifjpal.arfuby '/C ^><.'"ht>cfw.t in S . 1 \Vna. . lit lit fa>f. h*> lifcs indi'-nf^.d t|ii(f, 'li^hf* orjjof hf> ov<t> ^wii:* will depend opon thow "act 'u'ttwsnd also nfon *c7icthr or finp.*hi* Angne( elections jtre free of eorniptioo, and ^dicatc a fxwfrHiH o'f f iv* .>)<< ion* in " Ilc.cniiv * i-M'ttunigr*! t run f fliis "If r niit'hf erA>rfr*jrr ot!i*-r J^fiplc fo rmi, f o ro>xi>!fei,Qfe withtVNort{<. x ._ - , . f lo riof 1,'iv.n.. All I tikiw j f hnt U W IM nt ry nh<wW adr^n- (/>]. ,tnd I <at st^. wo ad v as a n"nlf-'of a firm c^)!riifnMnt by lh < r<:,n n nd < th. riphtg jf scljf ttovenumtf; of tlj* people 'uf South -Vtftnkm. "'-' ~ :' t - ' " ' [ an'. Ctf*. fnrf K*. iitwtilr| ]ir-)ti th- Fnisinw* of r,

T*fmt \if\y fr of nrvK. S'i^tif.I a S^/rrr. Ifivaiifw i^waa won<f >rio<if if ^oa would i CVii/irnii'>u > exa i(y "f (hf vdf>)>. UV

13'J
OBTAIXIXO RCTUBX or rRiso.viots or WAR 1 wonder if you iiave commented on the primmer of war isue, as to how you think we might -jet tho prisoners of war back. ^ Sriiator STEVEN-SOX. Senator. I Iiave already expressed my support fur a terminal daU; because it not only iiwures our ditt-n^agKineni bat al HO serv es as a merjis of getting negotiations started. It is hard forme to believe tiiat if we announce publicly a terminal date it would be very hard to win in return the release of "our prisoners, although I wonld iivujiu.- that ivlwwe of the prisoners would be coordinated with withdrawal of all American troops*. I do not suppose it is very likely that all American soldiers would be released Ixjfore all American troops were withdrawn. Hut I at*) tried to indicate that AC a result of the free elections tho ]io<ibCliiif.3 for political settlement might very well be euhaiifed, and . that part of the |>olitical settlement we could expect would be the n-turu of t,\ir prisoners as well as other possibilities, a cease fire ana amnesty for jeople in South Vietnam, and hopcfu'ly an end to the war instead of. a.< I think our present course indicates, prolongation of the war as a proxy war. '-Senator S'-'OTT. I thajik you, Mr. Chairman.

flCBVErs ix BOCTII VICTVAX


w! rif.ucHA*. I wwh to [>ut in the record the article on which I :i in.itix'jit apo of rVbnmry '2 in tlw Xew York Tin(? by lilori-i Kjiifi>wii n-^nlnif the sun <*.*. :iud an article by Ptrr .Ta> in tiip Warilijn^ton I'OK? i>( April iiO. andow from this nioniin^'s paf>r. ft Mt>ios tli ;a is oppo^'d. which is quite jutcrestinjf. ()iu: article SVM the - N'nvv 'oiiiiijuiid i* aU*>ut to dirwt an effort to garhtr iriformatfon. It i* a <;Ias*.r fication project. Jt MVS that one otiject is helping tjw Viet- jiamese ^ ! ice ; that :
, v 'Ilk; I'LiMd Sutv* Wrtjlil AevtJw n Infirnoatirm *j:-m for Kulapon'* Miaiti7 - <X IntMlortb* fiollcn ana wblctt crarfc* dowa ou nrlfd'i'r(inM>5ie nrfift and [ir*<>nrwlt/ monitor, ^ratoite and l<nirore tli lmp(*in<-ofuti(m of tb*- (woplet ^j< i>rr>)tram. . . . The Utoi of orainlrsrtiiD, uuujK/wer. wmixfn*, n. uirf training of forci Inencli luailec information prr//xrairuJ ia to te*( attitudes, urvcya A'ouU IM- ri/ndfi'lJ roootUIy ja Vlt-tiunu fo

It i* (k v^ry.iitrejrfinjr devft'-jpirittit. Mr, KejKrter, we will fmt all - art Hcs in the n-f rd, you .ver^ much, Sen? toi',Sfvvn*^ii, " j)rf you, Mr, (,'hainnan.
rh .> Vort Tlon>. F-L. '.'. I'.-' I.-.*.

. J ;fkcu! t0^vi<7 of VlrtMuww pwJrffc opln1-41, wlikb srr pr<firl cixt u*l/i*rt l>r UM* l'nlt*d Ktabm aiiMloa turf*,

In W

140
Tli'- in'tutUl* Mirvf1}*. known a* ili<- I'aoHU-atlun Attilmlc Annljl are takt/n In ill Uu* nation'* 4< province* by trained Vietnamese rcsonrcb team?. 1 he minxjw U to measure trtmlx in rural opinion and the reaction of Vietnamese 'o |<<^Cr ereuta. SlH-rf-ial iiuextion* In Ubc jurve>* arc now bring tsked to enable rr.-sMcnt Thlcu to im-imlirv' more rliiirly ln'n one u[[>-ul with VleUuimeM> voters. the i>O|rularttj of Ms colltlcat rival*, and what Issue* mint omceni tlie YielnHine.e. , Tbc aiwwer* to thes^ qucvtionn are made Available to t>ie Vietnamese Govern went. one UOJECT o Aawrkan.1 working 1:. tbt i<uclfitallon |<roffraui Mtterlj objm to f.**. wUldi in-, iii tliclr opinion, "ro!dUiis" In Vietnamcm? election*. A Bpokeamaii lt.it ih* Civil 0)*nitlfm und Uiinl I>erel'>i'mt :it Soi-i ';OKl>Hl, which rujKTrlm-B th*- urv-j-.. uiij In n^;ittill<lc for *ml iK'n.-lnjiojent progruu. Ill t^vutb V(<-tnnuj. Mild ID a tt*-uimt vunt flic qu<-iU'.tia -wrr not rrqmrMitJ l.f rrexi-Jeiit ThitTj or tltc Cio'i rurju-uf of Soutii Vu-fnam" "(rn Mfln^ Ofiii"O tl (><>ri-riicufiit of Hontli VU In '* ':J''(i ()i*y wouK! U- ini>-r-f>^l. ' tin- Ktatruifi giwatw/n* citi-tl wi-rt- UfVfh<tw<l ljr tl- >tACV [Military AimUtiiii> Virtaaui] Ci'Utl.'S Mnff. Th<-r <-rc lo< ludcrt to jlvi- a of polnlr jjult:nl-^ on un imjxjrtant upcuiine <-v-ut uhlch f. au lui(w<-t on the I'adJif-atJ'iii and i.Vv^Io{itu<iJt iin/jfraui. for tlir M A< ' V -4 '4 KI>K and tor ( nlt^ Ktatw tuiMkm." .Ni-vcrtiK-U-'M. ti ^; jtiir-ojil ittiriQ.-uJxtu -.\<irk<^ who akv<l tiinl W- juini" r'J. Maid "wxji" <jf tin- *(fbil (jii'-MtU/ijn ID "I r*tt]ly object*ry rtronglytn tliJn bind of direct |rf>lilKxl l;i>rfrri-n if tllf AuMrtORB Ecl*iu<y In tlie^jKulnlnf election* h<T>-. e*J iflllj in llgl't of nil the American ctalma to the coiiinry." It* a'lded V" /Hi flttUit'U- of I l ' i - "Au- f w i i i i iiit' i d 11 iivi-. ' () AiiiiT; . i f i i-r-.ilii' > 'I ->.n l~'iZI>'!: tinlnti'>n of J'art A ^' 'iui-rioii! nj it nri-at r-Iior.-. Wiifli kirwl of \*'j:it iAMI>- Kill > "/O fi>u.)i1<<r Ui"f IU]XjTtant ib <J**>-idln ttJn t" ^M:l f',f ,i, IIM- i.flt election? Tix-y ncn- I'reli]ont Tifi-u. Vj<-i l'n->iijrl>; Nnu.v^j ' ' M I I K.' l"f rn; V.in lliiJ. ./ifjoxit^m onalor, Vu Vnn Mau. lnt*-r HereTran Vnu I/ix-iii'. n f-rim-r I'ri-nticr ;-il!i|. ni I'-adfr in -ntrui Vlftnaoi {fttt'.t: w A?II.*IM wvx.ii
A <',..) of iin^w r/i *m !:!> j;in-fi ilh tii- i-tlii-r tv o niji':ji., r .' '_( Viriii;. u . n- . . i t i n l ;!^<> r> (;i[ fi|! 11(1 i (IM I. ,T i,n-.u i'J*'l!rl le" > f i f f/ :[. i,.l J,i \ Ji *TI^ 11^*4. dnrt I'Ti'iJ HM* nji*^ j:ii >i(trvti"r)" li. 1 * !.i. - ln'7 -' rt'l" ut ! IK < 'i\ i\ * ^^ i'f.: i,.[i n& .1 "V

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>.--.;i lli- rii!' (Uini.uijf'i f"r ri . :. " :i rliM.'i'ii. iii'i-fjof ? if ' - - "_ ijiji- i4i. i M ' v f i ' i n v- irk* r 'n'l ('..<' IM li.i'l k^-iii '"Kl J.j .11," i u.|~ . i.m( 'i> ((:. V. n-riirnr HUTU-) J i u n f k i - i 'i.^in i f l , n m! | iii II 'in t f . - r if

<'cj.l* of Ibr Mirrej-fi. DC fjtifHti' iititiiii'n In Kn^li'li afi' Ui.it'"<l "f.'"r ottl-'....' Tiw iiitr>iui U'ifi to mi t^tol^r, J'.'70, :trrr rtjro Hmt (!,! thri>p tr.an Vb-tov:
I l < ' i > ; i r I. (eSIUlu If"' ' K'lH'-ll bl II ,*il'l-ti-t>>rl <|l)''lollt.:nr< ' O ' l - I I S i K * > l l t n

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AttKKICAX

Th* resentment of one American workloe la a delta prorlnoe a* c. political /ffltt-r ami advir to * (.'irii Operation* dv_rf!<>f.au:rtt program led :m to rpirtjn Li jo} last f mr on tbf- irroanda Uiat aun-ey* fere Ixlug cwuliiuf d to rtrengtkvn 1'p-ldtfot Tultu politically. Ulclwrd \VOilw. who toft Vlrtaom rdy la Uweaiber. wruU in letter from Uw UnltrC Xmt'-ii v * /rieod la Vietnam : 'I bad r.;*-*?* sala I'd *tay In Vietnam with COBD8 Ire my own education as lot# I waw't PKpdmi. pan of my COttbS dttUe* to do anything directly harmful tu*ay Vietnam***." Mr. WltwUiw wrote that b* was Informed by two Xmeritms beadlnf tbe p-ney'a ~|w<Hnratlon rtsdlr* crouii** at * luocb last Kovenbtr la Salaoa that Tblfn tiiked Colby to aeod oat tb* t*DM to make a Madf d" th* i*o|>U:' fectlut tuwarii U- 1971 rrcyidcaUal tdcction o tbat Tblra would k.iow vbre kl Kfi.nfl; ]>lnu r>rr n^d t-Vfr bi-'ft tar* to trniacv M>meUiin( ljl!f|> qmckly r^fituttiiu nrn >.avuij wt'MHU would nutfc* sart- that b*'d c<an oat i.cntd in a cirra an.*." Mr. Wliw!o vwr<4r I* W* I^tfwv <hU>d Dc. 24., WTO: I o.kiMl. 'Y-.n owftra.. tt*- !'3. tMm <J**W*>4 to UMI It r^nurcM to assure ThfrtfTf r--.-noijV Til- ftwcr*>i t*. 1 hs hj dxrMfd at ttir it>4t TliK-uV ri-^icrtluo k *m*iUl w Ui oAttomU InvrfsC cf t^e C.8.' He ato <lf*T;tit4 IB tb trtter IMM* be protected to tlur two atlttr "1 a*l<t. B'^, antl-TIiton frteodi who wr bopinz for ab hooctt Mctoral t*c-it jcar wouM jure be JMK* U tberfcn*-w*l>uut tbls " " Mr. WUitlo* Tbr f<iJj at aw of tn ro*attr>rt t, for CarUfi fc!. 4on'i ,tU tbea>r M Mr. \\r M'itmlor in wrote <C be ML i-~ica-/u>J tM^^Ne Oil ft )Nittttkl reporter r ilir .'irii <f*-rriou Awio b.- wa not rar whi-'lter tltv leformtCap li* a I -Hot Md I'X tl (toipm f^jrcruta*ot fur UK own (4>Utkt Hr jar.- |k*nnbMtnn for ht Mttnr in rjnotMi bjr Tw* Xvr 1'ort at tue lunch rt> mtli .'-Jd i>inc oar I*
TWO frtJtM a>

Ti kin:' "! iir'-)i ar lit-itju mndtft*^] Iij ll- ISI-IT.V In Viet num. fhr flr(t t.I-" t* mirv.'T for a f4ii(l }.<r(triiKw oolr. wade up n vi iff _?-i*.-.-Jmo 'oHltr> IT HvilUn Bdrlwrn in tbfft /ot hr d VKuimvv to Ihfonaed w './ w w -r, Attiiadi> AiulfNlx fr<>m (I'AAM) t-. i,'iVv, m>r:M:vlt} .-r<rr m^iatti. / q IK-MIvti" irxi n*r arv bandlpil by Amrrlo-n <,(T>'),i',-t J'i ?*ifnj, Tlx- Vl<tiiiifi4-M> nue*tl>n*f4 at-- /idnl'n (x>tw<n the K4 '/ Is no-i .V,, . i;n flfi nrx dvll autiinrklM or nji'iulxrn -rf rrxnlar military for. Tl . ttt J^aMtfU r*cnily
I'll' IflcOtloQ ktllditTI [>l til; [tr'tfl, 3U AlUl-riCUlI '-ttK-^Jl Worhfujf 1(1 flf

at air if .^n-rial '|Uctl(/n in thp iiit- r jn >nr f -t ii <>f lirr---tf TWt-u ray Jn offlrr. It will nuilu 'i,h*ti ji-w-f-f'ir ^t "v 'ilt with \tirnnr." IH* 'ai'l "I doi. t < Uow Tbii
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Kr A M TKM.: o* i|r r*ter A id i^rn*yUyi-~Vin- I'r^-M'-tit \Kiifi-i. < an, Kjr. v^|/;<ifia up -r / pfiiw tulnlntcr and !>- ifw H-.I/. aJ! t*n txiurlit atl."

142
bus been lioppltiir np all over Sooth Vietnam recently to make rtatemore notable fT their nhork value than for their lode or consistency. did nut mention Tblea by name* rabUe distinction that !-i Vietnamese ejn makes toe accusation of corraptlon k*r ha rub. It b? generally believed by Vietnameae and American politic] obwrvers here that K"' asdci are Intended MteJy to eatabllah the rice president an a nerloii.* contender in the ftrtnlier pifniilciitlnl election. Chances that Tnieu and Ky will again ran on the name ticket now appear virtually nooexUtrnt, althoncti on name occasion* Ky atm upeak* In conciliatory term*. At another appearance yptttrrday ?K> compared differences Between bim and Tblec to the onrtul quarrel* that occur between hunhand und wife in the 1C was fttao KOitw*W >frter*iy that Ky cbwe to Ure] riiarcen f fomiptlon x( Tbtn h divert Attention frum tlmlUr ecumtlooii made it him by Sen. Oeorjr<, 'In r*ctrt. (tayn. BTy han !#<> recelreVI beavy eTerare Jn th^Viefnamew pn-M fnr Jpjwrttnf a (lulltfcat silivMo/t fo the war a |HM(ittim In- ii> rukcn wlfl.u( nuidlf}fiv n eartl*^ Miuwt lo whU-h be atiSd lUftt tti Puri* tiM.'iitlstt.:ik wen' On. Ihlona* Tan ^BUC* Mlnh. with Tlileu ami Ky the only otlwr candlilnff wlUi WXnJfli.'ant t*rtdrur !" rted to -nter the rare, nald rwvnfly tint >K- furor* "entnclstrno" with Norfb t'ietnani hut Hm* not furor a coalition j(i>rernni<-cf witl> fte rojnftnintt. ' Kt liattjc 14 KCrnt^y Umt b^tcnr wltb Ulnli. Sln.f thr preliminary M*>rK* }n tlie f.renlrtcnllnl rpe l^nn. tjo vice prc-^ldem ha* fonjwl hlmM-lf on virtually every ponirfWe rfde <>f every IHMIP. T(efnaDwr!UF n^wnuen and politicians rrjilsin fill* errntlf iK-luiTk'r. alwurrt in Adi-rl<mn eye*. c*I<tilfl{l to ohow thi<t the rlc*- prt^ldcnt ! "f MfniH t" nejik hU mind "It reiilly dcwn'f matter what the lumen are." fine J'inniullf explained. 'Vfetmuuew don't <xrr. alxiat tluin." Ho wbile Mlnh ifts tn Mr Mnlirmi vlHa anil qnietl/ r*on<leni hl orclildx. mul Thlen mmM- **1My atxvnt ttte- <v>ntti7iiMe *lmklne lil flr * Ilnn-H and ttnnmtorlnc new 4erdo(taiet}t projtvt .. Ky (K Iilc-Ij- tn ki-eji ni;iJ,inz 'i""!-<'''" M.tfentMitf almut wfittever cnnirit Into !<! heart. <l'-*ii't The <:Jec<ioo rmi*lm. South Vietnftm'n "econd In Iti. l'n(r in oflleUlly ontl) fteptemher, bat In actuality It' we tinder wny.
irrntn rli" W*<-hlfi/lnn fia-t. Apnl II. 1MT1 I

C > tn Mo MI i* VICT At-fxiBA ITW Vrsr THRW. Yi NK* i By Vjr^rja. r. \Vll*u>ni \'lxn Mffiiln!v*r.ii<f>n I" lunru'lilnc A 'be (' fl. (f>TYfinwtt* Irirlkvt !n tin- ulTnlri* <>f VIi'ftiHiri fur f ?! jilniliilxirMtlon -lnii-n<U 1 for tlie west f)ir<* fl-I jenni n pn Amerleur. fp>m S^.mli
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flw nm

rfn'U h

Here la what tbo Xrj- ] inking tb4> rlrllUn research coatrartor to do under the contract jiropOMlnumbered X 00000 : Hamlet Evaloation Sjrvtnn Areas to be evaluated "are- at-carttjr, ewmy Infrantractare, Government of Vietnam (OVN) presence, edectircneioi of OVN program*. ecooomic activity and economic dereiopment . . ." Territorial Force* Meacore "Combat eAVctivene**" of Vietnam'* 500.000memiM>r territorial f.trce* and Identify "problem are** reqoirinf tbr attention of comma infers and theirflUff*. . ." - UeJjrtn* Vietnam'* potiee The United State* would derekn> an information jtu fvr t<aiam' Ministry of Interiorthe police arm wbl<*li crack* down on antl- government actlooii and perwtmel "to monitor, evaluate and improre the implementation of the People'* Rhelf-Drfenar Program . . . The Hutu of orgajilntion. manpower, wenuaaa, ammunition and tralHnc of force* in each hamlet.'' Tb Information would aim go to the t',8. UlUtarr AMt*tance Command <MACV> and the OOBD6 (Ciril OperatioM Ural Development System), both lo Vietnam. Hefngoen A T*trm deiritned to mmmiv "tb* prorr of tb* rt'ttlen>ent I>roirram" of Vietnam**** mid Camboillan ntntBt*. Attltwl*-" Poll* and *urrfj* wimlil lx> cnmlnctHd utonllilr In VlKnaw to dMi-rBlllM- Ittltack* of Die \Vtnafwiw \mt^Af. An tbe Nav/ Mid. imbr thin Iwvdlnx in <i* rirntrart (tuidf. "ModlflmrloiiA will be rwmlrid to provide more nof>IJ*tk-uiHl iw.vclKiOH'trx, iicli a* >trUtVcntii>n uuj rluMi-rtOK iif rex|Minwfi and rrufw-ralldatlon of (|Wjonn and rvi^onMdi Mtu" VlHmmK Infrantmcturp (Vn In wlnit KnaD<l* iikr c pr<>Krum to dorctull wtth the oontrmrerffiai Hmenlx program to eJlmiMtf th* VO infnnwruetnrp. the contract CM I In for a nynbtu u> r*-j>ort on "'J*f )o.iiii.>n, 1 ieiitlOcmtkiii and nrutrjililatlon of UMtnlMT* of UM- polkxl lulr3tru1nre--<K.' V(tl." A n*w feature -ould be <M<tI. as the npHclfl<-atlon]<V>-T.uitnit ftr : "Thin n> t<fn In (o >> rV^i)tnl and in*rw to perutll tltf muk-hinf: of knon-n pMnomi to lwdeniM|> iHMtttotMi In tin- organized nbaoVrtr jtownuocnt t tarn? In a *{*iflc n4>h7alcal area. The prwnt ny*u-io onlj aciymnt* f-r VCJ wmtralized. Tti<- i new )rem will In- *da|<td t" inU-rfare wltii ttx.- N'aUonal police Criiiiluat \tl.nal rIU Vietnam Vatlonnl I'oHo- wjmld rvcpi'* ft wl<lr rungeof InfnrRprrice* frmu tbf I'nltMl fta<e*. Including "trn-'kioe nod Alsim\tittn of captured criminal*." I From tb* WuUoftM P<wt. r-b. Iff. jP7I I IXTTCM TO inr. (^ITOBO* "IuT <'MASic mi I'iu(r is VJJTNAM" Hating r>-<vuMr worked la Vlcliumi In tin- I'.H |<ir|fl,-aij<,ri jir/Kranj. I Ilkf Ui rf>iiiuu-at on tb*> l-ttr fnitu lonorr AmUnui(1t>r }tliert W. Kouicr 11 1 rorKt-riiliuf Arltiur <'ni'iigiwt ruiiiijiu Kir-rf. %r<- i'>rtaiuly did Iwk TliU n "uliti xiri-uic n|'j>"rt" In I(M!7. f M. jjcnumjH-l oJnrJirtjt.|y did mrf IntiTTifx- on rtl> T>i tiinurH Tlilni'n vl<1arjr, loner- *ud uiddlt^U'vcl VMiiHiiiHi' >itU<-ial. >m "rl'ri> fntm l'Vc, c-toiK'tl In u w|ik> rarlrtf of balM-itiilBng U-chni'iu*1*. ax I* known by an; lVtnaiiM4w-ii|iiiikIng t'.t*. jnli-|iir wlx> tik<-*> Hi*- (rout<U- In k MrounU. Mtalf I*i-|>iirtiu-ut unVliiU t [.r-nii xwii dili"fil>. l.m rotli>-r "in/loncd wlmtlii w-rc n-<'Mur> TO jnnurc tlw fltytinu <>f il.dr Htx-nrxl. Mr Kirtuer'n <'lliu dial w<' aiv in/f iiiti-rve nine uti TMfU'o Ix-luilf lumIn lui|ilf wrmig A f-w day* before I rct.lsr| lr Vrn-fWtU-r, I w told fo M|-r!*. u I'M n|i>miu'r<^] Mirte) wlilrii. atu'i- <rflwr tliingi. wxil/J )M-||> ilt-tt rti*liuflu- j-/.|iU-' attif mlf* towanU tlw* (rwinnlltU** xriil IfwiU" In '! ii|'<>uilng VU-tnamt" |.n*llKUlnr cMiii|lgii Tin- I X iiHi/-lol nnw in dniriri' of lliin kind of nunri-) /or nil of VMiuiui told me (lia( (lw xurter'n 'lem. i.n the itrmlHeui^ ilM'l "rlill:if<-il In a lt<etilig (M'tWM n frenldenl TliM'U ami Auil'i|*M<l"r H'llll.rju f'll>> JJr Kidfter'n vunituuir Tl'n'. Ifruj^. MM- oftVinl uttUl. uer, |olgr.'"'i ! einnill/ t'. tell f'nJj|fn' Tlileu. fftr lilx "wn I l l l M M l l;f-ftt. Mluit l>u.iw < mi tit* jn'ojiU- nvt and wliU* |*lj'ir(lr.I I>|I|KW|I|OU eMiididfit*-'. ni-re rlw |ioft|lur Id ert) <if VUlmUl'* it |>rufiniY* *ml 1 ai|lrrtiiu"U <-ltp - Piu'Ii /'n Ml rlM> hltfhtirt l-ve|. futln wlrliln lfi> definition "f "ii|>|irt" ami liel.....I

144
and 1* c*iu^tflt witlt AaiUusador Honker's well-known (*,-ifoiial to President ThletL nt. Cmldent n,ti. Ilk* bit AoMrfcua counterpart, to tot "peace" and oaiy in *o far a* U*ce word* mean "complete Tietorr." Tne Tietcoantnji-rie 1 Uttered with offidaUr-epoosored slogans web as "CollUtm with the CvuHunoUta is nkidcr* <ud "Not <MM gone inch jt oar land for tit* CAmamnivta "' 8t<tjx Xhieu 1* vtterir opposed to abating any power whateTM wich UK- ConnnunitU, Uw* 1 rsitty oothlot: to he : etodated. Of Tonne, we caiuot -* Mn of wltt Mnu^ne like Oen. Minb woold. do, bat bla election to the prwVwcy " ' certalnl7 could not lenea Uie cbancut of v oecotlated political , Finally. tl^ bard to know-tor -rare what the trne dalancv of military power U to Jn'vvlitna. IVrtiapf ^lr. Krnaoj is tlht la (erilag tliat military vktorr /<>r the U.S. rn<l the BouUi VteCaaoMve Armrtf Forw 1* ju*t around Uie comer. Let u reoMTadvr, tbofifb, Uttt In late 1M7 and JapUAry 19**. It wag If r. Sotnrr to rr(i<tpHltr attnred as that tte CommanMs ,ven> lieaten nd that they uo.li>OK*r had UMC ct*bilUy of launching any ftifttiOcant asaaulta on the "pacUted" nation of Sc-oth Vietnam. Tbr-b came the faaiotu Tet Offensive." Siou! that time. I haw relied on aourtt* other than Mr, Comer for my Information on -Vietnam. I ri-.-ruuuend tua t otbfts do tlie same. 'J>. Ptci/toatio* Adritor, Vietnam.

-The CHAIRMAN. Tlte n-itt wjtuesd w tlie H>noral>le onJS.974.


OF TIKX

i: I-'vyji THK ACDIEVCX. Kxrusi' me, Senator Fulbrrffbt, I just to- inform you thai there k a joint treaty of peaw which has been tiatcd ami thnt w* c.n Jio iougpr ait ba*.-k and wait while ConcrMs <::mtintia to I* duplicitou Vith more of tlus going on. I would just like to tri vsyou tlti? The CKAIBMAN. Now listen, we are conducting,* hearing. J will h.-ivc to a>*k tit* fifliivr to HI*!IL- you U- quic-t. Arier tliis i over. I w i l l Vnift FK<IM Tilt: Anti.V'T. May I jut give you this, sir, and tha* is fim-. : The CKATRMAX. I win rm-ivc it nftcr t'.w mw.tingia oror, but we car i not n/lfrtr y')iito/ii.-i-ujiCoiiriii<ftiii^. St-nator Mondale. ITATEMOT OF KOH. WA1TEE F. XOWDALE, A UJ, fEVATOl FKOX KIVffEIOTA MONDAO. Sfr. Hiairman and dixtinguiahmi members of th* , I very nuioh aiiprwiate th op[>orturtfty to testify on F>ehalf of i in- ami-rulrtH-iit wfrji-li S-ntor H^xfi* 1 uiiri 1 introdiifMnl prohibiting T'.S. pfittii-ipation in HII ini'.iion of North Vietnam. A-; tru- rhainn.in {<uow>. S"ufor Snxlw 'was her*' and intended to fr l i f t j. F v i ' - u l i - . (nit In lio^l (u ]i".t\-i- tci make 12 o
iiL' ' i l > wi '^.!w w - ' i j l i l i- jfl n! <i(r.-! tfv !) an":'-*1!'"'1 'nKin T.'if < " i l M i : f \ N . HI- >iiiil Jic illicit >m b:a'k U-fofr;

S"ii:il"f }ffi\bH-.. fli- a.kf-il WIM. lioneivr. to |.oint oiU that hi- lias
diffTfii fritn t i n - niti' whi'-!i I u i i l ii|i|>nr1,

14.-.

'GOVERN AMEXDSOT foroBTEt) Mr. Chwrman, I vuit to emphasize at the outset thai I believe tta only wap out of the nightman, of this war is *o set a date Mid bring our'men*hvine. As one of its co-fippnsors, J strongly support the Ilatjfa}d-Mc&>vern Amendment to -rithdravr a]) Our forces from Lidochjnii by December 31. JThe |>assag of that legislation is the most lasie responsibility of tins Congress. ttaoR cnxouaetoXAL. ACTHOKIZATJOS TOR IXTACIOX f r XORTS VIETNAM But while we still hare a military presence in Indochina, it is dissolutely essential that even rtep be taken t/> prevent a wider war. Tliat is w&y Senator Saxlx and I have raised this crurJaJ question: Should the Prudent send our fur'* to carry out or support nn invasion of North Vietnam- -with all an invasion could imphwithout tlie prior .luthorization of the Congress ? 'J'hLs is not ft question of whether the President's past policies hare K^H right or wrong. WliaUn't-r one may think about the actions in Cambodit and Laos, an invasion of Vorfh Viefjiam is timply *n isBoc beyond any of the old differi-iiceti betxvecn the President and Ms cr'tica. The reason for that plain. AH of usincluding tin? President's own ailviersroust imow tha' an irvjwion of North Vietnam risks thf invuKcmenr of Communist China. And that prosjieot would carry implications, at home as wrH as aliroaJ, as <M-iou an v we have ever f.ii-nl iti luc nu<vieaftj.fe. I tiwl not: elal)onitp for this rommittee t!^ rle.ar historr<-al warning. W*.1 thouglit tiic Cliinefle. would tolerntf an invat-i'ui cf a Iwrder Stitte ^IIHFI our fnrifx ftwspft into N^rt'ii 'H^on'a 2" ypur- apo. Tliey I\-ITP not Muffing. AVn-n l're>>i<I'ii( Kenni'dv fioiwdeml wndinc T.S. troop" intoT.nos in 1%1. tlp Chi new moved troops up to tlwir \AC*- WcW, whcn they JI-HH n'innintd. Win-it I'residi'iit .T'J<nson eyalutif] the air war again-1 North Viet-, nti 11 and moved niaw-i.-e Aineridin ground for<-i into South Vietnam ln*HtH>ii IWi nriJ JWW. ri0.fNl Chine. fr'Kifm rump into North Vietnam. 1'}\>-\ rt'jred only when we st/>jipfd die Ixmiliun:. It Sfcin" <jt ;rtt- (hat China's oovioiK^akf in North Vietnam defuic^ nil \ < > *.!rnv{^ (he proijte/-m of mi inxaMun of North Vu-fnam. Eifher1 it would IM; eiTeti\ely dffHatcrl fy North Vietnam -<T i< *onll I* - n ffi^ it-iit I v puni-hip.- to inviU- Chine**! intervention. Jn eit'u-r "ut oiiie. (in- ci-jta and ritks would lie enormous A dci-isiiiii to iiiiadc. (hen. i^ ntu- of (|KM- art jfn- wi n,oiii^ii{ou for tin- pint ion- *) >I'n'lowe<J liy the iirifrn-dicfnliU'- tlint tlie President > ;t:iii'if t:ikf i( al-iiif. 'I !:!( i-, of cfiiirw. x '/iiiijM-lliiig <>in.titiition:il nrirunu-nt for pri'if <![. s r'->iri.'! auihori/jiiutn for an inun-ion of Voilh Viftnam. If the N-naif uicl H'IUI- nfio;ild not take part in a dwj/ ion of ()ii r r' f'l.T*'- i- ( n t h notliiiii; l<.ft of our foreign fmlif-v ' "im-r- in

140
Yet tiie constitutional issue also reflects a basic political real it}*. A President who took such a step without prior congressional approval "on Id quite simply shatter our already fragile national unity.
PROVISIONS OK S. 74

And thai is what our bill is about. It does not exclude an invasion of North Vietnam. It does not prevent the President from defending our forces in South Vietnam. It does call upon the President to recognize the extraordinary gravity of an art ion which could widen imd prolong tliis war. And it brings him to share the great burden of decision as our nation's founders intended such burdens to be shared witli the elected representatives of tlte American |>eople. Thei* is no need here to speculate on the motives or intentions of the Administration. mKHiimjTr OF c.s. IVVM.VEMKNT ix INV\MO\ OF xoimf VIKTNAM Wliatever his reasons. the President has explicitly continued to l:oli| II(M-II tlit- jNi>iihilit\ nf C.S. iinohiMiit-nt in uii inva.-ion of North Vietnam. Ulien Senator Saxlie und I offered our amendment in late Fepruary, there wen> ruinerons OJM-U threats of invasion from tlie Saigon regime. Although those threats -and I he public concern t he\ iiroii.sed hsiie, now Hulwidi 1. we should remember tliat the ima.-ion* of ( ':uuiHtdiaand Laosc-umc in .similarly "quiet" moment?-. It has been argued that all the menacing talk alxtut an im:i.-ion of Xorth Vietnam war. only an elal*>rate bluff part of the Administration's totUiot of ambiguity. 1 would like to read to the committee portions of two letters* which suggest how periioulv fur these tactics can take us. The*e letters were written to a friend by an American officer olT the coast of North
i* dated Februar 7:
uvii (ii..y'r- i^urlnz tlx-ir xllly ma-v-ulinr. ut'Mrotlr war gtmr* tftln at our f\l-nw I wrutf >iu c HjH-nt iinml nt lunl iimutli in MIC vur Z"'if ; you will
llnfjrt' l>v flw l l i i < w i M K f'(llll|> 'lull We Jiri' tlltTH BlWill I IIUIV frl lillril'^l for

T>>lliri2 \-iii I lii*. if llict i iii II v iln ii-iixir nur nmll >lml v" ur>- :i lir"fln>r <>fti< >T >. lint Him i ttify iv iilanniiii! fr J * raid ."<O niili or MI north of tl- 1>MZ. >*iiiid* lik"ili;il niljflil (nil u lulu N'urili 'li-tiuui. iiutylw'r Well t i n - thouelit 1 .) [irp|MMtcru* wjtli t-tftftivncul trooiw let nltmt- trwn avu-. tluit '. ivfuw l KIV il aiy tt>-iilimi. Ncm-tlK.'li-iai. IU-}- ure (iInniUti|C it. mi'l 1 ( i i n ' t I'Vi-ii to IniM thf *.ho|i nnyiiiiiri- Im-num- I don't hart- a hifb [loiiclj i-li-armi"' . . So IIH I li:n.- to n-uil liookx. urilc Mtt-r, i|ti-n to eoixf iinioic. v r < i i i - .11. i| 't.lltil Ilic i|:iy Ml t;ib" i- linn i f ' ju-t L'"i'l^ l>< ! u fi'itil nrlli
W l l l l I III' (IlilNi K i l l If t l l l - t <|i> ^ M I K - l l l I I l K III till' ^ H l t l l

'I "ii In' wrot" n j f . i i i i in \I:nvli II:


III I" V i l n l l l l.'i l i i l i o nf Mil- r./||.t. u <iri|;llX I'l till 1 lll|>'- < 'll|illllll fi-l lui|. |l ,i

\v > unit ri-tiirncil yr-'i-nliit Ourliit: (Iw linal nl.i^i-i of the OJH r.ition. uc iii"V.-d

jn A i i i u n y H'- l'ln'-<l ti'luiiK jiiiiku ui unriior irh tlwir riff* >( Jii| I eiv.' <iu .ill ih, i|i-inil'' A '' iin|iiiiiy ruld IJJHIII Vlnh Alrll'-M . Jmi tuili- n < i r i l i >if rin I'VI/, mill H i i i | > l i - '>f iijili-n inl.ind Iioii'i kfi" If llu'y CUT M-rimjMli >n . I I | M > - > | I . i n i n i l i in' ii- I. in (hi- hi-li' 1'iiii-r- rrlii-'irwil il.-illy uml n l!uxxi:ili ' r:i N-r ^ll,|.l .,\ . .y i|j Tli.it I>IM- (In- '':iuil>'-<liuii .ii"in- (il.iuil in 'l-i*- i-iin-i.'li f ' . r
III' . ' till ' K *

147

I certainly cannot confirm here the truth of these charges. Hut if they are true, the movements described in the letters are an ominous development As this committee well knows, it was such shortsighted and provocative tactics'' which may have created the Gulf of Tonkin incident and the wider war that followed that episode. We do not need another Gulf of Tonkin. The country has made it clear that it does not want a wider war. I hope this committee and other appropriate congressional committees will investigate the events alleged in these letters. The time has come to draw the line against these senseless secret maneuvers which have a way of escalating into full-sotle military opei-ationH. Surely the point is rlear liv now that an invasion of North Vietnam and behind it the siwctor of a conflict with China is not a "game" of feint and bluster. One noted authority said it very well in writing about political military strategy:
Tu make of ambiguity a prioriple of < .mluct I* to court dl.ji*Ur.

The authority is Dr. Henry CHOKE The choice the Congress faces in voting on our amendment is quite simple.
It the administration does not intend to invade North Vietnam. the ('onj.'tcss will only IN- eonhrmin<r the President's policy, :is we did in t li- pnva&i-of thef'hurr-h-CooppramendniMit.

Hut if ;ui invasion is a real prospert, the Congress has a responsibility to the country to record its lotion.
For tlie ui"ii it-tit, us I ?>aid eurlier. the iue?. raised l>y our amendment may not seem so urgent or pressing. The threats of invasion and public apprehension have disiipprurcd from the front pages. The grave pro*|icctN I have discussed may uovv seem improbable -as imnrolHilile u uri invasion of Cumbodiii seemed to u 1 jear ago. Hut if we ha/.' acted then- a.- we have a chance to art now I ' Mr-ve r4*ul<l liave prevented a wider war and further divinjon in our rount ry. I urt'e thix roriimittee (o iv|>orf our ainenkiment fa\f,raltly at the em !i<"4 [**wililt> date. In niiy event. I would hop- this <|iieutiuii comet to uii eudy vote in tin- Seimi**.

PITJ.I/- m mmr K* t-Mnit rnvi,ni^iov\i. \rjno\Af,


Mr. ( ''laiiiiiuri. tliert- hn been broad pulilic Hiip[x)tt for making an ini:i>ion of North Vietnam subje^ to prior rongrewional approval. Tlii- in -tiide* editorial t-"pjoi1 from tlie Wa-hinjrton I'ost, tlu- NVw V n i k '( n.ie-. t i n - St. I'unl Simdav Pioneer Pre.. the I'nnidejir-e i I.'|KM|.' l-ljnidi Journal 'lie l>es Moine-i l{ej.'i.-tfr. arid WVITB! C'nlif( ifii i.-i ;':i|M-r-. I ak |<ermi-Mon to itii-liuli- tln'M- :il (iici'uiirlii-ion of my The CH \ I K M ^ V. Without objection >'ri.i(ii \ I i . M . \ f . i . T h u n k von.

us
(The articles follows:)
(From tb Wmnlnjrton Font. Mar. 1. 1071] LAOS: THE END or THE List What arc we aupjKitfd. to make of the big talk from Saigon1* lenders about au invasion of North Vietnam? Nothing mnoii, ajiparently. If y-u accept the private rcnwiuraiice* of administration officials, the United State* is not going t invadeor even "Incurxe" with lt own trooj*. and the inrfonuance of thf Sooth Vietnam**- in Lao* no far does not argue for their trying it. even with American air ami loxlatlcal MU|ipurt. We are alo told, however, that there's LO point In relieving the enemy of all anxiety on thin count either : so that is why the Previdont p-.Ktedly loft that option wide often when the question <nie up .it hl lanf prptw conference and also why Dr. Klfurtnger. when IK- was asked about it by Bernard Kulli on tin- <'BS Morning New* the other day. would wiy no more than that "it's not Uie dominant probability at tin* tn'iin- nt." In other ui>rds thin If au exercise in p-vhological warfare the theory bring that while till." invasion threat remain*. the North Vlctimiue*- cannot deploy their full r>*wnn>ti axainat the Mouth Vietnamese force* in southern Lao*. Well, it in a perfectly sound theory for a conventional war Mtuatlon and one would not want to deprive our !Je of the caiucity to engage iii feints nuil threatto kii-p the enemy off haliincp and In doubt. I'ul the furt of the matter l that thi I* not. and never Ins IHI-II. a conventional uar, eitlier in the nuuiner in wliii h it JIM Iwfii uojted. or iu the nay it Las been dealt with polilitully at home. Kroaj the very Ix-KlntiinR of our Involrenient. the ewience of the vtrategy has lM4-n f start uiall. v ;,llc talking bix: to profe to Ivf engaging in tri-tly lliniii-.l uieiinrc>. for lioiu Trout conMUuption. while holding out tin projection of n.-urlj llmltlexn meaaorp by wiiy of encouraging conciliation, or capittilirlon. |iy the enem:. Tbe Jouftwn admlnixt ration called It "graduated reyponao" and the uny II worked MH Unit the next steji alayn tM-gau ana bluff "|, the unxutnptioii tlist the lant torn of the thmuI'M-re . tlie uixt lufuxlon of Alnerlrfcn tnwiji* <ir ilii-p penetration of our Itotnl-ern in th- Vorth would d., tli<> lr:-k M'lu-n the iut turn didn't work, however, the bluff the logical m-xt turn of tin- vn-all too often lM*-aiu* tht reality. I liininteiy, ( ,-i,\ir*t: Die ,|i>liii>ori iidinlrilsl rut Ion run n'lt f ih'n^- it <-oni>! do t "^.Mdimte" our refc|M.rihe n-jthont taking unacceptnl-lc rlskf. either In term* of what tlw RuaKliinii or the Cti\iu'*f might do. or in N-rni- of a i'litiral uiiliem ji at boiue. The turniuc jxilnt. wlieii tlH' Jolinwui tratejty collajtMed <nuie early In 1O. when w? dnin't add the wxt re<|uefed lucreruelit of AnMTlcau tn>pM. and Mopped rnoMt of tii.- liriiiiiilng of tlw- North, and abandoned the w-Kn-h for the uliort cut that would bring the eneuiy to negotiate an ncceptjil.lc wttlcuieni ; tli.it i> when tlw nwitch to "Vietimujiuition" really liegau, when the progreni> withdrawal of Anvrirnn troopo Uxaiuie inevitable. We recite thli hiifort ul Koiue b'tigth In order to point up K h u t I- different unit what In the luiim- al.ont the Niton Htrategy. It in rightly < ulleil different in tiuit we are actually withdrawing our troop* und ucei-Ierating fi.e umiMfer "f rite war liurden to the Hoiith VlHnauji-*' : in thin wiix- tin war. fr n-'. K xhrinkIng. even while It pilln over Into < Hinl">dia and Ijios Hut it ix the aame in out- esM<utiaI eleiwiit. liecjiuite we un- (till <inplo>jng tli<< Hduie old thumliM-ren In M-nr h of the M'mrlt'ut- -the <iui>'k tlv. Not the least of the argument* made at the f'tue of Cambodia HUM thill thih oiild xliow the other "Idc Ui'it I'reHirtciit \ix<>i. was lougti and uiipre<ll>-iable: and th-n i-ine lji'*. out of the lilue. to ri'lii-nre tlte <'anihdlan opera 1 1 '.n An HdtnlnislrHiion that would Invade I/nox would do what wx 1 ? Invade North VieliiHtn. of ciir*e. or at leMf let tlw eu.-uij- think that it would : perhiil* thl would bring 'he North \'letiuiujeMe to their uriim-* and encourage them to negotiate We do not aay that liiumlon I- {'resident Nliou'o Intent ; we nu-rely note t h a t the progr>-wt]im from hi (T to HI t i m l l t j hHM I>>H the Hlr.ry of Vli-niMin nil along : if lv uii Inxld'OllH proix . In uliicli (lie tii'tl Hle|i. liov.es. r nt'VMIIited. !> VIT> liewrlv forced iifioti HK t 'th' f:>llnr' nf the l.-mt W lire olit M v.i-i'l hii|-l<<-ti li>iW In i-iiu*'- our ni ile I- v, i n i . i i i ^ anil I iic i hi in) 1- "ii tin- roj* - \'"1 ;i nywn;. it's nil differ/ PI imcauw now we ure getting out fiut we were toll) Unit In <>rtoi.er. I'.Xi'j, wheu the Koulli Vletiumie-u- were wliiriing and tlie < ni'iiiy'> raiiw a neier more forforn. and tic w^re lu>glnnlng to iu-her|iilp tlw w i t h d r a w n ! of nur mcii I'.ut it dl'ln'f woi. out t h a t wn.i In r*;.'I. In Note-ulier of tLut yeiir r>M-in wii" ' i i r f h r " u n und l l n > N'orlb Vletniiiriei. innu" 1 in lo i \]iln!t Hie n>'illlrit' |ililiriil '|nioi> ; In uluiowt ti'i lime (In K-il.itice ' fnr<- vilified <o the em In) Ir dl Itl't work

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out that viar in <iu,y ll**". when the first American combat unit*, l.-inded in South Vii-rnum atid we were toU not to worry: our troops were there to guard our airfield*, to free the South Vietnamese to flglit. to "buy time" for Saigon to mobilize. And ic dititi't work In Cambodia, which was supposed to l*> "de-Iir"; after Cambodia caijue Laos. So maybe It will work In Laos', although the Initial rotnrn are hardly encouraging. In any cast-. It IK not too noon to be 1. "kiiip for the next turn of rue thumbscrew, whijh In all logic would sn-em to i-e an Invasion nf North Vietnam. It may n,-wr fime tn t l m t . of <">ur-e. !>ut Unit, in .ur view. i< tin- Issue tlmt oucht to !> r"nvr-iin5 the :ir i-niic.-. of both pnrti-> in I'micn-**rather than n revival <>:' the Mcliovern-llatllcld resolution whli h f.nled lust year. Ijiter in the Trill-. when we can b>-tt<-r Juilo 1 the l,aoli:m gamble uml \\elgh tlie President's Bt-u *',iedulf of witlnlru\viil> nhidi i* title tu April. i\ill be Uiue enough [<> iirxQf "Ver i!f nxiiiK <>f touii- future <Jcuilliii>- f>r cniliut' tUc war. i'<>r u<>\\. I lie lirxt riJfr f Iiu->int.s i-unlit tu IN- lu^suc11 "f tin- Muinlul<- SuxU- rewilutiou \vliicli n-oiild f<irl)l>l uuy AwiTicnn |t>rtici]>utlc.ii of any sort In mi invasion': iin:ursiiii"iiii-x N'irtli Vii-tnaui. If 'lie udiiiiui:r:itii>ii hud m> such <lesien. II" {jn-dt hurni n'ill have lieen dune: we have, after ull. iini>--d other limit- on \\hat we an- larjiured t> d-> by way of trying tu |>eruailr the \nrth Vietuaue.e ti Kive. in. i>r eivc up <>r anuy. And ii tlie iidiulni.-tmliu actually harlxirs .mime +u<-h int'-utiDii. tiuit IN ull the mon- rea>n for I'-'Uitrcs- to build uj>ou the prece* dent of ia<f year's ("<>iM-r-<"hur(.-h auiendtucnt :ind Imi>ose yet another re>tralut. Not tin- if.-int nf ilif lesons of Vietnam L that when yon are dealing with thumbthe t-uii-tatlon III \munt irreslntihle to trj i>ue more tui*t* at ever.ns r;-!.. lMv:iu*t: then- 1 alUH.VH tue h"I>e tlmt the next twist will In- the lust.
(From tU NVw Tork TlmMi. Mar D. IttTl]

Urrrrjti TO THE EDITORIr Kouiu VIETNAM IXVAM& Xourn VICTNAM


T< tlw Editor:

I'n-xld.-nr \ii)\>-n Van Thleu's repeated threats to invade North Vietnam and I'r.-MLlrm Kii-luri] Mxoirs ri-ruiuil ti- deny Aiueriuiu military involvement in "ii'-li iin iii.a-iu 'iiiiH-1 us to 11 Hk these quvtious; Is tlii-n-any reason to beliex^e oi -TU;.J not ijcvte all it.M reMourcm to defeating xuch an iuvaxion? Should 'X f n i l . !- I'-'kiiiE'K iir."Ivrmrnt not inevitable? \Ve i|o int nii-d to laki- ijm.)l' exi>ll>-|t w .ruing* at face vjilue or rely n itii'-ri'reiiiiK I'-klns'i* inure auil<iicuous bUiii-ini-ntr.. WV nivil only recall <'/iinew iiit>-r\i-iiti>in lu. the Korean War ufler fw d.-i^il.-* of cuil wir u t . l foreign iuviilon and without any modern military power. Todny it 1 fu^hloniible to tjilk of ";uiuie filuii-" und "jxikcr jiluyer'n bluff" In \'A~M \Vailnnictoii thoneht I'cklnjc wax lilnflin^ ulicn it.uarui-d against our croMfidi; UP' Thirly-eiehlli I'aralb-I. Tlm-e ui -ntli* later lliou-andK of ilcml uii<I >t<iuiii|Ml I uit.'J Stji'cs MurlneM provided trim i-ildi-nce to the contrary. time it Kijp-l.- in'HI lit- a bluff on our unit-, but >l Suii;"ii uiid VS'uHhii^oii on w l m t toil.i if jt ji culli-d'' I'reKident Kennedy <roniildered wndinj American troop* to I<aog In lflj. '..'h fopt-H mov>->I Into the two northern province* adjninin:: China'M border-, wbepllw.V llllVc r>'IJlBllleil ever Mllce VVahllitiet'itl tfot till- H'-rd UUd tliVed to (jeUl-VU

iii^t'Mnl iif tun larger war 1'ivnideut Johuvou emulated the air wur to N'orth Vietnam and mored mawire Auvrlcau xround fort* to Houtii Vietnam. In reHptow. I'hine*- unii* t-nter.'d N'ortJi Vietnam, romplete with regular uiiifonn-i an<l military omniunUaiflona which the? ktiew would IdeuUfy them to L'nlt'-d Sute* Iiitellleeuce jm the I'Jiile' LilK-ratlou A.->>-. Indudod lu I-,* 50.WW ^'hlw*- troop* tatioril In Vorth VlKnam from IflGfi to IMU wer two antiaircraft <Lvl>ton wlwMte rqrulur exchange* of fire with Atnrlcan iilrcmft drew caiHulUmi on both ildei M'Uen otir botoblnx d. tli-- inK/jm went liat'k iicrutw the border, but tU*-y can iwurn at any time i miij I'.-kluK find It ru>ce*Mry Thli in UIH "muttH'Ut of tnrUi" for any pollcr which ttvk* t/> "contain Chlni." Kltber we are wlllltjc to flfht ->r we wut A\f*"<l*lt> ournelrea completely from ituatlo/m tliut are Jkeljr to tritfer riiln' dtrff military lnolreniit Kncii i.iiuiM-iailim ! callHd for \>r an loeodjornt to th* forelcn-ald bill introduced by Heuntor Wul'-er V. Moudal**, dC) oc fund* for "an inva*k>n by f'nlted Bute* Kroutnl for<W ut North VUHnau a well n for "(.-i/ubiit air upj>ort" of any nurh

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There i no IciKtiuinj iu ax.'Miii^ war that rvsults from overcommitment. NikitH KhrtMbciit-v did just this in the Cuban uuissik- crisis without destroj iui; the credibility of Human reunion to revvlt or Invaxon in East KurojnAnd fur those who aorae an alternative court*- lies with nuclear weajiom a KM hurt. Cliinea* manjiower, one can i-nly submit th*-m to endless viewinj: of tini lie Hiroshima and Naxu^iki fllnis una hope tlieir viuariou nighTmare* <>f suffering: euffice to prevent revisiting mankind with that horrible reality. [Editorial March 6.] AIAEV .S. WHITING l'rofe>*>r of 1'olitn-al Science r n i \ e r s i f j of Miehiiran Wnshingtnu. Mnrvh 4. J'.'Tl JVi torWer, aitffcor o/ "CAftw Crotici tKc Yato," icivet the State Department a Director of Fur Eott Racarch and Analyst.
iKfi.in <><< N.TI York l i i n - - . Mar. 11. I'.'TI I ' I I I N A I 'IJi i . < V\n:<>MATI<i\ . . .

Tli. r<- i prohtilily n lari.''' clnui-nl f ]>r|iiipiiiilu in hi^t uii-krinl'* liiylilv ]>nl>lii-ix<il tiisir i>f <'<>iiiiiiniiist 4'lilin-i- "fljcinls to \<>rt)i Vietnam. a> S<i-r -tar;. of Stale ItoKerx 1m H xu^<'st(>(l just us tli ri- ii* u <lul>t a i-ou-nlcnililc >>{ hliilT iu ivci'iit Kouth VJ4-tuuiiii-.se threat * lo luvude N>>rtb Vjeituiin Bu: 11 would be daiueroiiH lo lenrr tLi waruiuK tliat lire Ix-hind tn-i-li I'loiuiH^. f Mi|>jM>rt for Huni. It i tar fruui ciinvinnnc tn nM-"-n. :i^ l'r>" : ileiii mid State I>i-|uninriil liuve iloiie. thill China hns Im rejiMJii to IM< I.IM-. i-in-d ulniiii Ili4- t-xjiuiidiiiK "Jir near ir. borders, ur I" ii-^iinie rhut Hi" 1'inin'x- would not reni-t viror,ul> t" n fiirtln-r e.-u-ulatiou. Tlii1- i-ountrv'b oun H. r i - i t u i t y tri Soviet iniliur^ activities In the Caril>lt>aii urea hliunld enfud'-r ur lea--i Miinc uu<leriiuiiilin>: <>r I lie IrnlM liina situation us vieueil from 1'el.in^. 'J'lii- iii.iive Chiin-M- iiiii-i ii-iitinii in Korea in l!O<l in re-i-onM- in Gen ial M . K - A M I n i i s ;i|i|irotic )i in ilie ^:ilu I'.IInued uurniiiKs t-trikiiik'ly ^iniilar tn ili'ive t u a t urn emaiialiut tiMlay fro'*, Jl'Mioj ulid I'eklnK. Todny Hie AdJniiiiMrutinii':ini\eiiii-iii a /id threats in '^nithejisi Axm eaii only liutv an efTin-t din-t-tly contra rj in Mr. MxonV avowed K<ml. a* -xi>nr*-<cA Ip his State of the World Me<s.ii;e. i.f-iiii|ir.>iity^ ri-Iutionx i(li (%iiiiuiiiiiist Chiuu. Then- 1 11 n IK- little IM-IK nf riijii'n-hejiieiil with China ax k>n^ as I'ekinv lM>r..iv,.i an exjiandlnt' Aiiiericaii tli rent on tin bord*.Tn An e-M.-Dtiiil Ornt xieji toKurd lfUt<>\iliK thiK ohxtucle would he O firm diturwil by \\'u*lni\gt',n i,f in >i intinltim tn iniuili tin t'liim *i li'inli r n1ut< ii( \'>rtli \vtnuni, i,r tt> ijn'i niilil<iry nupiiort tij lUi'li tin inrti*i<m till tin fiovtH ll'rntu lln< \\IIIinnr \\Vi C.Qirnl Dully Trlliuur, Fl: 'i". Ji'Tl ' \\ AI: J'ifiHoxti. Ill (lie in -UK ri'luinijs of this i.i|e nf The Tril'iuii- is (lie item thin Mondale of UinneMiLu 'ins iutrduci-d u hill in tin- (' S. Senate tn |. iv.liil.it Amen'mi rr<-e>< from |iarli' i|nitiiiK in or Mjj'CortiiiK ui'f imat-loii of North Vietnuiu W i t h o u t enli^ressinliul HUlhorl/Utloll Tile ariiUlljel'f .-, he fUCK ( i KUsllliU I l l U t J'11'jx...il lire wlf evident, 'illexk eveii the i nUtresK Is U'ilit; fed U)> w i t h tile i"' alat|..l| nf l!i- ttlir -htll|-t.'d W i t h OUT forces ill Soljth Vit-Ulillu. tln-II |illltlcl|iulloli III i'alnl>"iliti. then I.iins jir^l no A Mltt'e.-lloiil. Ihul we extend it K t i l l further. And ill the lime lie. re and luore of our ho> K ufi- \H-ln% killed Her f l u i c iilnl ilie
.M'eklt t l . l l ,||KI> ri illU M l l i l l e > . n l a l i > fnr JM-JII I Jlid Ihnsi \ v j i n luiVC enlllr ill t!le ;olK'Ii)-lori that OUT

A.ir "n r there |i><s I j n l e nr in> jM^tiliculinn. u i l l u|>).lainl t.nr Senator for his I M I I U ^ I ' . I J . i i > l i n f i Thin one fnlli.uj- iinolhiT <jw]iir;iiii>n li.t u lieiulilioriuc MJIte .s. !..['. .r \lr l l > i ; > , t e r u v. ho ie,. n t l i MI id - llu-ie should In- u viift pull out by "i.r " ' " i i i i i > frmn t i n s "b.irlinrie jiml li.liunuin w u r . " T]ie -senator ills/, i-liurc'-'l tl.ai Ilie NiXon inliiiinihlraliou Iirfs In-en deiieiviiis: the Auii-ricuu j<eo(>le bnu'
I I I . l l i l u i l l o l l i if Jjlox

In the iiieuUlllue lleUiocratl' 1 Jw.li'') UjH l>cr ill the Ki-liutf tire ill iiiiuidllltf ;l M ! l l i i K i.'ilili c.t 'Oiii- f-.r the w i f h i l n i w a l of nil ( S J-nn-> In Iijijn-( 'liinii i 'i.nt' fo1" ihe Hilliclru n ,il mill l>> tin i ml "f I lie t his >enr \!l the . .(e|i~ lire lii-iiic liiki-ii to trj iirul oritii; t h i r Irani' u i n l nidi v. .r iiM'l >nr inl.Tirctl'.n in ii in an ml I. ut the ;ij it Innk- flu a.lui
,-.e > l | i i t . . i ( .'lelllioll u K l i :i|.J.|llUM' hill* 111 I udllcilj ill till- MillllCMrtU I/i-tfi

151
lion if going tight ahead and involving ns more and more. The credibility gap Is vi-r wiiler aud on*- continues to contend that our people art; not being told tbe trulli of wliv wt> are there in tbe tint i-bu-eaiid there looms Uie big almighty doilar lik.- lu mort wars. So tin- \\<- pi** on and youth pays tbe price w.ith their lives and Uie public !>! iii- pritv in huge debt* ujion their lack*. Ju*<t like our good frieud Claude * fiMin \\ritlng in the Fairmont Sentinel xaid the other day "Hlftorj i>r/int.< out tl.at warn make no dense and nothing la gained that IK of lasting value." And ;o lliul "ii" might mid l>e<-auw U-liiml all uar tin-re is H-IU'MJIR-*.-* r material iiivtivutiottv
1 H-oni tbr St J'nul i Minn I Siimln) llinwr l'r<-*f. l'<-lt. JS J'.iTJ ) MoND.Mi. UlIJ- ON lX\AM".\ XjJ Im l'AFO>.ti.K

I'reMileiii Nixnti talk.s nf *fkiug "H generation .f jn-aiv." I>nt wore and iure iii- Itni'M iun:i uar policies point lu theojij>o.iiedin-<lioii. JH.-I :i-- I.di>n J'ilinion Ix-fun- liiiu. Xixou s<-<-ui>. reuctiiiiK fr iiiilitjiry kiilijiiuu''.i'ii of Xdrtli Vietnam inxtoxl "f 11 ni'icotialetl (uilitji-.'.l settlcit>'ijt. Tliero ii iv widv-l'ri-uJ fettra tliat an invasion of Xt.rtli Vietnam I'J the South \ ietimiuew .innv uuil Ihe L'.S. Air Konvi8Uud-rc-iiiiHidfrutJuu. Sm Ii un ndfetilare. ulniid- tlire:itee<l IM Initli rn-.-iik-nt Thiru and Vjre i'n^id. lit Ky. would iiimn-diali'ly nii^- tbe (irolniliility f lirincinz ^'biua into rlM- :ir I" ]>rotTt HiinoLKus.-ia al^o luis cuiuultuieiiis to Xurtb Vietnaui uliU-h mttjirt U? dirt^-jairded. S4-nalor Waiter Muudale of MitifieMiUi mill J" other N-uatufs. iJeUKM-rut- :i!id n<-|>ul>liruii. have intriHlijciHl a I. ill to jirobibit Aiuerii-Jin funi-K from taking I'urt in or *iij>jK>rti>iK an> Invasion of Xorth Vietnam "without jirior aiid eX]i!idt coiicrcwfloiini authorization." Co-KitonHorini: the Mil i>. H moderate Hej.uMi. ;m. Sfii. Williain Saxbe of Ohio, who heretofore 1ms huj>iA>rti-d AdmiJiixtration polideJ. Moiidale Maid : "The I'reoicitnt IIUM jiul us on nUce tliat he intenda to kefp our uieu in tin- wvr lu(l<-linitel\ . and thai they will fly uiid die all over Indochin.i. itK-IiicUuic Nortla VicUuiDi. 1'ln- 1'reKidi-ut is widening thin war rather tliuii eudinx it. Without tbe Cooper-Church amendment we might well bare American tcrouud troo[M in Laos and Cauil>odla toduy. Coagtetm should uovr declare iUtelf tlriuly aKuiturt un iuvuelon of North Vietnam." rrecideflt Nixon aaJd in bin State of the World mexaage that "tlw- old diplracacj of inijiottlng peace by tlie fiat of great \>V,IT* does not work." Hut his nKTertiiut'iy itelligerent slatejiM-nl* and thrcutu ugaiuxt Xorth Vietnam are a direct contrailiction. \\ ItereB* earlier in hie AdutlniKtratlon be uid peace mnrt com* from political negotiations und wttktiMoit. . be now viwalu of wiliUiry rictorieH to force aucejrtuiK-e i { Aiiwriran u-riun. whicli now wnu to include prefen^atJon of tbe Thleo-Ky regime jiltn "friend ly KovermuenU" in Cambodia and jierhai* Lac*. While American infantry dea(l tia<v l-<-n held duwu to UKKIIHCC juiMi'- M-iitiiiicnt Ht lunar, va* nuiutiern <>f oirilian Lu Omhodla and IvaM bare tarn uhj.it.-d i<> American bombing. It lit e*Uuiate<5 Uiat more than * million Cambodian Iiit,aiitM bare bewuie war refagee in Uie [mat nine mouth*. Village* are wiped 'ill. [.r"*nirinl>ly "to have lliem " 'I'lii- AincrjcxD jTe-enre in ludin-hiiui haw brought d*"itli. dewtnu-tion, dlw/iiw and i unlxlimeiit for AKion \H*>\>\VX wlw> lived aafeiy Ix-fore. i'u'itie opinion all oter (! world ha turned uguliiht Aiwrim bf-aiiMOf Kl|l-|| n*VltM.

< Viiifrri-Ks hhould IwroHw I(K cffortx to fonv reulirjilion in the White Houw th;it Auwrl'-nnH want an etui to thin tfhawtly InvolFei/M-nf in Aiu. Tlw Coo[>ri'1'iiri'li wiMiTidiiierit |>rolnil>ly k<-;>* I' S Itifwritrj' out of CuiiilcHliu iiiul IJIOM TinH' bill mid |reveut an invjiwoji (it Xorf'j VMnmu unrl u powiil>b* t ion with China or UuHfia or both It f huuld l- iied.
I Priu 'In- I'rnrld* n<v lit I J Jiujruiil. Mnr X J K 7 I I AMU IIHt KJIOVT

Arinfl oiouutlng cougrtwuloual criUcixui of fldminlntration fK.llcy in SouthCH'.I AI-IJJ. Ken. Walter K. Moudale of Minuevirfa IUIH i;ilr/>diji<Hd H I'ill thut Hnld |.n icnr Aiiierlrnti fofvK from [mrtldjitJnf )/i or M(jp]">rfl"g an Invafl'ifi of XorMi Vietiiniii wltlioiif "prior a<i'l |dl' i lf" n u t 1 ,-'/jitIoii from tlu- Cmign'MH. f. \,.!i.|iini; cinnjiuiautMV'ii have ruiwyj fi>ur m- M tin- uili'xj that mi.-h x <-/Mi*l<lenif|iin cod that, wbwu ttu* ('.K. itithdrawal ba

IM-V:: i >M- i n* jiftittVufiitu I'/.r cMi.Tuhi; tl- war intA <\Mih>-.><'i;i eiu'-Xjt^. vr to lcitiic'.i'. l ^ > r4x;r:itii-iuii< > ]!ciruiv>ili;i^{b*-X'nrtli. .. . V li- i. -i i.r.t diiy.-vS-Airh Viff.fi-jaa'.i iiri^fiMil-NcnyisuVajj TLicU UK- V.vJi <{v*t.l i t" !li- i-fti-cl that It is "Uly a :mitt'Tj>f Unit- tn'iV'; tin. \\-ur !? "i rnitt4 i r^' tto iTui jc.r.iil-:! Aii'l nhii" lw <&iuu= i)- \v*^ iiiisqii'iU>. \\v .'iui>Ci^liu lyiuaiiii *M ih- laimJ.i iff Ajiifftan* as u lOicifuri van-lit J Vi;v_.Tnviili'l _ .V^nvc.-ijAU-j K?s oarlior sjilu'r rattling. '. J'fHidi-sit Nixon t>tatt1 nt a r<viit .irtvi oonffrcmv rit ni 'las'.-n^.^ T' S. forivs In ^^r*>-<i:;tl ura-.if:i. hut tin- imyMMSit; .f r.S.'alr ^ u .Sr-ntli v;-rniaci's.- Invnsi^o \Cis nvi rulil oui nii<i thv rv*>'Us fcr wpjil. AiiKTicaiis Imx* 1 actfipti-d the I'reatdeat'a :i M->)m-<I u r<-ii"iiii>l iiir-M; nl r ni-lm-vlit i: C.S M-rviii-im-n i'r->iu ' I n - tn-l- 1 a> !! S< ^aiiiitl Ma-ngili < .R^^ujm- full ri:>i"n.-il>illty t'r tnUltary . ri-.ii-tii>n ! tlit- 4'iiiiili>HliHU iiK-'iMlMji aba IT-J when ttt- j>romii.<l witluJrawal )i!:<i-c HC<-' inline i< *-l(wlnIi-. 'J'lu-rc -.va.-v iiniv uuU-ry viivn tin- Suir>'-: .tr*i>-< i-r-'-M-d ii:tn Iar. wiUi I." s iiji -'>:r. A^aiii. \:i'tttnii;</^tii'ii was jiifotai md Hi- c.MiiH-r-Churi-h Ani-)Kliu?M had iurt IM.--U violated. " . N'iiw frara ar>' growlnic Cllat .M-il'a^k-. in Lu"s und f'iuit>;>iJJ.i li;j.v !fa>l 10 <'l'iiinc y-f an->tti.-i' fnnit, liii<. ion- suBS"'tive,i'f such Tii^ M"iidct- [.ro[Hf.s:il accurately r<-Jwt* Uw public's mo<xJ as nearly as one i v uit k'uflt'.- ><ucli in;iiiKlWcs It MI-I.H ti> r"*Jr-i'C' ilw p-iy:<-r< -"J" CujisriL-s xvingv military d.-pl-iynn-iit is invm\i-il. t" nnp-'M* r'-s)raint.-> on couniiainli-rt-ln^'hlff wjj-i litu-f ri'-t"1'! nt tiiiu-s ft> tlnioyl) {,"iHRr>s WfT<- a n<>u-fun<-iiojijij;; aiiiH'JidatCe to tlic Said Si :iut-r >J.....l.i!<- in iutr'nlu -me In-, liill. "If tii.- I'.S. );> . bw-iuvolvi-J in any way ;u a>i rnva"'ii of X'>rtli Vii-iiunn- u I ;tj;lty ui'ii .iinl iuunt okiiiinUN Jiiiu-iisiiiii tn .Mir :ilg!itnuiri- in I.idiu-liiiiii lln-'i It '-sn oii'f !> dmn- u-iUi <'^|>Ui.it i-oiiirp-vsi,,rml uuilinrisuitioii Tliii !< n m>-i> ijuoMimi jC uiiisultutiun l>eti'rtji tin- Kxriiitlvv and fontfri s - -it i- a quc^tjou "f iiiustitmimml li-citinmry A. fr|. (if Hint Anility mnnut IK- tak<- in <'r <jjKTa'y willmijt tJu- atiUi>oittc' t rtf tbe AiuiTlc.,u jieojilc and tliolrelwled rif;irfcxentativi-<." ri'iniK ar>- i-ntiUnl t" a s*ura <.' Unit Mieir win. as fXj-:vs$l **. w i!I nut )f iKiioniiJ. . . . ,_ (From tb Df SToinw (Iowi Blstr. 31ar. *, ii< Ixx;ic Kt-iTeUrr of Ptate WiHlaiu I'. UW^K, !u tbf uaiue of tite Kb. '13 A'lmiiJftWtJon. IIBN urged (.'-oiKfrt-w not to ciuid u dati on us- uf L"aJU><i Statin ground cowlit forut-ti or 2OiHtiry advlMTH in Nortb Vk-tiuiu. rn-idi'tit N"!\i>ii han aut'i'HiZcd ri'i.^u.tftd nJr r.'ild? ("prott*Uv- reaction"') Into North Vivttuun He ban mid i>iibU:]? tbat TUe "nudwHtsndinK" of Uf folmwii AdiulniHtraUou tiy wuiirli Auwriuft tttycpc"! Ixjtn'ffOK North Vietnam In off. a IK! tiwf 'lui-re * uo iVHtnUiits wuut*?v*r ouvw." Hvcr*-tAry Eogcr* WJIH jM-jiklux Iswr wrA" at & clci-fl 4w*fiiiy: of the Houw Foreign "Attaint OjioiuittAc. In Lbe H*-u*, Hxrn i *. r<^iut*on ifltrrxSvcp^ 1>S S-atr Walter F Mmidjilc flviu.. Vliiiu. > uiid .viial'ir WiHix.u. K. Hxl Oblr/) which would bun r.S xrouiid foreign uu/1 Hdvjnt-ni fjom K>7rfl:~Vt< .l and al.-H Aui^ricunaid f'iraii Iura><'irm >iy h^m^biKly tlirf'. Hi - Tel a ry Unccrh did not want to r&kf (Kiniiimi on HIP Itiii |>u!fUi')y. fot . a/ ri-vii'lne antl-u-ar )duitjo;i. fl mild tlutt tjjc> AdaiiuijtiuVl^ii baiuv) intuition (if lavajjj.tqf Nortb Vi-Kunia. Hut ow^i-'iK a l^o' IB b; < u:nrr wbcewttrily cflrrUw * blot that Uw> AdmiuiKtratjon mixht rigb-to IIIVM<^- w Mut>f>ort au iuvuuJc/n, or kt Usat l*i> (li* tbrHat of Jajiuf xo ov.vr tlw twd /.^ Vort;i Virtrmin. S"ii;!i VV:nai.'i'~ |r">lil'.rit 'ii-S v)c'.-jir<-niijj Imrfr'UtC); litv*! rtikinif tib>>ut A n, I'rtvld^it N'Jion RiM Mar- < rliat R*Hiib-- VifXjjun; "Jw*- to y" in ^ ; if i|<^i rjv-. laWUf Xorin VMnum ti* t'o'il'* i WK? ' MIOIJ wl^^l Umt Uuu orl"i. ii<l bam "! U^-:i*ttni , Uu> Jd'x;u,lna tv.yr iw oti* war. Jt

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" '' - j:iVj"IiHw> teem, 4ben^J4 ^tjic IQ -**ti*iAi.t the flxfatlo it lis ailM tc aalnia*&flfcTa*imt^v-tet gri; twtb of w^kb bar* ao.4 promiaed to t;

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r to Sootfc Vlh*in Itsett i*d In l^cT<ndTOflite>dta-rA fl*^, (f. For lep b>H>" Vy ^he^dtrt lSt* tuu Laot-dwuitetwl fer n* itf tfuui^nlHee, tod tte -%fer haw Cittcrwl wajr like a
, . In Jifttfyinp the tanrtxxJjteB ln-r ke dad PrertAwt JoLJMa't wUtaKe *u lOvrtnj

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Tit- *lU*d Sttlkt Isttc, CtadxtJlla, PitMeut Nirow add,-"!* a dectol^ mtrre, -Q* tbi<' aetlofl^itoo {Mate tt> ony <m wanjlnt rt*r it It etraUtes while we An n<v. rt*-p^j- ep.""

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MotiUi I'irOwinV rrtnidniO: Ttilcu ;to a poai&te of Jwdi: Vletowa tmi4 "i>rMnpC PnetJdeot H to ThWu -ltakt <Tm paipy*Uja>r/ nt fl>* powt, pai ot l^imcti. cti tu. wifl
. . ot ibe war t* }cxtwMt"(m (be aroiUMI of protecting TTH .roepc Tn* n!/ ^*olt aantt tbrtr lc*fcr ^ttrtwe ia rwJofWn* frtuf^r from pt^tociiag

cajumt yiwj>ort 'H^cfb Vlrtawn wooid u*akv or dlflutroun. a w<nr* aj Vortb. Viettna n ifij ^raiJotU*H*. IWlt^ic U;'^alt?i both to Itrtottay^ to Cg^rtwi., ' -/. : , A.srro in Coafrts* arer tli*-poiiiwtlkf of tbo^ataisdm t^ lt -4 Jlombcr of to nyoiiA^r ic^wIatlvB , w^Vdi ir^ild fort>!4 U0 "- "". -"' ~- f a >>U1 tv.bni use 'of T? air or ffroontf p^wrr U a~S*atU ve >wa urprtil ^f-torfc." rtTcrriaf to ;-)?. UoaUt nUoo- N'lvxp lias i*ot rofed oot '
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; lit (.'til: ot T a ^ojo^ ^if.iiiitip*' Ictroalott-ciC fi*,isortJj:-''>jJd'Ti to -fl^Mic till? \ wnl aeJfcc Lear 4ailJ*rt l' it* ; fci

. i:--uftjtl *{tC tt" driw j/Jjum for an AJB*fictn-<n.iwrtl JuratUw uf a

* cordinated i "S'r TUf ybua \fKMOMHtsy,>-<>nM t*l> *or *siwisiv?vAjierieiU.air siiMtort. ,jpriftifii*-S':Yt\aHl ot^r AiB*rfis>w <*kwlb have i*>im*ll>" ivfiwfvl ^ riij* euf ?

ir?kll frat It ^a* /'tocl.'wr wf-fetiier *-=tiant TUleu Is ensagw.1 in_ simtlur

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,.~ Mr. 'itv.^ii i*<i a*.kd, f>r & .<Jlj>J'>ttwUc m>J"K-m;\fiii f< ' . Jjtli-r-Coiunait N . .-i .*--.. . OJupvj?t trv>j|i<t .Wi>uM Iwnait lo a.id XiJrtt* Vietiiiiia if it v.vre invadt-d, acivc^a^"^ .. .. ~j ; N >: 1 -, - . j'^WCLVrt^jMuy'^ancUvn-iptftAur..^)^ , - - . ^ A" \"-,' '"^ --^t,! Ci. xv ^ - ' -M<>tl!.j-^jaMA- \vii-rt- twid N> liAVe i)fl-n.n>.'HV?'-^1r'-^r''tt<\Ia>'f)" ^"'.d.K-sJar. -^ ^ ft .^ ""," . ."Pt*^l<t<*(7t^fliivci'.t/tld J^K!.iI t*"a*L''r?i )tX?ilH Oiufrir i^iirKli)0^ *ty i*r H'l^tKli t^"** ^ ^ ^ . ^, \' ' Jl ImirrU ,ti.iftl|_ v . . iv Oajj' ^ fJUittx^* J/f^ljyd/^tl'^Cftrvl^i-^VtTIlJi*?!*! lltiWM^^uirV

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' ~ X'-"^ o^''1--^'"' ":'.'<IT>^ > ^'-ffiA.'C -VtV.' "f t!'i fti-'lc-irutw. >i!M >I J^T'-rJn''ri.'.i.'-7ii>r--J^ . x-

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\i, I'-jiCvi'iliij- l'Ji-fi-WJl Hvi'U;.-^" I ltfe Vf<w'iu .a-ill tc.'i< t^i ;..1ii.1f lUy-j'lo^^wjlii . r<%s r-flV. itV^>.ltl!.;t <J r <',ji<>-: > ^lvV'.."; '- -""^ " - ' " \ " - . '" V -^- - - - - - - - - ,

~- '- '-v^' ^X.^v.^-VVoVC "'"-- :-'-^ -" ~o.;:; .r~V ^ ^ ;-,\ ? --^-V;'''^^'"^ 1 f
, -^UiflliDiffer-I'Lf *'~* .^'V*!' '-ii'w'.lh.-J i iV;tJ'.ti '' >' t>'>^. Vio\V.l,\jiiSJ' -ft.i;-. txVtlc.' 't'.-^S'-C^.WJC^r St-iSj.- - f i t ) .fic-li r,Vil -Ct-Ji:i:'^".-.v.- .. . ?

*IUI^ "li\ "Ij'V ,Vlt '^'Mc^llv* tH'.'Miw.^'Ju-siTi<i C^'.tMfJ^.^JJlT' ill'KI i-(T.'.>nf- vPni i *!.nt nff. 'i'\'>yi v\i-ls, *iui |Vit'>^r.|o.)(v"

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*;':''Jrj,'_<# ^Jjl>iv^lV'- |v,t^ U"-,rrtj^ 'it f'l* llt.vJ'i^ - " t/ T -'"'' J fV*f;tT^*f-fi v..iM^^i T >int "*)M-^*- ;^r< - * P U I I \ >4 r 'Htl^ ^ -_ Tfi ^^'-('f i;; ^-i) (fi;-^'-ftiij f -J t^'..2Ccr(ii TK*' 'S*J*Jj*l . ii*t'*f~!i-r'. v " -,_v.t,' '.,r-,l\ I, ,, , v.^; .--^.'Tl.-f^.iil'rSid I I . l'|""-il<-> ' ' 0 " i''"~ ''

LAOS: WHAT >"ntox l.t?P.Ti>. ApriL 1970,- A Senior Research AaMcUte of MTT, -wlierc be is -writing a Jbook cm tiio -

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TAI-MMU**

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is tfpwlal AElsniiattoUiaii>:UJitS*scr*Uiry ...._, rity Affairs. fcuA from SeptJiho.r. 1W5 to June. 1J4C7. be in tiu- 3LH-j*rtin.eiit of State ia^'uliuiDi. tic la4 six uiuutbb HK Special

.:

_ * tfae r-'. Vicv 4'rui4it Ky j><to;wl to" what.L-opM V* tlie nt- Sontb VJ-jtaauwaie ^ KTOfliKt.-><a-veK,"li^:hi<l, mi'iilil JiEVe ttt cro UielTtli i<aralW into XwUt VJetoaia. -, - H4V"r Nnin>l.^ lujw?* aborc.-J.^ l)MZ_Xc uns wi year* fciwce Son-.ii VU-Ic<im>
v

ioflMU "tie Tffrtb. K>'a vianjinj:, >iocidius with the Jj.os.; iliiktd ib juKt; iTesect,' *nd fulurt o 'a fnadunwitallv tinof

l>rdis of X Krig.fr -tm^OiiT-elMnjiiry . li>7Ir *; US^mbtra and Iwlifor tte cst lini^ accompaiiyinji Kkwtli' Vi^anj-Mf or"citaid ll^e rg- -jcu, I^c. JtuerfeBnr^^Urd t<><}-Otf nation ^ war." Hejidkrf: Tu tl ofluary;>"tor* rtxwt-

'"' " " . t)* c-rtritmrj-- * all can seewe 1m v^ wideuftd It SVljf? Wt^ and afii? Tiicr<- is. -jj truth, a arli<Ti! iiiv-r^loxin t>tn; i^oliVy _ &U^-V.<-TK to lhw' <ju-MJ -u- J< j.s a j.^k- that hay p9ia)i-d for at least liiV' Uivat-ioii of Chiii- -and Iffj-otKJL ycrs-.inw fr "folJ i.f (I'll--- jid the ri* of

^ n.- ia-H !>i-U<ui. x!i</rtly liercflflcr, -ln3vw-.'i:-J.-> w.t flht. a-UwJ nar )a Ania with CK trp-urrf 'uu.riit! tro..n.- <-ifhrr. T>irif C'fNWii'*. (d.jrtius *!<b Truiii:inr uiurmsr .< ^J-.Urf/ Jxvsji LvulniJU< ilonijK *'n-lr trfiits an-1 JOSM-J tiw cliullcjjgt- ,,n to Huff 1 Xjion VK.m tcu.u.4 tr,-m wn'u^H to ii'iIJi Kulyun tJirouglTlili. fic.r.

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" -^""U-iiUf.- "V fl'l-1 iUjUlUUI-jtjr.l t u C l f U H ' i^' "IWt- -tiJ^J '(fjf frf (Jj*- Ji-ai^'f "1 '/T *Jl

fr>-- ^li v. ill, tiiit in Jf.^ if ) v\ j iv 011 ilc- I' 6 ' JJ-i'.tft .TI. rrmkfclki. lie in. rJ'.'rinifcuc'l aot tci'u'-vt- lu kuffor-iV-uiii, It lu

lot;

Tleataai jmmmoflrius away his snpr-orters <n the convention or from ' railing to his votrs-in the election. ("Whether the fears Chared hr \i\on Jn4 W ir*acp'or" of a threat from the rleht)kre hased r,n political reality. or on a p.ictT of Uwir'-rywn making. 1 not the issu* h*-rt. \Vbat matter* is that four of the In* five PrcsMcrntR hare felt coiapellMl to tske nv.ch a "threat seriontiy : v and Nixon ntill doe*.) . . , . . X* donht there lire ther and perhaps oven rtrftn?t-t Tn<i:lveR that inflncnr* Mr. -Nixon** choicer. hut rher point In the same direction. Thwe.1? rood evidence that t}''~P*'e=*;^nt K orn more than Ws predecessor-?. a "tnie l*eH<Tcr" In the cold wnrtttvini.-.".- *hey U chared. Inrludtnr that of the Importance of maintaining rs power In 'A.*'-'-*, showlnc nvrencth to the KnIc.ns nni ruineae. o<ntainlnp <-omrnnnImimonolithic or not-Hind voiding tlie r-rert>aring dan^jre <if -a rs fnllnre or htinrfllatlot). Witch of tliew- intinrt!< ! tht* rrous>r niorN-rs litlV- <n *h:< f-n^- *r r)-ev rHJnfnrc*1 ea<-1i otlwr In Vlo^najn p"Ho": Stie-jmnut not "fsli** ntcire nil. tio< tfMi wv>n or too <wldnlr. Thoi- -who FtrT'sir.t1 nflifrwi-i!'. who Mipposp that ?Ti.xnTi' views .on donieHo pf>Htl<^ oonfllfl' *"lth II'R .rotl^.t* if T",>. int<>r>-<;t t>r<1. r.n4-thst hln instlnots for politicall Arrival hu-xorablr urcre him toywird t'->t: withdrawal "nnninUer whft."nr*a'mf <.t nr"1.7 wr"ncr. TKirlnr 15R Hfnrr Klislnpr fiwiOfntlv ald la prit< tnlfc': tliflt. MM vprrri*!*" V\ of rj! pnllT fa* "dvnnt hitprvsl" tw-o to tUrt^ TI>AT* J^-w*>Ofl tlie.wKhdniiral "f U.P. troops and a C">tninonl<--T *aVw>vor in Vi^tr.j>jn. Tn tbut r-f*r. n sim o mod^t hil nlnK>f a m.l^-sl rine: no major pnlilti* fiznr*- in --fart, rtaw^l npenly to fndor^c it. Rut In Iftftfl. w!i^n Klslnzfr moved to thf \Vhite H<rc:j. W nHon took r.n a -Khn*>r nx^nlnc and m-w jsrcenoj*. it l^iiiine not t .jconf jujf <t re<]Tiirement : sr;il the "Jnterral." it txvsme evident. eotiC ili>t./-i>d h>fre Vnwmher. W72. In it new. t/>tijrtipr form, the doctrine hart pra<1i<-l ImpHrsitlonn f.->r p<rlirT well hovont! 1!>72 In HTv*t. jt nv>tit a<-tinc immfdiatelT did orer th* *teitt iKrfTTil rer to'arhlve lintJi NII Inrt.'flnitc fl5itlne stalwnate in Vietnam and -nippoTt for ourh a utah-mate In thtt r.S. And that aim had imnJiwfltloin* for the yirAspwtx of renewed eoni^t-|on nf -the nir wr in Tn4'Hhina . To l>e*in vlth It was evident in Paris t>r "'<*. *I>r\t\e of i:2) *hat Hanoi and .he VT,F s(Wi/1 Ti'vt jK-rept icnn that would mfet Hi" Admini'.-rMtion'x need' for j"nrln)r r.^Oownmi1-'-' pontrol in Saie-mlhronjrli at least lft"2 t*'1'' 'fl'O'ild the R=Min lnt<Tfene to >u;hievA thl. ft Viron had hftjwrd. So tli* war had to ft. on. Totjii VieiTismlMtJon'9 f.S 'milttarr adrlxern held out no hope whatever that ft^e-'.tr "fmld IK- i;^W witti *n.T awnranoe for <-*ir- ri-.tr^. or eivn one jre^r. If o T* S mUttJirr iK-romiel remftlpl in &aorb VMnam Vo i'orepeah!' ImprnreIn ARW. or unwjnt of T'J? a'rt. inplndlnr diri wnrtK>rt. wonld pmi> up in tin- fnee of V"rth ViHnaniPw>.fcr.i e If all nj iro^iw went t' fs troopH jnd alri^wnr ITTP n>fle<i. in siynMf am''ui:U. f'>r .
.

Tn <'ft. tlirnn?h 1!*?f und ; f;tr n N known t><1ar. t1;<- liis!ii"-'t nilDf.jrr -3<U>rv hrfe T!'-v"," <!lrtc<-.I nfflftnllv Mint tin- ji>li nf Imlillnx S&iC'1" < "iilil fu- il.>n^. -i'li n-minnaMi* iiF-'iitHI'-'- Sli'J with ndi-nuatr- :ifi-tv f-.r r-inalnij,y TS tr<x.ii. itli f.^irrr than 2OO.O(n' milit.irv r'r-i'Mwl 1 tl'- minJry (> j<r.w;d(- rfjr ~ii|>iirf i L 'iti"i i'imniuuic:itii.ri< ltif rt l>irenr--. f-'lf-ili'f.-ii*- find "triti-xi iv^-n'". Ti.at f. ViTn i>r'liaI>K '|>lnk. mid -vit>i r^n-rfin I- irifliitcrl hii; tlii.-rr.i n- 1ia.it* tu tlio JoluJ <"liief fff Staff will ii-rtifv >m "ni ; litnr:lr af'r'tal>!c'" ant the lK'rn'anirtit minimntn r^y well turn -oil to he not mnrli iovror than JOO.Drtfl fw ihf <>nd <>t iVr^iind nff-r H i" ni'r- lifci-lv < |rr.>x-trli.ii)i-r r iifni It r<-rtnlnlv nr4 Iw.le^t; tli^n t>;(f t h u t ,lur*-. lutiif aft-r H+7J U'i<|i flu""uii!tijir> Cwlt ^"'''"'v- Iw-twft^i SO and 1W.Oft tro-^c. the <-i-illiis It. nitt-V fi'ii rerjr, miwb hli-'ht-r MU'* srrnt.-ffyv i.ttffjrc Tilf million I'H i r wux~f^ th P'ii:3i. ' jlw jrogl IIP dnflinxl in hl flivl w. -1; I.u frfU'-i- : he left tin- WMfr- ilotiw h\v tst-r g^iin-d nf mjtrir tlitri^'4, lnr) w* of Jipinir tJifit< | f --loVnt. to \ i-o V>-r >jit pl|rr-'<"li wn: /iivi/invfr, onli- a iii". -. ; It ".iivfrt Piiit ' <*t fti \VliIt< TTon1"' AB woir'd Pflfonf !< T:<.;.l !ioli. Vixn ilrf*' !."imii"'dl*r~ *(.*> : T'S tn<>[< li-n-l* nnd inn>.t t' dunti. ntnl rnwitirtli'R. <1raft ^1I. .inil Tu-wf !* iniNt go down i-r^-n m/.rc -iLirpIr In fH' - t <-ti-jj !Vn.rt(K( triuiSH -<1]I fvili-e nil rntinr H T.flJ lis'i U' V i i - t r m m Hi t'lf on-i-t />f tlw Imfnliine- -rr.i^d he rti-d-ji f H.t)Ii t/i Mi*. i.nMd* or. tx'lfer, wv-n- n-r\ lnw iri'I"fd anl neww<irt}i>- V'irth It) Tnd'K'hlfta fllnifutt nnw-tt^eTiT M "K"r/-n(i if>lu'l^>n." :. nffiriiilv. l.i'/'ii> to <!! il - ia"':iiiie i-Jp-^r: t-i nnjk'- f.id- Jiiua *n<r for an Ul'l* fl.nlt prf

InV
rs troopft or more .In South Vk-tnam. The .ey to a solution, Nlxc* and Kissinger concluded. WM to expand the. role of airpower, and hi particular, to restore awl increase tb* threat of bombing the North. Uow eJo. they reasoned, could Nixon ever compel successful negotiations? Bow could lie induce the Russians u use their leverage for a settlement. unless the Jftu*ians wen made to fear in Laos, aay, or in Haiphongthat they wovld become more diraeOy involved? How els* could Nixon deter ihe North Vietnamese forces, once they recovered from the 1SWS losses, from making embarrassing gain* at will in Lao?: or worse, from conilajc south to oven>ower ABVN : or wont of all, attacking the reduced US units, eltKr destroying them or forcing them bone? "Vitflamizition." If confined to the borders of South Vietnam and with the threat of escalation excluded, ha-". no persuasive Ioug-*uB answer to these thrvats.Thai, In te minds erf some in Washington, in view of tae unpromising prospects in Paris, was an argument for total, prompt US extrication from Vietnam. To Nixon and Kissinger, it meant instead that a credible bombing threat was esseuruil tu tlK-)r program. Tlif ])iPT tbey decided on was in many wy a fiuoiltar one, espedetUr for Be{>ub!iin-f. Jt* main ingn^'enxs were pntlselj taoce ppeacrihed twenty years *ff> by U*> "AsLi-flrsf ri^it-winx BepofaUcans in CoosresB Cor prevotinr the tail of China" and. later, by IfaeArtfcw and others, for winning "victory" to. tfot.eu Lbe tltreat and, if woMMarr, use of OS strategic airpower and allied "A^n troops under a CS-approved, authoritarian, and anti-cominnist rejtim*, flaaiiceJ >ind equipped by the I'S and ming American adristm and toeUttaal snd air Hoffpo^ (Vice President Nixon bad been willing to add Mtne US froond coenhut troops to that yttckuiif to MT North Vtetoam in 1994. before the fall of Dlenl'ienpliH. b*t UUs wag ctnwidered an afaerratSon^t Cue tlnte.) . If cot- adds tlte threat of sndear *pooa threat wed prirateir- Klxoa beJ/",-a. Jjj- Eisenhower to settle loo Korean War. and later nsed pvblielj by I>uUe to iiifluence the First Indochina Warone ha all the element* g L^nlW^'i doctrine of "nusvtre retaliatkm" and the "New Ixtok" detefwe po9f4ire of the Eiseunowor AxImlnistratloB. TWs was tbe policy ti*t enabled Il*-I>!tt>lk-ans tn comMne KfciTreRsive rlietroic with a limited def>Tne budget tlirotuUj'Mit ttt -y w n-ben Nixon was Vice President As an academic strategist during tUat jnerloii. Ueory Kisscr^cr dasttnted from this formula mainly by K'r(^-ir^: flip rob? of "fAi-tica!" iicclear weapons { in the book. y*wr irapow iU Foreign Foliey. whicti made hie r^otattoo). Bnt In Nixon's Administration, the threat -of noclesr w**iiij* in Indochina is notan yet. at leastan essential purt of tbe ktrniegr of Ki^inger and Nixon {exrept. as nsnal, to deter Chinese intr-vw^B)ttwath they bare pointedly refused explicitly to foreclose their ne. Tip** uew *r,'tT*T dlfiVrt from the old matoijr in rriyiug o tiw strategic threat of. oun-bucWir tiwaliiur. But lirm- c<mW Wr->n in<J KIsenw beliere. afwr tbe exjterit-noe of the fflrtiei. that UittMtx uf oiafluire bontWwi ^oold soJre tbir prMems in Indodiiiu ? Wbat scHiW new tbieat promise now. when *li*- practice of sustained tx-roWae noder JobuMrfi Iritd fa fact failed lo detrr or jihydcalif to prerenteven tbe T*tonVuirt Xucon'* a&n'er wa that the UenWrnts bad morod too cradnnllf and too pw<)H<abV. nod 1>a<J fl^er tttreateoed or used Jwwr f*o*gk bomt>log. Tbis is wliat tiif Joint Chixf* Jjl IJMI MyinK all along. Ihongti Nixu had no neM to take Inittrisecloc) from thvta- He wim tutiag a langage he shares with the generals -he txpiuined after ihe-Oxnilx>dlan inrawiofl that, wbereas Jobnaon bad Tills A<rf>u iw a d*vUe sorrr^ ju><1 this action also pot the *<uy ou srsrnlug mt if It totfaUb* whiie we are tryiiig to deescnljitc, we will tuore dcirt>I; and What Jr. *'*t O)*> ti"Wening. ** he had done hefw* tti*- *5*rtt</fi. wan "d*cl^lvjf" uii'inf >< terjwv nlong proii'Mied br soow* l'% military fiw-fn wi flielr j*"!KiI i*>A<-w^k: fjUIpM>ng. 'mjlitary trrHK" in H Uir(.iiiflK,ut rid- Korth, tie d'L^. 'tlw- <i>ininttnl<airt<i* wltfa
.|J'ICI,..L /"' *mt!i.l i i f l u n M-.i- ^ f'Tu: .inJ fl"!|i"rtn. VU-fimui : O]-t!'jn." K- ^ /-/, 1in<*. i>fr\.<i f'Kj. Sirifinivr 7, I V7<>. 1ti>' jirr.A li>>. >yMlT full"1 tu takff -'.Vk'l *r NlK.M-1-nrp rxniirHli>>- "ICiriiU-" i>ir<c> fj Wljltr HbaiW fll'mT" t<4 I Si l"l'*J OU, riiirii; x^ '"rtftof f44-jititilbo t'X S ' i \ o n . ot to *Ki>lorp U^ vlr of fht-M* IKO uuHl^i^ii. I. </ vh-.i..~ u-fifil tmlli .)(!, (r(>n n n r l VJion In Irl^tilk uMi'ifrr |<<iiOfUkii>* Amtenr *!'! 'i>i>fi> i.'n r. Hftl^H.-Hit tnrltf i- r<-<1 i>r!l M>|.|inr.l>r TKJW, u* n-^olam to --ii.l:.T Jit it

t>> T> O*H io4 Morton R Bntrxno. ""ntr T1-tW Can EiM^t* XUos.~

US
Second, ATron hf-Hoved the threat would In- nevly credible and effective became ht would demonstrate to Hanoi that it could be carried out withont destroyJot bi own political base or ability to govern the T'S. John-on had loxt ttis-. in Niroi/s riew, because be had combined inadequate air attacks wist -,;recpf-s,tv r..-ji!)f rs of ground troops, I'S caMialties, and draft calls. Once those numbers wore diuiinlKbed, Nixon believed. the America"*. public and its repivsenta lives in Congress would acwjn *," it wmi-ijeraianent acd geographically extended war. finan*d by America but witn direct Amc-rican coiahat action limited primarily to a!ri>ower. This discussion aweu a /reat deal to U>e Jiir.kin:: of these former colleacues, Halierm In particilnr though they are in no T7ay responsible for any of the Interpretations prex-uN-d her*-as It dues to a number of others with comparable govprmiipntal expcrii-in * who canmrt be mimfd. 'ill*- \ca- a !x>]d judgim-nt to m:ik> in 1WK1. Y(^t tho North Vi--tuamp-:e had to Io forod to accept thi judgment if Nixon's threat of bombbi; wore to rt-ter tin-in from fliall-m:iiijc a iri'tr;icUtl AJIKTICUII pre M-a<v. nr brinj; tln-m. ]ilin:::t<-ly, to acf^pv his tenns for a "just j>ca<v " < *rilv- cunvincitiK <t<Tn>in3trattfms ol lii* willln^nosx &nd ability locsi-ala'f omnj brins; that ubout. The notion of "warninK dep^i&^trjtl'/us" aai- thus IHH-?J <-oatra! to tl)p 'acti's of Niz<>n and EJU<sI:.pHr. and Jt i-vji!aln l'e w^m-ni-H of (H>Iiiii'al ibn-at<> and offt-n-i%c m-tlttos Ux-y hfltet-iK^n over flie lai-'t iwn yi-ar.-. .\:- <-arly as *he spring of Il*jl>. our Drri air utts'-U .> <';i-v odiaoot orticially u>j<>univ<l and little noi:e*-d in tho rK-TrWor*' MUUI f<>Ui>a-i-i. f>y a ".mrnias to liauoi which wan inserted in an r'tln-rwise iuudntlr ^i^-e'i liy Xiron < < Vi-rnam wtilt-ini-nt. At tb+- Mjue tiiiH* tb*- booibin^ t- Xiwridt*! in J-iox. and a s<-rie> of bouihinj; raid* \tf~K.i . <<>< .V'-rth Vietnam. AM tht-4- raid-. 'nntltiH'M. AdruinKl ration offl'-jalg gradually di>uiantlfd JolirHon"i JftfiK "';ii'It>r--turvdinc" which had ftrictly limited tJte jiis'ifioition for euch raldn Fin^^.v, IB Ju'x t-levisl iutt-rvic-w wiUs liif pr*-s on .l:muary !. 1071. Die I'reMoVfot .irt-uliy abandonfil lhl "under-tjindiiic"* l'ti- pi^gnd invl'm t <"anil-'Hlia tDfuf pia- e 1:1 ^ifrinfr. m7<.: iii the fall. tT"oj8 Iaud^i iii Vortli Vie'nam; now we an? suiijK>rtin^ an invasion t-t IJIOK. In each fuse thp U'hite H"iiwp has mnveyed unnu-<Wiil')w wjiriiiiipt to Hanoi that more mire ari ion was to come. .Mi "f tbe-j- M<tl<iQ>> j-ould 1*. nd were, u^l'-nded n (Hv-tjr-. necei.Karv to ik-lny i-iji iin builil-upx IT -jw<jl" cjiejoj i>ff'-u-ivc<i. lnd'f<t, -.ill nf itienj jnay k>fji tii::ic /lujei'-r in Soutii Viotiiuni. ir t tin- *li"rt ru r i J'hey make <'ffi-Njp<. i-tiitc ilitfi'iilt bii^-nwTij fur tin- VortJi V!c{i:i:ne-.e. tlwtx delaying a liew off^-n1 . until Hnnol <iiui- ^'niii fa11"-? tin' jrn~f :i|i:ibl'< r.'iil Ti> U n i t e rhe ijife'.Karj -acrifi'-Hv Tln-\ ijn. in -in-rr. Imj tinw. wiih I S jurimwer Mul thiiM.md of Ashm Jivx-j< Tin- uin>"wer. -.|HM-in;ij } latixi, UM- of jinued liuliciiptfrs. >iii-.'!itute- fi-t ( S rr'ji. Tlic fi-w r AiinTnvsn *riH>i.i. in Vi*-tnum. ih<-jiiru ii'*<l for t"S airjH^wei* cliniuziiool jirJ..fi.:Tia, if rs "J.iv.s-iy .ire to do < tit :mrt ih-- \or(li Vietname-<i> jirt'\nted from nf . .i,r- Tbj> rii''.v <rm be .rjiiiKeiiged (,s t.->--1i--:il zrotimLo ai welt, /ly i-xi>:iiid> iiu- rr.i. ,ir, the I'S .-..iu'j;iji;l<'r- an- biiiltiplyin^ il;<-ir vl-tu and <iimiiiiiting ilie:i-vc'v*~ tu proiRiriiil w:rr in tliri-c ccu/i'rn^. f"i niily liDiidsl tain* In IJK., for lULjuiipIf. {'< lirt.<-iiptT Jii--^-> aii'l Si-'.tfi Vi.-liJauwa 4 'n'tinltn-ii rimy tun; nut t'/ (.. f-btili!.' A rljrliT rt'iiii .ii|i-in:iy C >!!> -(.MI iiiti-rvi-nt)""*- n ve^ins: Hie iinl-r 'if i-n-iifv iii f'runlti(rti:i j t l ' 'niiL|')e\ n-in-rvu -ion-, ("fiily iiielinliiis xn tin r:i.-i,j Chnii'-M' "rini-at pr-'-j'in <. lii''l. v n!<l ..'Uioin.'!111"! 'ly i-tti-t- I'S niflear .u^tii.^n -s |i!:iii. ). I- (irj---<i'"j| f'.r *-,.ri-nl. i::(ir->i ff> tjie Secri-liirr '>f I>--f.T,-j-. if iK.f r.i t'u I'ri'-i'li'ti' Arj<! i.'.v- Tv.rfl< \' < n uiu-- 1 -!' >i;iY <-o[^ ,i| ( .-. K ; li'-!ibilif> . :ic in ^ uni.'nr:-. t-i ri-("irI t.-i cij^r iiimv.: ', iln linr-let r<-ir; In i-.nluri"fii liicir /<ii'rii"f ^J-i'^'.'li.-ri'
I'.-It ii v 'III' M'MIe IJ..I1M- p t i l t l t n r- -I'l- it..!'. iJH-Liif 111 l - H ' i . . i . irCll'll- lit Te-llljr i u : i t ' . - f - Ttv r|..M. .(!< ri--!.--. iti t l i e i r in-w.. x- ti'.t u'ri-nt "it- ~. ' vi-n i-i t i n - <! / i r ' " i : i . i > t j ' ' - t Af'i-r ijti Jl'!!"t;>n!:ir iM-i'ii-iiJri/. ( ij : ^ <'iM-i-a:i'.n in ^ ' : i r : i l n l i " -linwi-rt * , \ i ..i. - - '! - f i j i - ' . i n iJi if r>i.' w-.ir < it. J..> r. <Vi'-~<J in vi-.iliil!fy w l i i l e i'vp;nnjiiijf .-, ..,! j i , , . ,!!j. -o ] . , : , - .,i, TS ^.-..riT.-l u n i t - .-i,-.. i.ot n.. uir,-,!
, r" r i f l t ' 'In^-ilr M p!.iti't< rt'lltt (Tv '.MT N o r t h V S I I M I M v l t h t r i ' p ' j n l * . .'' hj!.'/' ..'li"Uli ill T).' .Tu 1 '. - ) . ^ ' T l l 111 T ..... .'I ti ! i!.-JlU.rt ! > ' ' f I'M r, v 11 .. |. r.t -i. I n .- M I I I I I >if .; I i -;. t l i ' i t "if Hi. i . i Iti f" 'f fin I ' l u l i T . f n l i . M l i r .>-. II i...| '.ii.l.-r. >l .Mi'ii ihi i' ..... C.'TI- iCi,( l i . i ' i ' ":i u "

l.'lft
In fact. Uctical suocew 1? J'vt what these Initiatives are all about. Tiii-ir real li^iiflfann.-, in every <3use. is that they are concrete vjm>nj7 to the Hanoi Ie*d-rs<liii>, and to their Soviet and Chinese alliesviolent warnings to back np. vorl'jil tureaW. 3'!* warn, flrst, of what Nixon i* willing to do and feel free to do without cM:iMiUii!j; CUBXTPW <>r leeling limited by Johnson's precedent Each one of the u<eii Mires liictvd .al>ove broke a restraint malnr-iined or eventually imposi-d by J-jndou Julinvon in Us campaign to bring ".pressure.* on Ilanm." There were, ificr all. -Jime goud realms for observing thoxe limitations, and many of those reason* an- till plausible. Niron'fe actions thus serve all the wore forcefully as d- liiwrute sirnals to bin opponents that be vrll) not be bound by earlier constraints. Hi- actions demonstrate, furthvr'uore. how far Nixon thinks he <,an g<> by <in2 liu- rationale of "protiytinc the Jives / American troops" and the formula -of "liiuiJi-d-durHtion micrdiclioii oj-rations. to ix-rruit continuation of the withdrawal of I" S. forces." Ttese term'sHanoi is meant to noticecould be imed ju-t .1- \\ell for tn>- "liinitiil" cp-umi inia.sin "f North Vietnam to <Ji-troy Je]H>t> uu<l !;!. alxne tt-e IM/i Iliat tins JM-I-H ini'iitit.ni-] by (Jrueral K>. Tin- -jnn|jii^'n:i^- n.uld ! US<H| to j^^t^fy ]) mining arid aerinl d'-stru<-ion of t i n jiori "f H:iii>lum^-: or full-*<-jl' attack* m: tin- land au>l w.tT Jinks to {'liina and frti "military xarjcet^' through-iut rlie N'or^i in- VjilisK HanL All of rlii?>-e could l>e deM:ribed as"!imiitliri tiui-an<l -qia"-!'" in fU'-t.-each oin- of UI-M. io7.\-HS <-nuld IK- |.ft'^>iil.-il a-. :i l->^i'"-l I>r"j;:-e>-.|oii jri a -<-ri4's irf "jnti-rdi'-ti-jn.'-" niiiiiins from south to north. jnt a; the preM-ut atuii-k'^ in fis "lo^i.-ally" fullmved the lo>in^ of the jH>rt in SiImii'ukviHi- by tin- l."ii Xl 2"\i.rnujerit aiil tlie imii-in f ''umbixlin I-^u-h step <'ouM IKexplained i. "diTiiiE" a rfiiiuininc door In the '-hanriel f war uuiterifl t. North Vn tii:niiie:iiii] XI.K fnp-i's in S.utii A ietliulu T>- i- -jn-. nnii.- t,f ti.ii- -t.-p^ nniM r'li.itiiy .-IMM- off tii.it ueee^arjr tri-kl^ !' -ui-plii-. fruii. tlie Vorfh. -vi-n if they w-re all (jUi'ii t-.^i-ilxT JJut S"i\ori h:ix IM-.-II Tolil :!u^.; 12:1 ii lh:il i- not w h a t .fli thri-at<-:i.-jl inoii- juv *!. T!iey point. r.-ijJ.i-r. tojiiiril tin- i-ncnim that tii- J'.S. Jornf Ch>'fit f Staff have urfed o/. rjf..^/ ( ;-/ </'//</, in tjp'_- absence of a peruiaueiit Atwi ar-<-ej>tab!c" settlement 1'. l l . n r - i : the lm;il ili-vtrti'-ti'-u of "(f><- wIU -m-J -a;>abilny of XinU Vietiuiui to H u p - w a r "or to Mirvni-. N'ir rh:it Xixnn IIOJM-R or iMt;>.'(-ls thi-< ultimate es.-alation will ! npoe-sary; !ns tlin-it" and oiniiiiTiDtiiiK m^k<* it i-outin^iqit <> Xortli \'i > tiiuijie<- b<-liat]or Hi<:;"i'- l<-.nlcr-ij'|. ]. I.')'' io option* fur a\onlinz tiii- i>uiiiviiui<'iit It '-.'ilj Lie i'!( bui iM-rr^iMu-iith.ifii-pt tliinj:--pr.'tty luiji Ii as tlicj iire in the Snulii. wjMj"in i.'iuiMiin^ IH M J\,.' ''oTnbat. or w i t h no jii-iri- t l u n can !* b'lijitilj' i-i,ntx'.iied by Snu.'li Vn'tnamcM- cround forces with I'.S air support The J^HT uould continue Irui i i i i l i t u r v acfin would IJIJ^T ff anil (' S (:i>>iiiM~' J e< wouU \irtually ciii-*-. or i-l-.. U>H-ii.K to the conclusion 'hat th- American jieople rill Kni>port a lowJi-n-i m- > i r i > ' > u i r u ; i r ind<'iiin(,-i\. an<| Hut lli- AMI'-Ij.-in |'r>'niiient will lucet wtiv .I'li-mpt l< u\Tt it t '.i lunii-<i-t *ur ty Imruiui Virtti Vu-tuatu li t(iv around, the- ILumi leader*- Ji *< k. to loudutle a format -cif)cinnt ou I'S.
I.TU:. .

r.s orti.vts.clio.j. f cjll T(,e nr.-t po--ibi!!ty a "Kon-Hn wlatloB*'Slujnjb'Jt iiiii^.W'si,': I-TUIUIH-U; nar ;iii_'l i nnunciir I , jnropi.raii.in> li:ius<'it i oini>nii\ra "jM-rtuneni I S pifwrn e if Ii KTJ l"'-\ I .s "H~ualti' i s Tin- M-I oiu] [IT.-.;. i n i i t k . l i n lj ( I t i i i n \ i \ o u v .jiui i,; Hjtmiri;.' a jti^f ]'.i--e." would ui-ir' t r u l y le .1 K'T-:tn sululioii ' -|.i-. . a l i \ in \i-'\\ ol N..in s rum |i-ij. ti I h . i t -j-ttlfiiii'iit in
K !'! V- l.U-d "II t l i > l l l l i ' . l ' '! I . I I J s . l M |...]L,l,|li^s j . l l l l l If I iMli-r p o - - . l l . l l l f >

PCIM.I! \ii"ii f o i l e i i j lur-'-^ i i i a < he liai.i Ji"s-tj a "i(i win" >-trat<-gy. >.. I'lu.V pn-M npii'iii. |iijll>. i Kirneil uround t'i v .\"ixofc\ J-^d- Not-.m;> ^li<l i i i e ' . o ; t riiti pioiii.-rn of loui-rin^ IS i:i>uu!ties durini; a ^wlnal and litnltt'ti r<ju< lion ,if .-irn^iii--ili^ ptol-Ii ju T' 'vtlin^ ilii'.u^li "7^" i n v i t e a broudcuuc "' ih" lijtrr-^ruumi P ;fjclud'. the bnrd-r lia- and suppl> routco irj J>ioh tuiil ( ' j i i i i " " i i a . " 1 in inori"1 iinjioriiint. the i-nulii\i>'Ui of MJI-II *idci,iiiK111* i|i,ii,,-. 'i. , v., -in;: ..f f i i . n i n T - in dili.ni' >( ili/ui->-' pr./lc>.t and < o i i t r j r > ei;JH-^I i MU- - . ^ j s l,|,:.|i|i!> ~ l l l l ' i j to luai.lti^ i-relJiSli- NIXOII'K 'Tl|i (at TllP'Mt : to ' ii'l I t u - l.)lUl< Tii1l1ilJ 1" i>ll (I STi5 Vii-ili:til! t'rUj tUe lUnlUftlt IJlUt .-I|I.IV"'K'- oijKii'i- iifiiri'd tin ij. if U.'IK aliii.ist iiji'i liable t h a t the J M i i l i for u ,M| K'ir. :i" w o i i l i i bad ) ' . l'n-K>ilcnt to iiisiiiute a k-naot nd u tl.ird ' \ 11 'i. . i n " io u irn DM N o i i b l,c i oijlij i renTe a Ion r l l i

In LJI. ;'ne Administration Is giiitwin:; that It Una luurueil Its "lesson*, from Cajnl-niia " No American ride units in action. crowd r.C border* >r "Iiontiiur while cirt'it-se ntudcnts. No promlict, no bulletin*. no newa at Ml, in feet. Xo statement on ts> <!-TMflon by the President. distend. n the afternoon of the day the helicopter* aint *"ifncs moved acrow the border. Nixon wentj>*forr tU* TV cameras \vlth )>rj, { nK^wp,- n eixJopr. beginning tnccordUy; 'to jhe Whit* lion** pr**.H rv>fOt') : lu Ins Tragedy. UurAtr in the raUftdrvl. t S. Elliot. [*fc] wrote. \3e*n it* Ir. (Van tiit sky. Wakh the winL" lnVJ I lu\v j.ropontnl to the ConyreM a iroep.'u^ and comprehensive prorrnra p> do J'wt Muit, uud more to ml the plnuder at America'* natural heritage. Vu TV or newn photo* of Tin? invaxlon wrre permitted : nittrnmen wpn> barrrd ffi-u riiwliiiR what we aid onr nllles were doinc to the nutnral horlf tn >.t "-CJi.-ir at-t^SiM. (The Vletaamew were struck, a A'fic York Tiatrn ccon:it r* porti-d. hy.ll 1 Iiwhu'y* <>r U> yet uod^fiJIatiil jntislo tfc*y \vi-rr entt^nn?. > lQU-nd vlrivrc wvre offered plrtarvst of the tuoon and i tho '<JiKinc nrt-rtr ^t Kfn- Sanh: ian tmranny juxtaiwuitlon. the w^r-croatedroooD!cap-nonr the U.!^.T'<iui!i n'<tlne fr th< I 'k of lire 11 xvrai:*' ' tl- Inuarluitlon of ]ji-i4Vy.sc will thl* new tarns ..n ntf!>n t< the in-'filr -if rjo? War is n.itf 111-1: in tiir nre drrelim soldiers r A:.iTlran SnNilt^r.K : .vet rliey ar- no " t> tiny ni^if-t nf-att flw-M- In R ni"f anil terrible way. An In "u.nl>olia. tli>- llr.t n re in relatively nni">i>..[citiHl arf."-: and as In <*niliodla. the North r fiTt3 will ujt)>t llfcplv UtUr hni-k in mre heavily ;w>pul.itrrt loivlanrls t')li-*. jv.tii-rv ur tMttulwnt and annl lieluinpter!! will MH>k tliw -'. 1'JiVft. tin' ri-inc'* wUrcil'u*- -many of them from areasi wlwrv r!a.-r lmi> iiv.-d f<i- :''.ir.i lli the vicinity of f*3tli-t Ijio or JCi>r!h V|etnmn< w< ;ivip' -'O fhVTf(\tM. i-ii-'o'.nre m_ the out.klr(. of foxvns that uiv n<>t U-lnir Li/mhod, "'.'arlns rheir "We have It-arnrd one thine in Ijin* anil CamlxxJin." the rAiinnfl f-r Ui" nitly Snlw-oiuDiiricc |iints >iit. 'The nier-- iin-stew" of enemy forces <[<> L.,, ( ref"Sees BWITX- botrlex fl": TS ImmMuk" does." At) an essential jmr( .of Nixon'.. "wiEilinc down the war"* for Am.Timn irooj* In South Virtnani. Aroori'^in jiilotM were vnl ti. Intlii-t ilu- :ir niif.i> )i--iuii\ i,r> fjjos nnd Cniubo<lia. In the f:ill of lf*".!>. nmre Hum tf(Ni sorties a dny WTt>'-.:iK Jlown over Ijios: fume of the heaviest hiontlit of boniblnz In the tvur ifnirp-d lu that year, and 4caln in 1I7>. Tin- nr.iN>r of w.xn-* in I.T'.M had already rinen <bnly In UBS. af'er American lictnl>er< wen1 Mhlfitil in l.tfMarch from -SVrti' Vlclnuniev In rat-In to arras l'i liotli R-nThern mitl .i'tlipr;i But In fh<* rtrt twelve month* of h' Nixon Administration, the number ft low OIIKUIIK n: leaxl 240.INN) ilu |wi|"ilflU.m t uiwier thi-ce million-. In the UTMt elKh'evn moiHl.n th*n- were at le.-i-t .".0/>m civitl/in <-.tMi3 l lli'j.. iii'-hnlin; n'Of" Mian !>.(V>0 killed. The number of n-ftigi-o roiiTirmeil In TIM- In 1!7: by the fall It wan aJnuMt thre time* the estimate for February, I'.'OK.' Tlit-:: in Novfi::!n-rof |:it yt-nr. t'S h'11-ilfin^e.walnteil >h.irjd> in IJIOH. Whatever Uie Imimrt of reccut e\-entn on tin- tlieht oi1 \mt\i\i- within L-"'". It Is lik>-ly tum to be iniimlOed by the cff((.. of ojienitloiiK ttimilnr to th-i- in Cambodia. Wi're vrll nri'f n^milli'in rffuirecH havi- bi->>ti "p-iiT:itfd" ituri'ii: the In-f uin>* motitli* 'In a j>['iil:iti"ii of nlxmt i; 7 million*. Tli.Tr i n<> nv..;.:il.Ii. etIncite of theniimlM-r of elvillnn ilfatbo in C.iifitMxli:i y'tir-e l:i- K'>rinu'<< lir. .i-i-.n. HOW n-.any will die In FJKK-? What In Ulcbard Nixon'u brut rsilniiii." of the ;niinl>er of r.iotian p.-'i-I.' "f-ni-tny" and "non-enemy" tbul L'S flr'-pow, will kill in tin- next nv.-ivi.//< ilnri tint k*iw ait nttmntr. HP him nol acker] Hi-nr~ K.- '-r for o^."1. .ind Klv-wngi-r lino not ~ki the I'entacori-: mid noni- "f t i . i ^ t nlfi--f;k'' .. -n-r m-Ti nn iini*-i'r. in thin or imy 'iinit':ir:ilile IJMI- : on the i'\\*'<-\i-<\ liii|.:n-r ... war i-il:'-y '>n hnm.nn life. And nom- of ilieui /?,.if,x I', i h l n from lii^ |ir|i ...wor(S\ti-rii- n!i:ilynfs In flu- biireniirr.ii-y nuike t->t><nu!f< :i lx-t llwy '-:in of fri'-Jo;-* Jnd^tfl i*Ttlii'nf to (mllcy: "coi-t.." or "\u-tti-ttia." "inimfii" r >r "nitptit" 'f'lidiMt'is of "iion^'oiulnitniir |'ople" hnvi- rn-ver b''ri r'K'ir'lfiI by/tfliclnlH ii" !-vi;2 ri'lt-t.iri t" iitiy of t'.i->j-- I'nti-icorii'i' )
- [-, i'1-iin'li n.i iS-ii" r.-iini!" li> ltif>'rii;.t>" rruM'fn* ri.t.M" fl wlfli living***
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i-i I ."<> r"-;i:i'iil I'l-'irinirr 7. l!'7t

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161
wopW: tejrvcr. have an atuwrr of some iwrt It other imttn of the it ttto"pr-i( or tlw public ban ever demanded one. Wet* It not tor th* Kfnnfd,\<3bcnt4c.,ttre? there would b* no over-all official culmlattoM of ?<nr (MHU.ilties \\t Vietnamwit even the uuderratiranted lent** that have been u;iil" uvallablr. Bnt a* rf.<Olt'J>f tbat qumttrnlng and flu- xabcommittiv'ti own Mirvt'.v* 11 nd analyses. we nou- -inotc that at leant 3110,000 rivillnn have luxvtt killed in South Vietnamuiottiv t<y Vs "rvpoflror- U-rwwi liNU ami 1970. nut of lit'- 1-3 ft oae million casuultiHt.' Cf the*:. the mibeominitttt's calculation* tmlfftt- tiiai about 50.000 civilian!* worc^ killed In Nixon's rtntt year in onVe v-.lx>i;t .Vi.OOC ID the drat half jffils neeontl. and more than that In tin? accond link. So rite war I* not "winding: down" for the people of South Vietnam any more tban fur Uivir i>KgW^ao: a 'would b apparent to tb* Anivricau public if such tlcitrt-s. -rt--.' fld.stird or>.\ttte ovviilng TV n-w.i alone uitli I'S and "onouiy" the K^nixilv Siil>>i>(iiiuiMii> h:i mailc no i-fTort (> mli''iliit iltuThs nmi injiirii-H from Amrrt-ii' Ik.inMiiK In Ni>rfli Virtnnin : r to ollfil i-.4tlin;i( of fu t u r- t i.-Mms tlir.'iii;!i.it]t liit!iHiiiiii. Nor iin\i* (lit* IID-OM utul ti'li-vi.ilnn. Xor has ili--r iMi*n iiny ]iul>lic tlc-iiiiiiiil for this in(riiuiiin. Ir IH aj^iin.vT tlii-i bjiokuniunil <>f tw.> <li-.inl.--i u f Aiu'-rinin .tl'n-ial nn-l i ul>lif Isiivriin.v nlH>ut~;iU'l iiulilT.Tcnv to mr im|m-t ujmti tli junipU? tit hidoi-hlnn tli.-.'-'>r,>- r.itist imilfryt.-iiiit il.>-fn.c u l t h whlrli tin* Ni\n Ailniiiiistmtion luif >ld iln- I'li.caji- "Thf war is ri-ndiiis Jt-wn." T nuivv witli that |>n>|.?(iiioiv- mid It i- v,.ir.-.-|j .|\i.^ti..|i<il -i-i in > fiur (! war" iiurniwl.v UK "uliat Ls trendinj; d-wi. "^(i.Su Kr>Mitul irii'-i. I'.S. n>ualtu-s. binJo-t oin. It l >in>i'ly ti> litnorc ih<->i.i-ii^iv "f l l u - vir h:>t nri- "Irrtullui: ;": t.' S. iiir <ip>Tiill(int niirt Kniund lis'i:!;.s .^Rt-'.'i,'^!y>iitli Victnniu. Wul liir n-illHnt l-nlh -ind M-TWlti". jr.-JN.-.I. Tim; iir rjcTi-aiicl <':milHlla l(:it it ruiuiot rt-allr lx- Nti<i (but tliis iutrn>n'>-d |wr. <-|.iiii is .sl:u;>ly H hulluciiu^ory trirk |>Iuy.il l>> Uic Ni\.>n Atliuliii.iLrutinii \ti t|..- jinlili.- Auu-i-^'aiK liiH<- lw.i>!i !tfn Hit- Iuil<M-liUia wnr this \\-y t' S military utll.iT* hn- riii-tiiui< |M-[IT at |-rii-ivinj: thiiit^ U'lir!}'. "AVftr [x killwi.' IN.|I|...~ a J'y.VXr ;liy*l<'l-t wan one* Innt rlMwJ by. Orm-ral furtl-xix-Ufty. , t-crv"' hiiii-v'n "ii-rntpl*: 4iiu|iltuVrs." "\Vli-ii you kill i-iH>uch |w<>p{H. the oUirr rtiU '-in;. " IS t! fh- in-w AiliulniKtn-.lioii i.-, al>nnd'>tiinx tlx* ITfVlinH i.Tn.a- Htratecy of jrr."i:,i! rniuii.it "utrriiinii." w i t h lf.< Mixvlv -minded i-al<iil>i* f "luidy onuntfl** and !.:rii<. iii.rflcU >( flu- l i r t l i mfi- of yoiirir vin-iny inn !>" tn U- UllUil in the ftiti.r. M..-t i>r th>- vi.-tiin- that tin- iu-w vrruii-ey kilN :i. :i n-.tUlt of ik<l>-iii->ii-.tr:iliii.-" I JIM.- mi [>luii' .11 buri'uU> rntic i-ali-ubtioiij.. l*lu- nauie is <>t il.- i.i-.t UUUI!NT> t N'<irtli Vi-Hi:iim-sc jM-.pIi- \\h<i ill ! llir-at-'iir.l if ^ li'inli---. i i.ni;iiiiini( t h i r t y yi-jirs t nruu-il xtrussic. iltr-idt- In tight aiKiinwf-o^ "K"r>..rr - liiti"Ti." Tin- pliin.- I"r .iir wur tli-.-iuiu'il by <>i-ii>-nil I*-.\lay uiay I|H-II ! . ii"rn 'I nut liy l- N'lxrt' Ailniiiii-tnilion .!-. [!! ,\l-"|'. v> n<>- n.lliluli linliiit; tin- "<tx>\ coiirn^i1" of tin- I'lV-uicH' i>> IJ1" li;i-l (,...!, ili.-triliiiti-i! widely b) tin* \Vhito Ililf. \\r4ito M-v.Tal iluyx after v the I .-I-- mvini. ( ii "\* ,,( ii". Ki'-luii'l M. Nix. 'ii 1* l>rj:ii.iiiiic tn :i|>iar a.-i nm uf nr iwtfi-r x\ur ["<iileiit> " Tn- iii*iti- i u,- wnr ro*ldent elmm- t rerall to the /\tu>r. -jin pnopU* tliat llonj.iv aftfriii "' 'tif invaxi'in di>M n<it Imve to d w,ih nir jio^-Uou, or wiUi ;,iii 'nliiinrv iloiUciiieiir It -| -iik- '( iiiiinlcr It i>4 n .-lii.rns uf h.tr -<>r rh;iiill :i< inurder I1- In-itu' ilone. It. full view, at tin? \vlnlie* of a mlf r. fur reniWii* of itate. I'lmr tin- nr'. cli-im the tt.ti! trtnk the iciiv' ! take itone Jrum lime a..1* tenth th,-m. Tl" lunit if fvul. thr irttrr it foul, fiur lif.xti ant* oitrtrtrrt drfllrf leltli lilnoit.
.1 mil' 'if tilnnil h'ln lilinilfrt tnfl <!' ' , .

H'nr littir fan [ rrt r f r l t n n. In Ikf ntft fuli't irtifrti*? \.ijlit nt'ni with u*. tiny tun. htilil *rn*nn. lit tbi: d'ty mil C'imi; It-t I If tyring
nut f. il", . ('< t nxi',. iii/ijlrt til thr iln'i miri ilt r-i>ifli>.'>n IHtngi. unit ff

ttirm nil nmnurd

.1 !!. lil',i,il, IhniU'ili n i-urtnln 'if lnll.nij lil'ntilf I' ii;,l mil irith nnnlHing to hnp/it-n. . . . in ftfi ft.t 'i it n^t tiiw lit *jrii ' 1i>nrj. " / ' . ' ' / . - Ih'H it'int i,f li'- (hi- 11 ii-.t t,t t i i r f . l \H"-!H! i-tiTiiitji nfi ril iiml tfrf,fiy. . . . '} ti.-<j. !iu..< ;ire .ilnit iifilx-..rjilil>. for nn \n\?rlmn to n-.Tl, Jn fho rear 1071. i'f>T (. <ii||. r ve'ir-i If we iin- ever to rMflirn tn tl> fttl <|lllet wMj4ni( and Wf
^li AtlltTic.inK III'lHt l-xjli (ut O{rtif)D*,

. i\r*& atl ceo*. to KV wluMs l*lo< Ucn-iA tSwiruauw. uuu to to Us accuM'Hc-w. Tl^y must n^'tnir*-. and forctifbojC^firv-ji* and Frtr<tclit t& uct uijo, tb moral ^vtopositiwn tint Clti- L'S iiiuiu J<H.;ijlUup jvoplr I'rMndocliiiia ; Uuit ndthi-r tbttHve* wv h*vo1j. aftrtto Uvc* we fciive taken, Ktve tlic VS any vteUt u> <li>u>rnilnti Bre rl arinwrx<Jio hall Kot.-r"u' or

The Cir.uiiJAX. Than!; you v;ry much, Senator Mondalfev:


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Nr. AVTHOIUTY TO INVADE XORTU wmcAic.


x

v,

lM you think the 1'ivsulont prfewnfly hj? local o thority tos-ml forces to invudo North Virtnam? Soniitor Moxi>UJw Jn my opinion, if the veqiiiroments foit'id in the Cotistituiion lu-L-f^sifutinfr a Confxtvss'uwal IXrlaration of War int-uix niiythiii". it- ivquiiTsmir involvement, lint that constitutional require-' nwnt, Jiiul > many of tin- functions \vhifii the Constitution cor.tomil:iU^ in tt'rin- of ;i sh:irvil !i i risionin:ikini in tin* Marniakin^ |Kwvt-s iH-twwii t'lc ICxooutivi; and the Con^rr-S'i. have I'K-onw so t-nxlffl that I t h i n k it is terribly im|>ortant that CWJTIVSS make clesu- it^ ii Thv CUAUIMAV. This is more than a resolution; is it not? It i> :i 1'unitaJJou upon tliccx|)imdituce of funds. SiMistor Hfoxiuij;. 'llrnt is<'.o?;rccL Tim < 'it \iKJfA\-. Tho jioint I r'untotl to nrnko is that vou nn- seeking to iiiK.tlu 1 power or rci>]>onsil)iHfy for the appropriation of funds to piiforwvlmt you bdicv^ to In- a roust it ill iona! resjxjnsihility, which hs mrf lx>ori follow -l. Is that rornvt ? S-niitor MONPMJ- Tliat is correct. I J:IH*;S it utnlei-siior' * my ln-lipf ulvout tin- ili'^rivo t> wliifli t'oiipivsiontil funrtioii in the vvsirninkin'r powers and in tJie dt^Iiintl ion of war provisions have dctfrioratwl. I think it H poinjr to tnkc spveral yerirs of >tronp affirmative action by th'* C'onpir^s to correct the dama^fp that has been visited upon those poweix ox er t!ie last 20 or :;0 years. I:\TKXT OF WMinirnov OK KL'NIM Th" f'u M B M \ V . TWs your hil! prohibit the uc of any A iierir-aii fiifidv by tin- Sonth Vietiiiiniese if they wi-=li to invade Xortl, Vietnam ? SvnuiofMiiNDAi.r. It doi-tf not. It is limited to the uM-of funds cither for a I'.S. invasion or for I:.S. sup|M>rt in any way of a Sonth VietT l n - C r - \II:U\N. "What w n p f h a t In^t ? Senator Mnxi>\ij:. Or the use of T".?. futuls in supp<irt of a I'.S. euWt lo atisi>t a South Virtnunn'M- invasion, siii-h as tliut we f'.ivf in I.:io- vltere lielicopti-rs ami (>|ott''rs and tlie re-i| were iir4>d a few fyt f.tTfhi- jrrii'inil to support South Winamp*- troops in Ijir-i, This would prohibit any Kitch involvemr-nt by I'.S. troops. '] lie C'iiAii.'MAV. Do you In-lied- the South Vietnnni'-w -OIM! i n v a d e tiie \"iiiii without fhe-iip(>ort of the I'nited Stalei? S-n:ifor M - > v i > \ i . r . A\'ell. if then- crp .nny doubt? l><>Mt that 1 t''ink i n . i v l n - I.:- os settled them. J'.nt if then- is any sii'Ii rhanee thev ynio v\oiilil want to IM- tin fiippoil of our troops. T'.ut what this nmendmi-nt d'*-- i- to j't'iliil.it ( l i e l v : i i i t of I'.S. involveinriit t h a t -;iw in !/!'-. I'i the ('hiirrh-f.'ooiw-r :inir'ndnwnt we prohibited T'.S. ground

'cmbat tiooj uilaos, and they were able to circumvent that br the use of dv-m helicopter, closis-m tactical support for the South Viet'' " Xlnk>mendinent would prohibit any such Laotian tvpc D.S. sup]K)rt>i-ijth Vietnamese groit d troops should they invade North Vietna'ttii.'it keeps us but entirely. c ; .The CitiiRMAX. That is as far as. ita.orert support in the physical gens*. -What ttbout the supplying of money to finance the South Viet.-iiftmcsc Arnirt " ! . Senator MONDAIA It docs not go to thkt point The CuAiKJBN. It dors not go to thar point. Why shouldn't it* Senator MCXDAIJL Maylw it should. I would he'wiHing-to support thnt. Mo. "; Tiie CHAIRMAN-. Senator Symington. Ijfnattir SrMivutr>x, Tiiank you. T:tM sorry I was not abK> to be IM'IT Ik-forv. hut we have had two other hearings. Senator Mondale, it. is a privilege to see you. I-it year you presoiled a rmpp.r brfore a subcommittee which, in my opinion, resulted hi ,nvin^ jnany handn-d millions of dollars for tlw taxpayers, because. ;tht rTM..rtTfjil^t<Hlit~ ' f i n the debate ond nltinntc decision. , ", J[. as arv- \oiiit\aiii i-. am v-rv anxious ro *rci and do.owrything no-<i>.*:iify-fnrth^st'ciii - of the 1'niu'd States. ; .MSArnsovAr. or VIETXAM WAR - -^ .; In. 'October 1367 I decided from every onple, that the Vietnam .girtif- wii.s '.\i~Jt worth the rnndle. Since tlien I have sctn nothing, to ?httnfr' jiir opinion. A\'ith f-hosc jn-cmisps. you have a resolution in with Senator Sazbe, and theru arc ether resolution*. It seem the people of the country 1m re now pretty well established the fact, they do not approve of this wur. T may lo wronjr. ''it that is what I gather from my mail.
Senator MOXDAU:. I agrw with you. Senator SvMiKirro.v. I>o you have the .same fee-ling about it? Senator MOVDAMU Yes". I do. Senator SVMIV;TOX. Not only from tin- polls but also from the mail, euiMvially the mail from people who iiave been ^-aaoncd in thede kinds o[ mutters. Arn:oii:iATioxs AS BJ>T MKAXS TO END WAB r J-m't tlir lieMt Wiiv to p-f :it this through aii|>n>|>riutions. I inc.in through inmiey? Wouldn't I n>S|>ect the resolmion, don't n isunderstand trif. hut can't w<> consider aiifiidmenta that will make it impossible from the standpoint of appropriations to continue something th:it tlic .Vini'riran pi-onlc urcairaiii.wt ? S<-nnfjr MOVIIAIJ-. First, of all. l-t rue say that I strongly support tiir Mrffowni-IIatflcM nmcndnifiif whirh would end tho involvement of American I TOOJK in (! war !.y tl end of this year. I think that is tlir rcntni! <|ij<-lion. In a i^n.e this amendment tries to deal with rftrainton onracfivifirs while we refrrrUitbl.v rermiin. so t h a t , '"t a ^-nsr-, if is a side issue, bif God forhid that thev wouldever trv.

164

Senator Srsnxcrroy. You understand I am not criticizing the amendment. Senator Movau.ru I know that, I understand it This amendment run* to the authority necessary for appropriations, and it prohibits any appropriations to be spent "for a I .S. invasion of Xorth Vietnam or'for the use of U.S. combat troops on or off the ground, in support of a South Vietnam** invasion. It keejw us out entirely, and so in that annac. while it is east in authority language it runs to'the use and the prohibition of such use in that way of appropriated funds. Senator SYMINGTON. We used to have an expression, "there arc more wars than one of skinning a cat.'* Senator MOXDVLK. Yes. Senator STSIIXMTON. After listening to and voting for nianv, if not most, of these resolutions, isn't tlic Iwst way to skin the cat from the standpoint of what we want, to amend the appropriation bill? I say that without the. slightest criticism of your amendment, or any other amendment. Senator Moxnux. Well, this is not a resolution, it Is a bill to enact a law t< prohibit appropriations to Lo used for that purpose. I think this particular committee is a little mon- receptive or at toast has proven to he somewhat receptive to this legislative authority approach, which is why I chose this course.
Senator SVMIXOTDK. In other words, your amendment goes to the qm~t ton of the money ? Senator ifosDAiJ-. That is cornrt. Iiccause if if xvere adopted as a matter of law, such appropriate funds could not U> used in the ways which we prescrilie. I think you know for all of the despair we have over the Cambodian invasion o'r the Laotian invasion. I think the Coojwr-Ohurch amendment did probably prexvnt a much wider I'.S. involvement than would )iav occurred if we had not adopted a law prohibiting the nae of appropriated funds, for U.S. ground combat troops, in I MO?. That!.; 107 personal opinion. I cannot prove it. Senator STMINOTOX. Jt me lw tin* first to approve the Cooperf'hmvh amendment us a magnificent demonstration of courageous indftpt-ndi-nt thinking. What I am getting at, liowevcr. is if you pass this amendment, fine. But it hat* to also Ix* approved by the House, aocs it not ? Senator MOXOAU:. 'Fliat is correct, ami igned by the President. S>n:itor Sruivomv. If mijrht !M> mnn> dillirult to jri-1 that ilonc than to put an amendment on in approitrintinn hill, miglit it not. hnscd on vnur knowledgi* of the pnrHaiiU'iil.i-ry prvxvsM>s in oiirfJovernment? fN-nator MOXDAI.K. Ypi sii'd earlier iliere nn> many wnys to kin a <-nt. and I would le willing f. skin it iitiy way that anyone ran think of. You have had far inon- rxj^riericc on that than I have. I<'t tin-re always problem of the rule which prohibits legislating on nn appropriations bill? Then- may IK- other ways of ..tying it. If tliat can I* <lonc. that is juf fitu- by me. Senator SviirvuTn.v. I think you ronhl g-t around that ^>oirjt of order, but I won't pnnnie it at thi* tinn-. S-nator MOVDALK. 1ft me MIV that i.s (inn bv me.

103

OP WTTNISS Senator SrMixerrox. Your previous paper was very tuftuoutml. Senator MOMMLC. Well, you are x'ery kind. Senator Symington. Jn this whole effort to try to win this tragic war and to n?orutjr American priorities', so that we can have a strong economy and a strong dollar and, more importantly, u you have put it so eluqueaitly, an American electorate which has an affection for its Government which, I am afraid, is being tlisajMited today, yon have been our Nation's leader, and I look to you. Senator STMIKGTOK. You too are very kind, aj>d I appreciate those undeserved kind remarks.
CliAXOK KROJ4 FOREIGN TO DuMl>TlC I'KOrUXXi

In tin- back of your mind, regardless of the Past, don't vou think it about time we stopped playing nursemaid, defending, babysitting, tlie rest of lite world, worrying so much nl>out the problems of the people of other nations who take a $100 million. a day that go out of this cuntry and begin thinking uul doing more with respect to the problems of our own farms and our owu cities, our own people, you might say \ We have, some U5 million people who arc below the poverty line in this country. I was over in (iermauy the other Jay. A young Missouri*!! on an Army base came up and said :
Why can't my wife get a jolt bvre on thin tat*? W> limre no moorf. I lurr iwu drafted. U'e bare no cbllil" ':. Kbe would likt to work, and will acatit Uu> r>inj;

I usked tlif uiiiiiiuii(liii<r gciiffiil to niiswcr him. :ind he ivpliinl thnt the ("Jerrr ...a won' Now, we have millions of people iiiicmployei] here. They not only ha\e no uncraploymcr.t in <ieiiii:iny, Init are importing 2.T(>'.OCN Spaniards, Italians, Yu^rosliivs. (inrks, Arabs, ct o^era, into that country* to work, TVx'Kn't ir swm b m'.rn] . if are over then- defending them, they should allow tlin! \\oniHii to work? Scniitur MOM>AU-. Alwolutely. Now, 1 think there U a very strong and healthy, hnmnnii<,rinn impuls>; in the American iH-ojtle. but I think we un> offending and frustrating that if we think uv c:in M-|| the uar in Vietii:im s :m ; t--t of hinniinity. and they rea<l in th-' iajH-r nltout the millions of dollurs of forvi<rn military ai<l thnt has gone to Pakistan, that is living used now in fhe face of a silent t'.S. <;<>. niiim-iit to slaughter thousands of East I'ukisfuriis. und they hux'e rcu'l alNxit 0111* iiiilitnn- aid going to support militnrv juntn rlm-wheif. And I think the American peni-lc tanil U-liind "Pood for IVare." I think th^y stand k'hind reasonahlieconomii* .*-.- isfaiHw and ot'-'-r kinds of technical assistance consistent with the nifdfc "four economy. I think they have a strong and sennibfe humanitarian desire to live rcMionsibly in this world. Hut wlmt H turning tliem off M tl>e feeliti'' we lime jinrt lost all of our M-M-' out here, and we HI*- spending the pillions in way* that cau-

,<>; Si- defended. ui ways whu-h <>uVt\d tLLs Nation's concept of humanity ami brpllieiliood and. at tlto same tinw, disrupting the Nation's evommiy, putting ;> million jx-ople out of work, to tin* point w I _-, itmong othrr thinp, 11 iicicrnt of tlu? kids returning from Vietnam? after risking tiwir liv for this tragic war. are standing mi the st >* looking for work and cannot find it. and we <r>mc up with *ueh things as $1 million pilot program to give them advice about the Gl bill in live cities. They mvwnartoiioitjrli to stv through tlinl and to srctli< immorality >f a |K>li.->- tljat visits that kind of human traywly iiiion Ainorit-ans. S-tiAtor" SvMixiiTox. Mr. Chairman. tl>c Senator from Minnesota h> wxiil in IIIDIV !>lo fashion what I tried to say. I congratulate him n lioth liis phiKtsophy and his|Kition i' - this matter. MOVKAIJ;. Thank yop \vn,- much. Senator .Symington. rsr.or irton ror. rr.\iT. rrxus txn MIIJTAHY ThcCiiMiiMvv. To put (lip nTonl straight. yotiaroawaro.of course. thnt u siilififuiitin! amount of FKM! fur lVa<-o funds aiv ns>d for military fiUl'INVM-S. Sviiutor MMXI>AIJ:. Vi>s. I served on tho Agrioiilturo Committee f.r 4 \irs. I worked my hfiirt out to use sonx1 of thoso T'.S.I.S. funds for t;itod work, for hospitals, for agri-Mi I tural di-velopment. for education, nnd -u on. so tin- rui *> and tin- ofhT I'.S. -owiu>d foivicn curn-nHes woulii lie diverted, and 1 guess we got Jjlifci million. Unknown to me^ T gius^s it is somctliing like $7<K) or SSi million of U.S. -owned foreign <! ivn'ies have gone for inilidry aid without my knowledge.. I did n| i-\oji know ulMiut it u n t i l I read about it. Th" CuvncjiAX. Si-iiatoi Coo|ter. .Hfriii:T Km: AMr.Miiir.xr Senator COOI-KI:. T inn glad l<> Ii'-ar SiMmtor Mondulc, and I s-up|>ort \onr iinii-ndmcnt. Titi- CJIAIKW \v. Vou ivuld iianlly ktvp from it. after all ymi did >n i In- ' 'iHi|N>r-('huie|i. [ IjUiightor.J SeiiiitorC^Mtrhi:. Tliiink you. Senator MOXIHI.I:. Tliunk \ou very rniu-Fi, Senator COOJMT. for ynur
Killdlir.-S.

Tin 1 CIIAIKMAV. Si'iMitoi' Pi-ar.-iOi'i, S<--iiitor T'KAIISOV. Mr. C'luiiminn. I likewise support this proposal. )..^.Ai.rri'oK n.'KMKKSTi u. A ritiv i\. \TIKO J n vrif-cn vrKTVAM If I understood you /-orrei-l ly. Senr^or 3l'HidaIe. i found imself in >w>nie disagreement when \oii n^iwu.ded \n I he Chairmen's inoiiiry as to the Ii-gii'ity of the President's :i<:ling in relation to N'oilli \ ielnum. \ I'civill ii the ( 'iiiiilxHliiiii inl i nsi'iii and in the La'i*; DJH nilioii. it wu>< Hie |Kisiiiin of t i n - Department of Slate that it was a rle.ar po.-it if iiilcrii.'if ioiiiil law licit when one of 'wo rnnilnitants usj-d a neutral area, ilieniltiTcoiiiliiiinnl had :i right toocciipy thatureu.
I l i m e ||e\ff .unlerstfHHl how thilf applies to tlie I 'tilled Stales

forces. I cinilil iinderstiind how the iniericilionul iiiw |>rin<'''>le up|'*i"d

to the A1IVX forces. But could not that argument pertain to an opera: tion in North Vietnam as well f Senator MOKDJUX. WeB as I uhdnrMand thercoBstftatknal trspon- . ' sftn!itytodeHarewar -. - . ' _ - Senator PKAMOX. Mar I interrupt vocTlb say you hay* to put all those in a handle and add the powers of the Commander in .Chief and he jiower to protect American forces. : Senator MOMMKC. Sure. , Sonntor PTAJWON. Ye*. " " " ' . Senator MOND.VJLT. But the requirement to declare war, if it meaita anything. would bo required, in my opinion. if we invaded Xortli_ Vietnam Kvause^mlike Ijtos and Cambodia where the willingness of i he i-ec^ivin^ eoaijtry to pcrniit our troops to be on their land wc unil.icuous. thorn ] no question, I tlm.li, tltat the Government, of " N'orth Vii-tnaiu does not i>rcfor i.s on \octii Vietnnm soil, <ind if the ix-quin'inents to declare war mean, aujthin^, it mpiius tliivt. St-imtor Ptxiwov. Purdon ntr. l.'*ut was true in ("ttuihodtik, but in T<a3 I imdriytood there was soino wit of a twhnicail official Ptaf*-ncnt hot j-ivinji (Hjnniasdoii to entei* upon their land. S'nutor MONDAI.E. That is correct. But whatever the ambiguity in Laos and Camlxxlia, there is none . at all with ivsppet to the> fiopemnwirf of Korth Vietnam, and o .if tliHt ]iov\cr nn'uiiH nvthiiijr resting upon us, I thiulc it would be ivquiml. Hut, power enjoy c diuac. And I think it is incumbent upon us to make clear our oppoiiition to eiUicj- invasion by our force* or the support of our forces on tlir ground or off tins prouiid of nil iuva-niou by South Virtnauiese fori'i-s. and maybe pn>hibi( U.S. fund* in support of a South Vit'tn.tiurso invasion as well. It is not iiu'lnded, but uitt\be tliac rJp>ulil be added. Senator PEAKWIV. In any event yon seek U> solv tlw problem or to (ln> question. MOXPAIJ- Yes. I think it is terribly uu|K>ctant. -

Senator Cranston. I think, t*tifip<l here yiwlei-day alout t \ i . of ominous t\gaf out of fliuia atxut what their reaction would lie.* shrnild we IK> involved in this way in North Vutnjun, at.d I^o not -- , _j thiiil; we nhould Uke it Iirltly and overlook the expmenr* tru Lad . :^ in Korea, J Senator PrAKwjv. I thank tlw Senator, The C'JIAIUMAN. Thank vou very tnuch, Seiatr Moiulaln. Senator MOVPAI.K. Thnriit yo vtry much, The C'liftuur AV. Tlu- next'witnriw IK Senator KnuwtOmciiin'!;, who is an <>!il friend of most, of us. fApjtlai:*.] Si-imUir. it in a well-de*rvcd tnbute and although it- violutg our niles. uud I will overlook it, I join in paying you tribute,

EUEBT <IEUilUt&t fOlMEK US. '


:

. MV. Chairman and: members of the committed, I . ghatl rpprt<3**.^tto-<^>portnitv to appear. "-.l want to aj^pwiftxw.oar, of the. Vietnam Disougageiueut Act, S. J^C, lbeM^iorcr^JUtd^l4>Aet. if jiich tint* to got us avt of SoatiMttat s^j^alltmrinilKj^v^ut.Wt^ 'eutf of this year. Lthbik H is absalaiof*. Htteotbft that We enact su^h legislation bethi Congress dot* ot-i> &,;** are going to b* in Southeast Now, 1 woiBa Jik to empbasiro that |K>tnt because the only hohe of fr today tvitfs in the Congi-e*^ of th United States. Ther ' th" executive branch. There is no hope in the judicial Suprtpw (Vittrt !> ducked deciding the wsue of the A.(tJu war. f ApjibtLtc.] Tltf^e is * distinction bet-ween approving of the ator and h,tf he t*av#, W$ taye to have ail orderly meeting. Therecinuui. iboif^yocr *pprrral or disa]>|>roval of the witneati* '' . . . - OEUTXI.NC. Lt^_ine pouit<fuhat ___ verbally even-body is in favor .* T- ' _* _ -^r%t *a-._*T.i*l. ..*" .* .
J

ntK&iMunrs PUIN TO EN> WAK otbjurJf 2i/i years when Richard Nixon was campaigning for y- He jvrotoiscd the American people that he had a way . of the twar. lJut he said he could not reveal it because hi* did h<^"wi{rt4oinl'*i fctti with t lie Paris Peace Tullca. "Welli ^IiEt a |rcty nrffcut problem. Our boys were dying in -cornfat, ifen35f:*-as to bn honed tliat he would take Uir JBrat opportunity o/tcp taking oiice to rvviv* this plan, maybe in his inaugnral address nv in bratfUusof the Union mescige. 5V> waited aionth after month Tle hoys continued to die in rombat, over 10,000 ii? the ensuing year, and many more wounded, and the nutni>r of rcfujecw was increasing. PrwTujfcnr^'ixon waited for 13 moritlis before he unveiled this plan, after 3 Wock>> of suHnensffnl pnblicity. -It wa hot until December 3. W&, that ho let. the Aiiicriran penle what hu plan wan. And what wa the plant It was not a plan ' tbe war. It was ti plan to perpetuate it. It was very obvious to who read tliat. M I did, and said so at tlic time.*And cxvnl* rfttly have proved it. .When Preident Nixon took oftlre we were fighting in only one country in Southeast Asia. Wo were only in Vietnam. Subsequently we have gone into IMM and Cambodia. !?ot only has Nixon not. rnded the war. He has widened and intensified it. 'Flic casualties continue. The only test of ending the war is when the raMualtieK stop. There is no other test. Under Nixon's policy our boys will continue to die, refugees will continue to increase in number, more and more thotimmdft of innorent people will be slaughtered, and th only hojM- r<s with the Congress.

Unix i- a great and stvlemn r*5ponsibilitr. and I turt h.sp'ful and I pray that t!i legislation or something similar wifl bev^nacted, tlt it will he enforced by the only method hy which esperiiwww ha* fthown it f*n he enforced, and that us by the Congress excising Hi power ov*r the purse ttf rings. mtrrarr or Decrrnos We have had no much of deceptionand this ia not a partisan statementdeception in this matter began before- this administration: it is* of long standing, t ha* been a hirfory of dereptK-n, a deception whioh began even tafore the Tonkin <ialf incident, wljich we all now know was a ttpuriotw incident. The resolution which followed has been repealed, out the v~ar goes on. The deception continued,itit the rajwated a*iinuK-c^of Lyndon Johnson during his campaign for the prenidency that he would not send American boys to fight a ground war on tbV continent of Asia, and all the time he was making those promises, the Pentagon was maturing plans to do jutt that; the-deception fii hi<? state of the I'nion meswipe of 1965 when he asked why are we there t and answered because a friendly nation h* aaked u$ to come in find help it rvpel aggression. The it-cord is alolutely btuv of any suet) requests. We asked ourselves in. It has IIK.-II a continuing story of deception. It is time w* stopped it, and only the CongretM can do it. rcrtitE u.n. I.VVOIAT.MEST IK VIKTKAK Now, it ia vciy obviousand the President and Secretary Laird I'ave already announced itthat their plan is to sta; in Southtaat Asia unC I such indefin ite time as the Soul h Vietnamese (ioxvrn nent is able to fend for itself. Well, President Thieu has said that would be 15 years, and we all fliould know that tliis mean& an indefinite, indeterminate prolongation of the war. Now, righr this morning I picked upI think the Chairman referred to this in the Washington Portthe afnrv headlined "U.S. to Monitor Viet Affaire for fie Next Three Years/' and it sty a:
The Nixon administration ia lannrlifng a iwrlflntton project which will keep tbe U.S. Govcrniofot Inrolvwi in tlie ffoLn of Vietnam for tlie nest 3 yearn.

And who is going to nm this program 1 The Navy, ji branch of tin: MiliUty Kstablishment. Ilio Navy is going to do ttii* and it. w going to upend fc'.l million a year for the next 3 years to do it. And whut aru some of the thing* it IK going to dot It in going to aid the police down there; it w going to do all kinds of things to perpctn_e the police state in Vietnam. We neglect our police forces here fit home, but we are going to'help the polio- force in South Vietnam, and the article hays we nn- going to help them stipprnw nubversi ve. Who an- the BiibverBiveh down there'( The suliv.-ntivm in Soutii Vietnam an> the people who have been *ightiiig fortlic fitvdom of their country for t)u> lnt >.:> years; they arc the onus that tlw Thiftu-Ky government wantK to suppreM, and our Navy plant) to help them do it. It is alwuf time that wu n-aK/e that thone \wrt\\e, down there are fighting for their freedom and we long ago nhould have been on tlieir side ujia not fighting to tuippreHg ttirm. ej JSO-TI12

-170
KECft TO UNU WAR AT HA*UI>r FOM4BLK MOMr.KT

It is high tune now, a&d I think the hour has arrived whon tins AitMTJcan people should bu fed up with inf any, with the loathoroeni>4B of this war, tlu> daughter of civilian*. Mylai was not an isolated incident. and Mylai. horrible as it was. is no'inore criminal than the per^teitml homb'iivfs front tin* air, which is an anonymous killing of civilians, >Id men, women and children, and that authorized from the liipluvd level of government. not by a second lieutenant. Is it any nohler to ktJI people whom you cannot see than to shoot mothers with tabu* in their n-.-m* that you do see? The result is the sanie. and I certainly hope that public sentiment will back this move to get out of this mess at tin- eaHtesr noasiMe mrment, to stay out, and to leave no loopholes that our military can .ip back. This is what ire wed iu order to salvage the conscience of our Nation and t< ire, AmerirA to Uw country that we once loved and admired and \vaiit to lore and admire again. Thxjik you. (Th<< prepared statement of Mr. (trueninp follows:!
Srvrr.xir.XT or Knxtf (Ui KMXU Mr. ("liatnuaii and uwtiilM>r f the luniulttr*-. i am uifx-ariiic In sapt>tt <>f S4-I..II.- lit 1 1 ."ill. i|;>- X'l-fn.iia li'-n(;^.nifiii Aft. wi>lt knn frum H* pMYi*>u i^rsiuni an the "MHtiiViTU-lluttlflil I'ill ti~|Nin-irtil ulm. l>y oilxT ><-ii:iU>r>-. It U <*MM*ntwI to end our tuittUtry lurl\'i-uif))l iu w>utlii-axt A.(M u! the varlirKt i>"gitiU moiurjit. to put au >-uiI to thf killing ml tiuiimlii); of ,\iu<'rl.-ii I'VM. mil ilw killlnc ni.il uiaimiuff "f ltii>uwiud ">f VirlnaiiHw. omny of Uum woura nd cbtlilrrn. Itm'Mvnt rldinin of th- f<illy ( 1'uibn) Stnt< military iinruxi'Ui<*nt in H-uul.-i.Ht A*la. ^luilf bill 3JII will do that. If llit* uar IM In !> luliil ami ruilitl il uiuxt IH-- fur (In- aki- nf nnr own moM-ifU'f and gmMl luiiuf ami fr nlbi*r r.ilitl .n-ax. >. If w i l l ) <Jnr onljr by >u in-! of <'uiiKrv.-. Anil It N jcrxtifrlnr tbut v 'oti Ut Cnojcnwi IK preinrrd by tin- tffiu* of thin btliUatlitn to ivvt-nw iu long tituo ltrtli-ii>oU<Hi aiul ui>\xirt >t our mlllUrjr lurulvriurnt. if It U to b dooe at all. It wnl be' (lone ouly by thtr I'^iigrejut Fur it nr i-li-ar Unit tin- <luituiKlrull"ir njN-nlril jToiuiw-i ami jiluu in mil tin* uar ure
. l*'t drum- ilonbt th Li. b-t lui1 liri.-rty rm-li-w tlic f <:

nvi-r iwi) uuil LfW'-hulf ytiim u^n \vlu-u U'-luinl Nix.m \JH omijii2iiin^ for tlu* jin*idi-ury be tbl tin- Anwrl'-an pouplr tic hail a, i>lan to etut tlu> war. No doubt fill* proniilw* WHX u fni'lor In bl rUflioii. Kr I'tfli MM-II 'b>- Aim ri.:in I*HI|IIH virrif icruwliitf wi*ry of 'tur totally uniJb-iM. iiuju-rtlllublr. lllt>cnt. ami inri>'uiiixiy iii<in.->trri war. Mr. Nixon iiililrd tluit bi> mltl "ot rt-vi-al tin* plan :il tliat imii-u- |t HII|I| tnii-rCrn- w i l d (!. l'nri i-mi- IjilkIU-iiiii'* of idi- !iu|M>rtniii-f iiiul urc''U''y "f tin- liu:it|i>n. tit'' Ani-^rl. ati |Hiipl> tmtumlly IniiNtl Hint I'n-Aiib-iit Niv.ii wnubl n-vi>iil IIM |ilnn ui ijii' (ir-t j>.il)limtialiin. IVrhaiw in tun iiiauicarul r Malt* uf tli>- unlou II-MJIK>' 'i'lilo ua H > .itirul lioiw mi tiii-ir jiurt UIIIUM- mir !.>.< VM-II- i^ui'iiulnc to ijii- or ) iiumuil ni,ij V'iclimuxw u-fr>> ltk.ru IK.' .Ijint an<l niiiiiuifl lii iiu p-a-inK II'.IUI|MT- iiml inon H i. d i,i/iri- of tJti-tn wen- l-lfiir ni,n|c h-xiu'lt:** rffnifrm. I'.ut ii uu tiiv; for T.'t months ni until I H-'Tjulw-r .">r>>. 1!E> -iiml !'r"W>'jir
NiXoO lirin 'Itll I) In |>Ui:

Aiul uliaf HBM lib |ilun? it uuu tmt a plan to rml (In- ur II uu* n |>;nn i [K>r|M'IUHtf II. T>>1 i lioi liiiul-l^lif ; n ii- iippnn-nl In HI.' <ti- il:n I uui iidtito ri'.Tl IliU plun )3 tlit- riiornlnir uW'-papt-i- Siili<ni|u-ni .-U'lits iuiv>> \irnll. :i-il that Jiiik-in^nf, l'r^iiil'ii' Niiun liiivtitit finbti tlur v.ar. Tin- only tvnl at wlii'lli'T n \\iir in cliUrd in wlirn (1^* ruauuItM-n xtop Not imly h:iv.' i In-) not ftitppcil. lint t i n * WHIM' of (In- Hiir IIIIH U'cti riiijnii-il and li VVIi.-n rr^-nldcnl Nlkiiii fo.k i,i'l,v M-I> wvrif. llzlitlm In <! rouiurjr of A -In Vii-inati; Mucc tbut tlui*> In- liu , i-ip(nb'd (In- vuir to tv><> otb.T cu

aad La<*. It In no hmcrr a war juat la VietnamIt to a *cr to Indo"Vuieu. Ami boMMac haa be** nnomcd to theat conatrfe* on a aeate and f * intently uiuaatehed la OBT military hUioiy. ' . Situ* that ttoe Pnabtent Nixon ha* made rkar that whtl* he propone wtthift wxn.- indefinite period to vjtbdraw owr crowd tnoya. h* trepan* To k*e o*r *lr iuid >*arU font* in Loutueait AIM. Thta tea ww been etearly vtaled by both rn-ttA-ot KlM and Secretary of Defcoaa, Ualria Laird. It la therefore a wn^vkar n^mnber 3. IMP. a perpetration of the war. So It to eaentlal that n v^w>t dot every tout aoldter. rmj man\r of dw ArmH aerrtcm Army. ~NB\T. Mr rrc* 0it Klaria* Curpaat tkr carllMC pallil mtmutpan tbon ^xi noU kwiitb*oc TUa Um-kat 8. S3* pcopoat* toacUvra. U t o> i.mcw nmvKar]r. I think, to (Irtrrtt* th folly of oar mlUtory raitaxanwttt in &rfuonxt Acfa and fu dbvatnua <mMrqnMieM both at bun* aad abroad. UV cnuM rxliami U UM> ndjpctlvrt; In Lbc rocabutarjr la the pronM. Nor to thKW any n- tu>* to BO Vack od BMTM and rrlU? tb btoia- and rmpomitblHty of trtiat Kn aappnkNi. TJio OMimttat tart Is -to frt ot no\ aneqahroraUjr. itrrroiblT. to do Ike brut TVI> c*a to aiuae for the |4ut and bring tola war to a uuijr b<! MM* l>i> frl a ri-rr much rvdorr1! notaber of Anterlouu that to withdraw a* Uiln k*cli>toth>u ptotimini. *i>fO MMtwKbbMC In the way of ti<Hflilt'iun and drfMt. Tbrr* ban brM talk that w mart trad U war with honor 1 ran tfciak 4 n.. umrr hmtorabto way of acnirvltur that objective than t<> xrt ou( iiud Mop any ftmtx* *arrlflcr nt Mm oar own. thiMr of the Vlctnaatw North and Konth lAothina. Camhodtonii. and to end thr drtMioratlnn and aVTixraeia at booke wblcU ore largely the conanqnejica of oar military In arblrrlae tbTf crrot *j4TtlT* If aeConrK enact* tato lefibdaUOA It wOt l*o he rramertlnK UM> iv-Minality of the trckatatlve btancb and tb ezecutlre bmn.-li In the ma kin? of fnrflfn pnlt>7. Tblf i^H>quaUty ba* been K*tdoalty yli>t<itti to the esrcntlrr Hth dlRmtrnoB nautta. Jt mnaC be recorrird. [t In ;mrtlctorly *flont>! to mnfcnrtaad that tha propoaed altemadr^ to aoeb rtlcn l.y the Ctmgn**, nanwl> toe adoption of PnaldVM Nixon's promun ieU ladrfiaiu> prolongation of Uw- war. ever dfappntnvr Inrolrnnient In Sontheam Anton affair*, and a prolongation of all ttt thr horrorx ar.j dlMntrooa neMtlts whl.-h the war ha broaffht to America and to ladocnlna. Tbto to what Vietnam tutfrm wnald be. It !> Mwcntlal that P turn liarfe not vnly to the^ronatltutlon. which ha* been *> Itorrantiy dinrujcnrdeU In tbto matter, to our n*p*-f fnr the inrtliy of trivtlr.. wlil.-h ha.H IlkpHl-*- Item dlnreicardMl Ulnl tuaK>- ftenln of Aim-lira a land of [M-are. hope, jOKtifUlilc pride and adbervtw* tf. UM: prlndiilni that we bare U.tit iirrifewipd IHII IUITI- In the (art decade rrrfMtUbly abandoned. \Vt- Ktand at pprhapa ** nuwt cruciAl hour in our bl*t<try, By <>uctlng |pgllallrtu of till* kind we wltl lie finog tint li retriiw mm-^vf wUnt we lure lout and M>I "n r ronntry an In on the i*th nf Aftxnej and bontv-. TIMTI- IK an Indlrldnil miponxlbltlty npon erery mcnttx>r <rt Conmvaii. If the iiia j.irliy fnU to lake ntcanumi micb a thin to Had tbto war. they will not eacape ttM oiniit for th<> blond of i-Ti-rr American boy and erry ViKnameae man. wuwian ixl <;lilld who die afl-r tb<* terminal date net.by.tkto leclKlatlon. Every menber 'f rru'icriiw Ktmald Iw mndo aware of the iwenome n^ponnltdUty that U Inhered. In tilK role. 1st UM prar fbnr WH act a<mrdluKly. and ( nr h-lovi>d.rottutrr baric on flic jmtli of rlKbtonytu-Mi. peace and honor.

The ('MAMMA*. Tliaiik you.S i naU)rflnwiUHff.'nialifittvery forceful stuff ineil tuul a gmtd ximmiury of wbat otliors tiavc fluid about tliis pro|>osuL k\j>.*i\iis. \frrr, ON Vx>vi:ux-iiATrif.Lu ACT ,As you know, wv v<7tid on an art winiliir to thw MoGornni-Hatfiold Act l;i'st Si'[tr.iiilx-r. T tlu'nk tli- voti> was 39 to S3. T)u y/ii huv ony aji'iniim UH In whether the \'ot4> on tbie. jrvmnnully wit liin < !> ni-xf ! or " ni'inHiB. -willlw any different >. Mr. 'Jiu-rvjv^;. Well. I ri'itli/i- tliat various plforttt at iii'-itt. nnrl vtti'iouM very M>iiud iriovci which the Chairman luu i

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in Ontario try to recapture tome put of the constitution^ tives of the Cong*.** at against the usurpation of the Kxeeutw, the* have not smxreded ma yet because pteUfe opinion was not r for f bom, and 1 think that the Congrea* reftodietUhat lack of .>admes:< on the part of the public opininn. -.But i hope that ha* changed now. . I think it feehfiftging rapidly. .I think people lure begun to realize that our engagement down there. waa c mistake from uc start, that it was fotty. that we should never have go*H in there, and that having pone in, we were mjvled into belienng that we had to ataj in. The Chairman has livcd'rhrragh all this. He knows what the problem it* been, and I think the time has come now when if the American people could be properly informedthe dUGralty has been Ij^t of information, or. rather, "a plethnm of mininforniation and. .VHUIPquendy, tDoat of our people nave Iwr^vi^ from the start, and son* of them still bclmr. that tnis was a noblf cnuad<\ tliat we wore dowii there for the worth ie* nf pnrpoMw, that, we wnr thrrv to blp a *malt nation determine tt* fntnre. that we wen- going to rwjcne thorn from opprMoioQ by a totalitarian 5ate. Well. 'ortuitatttK . u re l^2muin>; tn sw >>* that tins <-Wf*i-'r* we hav> Hupportfd and that wp ounwlveK have prailiiW thfttuue kiml of lotatitarian bruralitips that WF condemn hi omr advrtwmr*. This docv not excuse them or us; they have done it, and uccuaHy we have doo in thf last few years in \ letnaut what we unspurtcplc ormderoMd Hitler, Muawlini.' and Staliit for doing. Tbrtv wa* one Itamc difference. Hitler WMfntirelrainivre in belie vingthattlienurtec race, the Germans, should dominate alt other inferior races and exterminate what lie considered subhuman specie*. ., Mussolini undoubtedly felt that fascism was su|)urior to the reign o f liliertv. f'~ And Stalin no doubt was convinced that communism way th^ wave of tlie future. Wo do it in the name of freedom, and to we are adding hyjhvriiv. in all of onr otlicr sins. To say ' that all thone chanu-f ers we have mi|> down there arc apostlrs o'f freedom is grotesque, and we all know it. Yet we continue to support them, we continue to aid Utorn. and thi* prngnun announced Uere in tlie art'u-Ju in titis morningV 1'ont in X program to perpetuate them in onW. no matter what elw napj^iiV We am not there to let the people of South Vietnam or Vietnam determine their future, but we are tlioiv to iwfxwe rulers <p them who have tlw ideology of this Admin int ration. I won't my it i* tti& Auic-rican ideology ; it is a butrayal thereof. The CHAUUI AV. Senator Cooper. or WITKEM S<>nntor Coort-jt. I harp already paid my tribute to Senator/ Jf-iH'iim<r earlier U>4ay bwaujHe I remember his fortnight nr ' roiiragi>oiis jin-.-fjHv at tlie time of the vo( on Uio Tonkin Gulf re>*lutioii. You were only one of two in Ute whole rongn>w who voted apiiiist tlie reiiolution, no we welwjne .you here and appre'-iato everytliinp ycu say.

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X.

x k

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J AAIR with v^ff. lite \\aAn to * out of .the war iu tfce moat r^s<v.'aJi>V**5ro^tJiik Praad*ntA*ixon>,*rot>p withdrawals w at Iraat brit^Jtouj tlfrf^rf tie pa* whew txyop \7erfe being 'ae&t io in ' Tut CILUKKA*. S*tor Peanoiu
or
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:vntor I*KAWX, I h\t jvo QUwt^os^ Mr. C^wnran. ejrcfjyr ti t*r it is a delight to sec. tta Senator tpa'm so vigorous nd fif. a lu'pria^r on a subject which he-lwlo so lr to Uj
' ' The CHAIRMAN. Scaiator GnwMinjr, I j\>in in tltc tribute "Ox> tJte r of your views ahd the way you have always teen so outapokpn. havt* n^vcr qulbi>ifd about what you thought about this or any o matter, t>o far as 1 can rnnu mtar.* You Lave n^de a jjrcat t-.ontnbu.ntti tootirpjcawxthcwii^ajidyouliavcinthepast. We ti>juik you wry wiicir for con^iug \vtie and tf ivtng us the advwvtufi- of your thoughts. :
..fXMT.N'WTlO.V OF E; .OftTS TO ItBCO^WtCOXCMaKtoVALPOWOW
v

,,>Ir. GBUB >o. Mr. ClHinan, I certainly want to ronjnwrul yo\tf j*>viiacnt efforts- to tr>- t -see that the Congress carries Out its <m>titutional role ittul that it kvonics a coequal branch *& the execUftvMuui the jwiiciarr. . !f tc-aliw Uie terrible handicaps tliat you face and tJKJ <*nrtatit resJiitancV of tlc Ktfcutive to tlioao veri-'desii'ablo and xvrrthy clTortA. An Administration that is <i|>psroutly dedicated to strictiiionstructiniii.sm whwj it rtMs> to apjv>intt,nr Justiccw of rtie Supreme, Court is not a strict const rueiiooiRt whwiil come to ite <>vy;ii relatiotiehlp io the ; . tliat ve lrtsl.:ot at !>' outwt when ^. uilowd hw nndo'-lan-d vtKf- 1/> be in nolntion of Article I. Soctwo % of the Coiwtitation, uttit (liat was only t'uc beginning, ana it hah beL*n going t. wish you tlie proHtt>st sum>.v> tit your pffon* bt^ausc this goes this inimcdintt trapic issue of tlw'w^r. It i a mM.ter of j*crrau-cfeJMty that we po h%;t to the wiwl'im of our f^fi'futners that our coverninftnt c-onsista of tlirw equal l>ranrhp. and tlu>.~ Congress, .whicli lUNi'wA njiif;h cloaer to m>,iespnrintf tin- 'woplc than ftitlur th I'wut'ivf or d- iudidary. is tiift branch tliMt.Uioiiltl move forward : and jwim'eritHolflpowcrs. ,. "Ti'.?*ik you verymfeih. Tl'!CiuinrAN.Tuiinir;..Hi very much, Senator Gtricnuig.

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WliUAJi B. SAXBE. U.S. SZMATOE FROM

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QBIO
m-%r v^ *

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. you. Mr. Chitrrauw wild I .^tI nwCj^f to (tax- To hear .$ . n^^t^>n.^iL^it7<MA*,f |tUW;tdl(l donottJ) I'irtk t<v> depj*y."5t*or. flBv^v^n^tn^ jit the "thatcr."'
"Jr *^T'r>f" *T*ff? * .^^* .^^TF^-J^' ^ ^ *r>*r .

\fondalc's wi should
ijf fo* taist i

I. M of the

th*t

tt^ the, ndinniietjv(t<u>. fnr talcitjr'.tlt* troty* I think iiiat this i jf.oin.' (O'o?q*intfc''Kin > it1\iia^:i? nf ^ .-Now. oof fi!K J lirliiv<. is tin- v*ry m:kJaii^n that Ut> in tlia-ont our trtuinlp.ii)trart3 tJw war iti s* jJiLer thot i he" South Viptiinintw: Wdrawinp from Lndoi:liiaa,ftlHJ I think x sWUiuificr if'tlicv:i^Tinr sonic inoasitrtf ttt^wotet'tiiidr'aiily, li tJu-y haro nt to (his tmie but t!u-y emisafi-r, tiidy liuxv. that will Ih-H fwl tiint tlwy cO invadr part-* ytf^yrtb V'trtiiani or Uat 'au;..'h -xp-<lit'n>h< of- v?.rrtis. tyjii'S info N'nitl' -.Vri'tnatu. " - " - / ^'{tcn-foiv, 1 thiiik (hat iiw-iuust :.!.-.- it pluin thnt we vvtll ii>-i<her pniticiimti* hir wiH'tCK ^nppott this (VJH- of inilit:y ^tion. and i think that the bill that we projios*- to i<r vffeciivc^n.i^ \v liniitfil to thu. and it must I** lsrd on tlir fact that no fii&fc Li 1m oxi ^ti'lcd ,,wh.T4>ot'vr in this typoof an effort. -^ .-""Now. Wf fjui p.tul a itn( irrafty otiiov- thine.? itv tJion- if wo t-x>k drt-p ftuMi^ij, bio* I, in wi,c U^iission. rh my .afiivmi'nt with Si-Jiarr Moii(Jj(-. i^tut thj^ to Wt!ii"~*>nrp p.-^-ntia.!-" of u tjiM'iiH'rit of jMlicy bv t[iif C-on-frriw that v will not invoJxv'mirw'vi-M :fi :,n iiu'nsion of Xorth Vii'tntm either by support or dirrgily. 1 t h i n k it Wfiiilil have n setUin^'.e'rf'ci't w.riil wwiT:} adi'nim* our \>f\iti Paris aa well ,* oiir-VirltrirawaJ in^ont'r Vietnam. V.'C.itor ^ftNiie. Si-nsttor Mondule did make a VITV , Jnu. ftp hirntioiied yo'ir prior cwiunitincot \vliiclj . <<K <*-d you ta k-a ve tcinpbra riiy . I ycndfer wluf ir{iph>**d you uf*ni von'1 nrwnt vixit that cjn^-s voi? to !*-.!'fevr. tht the wvfhdrit\vttl. nud tnsiunte ywi Weun iwuplete ith^Ic.i^'nf. wjH U> HfMiner tlinii T think''. J u.lj that caprcinl? irj view of tbv m-iir-ln iir jhe morning. PS.JMT wjiii-li ->:\\:+ ll-.c %:: \ vt. (iuv niidertaV'uj.'1'* ,'*':i1jMixunt 'tsa "urte f'rtn .-if furucillnn<v nf the in-ojiliof' V;ietn;:ir. Ffow dors fiipf-Mt. wilh your view of rapid withdratvul or o1.. yfKi tUink /."or " -v'*fv* are -oom-r tlmti we t h i n k ? IH -MOIHT than w/rne f*oplu tliink {K-cuufie previou<i wttn<;'>i f-el

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^.H,t,,r S.\xne. Xo; &'u not sat&factvry to utc-^'hopp that '-*.f , that we wilt haw all of our troops put of them!i:I. hope !w.t re trifl ' ^-^ur iair:ttpport toa bawniiajiniiur: . /* v^tuZc the tirt that logisticaJly aatoogrn* they are ^ u* *ritireJy, on our weapitt >vad ^jnmiutKvon, *e &a_ , rwmt logical mpjKjirt. Buf. I-wbula Kit* td-tbtnV^** w_^wa., jw f^taowe of tb^ rttaattt that h*r^ linjttd**bft-lwt; t '
, I bclif, tln4 this urgwacy is ^ _ . . ' " " ' '" " I;twlicvr. lLat The \rith!rKai i,* couyrTo fo spee^nd npiocauaa of rhe inct that 3 these tr<**ps tre~ ij^ienpiirpd fljcy beeonw morr pf" '. fc'nw JU^v pcrftmal cxjierieuce ^ La Jtotimrc rpi2h*Jon* I wi nn orgfttmwroo tlmt is withdrawn f r: witad , tlatfc i* in trrcn, Usriimss & gmit deal ^ttoiTliJEcnk to nuinUint any kind Jfcf -wdcr- 1 tiink~rl>c.dfQ< proht^n. flwfveneKa! disease ChJblwn. the Jaw al unJcr pirJtifein hwxrfiii ftsatfc- jfn<l wilt.Knve-TO'bc hajidleil in. an enurrl <li&hMrt" inauiifir-titsititlws with a ~ .-wrfvmw' EXTEKIINCE OJT B<*VT
.. ^ . saw on vor rcwwit trip thAt-^auwd yea to ht^icvc that withdraw*! will lie fiorf<T. What VRK rhul.f 1 am nrtta^are of it. SH-nRlor .SA* tsr.. Fvr o>* t hing; J raj tunazed nt the nomfccrof ttoops in rear oiva* and fhc snmU numlvrs it) contact. The'|4*iw that am made itt the present time for future conta<T. aiv 3tiivr completely hidI!P or \vi-n1 IP tnvxirfrnt. In other voivjs,.* In> witliitnm l has poiinitlWI the South Virtnamefln to take a frwfJiiw pogitton. Xuw. I am 9\9O ronviixyyl tlu? ouiiidty rrfort*. whtrfi I looked r vffh^ajjtain^f^jtlt.," w' true. "We re now ftpproarliuic tlw "point w^rctfe -rasosltiM ar*. To 30 or 40^1 wftet. Tlw nmhftje oa^unlt iee.ftwiu Jt^Ji_as the . " . r yrti-'have troops in a foreign country; Totj^jvi going to: have u certain anioctct of h<v4.y trafia, you art froiti^i/): banstii certain amount, of inrfrUitntJ, lon>hMij*H.ana hWite^uc4drf^:>w-rfrtiw*pr jjoinsr-to iUHiijilctfl^<fo aw^;.vith.Ik6sl5le rafh;{e*. ^ftut I trasim'.p'rrsBpd-hr ttuv 'ovr^J'-that it liak readied at thi^.tjoa1-' . r

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\ nm qfuii i.rhjT\trtgr>d % tti^t fa.-f thai t.lu mt

-Jfts Wi-n jucnian^d, atiJ I think will U< inrreaacd-aprui.


S mTHIOU .{(.. IXl'MTJK AI.T\; ' ^ H f H TILAi.

fOSi. Wlin jeoo sttA1 withdrawal, do^yoa iifiude the-ottier; ~ " . Vrs. I thin!., as" voy IUK?W, ttir TbnilamT !' air for'-w! HTU| 1 thitik dwt u"'n- po'rng to

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OK

Senator Conrae. I tliink Senator Saxbt has rrsaKif' . kin amemlnMtat very clear, and Jt>a hare bceh j

-.

-vi.su- iu tfic put >'iS iwve to pit****. I n not a jnilit&iy nwiirkit I ice. Von have had much more diiwf serticeiiittt 1 think w b such action in
ay, idt>-.picil<>f jwii. rn' forthright. ^ j ^von very much.

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y d<r "ot^think this tro'uld not br fm-ihere ? Wharkind of eijyij>Vi'I /e not lra\v.tli<'rp? .dfiiu't"br((;^t.hfairiic.!<]>< V'HU!."
. A-xK. Wisi ^ a*n thitikii;^: about is primarily electroni 'Icctronic. "roijjputr? > t'iftwi|IiiK(irai>'JUv^iii>Hj<!nt.'wb(i;lt-f.iM'y vout to use jf. %: <iiil I'-aki- it .'twri'C tii iin-. <Hitro? f tiir

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PROPOSALS DELATING TO THE WAR IN SOUTHEAST ASIA


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ST\TES Sex ATT," Con virrefc ov FOKEIOK I&XATIONS, D.C.
1

IV crtinnwttff:jiwtrT)uraj_i^ t<vioi iw. t 11 :Jr aan^ in Boom 1221, Office Ruildifa^%iuCto!- -T. W.. Fulhrifrht (Ghirnun) " - Fulbrigtti^.SvuiingT.chv Pell, Aiken, Cuae, and
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timuttittee will cotne to order.

remits hfartngs ou propnsiU r:n<r-m tho cnaiiifr or 5lw ^>iw3jcstt'' ' ' " ""' ' "' ijiir^^eiH-;hwii1 t^timoii-7 froift SI: . h-Ibt-lwivp they dctscn-e to IxOiwtj^i.^KW .liataaRd lot-fry t^e Cou^. ^5 wij hykJw official^in tlie ^xc^tHtv*1 li-kr^'afttJ ^ <|t.*d!jllic i^wrally. You have a-lxw[-; tiv 7j._.-.-4hat'those'In the OorfcUuii^ijf-jrH^-iimke^Ui XationVpolicy da not C" " ~->i'H'iv^ '^vft " and-T am^uretJiityouf rt.tjaii>ny today will Us ' helpful to f mi tny'oirii'-j^cruiii'i'hiit t re^fref re
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. -,.>V{iret tbfttv. It WH'ftjs lo in*1, to be^iut ayrrflwr itLjtttnr of an in' * vhe onsgir tiTwrts o^ tJu's u;#r upon our | H * > p c . \ _ - J x v "! "-'. -""7 " r .-^ v -'' '-'""' " I want 1sotor<^^afcuIi^fv;VfwK^rryvyoKftndyoira8iiociat^Uf^ The r*;,str-inf -l^hat yHT-tavc^?b<;tiftt, jcpctaiuly iu-tJic hearing the oftier xlav _>'jwui i-rj<--i-'creft-^f^fti^uiaJ'jtio?.^or fwo^Jjere. I think you in a. nu^A cwkruwiLuit/x i^'yibic'r throupljouf fhiu

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1 personally don't j?iO.W''of nnv .group -which would ha> liotfc jt greater justification fordoinjr it 'd *te<> tnare. ^irTirjM-e vifttv of iue f ff^t of the war. As you know, th hn-; prrnru 'up 'i tin* i.>wn_ki' feeling that it is extremely dUBoult to jrM.sK'curarc' in format iou aJkmr the war and J don*t k<va- Ijriler sourre thnv you and your as*ovki%>s. So vvc are wry p/M-*ed fo ha,v you and yoHr.a^v-iat^-ijax Krrvy. A( tho ttoginninc jf you ;would gir to tlu? n^p^T'cr yoiir fall nunic"and a brief l>iogmhy soi^rat the i\vard will slif^r av^io V<MI sre. .St-Jiator JAVITS. Mr. C^iairrtiiijC J '? d("\vn {'"'tv t"fi th<- vp cnp Attilerdny nnd>aw tL> X<>v Vork t'rouiVsud I xvould like I am very piwul of Mio duporttopni HnJ^rcnprai artirudc of the r I I.>af' it tr<>iuiiiUFS. I Ii.tvd jomod in flio Iiart,n%?:')lution,i'u>i. As a lawyer J bop*' you will lind ir posaihlo tu ootriij^-_wi(h thn iirdk-r/oA-or: th<mir!i, likcuhfr diairaian. 1 am nhft}>fY :<l>oirt-tt. T tliinli it f* our ioli to .sf-<> tliat youiiro biiitjiMv >cf t:j> i L alt<iniMf iv^- ^o tlinf you can d'> tt'hf you rauutTsfn' fn do. I Ar'ltvHjt;. the factrthtit vou nn\<* and what VMi am doiii^;\ ~ ' f Applause.] " .'": i ' ^ Thi'<*UAii;*\N. Von may jiiii-oil, Mr. Kerrjv , STATEKEMT OF JOBS K^BEY. VIETJTAM VETETIANS AGAINST '-: THEWA3 Nfv. KI-KKV. TJisiik'Anii virv" imicli. Senator FiiH>nfiht. S-v-ritoi^ aviN, S-nator Syiniiipton. S-iiator-PrJl, 1 \onld }iki-.l.o;^y for t3u' . atid aliio fi^r t^*-. mon ^*JTI<1 flip wlio are nlstr wenriusr the uniforms and '.ivr wAal*. ttiat it,v siftirj; IH-TV ;>; .vallv syin!M\lic.I ain not hero" as John KIMTY. if urn !-MMI> as one uiomlxT j the ^T'MifV of 1/HK), whWi i :i small rrpr^uitHfinn of n n-ry much Jrsrir g.rup of v-ii*r:iu'i in jlii? coiinti-y. and wrn- it [u^sibic for oil of Ihrtn TA i^ic at t h i s tnjjjp thV-v would l>o )njrv.ai)d li\ p t> t-lw? sain;- I.'ind of Ivsrimoiiy. f would >i:ii|i)v li(i to syfo.'!!!* in ^p^v ^i-iiccnl t<>.niiri. I fl|>'>lojrizi' if my "-tati'm^-iit i* ?'cii<-yn{ l'.-ar'^- I ri-n-ivi'd notificntion t.-Murda; you would hi-ar ii and 1 .ini nfra'td Ixv.mso of tlic injniictjon I w:ii ii[J inosr of thf. jiiphl itad 'flavin "t ha<! a. j^r^nf don! of cli.iiirf t-o pivparf.

I would like to talk, ivjrtvwiitiflir all dK^ Vf-fi-nniiR, and fv no In jMroit. w* Inid.VUf iiiiv-sti^nlirtn-Hf which r>ililv disdi"aty:d nnd nviiiy v^-ry hi^'lj'y d--.ivr:i)pd v i ' i ' - . <j war rritues ff>iwmttttl it; !>(niit lii'avt Asia, ticrf imlatfd ;'n'ikd on dsv-t^ -da v ba.-j.f wit<j tJ' fII ?i w:tnJt is impcw-vliri' to dfscrilfc t<i jou vx;ic4ly whyJt i(l 3<rij')>"ii in it. t.fo t-'fnoH<r>s in ilw>.ro<im. <lic Wliiifr- of t!i<' men who \vcr<v .r^jiviujf iht-ir f-xjx^ii'fU'r 1 ? -;?i ViHiiam. 1>U' T)ICV did. Tltcv ri/livt-ii fho :il>oint/ Iviri'or of whf.ti>j^ 'y>Mntrv. JH a ft-Ji 1 * 1 . >ii:uic them [. TJlfV (/>ld t'u- rtoni-" ft* t'lnc? they f'^cf -fH-rcrtrn'lv nif>"d. f>il oif nf off licndi;. tn]^'l wir<-- /rin portftbl'- f<'lr;.l|on<';- to !iin;i:i!i i6c'-: smd MjpviJ nn llir j^v.i-r. /'Hi oil' limlH. lilowri U[> o"!}'!)1!*. ^ilv ^1">I a't rivjl'n.*. ra/-d i'ilJa;vs in f.i-iliion n-ininivnt fif i'r<{ J> ha.'i. .-ciioi fi.tllc urid ''"/x for fun. [K>ioiii'd food '-toi-l; -. : ind p-tic.';i)]v i-:ivu{i_<J tJi>' V(.i<n.r> ride of Soiitlj Vii-liufd jfi >i'WJjio>, to

vv"

. JS1

the iiunanl rnvR^r f>)' war. and the normal and very particular ravaging wltU-li is C!MO by the Applied bombing power of this countrv. We call this "investigation the "Winter i-Soldier fnve>iiiration.r *The term ^Yi.itcr Soldier" is a play on words of Thomas Paine in 1770 *rHni hft"pokr of the Sunshine. Patriot and summertime soldiers who .deserted at Valley Forge l>ecause the going was rough. "-TVi1 who have, come here to Washington have oi>me here because we |VpI we have to le winter soldiers now. We could come hack to this country: wo could be ouie.t: we could hold our silence: we could not tell wi'uir went on in \ ietnam, but we feel because of what threatens t!ii< country, the fact that the crimes threaten it, not reds, and not rtlcoats hut the. crimes which we are committing that threaten it, that w<- li.ivo to speak our. FKEUXCS or MKN rowixo BACK FROK TIETXAX T would like to talk to you a little hit about what the result w of the foelinjrs thfsp men CMITV "with them after oomine hack from Vietnam. 'Hiei-'innf ry doesn't know it vet. but it hasrrejUcd a tnonstw, a monster in r|t> fonn of millions of men who have "been taught to deal atwl to tirad'o in violftnr. and who are gi^eji the *-hanoe to die for the bigpwt jiOtTiinr in history :ineu who have reinrned with a sense of angw and* *MI^-' of iM-tniyal wliidi no one ha3 yet.grasped, A ft veteran and one who feels this anger, I would like totalk about if. We arc angry IxvAiise we ff^] we liave been used in the worst fashion by the tulniinis<raHminf thisiwnntrv. ' T:i 1079 at We!f Point. Vice President Ajrnew said "some glamorize the rr'miinal misfits of society while our !vst men die in Asian rv* [cidtlies to presen-e tlw fre<xlom -which m<t of those mi-efits abuse." fin.1 rhis wfl8UKi>d ass rallying point foronr effort in Vietnam. J?nf for us. as Iw-vS in Asia whom the count ry was suppowd to support, his statement i a terrible rlisrortion from which we can only draw :i very ?<*[> wn*c <>f rcvjilsion. Hence tlip anger of some of the men who are Men* in Washington today. Tt i*. a dislortion localise we in no way CMn-fdrr 011. wH'e. Iic IK-.I* men of this country, l*ause, those he calls i/i-t.-tit'- won? KtaiK'iing up for us in u way that nol>oH v else in this coun,r\ tl:irrl tfi. ix'r;iii>^ pd many who have died would have returned to t : (ji utir.trv tu Joii: f l i o ini-sfit.-; in their efforts to a.k for an immediate y. :ii.Imwa1 fivmi Sl.nitli Vietnam. l<e<-3ii-ie *> niMiiy of tlrose lest men l(.n'- rf-fiinpH a^<juadriplcgics :md nmpnfees,anf| they lie forgotten in Vfff'iMtis" Adiuinitr:ition l^ispitali in tlii-* i-onntry whi<-h fly the flag -n-liii-ii -in niaftv have cliosin as their own jvrvrti:il -yml>o1. And we cantioi iii-'idpr oiir-^-lw-s AnV'rir-n'.K Ite.jf roni wlien we ore ahamivlof and !iM!f-.l wh:i. we were called on I do in Sot:iheat Aia. IM our opini'iu. :iiul from 'uir experience, then* i< nothing in South Viei: urn. nothing W!IK!I '-oul^ hnppen that reali<-li'-:il1y threatens the I'li'lf-l Sfjfj-s iif Anjfrif. AiiiHo attempt to jiiiCtifv the loss of one A i i i ' - r n - a i i !tfr in ^"f^t^>:lllJ. fiunltoclisr, oj- T>q/r= by linking sucli lows t/> t'.ic iiir^-rv-^iion of fm-ilom. ;< hicli tjio^- misfit-"iipposi-dly abuse, is in 'i- HiHiV'igbf nf i-r'uii'inl hyif^'ri-y. !iul it Istlrit kind fif hypo, risv -.\'i '"li-i-i 1 fii-1 h.'i^ton; iliiiivj!!jitryapart. \\'f 11 :v fji-i;-lj;i.l'H" i'T-ir|i tnon ;irigr than lhaf and I don't want to go irii i'.. f*ivitfM |i'ilic\ ;i-|-rU U-cati-ii- I am outclassed lcre. T Imow UM! l! uf yu t u l k u l n n i f rvery jfi-.'i!>le alternative of getting out of

Victiiant. We understand that. "~e know yon have considered -faf serionsnfes xf the a^XHrta to tlie utmost level "and I am not going to try to dwell OH hat, but I want; to relate to you the feeling that many.pf'the men \vlio ha.ye retu rned to t his country express because we smftrobRlnj^ o airiest About all th)t we were told about Vietnam and aoout the -1 vr against communism. ',
\V HAT 'AS FOirXD AND UUKNiU IX VIETNAM

We found that not only was it a dvi^waiS an e&K.t;tv. avjx*>jTi.fc w_ho had fur years been secJiing their liberation from any colonial Influence whatsoever, but al^o TVC found tlhtt the Vietnamese whom we had cnthusiattJcally molded after our own image wore hard put to ta!:j up the tight agaVti'st. th."- thrc-at-wi- ere supfK^-dly sjivin^thcm from. We fomid most. iK)pU- didn'l PVWI know the differc-are ix-t ween comlaiinisni "nil democracy. Tlicy only wjuit4>d to work ii riv paddies witiiout jx>ptei-s W.rafinp t<hcn> /ind t>oinbs witJi napalm burning their nltM^iis and tearing; their country apart. They wanted everythi>; to do with the. war. particularly with this foreign presence of t he United Sta^s of America, to leave tliein alone in peace. :i -1 py pracfi^-d the nrt of suri'ival by hiding with whichever in tmw was present t particular tin?", be it Vieteong. Xordi Vii ...lese, or American. tt'e foiiud also tlmt all too of feu American men were dyiiifr in those. fira paddi& for want of sup JX) it from their allies. We. saw lirst li:ind riow money from Ajrierican tuxes ws used for a corrupt dictatorial regime. We saw that many people in this country had a one-sided idea of who was kept free bv our flag, as blacks provided the highest (K.Toentagc of casua.lties. We saw Vrietnaru ravaged equally by Amenon !>nili>:in well as by -arch and destroy nii.sion>, as well as bv Vieiconr terrorism, and yet we listened while this country tried t^ blame all of the havoc on tlie Vietcong. We rationalized destroying villages in order t^- .a-ve. tlieju. We SMW America lose her>ejiheof nwirality a-* slie a'<-ept4'l vcrj'cooMy a My Lai and refused to give up the image of American .soldiers who huud out rli'H-olsite Itnrs and chewing gum. We learned the meaning of free fire zones, shooting anythin:r th:it moves, and we watched while America placed u cheapness on the lives of orientals. \Ve wiilehfld the IT.S. faKiti^ation of Ixxly connis. in fact the glorification of iody counts. W<- Ii-*en4-<l while month after month we were fold the lack of theeiicim WH.- about toln't-:ik. We f<mghf using veapon.- ag;iiii>t ""rii-iita! liuriuin Ix-ing^." w i t h i|iinl;il inn marl;^ :iroun<l t h a t . We foiiglit u-iiig weapon.- against tlio^ 1 [ii-opli- w hich I do not l,c. l i e v e t l i i - iHiiii j-y would dream of n-iiig wi-re \\e f i j j h t ' n g in the KiU'oIM- in theater or let us wiv H lion t h i r d - w o r l d jn-oph- I heater, and -o we watclip<l while men chargt-J up Iiills I>ef;iu-<e a general .-aid t i n t h i l l lias to !K- taken, and after lo-ing one platoon or two platoon.- t l u - v nian-hed away to leave the high for the reocciipation I\ the N'<mli Victnamc^- derail.-*- we watched jiride allow the mo.-t u n i m p o r t a n t of battle- to IM- blown int<i evtiavaganxiis. U-euii-e we i-oiililn't \n~t-. anil wi- couldn't retreat, and U-raiise it didn't matter how n'unv American Ixrtlii', were lost to prove t h a t [>oint. And ^ then- were Hamburger H i l l s an-l Kin- Snnhs and Hill >>^1V and Tire Has- t/.-, ;in.'J so m a n y olheis.

1S3
VKTffAJOZATION

Now we are told that the men who fought there must watch quietly while American lives are lost so that we can exercise the incredible arrogance of Viflfrim""g $h^ Vietnamese {Applause.] The CHAIKKAX. I hope you wont interrupt. He is making a very . significant statement. Let him proceed. Air.. KKKCY. Each dav to fiwilitate tlie process by wliirn the \ faited States washes her hands of Vietnam someone has to give up his life so that the I7nited States doesn't have to admit something that the entire world already knows, so that we can't say that we have made a mistake. Someone has to die so that President X ixon won't be, and these arc liis words. *tLe first President to lose a war."1 We are asking Americans to think about that because how do you ask a man to be the last, man to die in Vietnam} How do yon ask a man to be the last man to die for a mistake? But we are trying to do that, and we are doing it with thousands of rationalizations, and if yon read carefully the President a last speech to the people of this country, you can see that he says, and says clearly :
"~' Dut tot ttmic, pfltitt)dir the wnw? ovDuuniiUUi. sod 01^ QQGKMO is Wanner or mat we iriU leave that country to the Commonlsu or whether or not we wfU try to (ire it hope to be a free people.

But the point is they are not a free people now under us. They are not a free people, and we cannot- fight communism all over the world, and I think we should hare learned that lesson by now.
KETUBVIXO VETKRAVS ABE VOT BEAULT WAVTH)

But the problem of veterans goes beyond this personal problem, because you tiiink about a poster in this country with a picture of Uncle Sam and the picture says '"I want you." And a voting man comes out of high scliool and sivs, "That is'fine, I am going to serve my country." And he goes to Vietnam and he shoots and he kills and he does his job or maybe he doesn't kill, maybe he just goes and IK- comes bark, and when he gets ba/:k to this 'country he finds that he isn't really wanted, because the largest unemployment figure in the country it* varies depending on who you get it from, the VA Administration 15 percent, various other sources 22 percent. But the largest mrp f nrifiuploycd in thi.s country arc veterans of this war, and of those veterans 33 percent of the unemployed are black. That means 1 out of even' 10 of the Nation's unemployed is a veteran of Vietnam. The hospitaL LC row tlie country won't, or cant mei-t their demands. It is not a question of not frying. Tliey don't havetlie appropriations. A man recently died after he had a tracheotomy in California, not he/'Hune of tlie operation but because tliere weren't, enough personnel to r-lean the mucous out of his tube and he suffocated to desth. Another young man juRt died in a Vew York VA hospital tlie other iLiy. A friend of mine wa Iving in a U-d two IMV|K ar.ay and tried t'i Iielp him, but lie couldn't. lie ruujru Ijell and tlien* wasjiolwxiy (lie re to ju-rriw that man and HO In- died of convulsions, I understand 57 percent of all lh/w entering tlie VA hospitals talk about ftji'-ide. Some ^7 jviccnt hu\e trh-d, nd they try because they

184

come back to this country ajul they have to face v.nat they did in Vietnam, and then they coou- :>ack and find tho- indlfferwice 01^ country that dofsnt really Vam^that doesn't realiy care. , - i
LACK OF MOEALiSBWXATrOXis'CXrreD STAJES - ~" /

Suddwiiy wo are faced with a very sickening situation in this coun- _ try, : ^canse there is no moral indignation and, if there is, it comes from people who arc almost exhausted by their past indignations, and I know that many of diem arc sitting 'in front of me. The country seems to hare lain down and shrugged off something as serious as Laos, just, as we calmly shrugged off the loss of 700,000 Jives in Pakistanf&e so-called greatest disaster of all times. Bat we -Are here as veterans to say we think we are in the midst o: the greatest disaster of all times now because they are still dyin" over therc. and not just Americans, Viebuur<ese, and we are rationalizing leaving that country so that those people can go on killing each other for ye^rsto come. Americans seem to have accepted the idea that the war JA winding down, at least for Americans, and they have *lso allowed the bodies .which were once used- by a President for statistics to pcoye that we" were winning tha* war," to be used as evidence against * -man .who followed orders and who interpreted those orders no differently than hundreds of other men in Vietnam. ..:./: We veterans can only look with amazement on the fact that this countrv hats been unable to eee there is absolutely no difference between "rounJ troops and a helicopter crew, and yet people hare accepted a- : differentiation fed them by the administration. No ground troops are "in Laos, so it is all right to kill "Laotians by remote control. But believe meJhe helicoi>ter crewj fill the. same body bags and then- wrwk the same kind of damage on the Vietnamese and Laotian countryside as anybody else, and the President is talking about allowing that to go on for many years to come.. One can only ask if u-e Kill really be satisfied only when the troops march into Hanoi. taxtn.fr FOB ACTION* nr OOVCRESS We are asking here in Washington for some action, action from the Congress of the I 'ntted States of America which has the power to raise and maintain armies, and which by tlie Constitution also has tlie power to declare war. We hare comn here, not to the President, bcoa.u;*' we believe that fliis txxly can \>e reK}>oiwve to the will of the ]>eople. and we believe that the will of tlie jjeople says that we should be out of Vietnam now. F.XTEKT or twtauFM or nmiAif WAH Wp n< } liere in WasJiiu^u also to say that the problem of thia w* is not jast u. ({uettlion of war and diploioacv. It is part and parcel oi everything: that we are trying as human Ijeiiig* to coflimunicate to jHioplf in tliis r/>untry. the question of nu-Min, which in rampant in tJu.' military, uul su ninny other qiwrtioiis alxn, tfie use of wcajmns, t]i<- hyjHKTiHy in our iaking umbrage in th Gev. C>jnventwmK aiul tliat ut jutftification for a continuation of this war, wlieii we

wjcejjuilty than *ikyr.otlxer body oi:riuhitwn& of


. m the uSeofcfrue re yxnics. harasjnMT.t intecdvetiottjfircv th? boinbJ&^^}ie4or>urp of j>i4abncr>t,' . . , _ _ . t !; killing of prisaiwrK,-acciptod jiolicy i^aany units in South Vietnaui. .That is what w are -trying, to say. It Is part and parcel of everything. . ,_ .. . _. ->. _ " : An A/nericau Indian f riruwi of mine, who li vs in rhfl lliduui Nation of Afcaf-rsz j>ut it to me ycrj- succinctly. I le told in< itow as lx>v on an Indian rc*n-attoii Ju; had wato-hed television and IH used to clu*r jvbcn ihfty ftw in a'id shot 4 IM>- Indians, ajid tJwji .iud^ . y Lc. stoppixl in Yio*,uani and Jio said "3fy God, 1 am doiujr *o tlh-dc ]x>o|>]f tht'YCJT same thing that was .done to my people." And h? som*-iL And that is,:hat ivt- an* trying to say, that^eifeirilc this thine nas to end. "~ -:~ -.^ ~_
~ 1VHKKF. IS TUB LK^mXSHIl'? * -

- We are also h*-iv.44> aak, and we aic ]wn TO sk -colieiitt'tjtl arc tin- loadc'ni "I, our couittrj-JJ Whiro i#Afej leadf^sljifj ?"W to ask.vi'lu-R.1 ani'MoXamanu Kfi3t/i-,Jiiiiidy..<i{patf: and >o many others. Where an- thv now" that WP, tlie luui \v]>oin they sicnt olF to war. nan1 jv'unifd? Tliix :ij'e coiuinandi'J'b .wlio have ditvrt'ii thoir t C(M|~. ^:uJ ThtTt1 i^ io mot* serious orinic iw'tho ia^rof warrThp Army -;: if- 1 1;:- y >ii m *'-r 'c:\f lh;r wounded. _ The Manias sav Jhey IH-VIT l<-avv even tlu-ir i-ad. ThcBe'lufin.iiav* left nil I lie <-nnu-ii(ie .tiiJ retivjit^l behind a pious sh'u-ld of public r-:-i;:;i:i-.l'.'. 'J" : .i'V 'lav^ 1 U'ft l!ie r.-ol <ii(l' <f tlirir reputift iirti? bleaching'ix-liiiid i!i;-ni in tlifsiiJi iji this country.
AliilJM-TIIATIONV vrrKMlT Tl

! v, t]li^ ;uirniiiisU'aJ ion hn>-done UH tlirflimate dishonor. They i.'iiijrtwl l<>di:<ovn TIS and the sari'iiuY1 weuiadi' fortJiisrounOy. bhjjdn.'.-^aud fear (ItcvlintL 1 tried lodojiytliat wp*r-- veteraup or that ix'e wrveij m Xauu iVe do it ntvd their (wrtimony. Onr own w;ir.-. ami stmujK of limta are wihiessrp enough for <itlta-rs ard for ')ii[>*'ivpp; " . ~.-j'~~ V.'P v.isli tliat a me.jv-.iful God <x)ul1 -jfi uwa\- our own nu-Jttofk* if (h:if wrvicj- :IH easily us Jliw adiuinistratujii lias wiped their jnfctjiorit-.-< of ii,. Hut ^11 thai they have, done^nd all that thry fMido by this dcni:il is lu ni.ike more I'leartlmn e ver our own detennnntt ion to undertk.- inn- l.-i.vt mi.-!!MiiK to search old ud destroy tJw last. w-!>tiL> of 4^iw hprlinr ic war. t" |ai'ify our own lirarts. to coii'juer tlu? hstv and the fi-jir thai have ilf'uMi this .Dmitry fliew last JO vt^ars and uton, and o wiii-ii. in "1(1 years from now, our brother* jro down ilie tftreet withuuf H !>%;, niUtout ;i;i urin. or a fart^ and small IXJVB ask why, we will IK* ;il>lc in say "Vietnam*" and not nw*n mdeseit. not a filUiy ohsceue rjwi[i'ry luittiu-au instead llie pJaw wljpn- AJIMTW-JI finally liirapd and wlw:e .-.oldieis lila- us l^Jfied it in IJw turninit. Thank you. | A{JilaiJ*'.] 'I'lfi- C I I \ < U U ^ . N . Mr Kerry, it is quite evident from tltat deinonntrition that you are. xjxvikiiifr not. only for youreelf but for all your 's. as you projerly said in titu bcgi
J - - - 13

,-..^~. \v

'-'"

<'4>MMKM>.\TION

OK

- >-c~-.'-" V. i s,sKt yon wished to comriiunicate. 1 can't imagine anyone comc-^'. " nmim-atmj: more eloquHuitlr .Cbxh\you did. I think it is extremely ?-/-'' - ''lielpfn' and''beiieTfcial'16'-n>ti"Coiiiniittff'- ^nd the country to have you , " . " . " make >ijrh _a^tati'iiHMi(. - .< Ijeeli awake all >>i<r|it. 1 run see ttiat you SJMMII tliat indv<l. | I^aiuriiter.} . Periiaps tliat was the fn'tteV part, l*ettt-r tliat you shoiod l>e awake than otherwise.
* l l > ItKM'ICK 'OMM'TTK>:

(hat the iiiifstion U-fon- thiscouiinitttv uinl tW<'oiiw to -nu tlf.i\var-~T!n' ivsolntious -.lUuit which -b\,- U-fiilitsiriiii.' li'stihiuiu linfili^ tLf |i:ist M-MTU! t\:i\<. llu 1 S-JMHISOIS of .vhirh :in- soini- inrjiSiprs of t l n > i-oliii;iitltf. :uv x-rkin;.' Jlu 1 most "j)ru-tic:il way that wo can t'i:il and. I In-lk-vc. to <lo it ai tli<- -arlirst o|ijHrtnnitA that wv CHII. Thai i> the piirjiosr. <ji't!i<'s' iu-arin^s and lli:v> inw-Hvyou vM'ii-iiroii^Iit IK-IV. \tMiJ;,tve U-*1!! vt-i'y 'ln|t-ut :ilKut flu- n-ason^ wliy wi- should |>ro(.n-cJ as ijiiickly as |Ksvih1r. Alt- you f:iinili;ir w i t h some of (litfHxt>o-:aI-i 4iefiMv this c*m.iiiH'< Mr. KI.KKY. Yos. I Hin.'Sriiafor The l"jiAiu-\\. l>oyou sii|i|M>i1 or do you have any partirnlar views fllxnif Mtiyonc of tin-in you wisli to irixe rhee<ntiniillee'. .\fr. Krjuir. My feeling. Spnatoi. !< undoulrfi-dly this Con-rn-ss. an<I ( don'l Kf.'ui: to Miami |>e-iriiiiistii-. i>ut I do not lH-lie\e that thisConpivvsi K'ill. in fai-t. end the war a> we would like to. w h i c h is iniiiiedinMv tiitd imiiateralli and, therefore, if L were (o|i4-iik 1 would say \vt> voiild s*>t a date und the dale i>!>viotis!\ wui:!d ! tlie earlH-1 |K>Nsililp dale. Hut I would like to sav. in an.-\verinjr tliat. that I do u,>t U-Iieve il i-s riMU-.-^ar\ to .1ail an\ loner. I h a \ e U-eii to 1'aris. I hav<" talked willi hoth ilele^'atioiiK t the jMac<- talks, that is to say the Ife-ni'N-iali' 1 I>e|>nhlii' of \'iefii:itn ;uid the I'roVHioiml IJcvolutifMiarv *io\erf.tui'irf an<! of all eijHit of Madam liinh'.s |iint.sit haslx'tii staferl time and time a;ruin. and was stated hy Senator Vance Hartke vrheu lie returned from I'ari*. and it has IMH-II stated l>v many other oflii-iaIs f this <I\vrwneHt. if tjie I'nited States were to wt :i date for with drawn) the prisoners of war would l>e returned. I f h i n k this negate.-, very elearly tiie nrffimenl of the I're-i'lent t h a t we have to maintain a invseniv in Vietnam, to me as a ne<fotialitu'~ llcck for the ri-tnni rf thoM- priso. -. The rttiiir of ;i date \ \ i l l i < i'C(iiu>' l i.-h t h a t . A - ' f ^ i / h e , irmnefit eonceniin^ flu* dan^i-r to our tro<ii>- A ere \M-IO wiflitlr-!i .-^"Matc t h a t we wonhi. f'tey h q \ c al-i-i Niid maiix time-, in '.orniiU'lft'!!! \ . ' t ! i that -itateiiient t h a t nil of our troop-', the ninineMl we set :i d>tti, xviTl !M' -_'i\en <;i(t- eoridnel out of Vietnam. The o n l \ - olhi-r
i l l i | " ' ? 1 . l t l l puilll I - t h i l l V'.r : | l | f > the >i|i|'l| V )i<t ) f i ! i i i ' < 4 ' ) M ' l i ( i | | 1 < i i1>-

t i ' i ' i i M i n - t ' l i - i r own f'llni'e und t h a t >i-!i-iitll>K 'K w l i a t > l i a i c \* : (ij'litiriL' fur a n v w a i . I w ' d ' i l - l . t h e r e f o i " . - n l n i i i f t ! f ; i t i n - t n . , - ~ [ f-Mu-dier-t Tin':i!ir of ^"'H in;' oni >( >-mi!i V i e i ' i HIi w o u l d ! IMC i f i r J ' l i - i d c n t 'if ti;<- I ' l i i t c d .<ta'n-; l'< 'I ! : i i i ' > IVM-J' vi r. I "i -*n|i t l i 1 - Mi i id . o i i i i n i 1 mi'iil < .1 i c ' l a t f ;i i a I : e ^ l l i i i ' . l i - e Tllii-M K \ K h l e m I" L'l'':'-. .ii'Ci'pt :| n ' l S l t ion l<-^' l i n t ' V. 11 i t ' l l

=OJ

>^WQuM wipjresettt.ahihe poliucnl foixvsof the country which is in fact what fc-represuitative government is supposed to doand ^vlncli is in i.-" faet^rh&t this Government here in, this. country purports to do. and
. poH the troops out without losing ^ne more American, and still fnrtherjcitiiout JOfiug t he Scut h Vietnamese. " .- . ' .- >;','
DESIRE TO IttSKNtUCK KROM V1KTN AX

\x. You seem to/wl that there fa still some doul>t alx>ut the desire to disengage. I^dwt believe that is true" I believe then- has taen a tremendous change in the attitude of the iieople. As reflected in the. Congress, they do wiyh to- i'sengage and to bring the war to ar. wad ttisoor. as we can. Qi-nmox is now TO DISKXC-VOK The question Ufore us is how (o do it. What is the best means that is most effective, taking into consideratioM the circumstances with which all governments alv Ivjirdened'. We have a pncedeut in this same country. The French hftd rui exjMTM-nce. perha|)s not traumatic " as otifs'has Uvn. but ncvcitheleas they did make up .heir minds in : the spring of li>54 ai>d within a few weeks did bring it to a dose. >MHiie of us have thought that this i. a precedent, from which we could learn, for ending Midi a war. I have |>ersoiul!y advocated that th's Ls the best procedure. It is a traditional rattier classic pirordiint of how to end a r that could IK- called .a staleirute. that neither side apparently has the cajiaeity to end by militai-v victorv. aiid which apparently is going to go on for a long time. Shaking only for myelf, this seems the more re .^u.'bl procedure. I vtV'at yuu want it imme\{uUelv. bat I think that procedure was about as imVucdiate as any In- which a country has ever succeeded. , coding such a conflict or a srinilar conflict. Would that not. api*t'&l to Mr. KT.KRY. Well. .Senator, frankly it does nrrf apfN>al to me if A ican men have, to continue to die when they don't have to. particularly when it seems the (rover.iment of ihis country is more concernetl with the legality of when* uu-n slivp than it is with the legality of wh-.'re they drop fjombs. | Applttuse.] 'the ^*HAOtM>x. In tin- case of the FnMieh wLvn they made uj> tlieir iLiiid to taki' tin- matter up at tbt- itmf^naw. in Oencva. they <li<l. Tlw tint t:\i\np fi,.-\ .ltd WUK to arrange ft o^sejire and the killing did cease. Tiu-ii it. tookonhvl tlinik. two or .three weekKtotidy up all the details rejfardin;; the wifhdrawHl. Actually wiieii they modi- up th<*i> mind to 4op i-lte war. tlu\v did have H tvaxetire which is- what you are ree/wiiinend'uiK ax the f\rnt srtep. Mr. KtMit . Yen. *ir : tliut IK i > frn > ct. Tittj'.l'iiAHtMtN. It did not. dra^' on. Tlwy didn't continue t/> fight. Tlwy stojipi'd 1 1 ic t"/!itin^ bv ajfri*MiietU when they wi'iit to (iriiiT>i and all tin- 'Wintri.-.- tlien dii>i-ily inv.itvcd fiaftic; pitted in tlmt I do.i't uiwh l" pie.-is ton on the .let.iils. It i> for the iTinmiitei> to d'-terwiiii" the IxtJ irc-avrx. but you Ituve ffhvii ni(4 iJrM|uently th>t nuiwHis why we tin ,ilu proci^i I H* early '..* * -nn. That ix. of the purjKtJc of the- I

'

1S8

Mr. KKB*vtM'nator, if 1 nry inierjoet, I think that what we are trims: to say fe we do have a method. We t*licve. we do have a plan, and t i,a? ^h-.a 13 that if this hodcvrcte by some moans cither to p*hmr a shtvhil referendum in this country so that the country itself uiipht divide and therefore avoid this recrimination which people constantly in fi-r 10 or if they couldn't Ho that, at l-ast do it through immediate legislation which would state there xvoiild he an immediate ceasefire ami s. ; woukl IM> willing to undertake negotiations for a coal'tion ovvri:mcnt. Hut at the present moment that is not going to happen, MI \\v un* talking about men contm'iing lodie for nothing and I think there is a. tiemendotis mo nil question here which the Congress of the I'nitot'l S::ifr: is ign>: ing. Tiic^ V'HAII.-MAN. Tin- I'ongrci.. csuu..>: dir?etlv under our system iii>gi>!iittc :i rc.i.-M'-Hiv or anything of this kiml. Vnder our constitution:! I -.yvlcm c i-:in hdvise tlie 1'n-si.lcnr. W.> have to jHrsuade the I*r4 >iilritt r>f rlif iirp-in-y >f taking rhU ut'iinu. Now we have certain \v:u> in vv!ii<-h t<i pnx'ivd. We "in. of eouis*!. t-xpre.-^ ourselves in a resn!iitiii nr \vr ran p:is& an art wiiirh diitvtty >irfe<'f.- appropriations \vii!-li i- ili> most eoi-.i'tx'te positi\i- wav the Con^n'.ss ran express .it-lf. Hut Cuiiyivss Isa< no ruparity mulcr our >yMi-in to jro o\\t ,'iij ne^itfi:ii.' a eeasr-Sre. \V"e have to pcrSuadi- the Kxcniti\T to ilo tlii? for
tii." rilimt ;_. .

KXTi:\tii:j\.\i:v i:t>.iv>\r. HKMAM>W> nv RxntAoiaiivAKV QFKSTIOV Mr. Ki-JT^. Mr. Chainimn. I n^Ym- thai full well as a <r\\dy of |M>lhiral wienw. I realix? tiiat > rai;not negotiate treaties and I t.-ali/e that ^ven my visits in I > ari^. pivri-rlriifs had hwn set by Senator 5M*rthy and others, in a j-ns an- on the Ixirdrrline of private Lri<Th,'ilii'^sn^otiatiu<r. tt ivtcrn. I ninlfi-stand tlirsethinp<. Hut what I ;im KU'in? is that J U-liovc that :!ic;-" is a mood iri this rountrj--; i'.i''li I Irnow you are aware of arid you ha\v ln-oii 'rie of the strongest ritir^ nf this war for the longest time. Hut I think if wo can talk ri tili.-. li-^islatii-p |KX!\- aliout iililtusffrinjr for porklwrn-l proprnms. tli ii wi- sliould start now to talk alKHit tililni-steriitjr for the saving of lj u -s a nd it f our country, f A pplause.J Aiid this. M.r. Chuinnan, is what we are tryinp to convey. I un lerstand. I reuiiy am r.wmv that then are n tn-mendous niirnIMT of dMVicultiefi in trying to (tersuadc the Kxerutivc to move at this time. 1 U'l'cve they arc cx>mmitted. I don't believe we ran. But I hoj>e lliut we ar?not pn<; t" have to wait u n t i l l'.7'_' to liave this tlec.'wion niadr. Ajid w.'tnt I am bug^crting is that I think this is an extraordinary enough iv'estion s/i ths( if dejnamls an extraordinan* n-nponne, unrl if we 4'an't r*-.-(Knd extraonJinnrily t<" this problem then I doubt very seriously as inn, on i-.u-h that we will Ix- able to respond to tlie other H^rioiiH (|iieKtion<4 whi<-h fare us. I think we hate to Mart to con.-idiT tliHt. Tliis i< what I am trvinj: to xay. If tliin body could j^rhajm call for a referendum in the country or if we roiild |>erha|>H move now for a vote in ;{ wwkw, F think'the people of this country would rise up and back tiuit. I am not Haying A vote Tint ion wide, I am talking about a voU> here in Concretm to cut off the fundtf. and a vote 10 |>erha[>fi IM a resolution calling on the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of tlte war, and to do

ISO
the things that uphold th -V things which wt pretend to be. That is what we. arc asking. I don't v^uik we can torn our backs on that any loncer, Senator. The Cn AIKXAN-. Senator Symington ! wmnww' RRUVK'K nmmA-noxs Senator SvMixniox. Thank you, Jlr. Chairman. Mr. Kerry, please move your microphone. You hare a Silver Star; 1m vo you not if . Mr. KKKUV. Yes, I do. Senator Si uiNintix. Aiul a I'urpJe. Heart? Mr. Knn:r. Yes. I do. Senator S\w '. r-v. How many clusters? Mr. KKKUV. Two rl'is'crs. . Senator SVSIIXUTOX. S<> you have been wounded three times. Mr. KKKKV. Yes, sir. Senator SraixuroN. I have, no further questions, Mr. Chairman. TheC'ii.HKMAX. Senator Aikea. [Applause.]
NOKTII VIKTXAMKSK AKI> W ATT1TUI>K TOWARD PEPIKITK WIYill'ttSWAI, DATB

Senator AIKKX. Mr. Kerry. t'ic Defense Department seems to feel that if we sot a definite datp for withdrawal when our forces get lou-n to a certain level, they would ht seriously in danger by tlic North Vietnamese and the Yiefronp. Do you believe that flic tforth Yirtnanu-sc would undertake to prevent our withdrawal from the country and attnck the troops thai remain there? Mr. KKKKV. Well. Senator, if I may answer you dir.-iily. I lielievc we an nmniu^ that danger witii the [>resent course of withdrawal liecause th ['resident has nejilected to atatc to this country exactly what his res|M>f,sc will lie when we have reached the point that we do have, let _tw wiy,1, 0/XX) su(|>ort troops in Vietnam. Senator A IKK.V. I am not telling you what I think. I am telling you what the D.-partment a\*. Mr. K KW ;Y. Yes, si r ; i uiulersf and that. St>nator AIKKX. Do you U-lievi- the N'orth Vietnamese would M-riously uiu'i-rtake to imfiede our complete withdrawal? Mr. K uitr. N'o, I do not U>lievu that th' North Vietnamese wmild and i Ins IMVII cU>nrly indicntexi at the Fari /eiuv talks they would not. Scmtor AIKKX. Do you think they mijrht heljt oarry the Imp- finusf ITAuirJiter.] Mr. Knw\. I would MIV they would Li> niore ]>nuie to do that than tl.f Army of Jjie Sou' It {'ietniimi'^'. (I^autriiter.j f Appiiiusc.J AIKKV. I think your answer is ahead of my <|iut>ti<),i. *(:<>% I wns pMiiif to attk you next what tlu* attitude of thf Saifr.i, ^ itietit. would IN> if we aniioun***! tliat we were going to witlnlruw our <rrw|M. wiy. l>y OcUjln-r 1st. ami lx> foniiflefely out of (lu-r*- --air. ne/i. Iniul (Mviiifr thfiii on tlM-ir own. What, do you think would U- liu? attitude of tlie Saigon jrovernnu-nl under thoiie

I'.H)

Mr. KKKKV. Well, I think if we were to repluix- the Thicu-Ky-Khieni ivfrtnio unit offer thuso nun saM.-tnary $oniwltorw. which I think this Oovi-mment. has an obligation to do sinro wo created that government and Mip|K>rTod it nil along. I think them would not ho any problems. Tin' niimhor two man at the Saigon talks to Atnltasuidor Ijun was nskril hy tin* ("uncorned Ijynii-!i. who "visited with them in 1'aris lust inuiiili. how |onr they felt they couUI sur\ivo if the I'niled Sta.es woulil pull tint and his answer wns 1 week. So 1 think clearly we do ha vc t face this question. Hut I think, having done what we have done in thai country, we have an obligation to otfer sanctuary to the perhajis j.tNMt. ..KiO tioople who might face, and ohxioiisly they would, we understand Ir-'l. might faiv political assassination o>- something else. Itut my filing is that those :;.(KH) who may h:i\o to leave that country-- A rrirt i;v. OK f,n TII VICTX.-.>IIJ*K .virt.v AM rmii.f. iow.\i:i) WITIIIH: \\VAI. Si-nutor AIKKN. I t h i n k yiur :i.^ti> estimate rni^ht IN- a little low lt.'.-:uiM- we kid to hel|i MMl.tHKi lind sanctuary from Xorfli VietnaM nfi4M the Fivifh lost ut DieJilueiiphu. Hut u^umiu^ tliut wo ivs-ttlo. I In- UK inU-rs of the Saigon p\rriilncnt. who would iindoiilite<ily !M> in <l:nitr<T. in soinf irfhor urea, wliat do you t h i n k \\i>nld U> thentfitiide.of (In- lar^e. well anninl South Vietiiame.M- army :uul (he South Vietiiaiin>ti |H-O|I|I^ Would they U- happy to have us M'ilhdraiv or wl at? Mr. KiJHtY. U\ If. Senator, this ol>\iiu.-ly is the most tliffirul; >| ICHt i< i>M) Ta II. but 1 t h i n k thai at this IHI'IMI tin- I'nitcd States is not really ;n : |M>silioii to ciMiMder the lia|j>ilif>.> of I [HIM- |M'ople as |>ertuiiis to tin- :>nn\ in our u i t h d r a u a l . \Ve havi- to consider the happiness of the )N-ot>1c as (H-rtaiiis to the life which they will U< able to lead in the next fi * years. If we don't uithdraw. if we maintain a Korean -tyjM' |>reseiice in Simtli Vietimm. say ."><).IMM) triMps or sinned ':ij;, with strategic liombin^' raid> from (iiiam and from Japan and from Thailand dropping tin"* i:,.(MK) iMiiin.l f raiment ali.n Wnil^mi them.et cetera, in the n-sl feu \r:irs. th'>iv what vnii will 'iave is a |>eirp!e who are continually upjf'-cssed. wlto are i-ont'u.nally at warfun 1 . ami whotrf* problems will nut HI all lie solved U-cause they will not have any kind of ri-|>iv.cntatS<i. Tiie war w i l l continue. So what T am saying i.tliat yes. then* will IN- Mme recrimination but far. far less than the -JOO/MY) a year who air imifilered bv the I'nitfd Stales of America, and we can't po around- I'roiilent Kennedy wild this many times. He said that the t'nititl Sr:ito .-imply can't rijrht evry wronir. tha.1 -^'e can't *>lvc(!>f problems -.,( tlic other 01 (N't-cciil of mankind. We didn't <> into Ka* 'l*ak'ixtuii: uc 'li'ln': (To into C/ei-hn-tlovakia. Why tlun .-honld we feel tlnit we n. i li:i\<- the [MrMer to vlie the internal poPiral Klru^Ies of this We have to IH them solve their problems while we solve mr< and liclji "ili-T people in an ullrni-.(ic fa>hion ciriiimeri.->nrate with oiirctt( j a c i i . Idit \\i- h a t e extended ( h a t capacity ; we havi- exhausted that .<ri;icii\.Sen.iior. So I tliiuktlief|iie^tion i* re'illy ni'Nrf. Senator A f K f . s ' , I mijrht say I linked those questions several vejirn :,^'o. rather iiieffectivclv. Hut w h a t I would live to kii""-- MOW 'IK ;f we, . we complete our withdrawal ami. ay. f.'et down to JO.IKIO,

191
30.000 or even 50,000 troops tliere, would there be any effort on the part, of die South Vietnamese government or the South Vietnamese annv, iu yourownion. to impede their withdrawal * ifr. KERRY. N o; I don't think so, Seaator. Senator AIKKN. I don't see why North Vietnam should object. Mr. KKRRT. I don't for the simple reason, I used to talk with officers alMIt theirwe fcikod them, and one officer took great pleasure in playing with me in the sense that he would say. "Well, you know you - Americans, you conu- over here for 1 year and you can afford, vou know, you go to Hong Kong for It. & R. and if you are a good boy you get another R. & R. or something you know. You can afford to chargu bunkers, but I have to try and be hen- for :W years and stay -alive." And I think that that rwlly_ is the governing ppnciple by .-which those people are now living and have been allouvd to live iiecause of our mistake. So that when we in fact state. let us &ty. that - < we will have a ceasefire or have a coalition government. nv.>t of the - ~2 million men you often hear quoted tinder amis, must of whom are regional popular reconnaissance forces, which is to say militia, and it very prior militia at that, will simply Inv down their arms, if the}' haven't done so already, and not fight. And I think vou will find thev will respond to whatever government evolves which answers their needs, and those needs quite simply an- to Iv fed. to bun* their dead in plots where t'icir ancestors lived, to be allowed to extend their culture, to try aii>l i-xUt us liumun beings. And I think that is what will hap|ien.' I ran cite many, many instances, sir. as in combat when these men refused to fight with us. wlu a tiy shot with tlieir guns over tin this area like this and their heads turned facing the other way. When we were t.tkcn under tire we Americans, supjMWedly fighting with tiiem, and pinned down in a flitch, -md I was in the Navy and this was pretty unconventional, but when wi- were pinned down in a ditch recovering liodicd or something and they refused to come in and help us. point hlunk refused. I don't believe they want to fight, sir. onuiiATiuv TO rvKMMi wnsoMir AWUKTANXT Senator AIKKV. Do you think we are under obligation to furnish them with extensive economic.assistance? Mr. KKKUV. Yes. sir. 1 think we have a very definite obligation to make extensive reparationstotlte |>eop1eof Indochina. Senator AIKKV. I think thaf i-'all. As the witness, knows. T have a very high fersnna| n>gard for him MIK! |IO|M> lN>forehis life n-iwls lie will lit-a -olleague of ours in thin body.

The CIIAIUX\y. Senator Pell. Senator VKIJ- lliank you. Mr. Chairman.

i-Mtvmi or f>ntiirruv TD WAB


Tliis w.ir HOK really just as wrong, immoral, and unrelated fo our n;itio(iul interest^ * yearn ago us it is today, and I must xav I agree w i t h you. f think it is rather poor tflHte for th* architects of Miin war it, uow be sittittc us they are in quite Kucrosunct intellectual glass

lJ2
I think th-t this eommittec, and particularlv Chairman FuU'right, deserve i hnjre debt of ;rratittide from you aiul everyone of your men who an- liciv because when In- conducted hcaKn<rs some years ago when we were fighting in Vietnam. A* that tune the word "'pence" was a dirt.y word. It was tied in with uapjeast.>iJient" mid N'crvons N'ellies and that sort of thin;:. Chairman Fnlbri-'ht and thiseonurittce rvaliv took public opinion at that t ime and turned it anmnd and made "peav * a rc<|>cctablc \vinil and prodiuvd the climate that produwd President Joliifeon's aUlication. The problem is that the majority of the jn-oiiU' in tire Conjures* still don't asree ivilli thu vii-w that yon and \v- liavi-. A.- tlu^ flia'unian pointed out. and us yon know as a student of political s<-ic:iv. \vhciii\or \\v \vaiit4*<l to i-iul this war. we I'unld have endi>d this war if the majority of us li:i<l nx-d the ponefof the purse sti-in^f. That was ju>( :i.s I nit- ." \eai> :ij;ii us il i> hxlay. I doii't tliiiiL it is :i <|iiestion of ^rvit.-. We didn't have tin- desire !<> do that a:iJ I am not sure the majority has the desire to do (hat yet. Whenever we want to as a ('on^res.-.. \u could do it. We can't r-tatt an art ion. but we can force an action with tlic|>urs'Strinjrs. Ithink it is wonderful von vclcr.in* have come doxvn here as a cutting e-l^>- of ,.ublic oj)inion In-caiw yon a-rain make iliis l m \ e II^MI- rcs|vet and 1 IIOJK* yon .stuveitl and [ire\ail o:t tin- ncijority of the ('otisjre.-.-. IP vrn:i:.\vs AXI *i>xu.m:\x> SV-XCKKVIXI; V I I T X A M w\i: If. is interest inj;. sjcakinr of veterans nd sjwjkin^ of statistics, thai (he prc.v* has net. r picked u|> ami concentrated on ignite interesting voles in the pas', fir those vote.-, vou tind the majority of hawks were usually nonvctcrans and the majority >f doves iver iiyially veterans. Sjiecifieally. of (luist> who voted in f.ivor of ilie HatliehlMctlnvent eml-the-war i mendmcnt in the lust session of the Congress ?!> |Mr-ent were veterans with actual military service. Of those votinj; apiinst theamendniiMil.<Fiily ''.fi [MTcent wereieteran^. N'otv on the spoiisorvof I'M- ( 'IH>JMT-< 'hnreh amendment yon will tiiid very much the same statistics. Kijrhfy-two percent were veterans as compared to 71 jMrrvent of the S-nale as a wlio'e IM-'III" leterans. So 1 would hope what yon an- doin^ will \\;\\v an effect on the (fijjre>s.
0111.|l,.\TIOX T>> Nil Til V I K T V A M f > K Al.f.IO

I h a \ e tno i|iiestiou> I would like to ask you. Kit^t. I was very much struck by vour concern with :isylmn bcr-an^- now I see [nibli.opinion start in:; to -.win<r and Conjrre^< pa-'-'in^ le^ixhition. lii'fore tliev wouldn't ;ret onf nt n i l : now thev are inlkit*^ ul*ont f."-ttiu^ out
\vstef41-iy. .When il come* to lo(' 'n^ nft'r the Jieople who Would Inkilled if we 11-ft or b i l i l l v ruined. I u o l l l ' l lin|e ion uoiild ilevelop your

t h i n k i n g at l i t t l e Kit to make Mire licit Amertciiu public opinion, which ii'iw a n t < to ^i-t out, ii I so U'lH1'- in mind thiit when we dep:m He have all olili^jil ion to tliese penjile. I hojie you u i l l ki'ep to lll.lt (Miint.

1U3
ACTIONS OK I.IKITKXAXT '.\I.U:V

Finally, in connection with Lieutenant <"alley, which is a very emotional issue in this country. 1 was struck l>y your passing ivft-rence to t'.mt incident. Wouldn't you ajrree with me though that wliat lie did in herding: <>Id men. women and children into a trench and then shooting them was :i little bit Iteyond the jierimetcr of even what !ias lieen jro5nr on in this war ami 'iat that net ion should lie discouraged. There are other actions not that extreme that have pone on and have lieen |>ennittexl. If we had nor taken action or cognizance of it. it would have Ijeen even worst*. It would have indicated wo encouraged this kind of net ion. Mr. KIUIKV. Mv feeliiijr. Senator, on Lieutenant <"alley is what he did tjiiite obviously wits a horrible, horrihle. liorril.le tiling and I have no lone to |tick with the fact that he was prosecuted. Hut I think that i:i fhi.s question you have to separate jrudt from res|onsibility. and I think "'learly the re|oiisibiilly for what ha* hu|i(iciicd then- lies elsewhere. I think it lies with tin- men who ileMjrned free tin* zones. I think it lies w i t h tiie men who eiici>ura<2ed liody counts. 1 think it lies in liirire part w i t h this country, which allows a young child liefore he reaches the nee of I! to see l'J.."i<Mi deaths on television .which glorifies the .lolin Wayne syndrome, which puts out fighting man comic lMM>ks mi the stands, which allows us in t n r n i n g to do enlist denies to four omits, on the fourth roii"t of wlii.-li we stand up and shout "kill" in unison, whi'-h h:i> i-o-iti" in !:irruek? in this country wit'i a crucified VietluiiiH'.-.-. MIMH! OK -111111, and underneath it siys "kill the jrook." and I tl-'ijk that clearly the resjonsihility for all of this is wJ'.:U has produced this.. TiMf-jlilictatinn. Now. ! tliink if vim are piinir to irv 1/ieuteiiant ("alley then you must at the ..-nil time, if this country is ^oin^ to demand rcsjtcct for t)u- |:IM. \ou initnt at the same link- try all those other people who have responsibility, and any aversion that \\e may luive to the verdict as vetenni> i?> not to MIV tliat ('alley should U frtnHl. >\ot to say that he is innocent. Imt to say that \oiifjn't jiM take him ulonc. and that would lie in\ if-|MnSi'tolli:it. S'ii:it<r I'KI r. I n^rce with you. The (inilt is shared hy many, niunv. mutiy of u-i. iiH'liiilinjr tin* leaders of the p-t-out-now scln>ol. Hnt in tliis regard if ue had not tried him. I t h i n k ue would lie much more critiei/ed mid should IN- .-rilli-i/j..!. 1 would t h i n k the smne fate wouhl prolrtlily Iit*f;il( him as iN-fell either Ser-rennt or Lieutenant Schwar/. of UVst Virginia who win. ti'ii'd for life for llu* sanu1 otfense and is out on a '.' months rommule.l >ntenee. I'.y (lie same token f would hojte rl." ijiialily of mercy would In- exercised in this regard for a yunnjf man wlio wu> not ei|iiip|icd for the jol> and ran amuck. lint I t h i n k |"il-li<- opiinion should t h i n k t h i n through. UV who have taken t l i i - ji-i-'iMiei find onrs<-lvcs MTV niiich in tin- rninoritv. Mr. lvit:(:>. I understand that. Senator, I HI! I think it is a \t-ry dtfli 'nil f i l i n g for die pnlilic to t h i n k tliron^h f:ie>-i] with ll'e fiu-ts. 1'hc fiM'l f l i n t 1 s other peoplf iudic|c(| for the icrv SJIIIIP crime wen- freed

1U4

:n ill 11 it- fact union;; thoM* uviv jp>nerals ami eolonels. I mean this simply is not justice. Tliut \* all. It is just not just iv. Senator I'm, I nu\v it is the oUI revolutionary aI:if?. When you MV tin- whites of their eves you are more guilty. Tliis svms to U- our morality as has I HI-it | >o m ted nut. If you drop n lioiiilt fn>in a plane, you <lou't stv tin- whites of their eyes. f sijjixv with you with tin- !MM|\- roiuil. It is like a Scottish uol>lni.'in .:iyin{r, "How nuiiiv jrrouse were caught on t i n - moor." Four or live years ago tliOM- ! u.v vho critic.! zed were nion* frit it '/<!. Thank you for living here ami I wish you all sin >s. J A|j>lausp.] Tin- ("n VIKJIA v. Sriialor from N'ovv .Irrx-y. Scii:iti>r('.vs^ 'I'lutnk von. Mr. Chairman. -n;.\T.<;ir I M T I H .\rii>r.> > urrx.ot \>'.\i: Mr. Kerry, t h a n k 1011 tuo fcir .-oiii'ii^. ^"011 haiv in:t<Ic mon> tli:ii\ .-Ii-ar M>mrthiii" tlint j| t h i n k aluays h:t IMTII tnu-: that thf \\:tr ncvt-r hail any jn>tilii-ation in terms of Inilix-hiiia its4-lf. I wish you \\ouid tal<<- ihi.4 i[iii><tion a l i t t l r fuiihcr ami loiiHt on the lar^i-r- str.ite^ii' )ni|ili'-!iii>iis. Ii !. in tln-M* larger -tnili-^i.- in^ilii'ations. if jinyw'nriv. t lint m.iyho fnund jii^tilicniion for our inxolxi-mcnt. As you km\\. tin1'i'oiili-iil said I he other day that ii is e: y to p-l out and to end tho \\:it iiiimeilintely. Tin' "mention is to ^i-t out ami ie;ne a le.-isotiuhle I'lianre for lasting IN-II-V \Ve ha*'e to |IM>|< at thi." UVUIIM- the .\merieaii jn'oj|e are jroin^1 to v<- (lie is>ue in the terms he h:i< delined if. I would IN- L'lad to h a v e your rommeiit on llii- mattx-r. allli<iii-:li I uon't [IT.-V- you to di.--u>--it U-i-aii-ie in n sense yon have already >aid this is not your area. Mr. IVCKKY. I do uniil to. I want to wry imi'-li. Senator f\\sK. Ami I would IK- vvrv jrlml to have \on do it. Mr. Kr.t:i:v. Thank you. sir. I would like to very much. fit my opinion, uhat \\eare t r v i n ^ t o < i < > . * the ('resident talks alnmf ^ettin^r out v \ i t h it M-mlilain-c of lioiior is simplv wliilewrishinir ourselvi-s. On the ijiiestion of jretlin^ out with fon.e seinli!:inre fr>r peaee. as a man M)IO has fought (here. I am trvitij.' lo.-ay that tliis |o|i'-y has DO 'i.iii'-r for {NMi-e. Yn'i dmi'l hat'c :i i-Iciir'e for |'are vvhcii you arm the |xf >ple of another countrv and tell them they i-an tiylif n uiU', 'I hat >s not (H'acc; tliat i> lij.'litiiir a vuif: :ha( i- cuni inning a AVHC. That i^ even criminal in the .te/i.M- that lhi> ci.unfry. if wo are really worried altonf recnminatioti. i- t'"i"i.' to haii- tn >otue day face up fi tin 1 fa<-t that Me eoni inced a celtaif tinmlN'r of peoiile. |H'rli.i|- hllinlreil- of flioiis^nds. (N-rhups then* "ill !>* si-wral million, ( h a t they eoiild stand up to -vKiiii'lliin^' whicli they couldn't and ultimately viill f:u'.- the ivcriniinalion i,( (In- fact t h a t their live-, in addition l.r all the !i\r-i at this poinr. will ! on our cun^-ici,,-!-. I don't t h i n k it it a i|U>>Ntron of (ware at I1. Wluil we lire d'inp i- very, very IiyjioiTitieul in our w i t h dr:iu.il.:inil c really should faci- i i i i t n t l i . i l . Senator Cvif. Jfuy I pi-c.^s yon jiHf u little further or at lea-t i ii-e llic i|i|i'-l lull nfi Viliicl) f wmilda^k von tocotiiinelit,
Mr. KKIII:V. I K i-Ii \ I H I would, plea*-.

INDOCHINA AND Ql'ESTION OF \VOKU PKAfK

S-nutor CASK. I think your answer was related still to the iiuestion of Tudocliutu. but 1 think tiic President has tried to tic in Indochina with the (jiiostitHi of world jteaiv. Mr. KKUUV. I would like to discus that. It i> my opinion that the I'nited Suues is still reacting in verv much the 1S)4." mood ami postwar cold-war period, when wo reaped to the forco? \v;ji-h weiv ut work in \Vorld War 11 aiul came out of it with this mrinuia aUnil the Itiixnians and how the world was iroinir i< Udi\iuci up U'twcen flu- sii|H'r (towers, and the foreign |>olioy of John Kilter l>tilles which was resjK>usible for the creation of the SKATO livaSy. whirh xva-;. in fnct.adireil reaction to this so-called Commuii'-t monolith. Ami 1 iliink x\e are reacting under o>hl-"a. prea>ls whifli an- no louder uppliruldf. -I *iy that UN-.IA' M> Ion;; u.s we have the kind of strike force vo h:iv\ and I am IIH fvrty tt> the *^-ret !4ti>lifS whi'h you ^ei'tlenioii h-ive hoiv. Itut :us lun^ n we- have the jtnes which xve of the puhlu- know w>> haw. I think we liuve a strike force of Mich capability and I think we have- a .strike force simply in our Polaris submarines, in the <">_' or some 'Polaris xiihtnariiu-s, wnioh are constantly nKiminjr around tiiuW tlw ffa. And I know as a Narv Man that underwater detection is the hardest kind in the ivur'd. :ini{ they have nirf iK^'fectird it, that we have the ability to destroy the hiimaii nun'. Why do we have to, therefore, cousidurand keep consideriu<; tii reatsi At any time tlint an actual ilnvai is |Nise<l to this i-ountrv or to the st'tMirity and freedont I will IN- one of the first people to pic); up a pun and i!ftV:u| it. but. ri*rht no\\ ; an- renctinp with paranoia to this nuestion of |H?U<V and the [M-opIc tukiii<; over tlie wori<l. I thiitk if we *re I-V.T fftnut! to tret down to the question of dropping those U>ml me*l of us in my generation simply donY want to Iw alive afterxvanU U-.-aum- of the kinJ of world that it would U- with mutulioiis and the gunelir pnibabilitie^of frcaksuudeverythin^el.^'. Therefore. I think it 'm ridiculous to assume we have to play this |MWIH- pMiie based on total warfare. I think there will !* guerrilla wur iji'l J t4iink we nui^t hove a cA'pabilitv to tijrht those. And we may liuvc to fight, them somewlicrr- based on ((ritimatc tlm-iit". but we must learn, in tliiz country, how to define those threats and that i.-1. hnt I would HV to this question of world jx-acc. I think it is IVIKIIS. t>::ilty artificial. There is no threat. The CoiiniinntKts are not alout to take over oar McDonaJd iLaenburjferjUiU'.rfy.-ffjnujrhtpr. j ^H.'t!utf>rrl wilt nay thix I thinlc that politically, historically. I he one 'binit{lull pcoj>U'-tcy to do. that siH-iHy is structured on ns a wliole. limn ktti>tii]>t tosati^iy their felt neecN.und yoti can satisfy tlio^- nei-ds with U|IH>M aiu kind of political strncnm-, (rivinir it one mime or the other. In thi uaiw it is ilvmoci-atic: in olltcrv. it is coiiiitiiMiism: in or.h^rs it i.-- beiieKilenl tlictiilorsliip. As lonjj i* thost- neel< nre >afi-fied.thal slrilctucc will exist. Hut when you start to neglect lho.-e needs. jM-ople will start to <]> maii'I a iu<w stntcfitre. niid .thur. to me. is the only threat th;il this c.oiutf ry faces iu>w, IH-CUIIM- we are not ri'spotidin^' to (he needs and we

19G
air not responding to thorn because we work on those old cold-war : precepts and because we have not woken up to realizing what is hap| pening in the United States of America. , " Senator CASE. I thank you wry much. I wanted you to have a chance. \ to respond to liic question of Indochina ma largo context, , ' J Mr. Chairman, I have just one further thing to do. Senator .lavite liad to go -to the floor on important business, nnd lie asked nit io ex"i press Ins regret that lie couldn't sta^r and also that if he had stayed >-,.] he would hare Kmitcd his participation to agreement with ereryth'iiuj '- " ' . , Senator Symington said. [Applause.] -' * .

rxo OK VIETNAM WAR


The CHAIRMAN'. Mr. Kerry. I have one other as|icrt of this I would like to exploit* for a moment. I recognize you and your associates, putting it on a personal point of view, fettling the seriousness and tlio tragedy of the experience in Vietnam. But I am disturbed very much bv the' {feasibility that your generation may become or is j'terhnj* already in the process of becoming disillusioned with our whole country. with our system of governmed. There was much said about it. You didnt jwy it^but otlieiv have said this. I wonder if we could explore for a moment the background of this war. Ft IKI.X wemej to mo rh.-i' its oritrin \\n# cMscntiitlly a mistake in judgment. lieginnmg witli our mi[>[>orf of the Frencli as colonial power,
which. 1 Jtcliovc. is the only time our country has ever done that. Always our symtthi<w luu> U^-n with the rolonv. If you will reeall,

we iirjn-d (he JirilLsh to vi't out of Kgyirf and India, and we urged. ninny tiiongtit too vigorously, tlie Piitch prematurely to get out of Indonesia. I tliink the:? was much crituvwn that we acted prematurely in urging the Ifolgiun* to gt out of the Congo. In any case, the support of (he French to maintain tlieir jowtr was a depart urn from our traditional attikrde toward colonial jwiwers btvxuse of our own hutorr. It Carted ' relatively small way by our support of the Frencti. Tln-ti on- tlii J to aj)pcjr. Hut thecc were not dnrtcions, I believe. :/rft invot'--a ..I motivxv. Tiiey wern f^>litiril judgments which at thn'r tiidf wcm jiitrfificd by the condition* in the world. You have already j>frrrod to the fact that-, ,after World War II there wac great apinvlirtirtion, and I think properlv. The apprehension was justified bv the events, rafxfially from StntinV rrgimo. There was app.pchen-MIO>) that he would be'iible, and if he could he would, impose hi* n-^'iiiif by fnrre on nil of Went'cn Europe, whudi could have created on eKin-mely difficult situation which would amount to what yog Mid a moment iigo. You raid if our country win rea-lly threiUened, you would ha ve no he.sitaufy in taking up a gun. So I think. n trying to enituat* tin- j-onrw of our iiivofvement in this war, we have tttak0 *lf of this into 'ori-.idiTration, It was tuit H sign of any moral dfgradtuion or of lut'l motives. They were, H imply |M>iitical judgment* as to where mtr int cn-st f.villy was. In n>( rHpec| I (Jiiiik we can tmy tlmt our iritnt was not in support' wj rh" 1'n'iidi. that it uot in infrrvefting,ori<I if was not. in undoing tin- CiMirvn Arvordj* bv t',..- creation of SKATO. but tlmf \* fill hbrtory; I nm not t-uy'ine thw in order to trv to ly the Munje ri ariyo;i<>, Imt to get :i {(ci-hperltve nf our -prvwrif. Kitimfiou, and iiofx-fijUy >< help, if I

197
ran. you uml others not to IK- 100 disillusioned and not to lost- fnitli in tin; Capacity of our institutions to respond to the public welfare. I Mkvv whafyou and your associates arc doing today certainly coufributtt: to tliaUby the* foot that you have taken the trouble to" think these tliinpt through. and to conic hero. I know it is not very plca>ant to il> 'Jie ttijnpj you hu ve done. \Vhik- 1 wouldn't presume to compare mv own ex[>erience, 1 have taken a great deal of criticism since 1 myself in 19fi: tnok i*ue with the thiMi ^'resident .Johnson over hi$ policies. I did what 1 could within my particular role i" the (iovemruriit to {torsiiade lx>th President John.-">n and s;il>sei|uent |>olitie:il loaders that thus wns not in the intenets of our country. 1 did thU. not In-catiro I thought thcv weiv evil men inherently or they wen* morally misguided, luil thp)r political jni lenient v.-> WIIHI^. All of us. nfronisc, know that us f:illil>!c Iniinuii all make errors of jtuliruiem. iiii.irr i>r MAK^VI* i \>. IXI-TITI TII>\S \V<I:K Kri'MTiVKi.v it i.s lu'Ijifiil [< try to [>iii it in (h-i--.(Hvlive'a;id not Inse cortfid'Mirc in the h:isical!v PK! inotr.'i-s and tjur|iusis of tliis con f. try. I Ivlii-ve in the possih'dity of inakiii/ our institntioiui work effectiivjy. I f l u n k tlii'v ran be made n>s|x>!isive to tlie welfarv of the ncuplc and t propel judpnci-.ts. I only throw this out because I have a feeling tjiiit ln-raii^' oftlie minimal horror thnt 1m'. devi-lopcd frotu tliis war too many (xtQpIc- may IOA- .ontiden f in our fysfcnva-'". A hole. I i.now of no iict'icr system for ;i itnmtrv us Isirt'e as lltis, will. 3to : pfii:>njilllon>< of pc<>pU. No otlii-r country <tm{aiullc to if in liLstory.lieverjnade u di'dimTali* 1 sy.iirni work. " : ----- They have all Itccouu dictatortihi|4 whfn they have nrhi^vwl ! this M7jt> and compk-xity of thi* i-ountn-. Only smaHer countries really have made n democratic system work at tvli. _ . ,- ~ So I only H-iii to" throw it out \nt\*fn]]y that, in itpitu ofrhc Jntgic nxiN'rietu'tM of you and so iniinv 'other jtooplp and tin* ct^uths'-uf tto many people, this MSIeiii i^ nof bryond recall and witli the :i>.<i.-;tan<v> of [Kfjple like yonivi-ir uud flu* yxmn^er generation w> can jM h-.ick on I he t racJi.-a.utt run make diissj'^teiuojHrrrtiecltcctLvp.ly, f fcnovv jJat the idoj of working li'itliin th s.stem luw bwn ii*'cl HO miiclr. aiL'J many (N.-ople Jiavc |<wt. conlidciKi' that JJ can U> done. XV' v wi>h io ]ftn>y tlie sy.u>iu, -tt start all over, Imj I rfon'f think in ifx- history of himitui cx.|M-|-icjic4' Ijiut flioft^ di'Htrucuojw of systems work, Tliv) ii.>iiiilly Jertroy evvrv rluntr &**[ ftrf well a>>~had. and ynr ,ui Hvvful lot of do'ui^ to rccn-.'ilc I hi- fjood part. !] tot *ro.t aja. , - r.. - .So I am vei^ hoiH'fiil that the yoiinjrcr ^e/ier*JJon and I itni ctT-lirinly p-ljin^ at I he end of my ^rjieration k-miw 1 have U-en her? ;ui ;iwfully lony l i m y - hut t h a t you ynuirjrer peoplf f.iii find it. JK<S:|F!C d, ;!;(,. 1. 1. t i l l - .->.-! I'lrl U l l i j ILV t" IfialiC II work i*;CJlllf!( I CM!) f tlf

Hi'1 f;iiiinrrii tl:iul; <if a U-tter <sw. t'lve.'i (lit- i-or/diiion.^ licit vvi j i a t t ' i i i liiit I'onnti'v :iini ihi- '.'leut.coii.^jexity and divKHiK. I rvalh ' w l i i - k i - 'f we can slop ||jis wnr j <vrUiinTy e\/vt .: do rMiTviinii^ f c:i". f ha\i- dour all I i';in wilh all )ny limitations, I :im Mice ,'M : I(I< |-o[>|<- !i:ivr (iinii^iif J )utr| do \n'<lt-i; \>\it j did nil tii.il I v;i-. /Mj-aMi- .ff dinii<;:iiid whai wiMioiii I inay >irtvTi.is U-en Hpj'Jicd

IMS

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t o i l . I hop<-that you and your colleagues w i l l feel the same w.tv or at lea-r you w i l l accept the structure of the system and try to make it work. 1 can >>*; no hcttur alternative to offer in its place. If I thought there was one. 1 would certainly pro|*we it or try.
\X UAMt' M'STT.V HK M.\I>K TO WOBK ?

HUM- you yutirs>>lf arrived t the. point whetv you Mieve that basic, .-trucrural changes mutf !* brought alx>ut in our system or do you Wiciv il am lie inadeto work ^ ' M-. Ka:v. I don't think I would IK- hen- if 1 didn't lolievc thnt it ran" IK- made to work, but I would Imve to sav. and oiie of the if rm *.vnerHriou now is that peopli- don't p^vtend to sjvnk -pr other |:-!>|ilc lit it, ;md I can only s|>e:tk as :m individual about it, (nit 1 -ay that f liuvr ivrtuiulv (NVII fnistrateci in rhe ^*.-4l. iiKinths, TV st-riously fru< nit-d. I have <>iti> to busitie&ouen all over thw for money for fers. hiid met with a varying ranjre of iii^ fiom "\'nr ran't K-U war riinH'-s"* t<, "War crimes un- H :Im. ui ilu< market" r to "vell, yoq know \\v arft tired noxv. we nave" uii ; d,V r iMn't"firanytli'm^." So t li.ive vriiiivAnoiiiivT-in>M#'"OH I in- nti-ial question tii tbiscouniry. I sivtin iinwilltnpitss-on the part uf KK uiruiv of thf HU'tufn of ihis Imdy to ivs{x>nd. to t.il>' jrutay fi -nltis i faiv <|ue.stion^ timer tlmn I heir own n-eleHioii. to nm.ke.-a. iirojtle of cuum|!P. and I urn- -although >till with faith vorv. very, very fu!Laf_<{(>Hhl..iiul Laut not ^roinjr l<juit. Jtuf I ihinlcthitt iudi.su we raii:-rtspoiiJ :ifi as _a jrfi-itt > <|iu"i ion M.- the war. J .^-i-ionsly -A|iie*oii iio>rwi an- jioin.' ofiiul Uie kind of resfion.se needed to mfet X|'in'siiiiiRsiirii ax jmveitv and hnuir-r and i|msitiinr; sndi birth i'ontril atid sf> niatiy of tile -tHUyrs* that fni'iMiiir.-uKMetyrtoday from liw income luiusin^ to schonlitii;. to iv^vnJ rcKi'tioii t< t'ic Siijin-inp Court's vlll say that J r!iink we arc ^'ii!^ to Uei-piryifijr. I also a^niwiili-yoii. A-niii^r. I don't w anorlu-r sistnii other t h a n I>iii<NT:iry. but deinreracv has to remain rej-jion.tive. W.'irn it does riot, you create thi- ftDM.ibilttur.s for all kind* of other system> to Mii|>|>l:int it. and tbat very .(K>ibility, Ilhiuk. ia Ijcginnirifr toexifl i.u tlnsruitntry. The ( 'IIAIKMAV. Thftt is why I ask you (hat. The feeling that it ean(to: >x.i muAf ri!M|>oiltiive <-f>ii\cn not m> much from what you have s;iid -bul from nuny-differrjit wninvH. I ran assure von f Iave Urn fni;<tritted to>. We bav<v!ost"niortof our major effort*. That is we liaw'^ioi MWt-<eilrid in ^tt;n^ enough votett. bul there has UTII .verv marked increflfte. I think. -in t]w rculizution of the seriousness if th' war. I think you liave to ki*{) in (>orHjX'>rivo. ;tx J say, 1 lie t>i/e am\ complexity if the' country itxelf and rite dJflu-ultiw of communication. This war in MI f.r removed. The vecy fft. OH vou laie Miid. you do jio| lielievc xrhatl.iH(i[)c.,'V( thrtv to IK* in tlw vttnl ititenytn of f hi>f roiintry.liwn from tJiR !'"rJu,ui>ji: ttiu^-d ipany [*ooph: toiliitik it tviiwi't xo ini{Mjrtant._ .iKV/j/>i'ynw'.c OK roNrwjy AIHIT Vfrrx.\M III tlic Iieilining, hurk in the fime that I mentioned when we (tn4 v ;U|>pnr^'d t,$it*- French and throughout the 1'XiO'x up unlit the I'MV)'*, t-iua who].- matter WHA not.very much on the mind* of anyliod;' in the. ^"'ijn'JW^W^ny/eiu/Hv j)rwMjupied with what wa going on in Wert-

IV)

major t.ij^.' Then the ( unjri'ftuS^ abnut tlu*'.significance of thbw'jr was really not lie fore I'.XJV the , ...escalation. Jl \\!osw \>ry minor sideshow Lu ull rue tiling in which this "ciMiutirrwas involve^until Febniary of tlMv IT.at was when it became a iru-ittto; that, you nvi^fiirsav, warranfeti aim Compelled the attenti'Mi of tlitcountc\~ It has IHVII ^nifltial development of our n>alixatioti of jn.it Wlial \3-ewere into. ' '\" T ,^ ^'-, As I said rvofore. I think fCis cniealKut nof Ijecaiiseof dad motives but by i cry .-c.rjonsprrors in 'political jnd^ment as to wheiv our interest Jie.s and what shopfci lMv-/Lcne aliom tt^- > - 4^;iin <iuly sayin-rnti^'1io|n'fullv lo.at ieast try to enlist your conH<it<m(i<'Hr. of the view (hal in :< >-<)K>trv of !li.- kind I don't lielieie
..

then- is [ii-tter alti-niii'ti^e from a stvucftiRitpnin! of \iexv. I think To j.'o liat-ii'tr* sny own Statr ivrtninly. l-aviii^-mt now the war. its .ttFrji.rs :n- l>'iiiy"\\fll managed. Tin- jM-ojiK- are, as you iua> say. niaylv tiH-j.i;ii[iteii-tit I'; Uii^. itr7l\H!i;v. Ax ii UHM ii Mas>uu'ljiis.-tts.too. 'l'lu!.C-n V I I S M A N . I li:i\i- offen"lhi'iijrlitjfh-y wviv too indiiTeivm t it, Iiiit ti)i>v Litxc n^iM'inIi'd to llir :ir^iiiiici"ils ,'ii- rrt wlici'i' our iiit< rest lies i|iiil- well, at li-ii--t from my jK-r*oiial ex|M.>r'h>n>v. Otlienvise I would ' of lliis. \. UITH JK\I IM; wrm
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I \\\-n fvl :Iiat if we rnld finish S\\ war eoinftletely within (he ivasoiial>ly iiou' fiiiun*, as irojih! of the pro|HisaI.s liefore this lumimittrc v. are dci^itcd In do if Me can jiiuv, ilu-m. 1 tliink the coimlry ran rirhf itKelf and to-t ha'/lcim tin- ini-'k. in :i rca.sonalily quick time. deal iiifr w-ilh tin- jirolilenis yviLi.rii:i>"i'>ruvl. We an- aware and conscious of all of them. The- tiling that !ia> inhiliilcfl us in doin^ tliinpt aUtut what vnu nii-iiliuii Ii;i.-, IMM-II the war: It lia,vlH-eii the principal ol>staeh- 1> dealing tilth thc,-e uiher proMi-m^ uith whi<-h \mi are very 'mireriieil. a>. I think. ho Conre.-n i*. A I way* wv.a/v f:n-iij wih (he ileniand. of tlu> ivar ilsi-lf. flu you ri'ali/c that tlii^ roniifrv has put ui-ll mer *|,IMN) liillioti intoiiiillryiiiraii>siiie4> World War II '. I t h i n k it now ap|'r<M''he* SI J">iMi liillion. It i-. a Mini *> tar^c no one 'an r-ouiprchetid it. Init I don't think outside of this war is^ije theiv is uiiylliiiitr finidi""eiitally wronjr with the system that cannot lie righted. iff we can p\\\ our rcsoin^'s to those developinentK. I don't have any doubt in VST) f thai it i-an IN- done. Whether if will U> done or not is a innlter of will. It is matter of conviction of the lariou* |r.,jtle who a iv iinolxed. including the younger generation. In that eotmectioii. ( may say. (he recent enactment of the T^ltt of all jM-ople from I* years up U* vole in at least a Ktcj> in the diivctioti whcri-yoii and your generation can hove an effect, I hojie that yo'i won't los<> fcilli in it. I |IO|H- you will use your tuletit* nftfi- the wur'is over, and it MI rely will le over, fo (lieu attack UWKB othiT prolilems find lo moke Ute nvKtcm work.

200

I be. ! re it can lie made to work. I )o you have anything else you would like to sav If MV.'KKRRY. Would you like to respond at all, sir ? The ( 'IIAIBMAX. If you care to. Mr. KERKY. Well, *my foeling is that if you arc talking about the ideal structure of this count rv as it is written down in the Constitution. then you or I would not di&er at all. Yes, that is an ideal structure.
nKVKUUTIKXTS IX fMTKD STATES KKUTIKINC >X'NDA11CNT.U. CHANGES

What has developed in this country. however, at this point is something quite different nnd that docs require some fundamental change*. I do agree with you that what happened in Vietnam was not the product of evil men seeking evil pools. It was misguided principles And judgments and other things. However, at some ;>oiiit yon have ;<> stop playing the game. At some |M>int you have to say, "All right *re did make a mistake." At some point the basic hunlitn values have to come Dock into this system and at tlii. moment we are so built up within it by these outside structures, Bother intengts. for instance. government by vested power which, in fact, you and I really know it is. When a minority body comes down hen* to Washington with a bill, those bodies wjiich have the funds and the ability to lobby an- those which generally get it passed. If you wanted to pass ft health rare medical bill, which we ha.-e finally 'rhu|is gotten to this year, we may, but in past yars the AMA has en able to come down heir and squash tliem. The American Legion has siuwssfully prevented jieople like Vietnam Veterans against the War front getting their programs through the Veterans' Administration. Those bodies in existence have tremendous jx>wer. There is one other Ixxty that has tremendous power in this country, which is a favorite topic of Vice President Vgnew and I would take some agreement with him. That would be the fourth estate. The press. I think the. very reason that we veterans are here today is Uie result partially of our inability to get our story out through the legitimate channels. That is to say, for instance, I held a nrcsM conference here in Washin-ton. I).C., some weeks ago with General Shoup, with General Hester, with tltc motlier of a prisoner of war, the wife of a man who was killed, the mother of a soldier who was killed, and with a bilateral ainiiiit'-e. all representing the so-culled silent majority, the silent socalled majority which the. President used to jterpctuate tl war, and Lwcaus* it was a prcxe eonfen'tiu; and an antiwar conference and jieople simply exposing ideas we liad no electronic media there. I called thnu>dia afterward and asked them why and the answer was. from one of the networks, it doesn't have to be identified, "because. h.ir, new* bnsituiM is really paitly entertainment business visuullv, .'on Hit'. :ind a press confereiicc like that is not visual." ( )f < -ii-sis we don't have tlje position of jM>wpr to gt our ideas out. f sjiul. 'If I lake some crippled veterans down to the White Iloiw ehuin ounu-lvis to the gates, will we get coverage?'' "Oh. yes, f .ill c/)n-r tHt." Si> you are re^Jinv*! to a j>witioii when- the only wuy you can get j.i(i iil'vixout is to nfiige events. l;aiu^ hud v.e i.ot rfaged 'he, etKiifi>. wiih all due reitfwt. Senafor, ami T really appreciate tin- fu't that I

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-: VA :- c. *- .- ' f f . ^

ran lien obviously, and I know^vou are committed to this, but with kit V . due rvsi*** [ probably wouldn't & ^ttifej at this table. You ace this Li " the problem. " ^c: ; It gora beyond that. We really 1m ve a eWiaiitulional crisis in this country right-a^tc. TV.Constkution under test, and * an failing. We ar failing clearly b^uae the power of the Exmitivtf k$ become exorbitant, because C^t/was has not wanted to exercise Us jien;pow*r, and so Unit is going to rea/in: aomftvery fundamental changes. Si) the system itself on paper; no, it fs a question of making it work, and in that I would agree with you. and. I think that tilings arc changing in a sense. I think the victory of the. AttM was a tremendous boost. The. CHAIRMAN. SST. Mr. KKititr. SST, excuse me. The CIIAIBUAN. I ho()ethe ABM. Mr. KKjtisv. \Vrongsydtem. I think the fact, that certain individuals an in Congres Unlav, particularly in the. House, who several years ago could never have Iwen. I would ciu< Uepre^iMitative Dellums and Congrcsswomnn Abzug and CVngni<smnn i^rinan and people like this. I think this is a trribly enroiiraging tti^n, and I think if nothing raore, and this is really ad jxx-tif justice, if nothing more, this war when it is over, will ultimately pndrably have done more to awaken the consfienrc of this country than any <itluT similar thing. It may in fnet be the thing that will set us on the ri^lit road. I earnestly hope so mid I join you in that. Hut meanwhile, I think we trtill need that extraordinary response to tho pn^>lctn that exists and I hope that we will get it.
IMPA4T Or VimCAM WAK AKD OTMKJW OX rOXTITVTlOVAL IU1.AXCK

Tlie C'IIAIBMAV. I am glad to hear you say that.. I have the same feeling. B'lt you must remenilr we have been through nearly 30 vears of warfare >>r cold war or critics which I think have uj>fiet the balance, as you sry, in our constitutional system. Senator Javit; rtas introduced a b ill wftli regard *o tlie wnr powers in an effort to n>eub]ish what we believe to b tlie constitutional system in which you say you have 'onfidence. I introdoced and we passed a commitiiientn resolution. There are a niunlier of others. I won t relate them nil, but they arc all d -signed to ft v to bring (rack into proper relationship the various elements in our (*iovermnent. This effort is Iwing iiuuli* I think tlw culprit is the war itnelf. The fact wr hud Ifcn at war. not just. the Vietnam war but other* too. divert* il *he attention of our iNtoph: from our domes! i<- coiitvriH itnd certinly enxled tlu> role of the Congress, I'nder the. im|ci of th'm und uther wars we have, allowed thiu distortion to develop. If we cjin i-nd the wr, there i* no n-.ison why it fuiiturt

Vm nu-nlioned *m<? new fncen in the ('<>iign-s. After all. :ill flics.people ^et licfe Ui'uiue of the Hiij>|H>rf la<'k hoini1. us VJMI know. Tlicy un- simply rBpifsentative of their roiiHtilin-utf, You do tti-ivpt thiil. I IM-III-VC. Mr. Knutr. I'urtiall y. not totally,
V 'JKi "t ---- 14

J02 The CiiAtKMAX. Why not '. Mr. KKKIIV. As someone who ntn for office forilU; wvek#, I am aware of many of the problems involved, and in many places, you fan tako certain districts in Now York City, the structmv is such that {teople can't- ivnlly run and repivaenf- ufcctvaarily tlie |teople. People often don't rare. Tlu1 apathy is so great tiiat they believe they an- being represented when in fart the} are not. I think that you and I could run Through a list of, rx-ople in this Inidy itself and find many who arc there through tin* powers of the oflice itself as opposed lo the fact they aiv truly representing the iteoplo. It is very easy to give the illusion of representing the. jieople through the frank privileges which allow you tii rend l>:ii-k what \ < > u are doing here in Congress. Congressman iuseit sit often. You know, they gave a spi-ti-h for the 1'olisli and they gave :i sjieeeh for tii- Irish ami they tf.ive S|H-IS'}I for this, .ind artually handed the ;>:I|HT in to the clerk :in<i the i-lerk .-nl>mil> it for tEie reoiiil ,'ind a copy of the record goes home and |>eoples:iy, "Hey. lie really isdotn soiiietliing for int." Hut h. i-.ii"t. The ('n.xiifMAv. \V'll Mr. Knucr. Senator. also know prior to this past year (he Hou?e u^-'l to meet iii flic ('oininiltef of the \Viiole and the Committee of the AVhoIe would nni'ci- the voles, and Mites not of record and |Hi>plr would tile through, ami im|ortant legi.-lation \va> deciiled then, and after the vote ciiine out and 4Tier pi>ople made their hacks and cuts, and the |N*rkl:irivl came out. the \ote was rejutrted ai;d gave them an easy out ami they could >ay "U'-ll. I voted against this." And actually they voted for it all the time in the committee. Some of us know that this is going on. So I would say thrie. are proMeins with it. Again 1 come hack and >ay they are not tn>ohil>U.
TIll'V (MM Iw M > l v e l . l i l l f f l i e l c:in < i r ' l \ lie . - I v i ! |i\ i|e||ialldll:g leader-

slii]*. the same kind of leadership that we have seen in xxne countrieduring war time. That seems to be the few times we get it. If we mind get Ih:if kind l>ecan><> I think we are in a constant war pgainst ourselves and I would like to see that comethey should demand it of each other if we cun demaml it of jieople. The Cn \IIEMAN. Take the two c:ws of what goes on in the House ahoiit the sterel votes. That is not a structural asjtcct of our (Joverninent. That is a regulation or whatever you call it of the procedure* in the House itself.
XWIU--ITV UK IM'oltMM* M.MToUVH

Fundamentally you said that the |>eople can ImmUtozle their constituents: they can fool them. Of course, that is quite true of any system of a repres-i>tafive niitnre. The srdution to that is to inform the electorate itself to the extent that they recognize a fraud or u phony M hen they lime one. Tin- is not easy lo do. l>ul it is fundamental in a democracy. If you Ix-licve in u democratic system, the electorate who elect the representatives have to have sufficient capacity for discrimination. They have to lie ttlile to tell the difference Itcfwcen u phony, someone who simply puts pieces in .the record, a/id someone who iictmtUy docs t/unctlnng, so that they can recognize it ii> an election, if they are interested.

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.;

Xoff-Ttttltey &w> apathetic, its you say they arc apathetic, and don't care,- than democracy cannot work if they continue to bin apathetic: and don't care. w)o represents UwntThisconHjs IwcT: to a fundamental question of education throruch nlf d':ffwwit naouitca. not only the

g of tV* lecto.rate.; do^Vil*--,T,hat is jiofca '^tpicbirel defiit our ijystewL- You are .doft&ig ~iiQw-.with ijbc ^deficiencies of humaa natuj-e, ij^fanure;^f tii^^<tion arult^etr capacity for discriimmition IB the sfelftotkm of rh<rir reprcfiftnt*u\vcs^. % I .rvcujruiaj tlite & Jli&cidt. Alt countries tta-vt -had this same problem and -jn }<>ngji& t}iey have a n|>reseiitat.ivfr s\-stcoi this has to be met . But them is no reason why it can not her nict. -; A structural cltun^i' does not affect the capacity of t he, electorate tochoo*' good representatives: doos it? .\
* '

"

%1

, no,<lr: exvjic for tlu fad tl> to run for in any jiopiikXvd aira wt ahout $TiO'.'>rtO. Many l>ftoplc ly don't "iva\e tiiafav-uilahle, and in order to Ret rt itK-v)tftt>iy wind |> with tlieJr hands tied. ^ v. ,;-"-" 'J"ie ( 'u. MKitiTf. Tliaf is a coiiuuoiuuU>nieut,lwt vv had an examj>W during tliis last year of a man hein>r elected hi-cauae Ki> walked throuid,t .'Fl'H'ida with n nxinimmn of money. As he Itecatne ux^mctivc to Un* <fkeo)>k> hi: inay httvw received more, but he started iothout money^ Vouiiiv fanuliKrwitJiMr.C'hile^. -^ ' Mr. KKIIKV. Wn. I am familiar. I nndeivinndit. ':.-' The ^ 'HAIIIMAV. (know in my own sJati^ourGo^-ernorJitarT^ without itny money or Vith juut hiinxelf ai^<:ume from jrw>Hy:e-aiid di'feiitcd a liixtkefeller. S< it is n^ tme ikvt you liave to hav* lot of nio^py t/> get eledXxL I^you have the other tliinp* tliat it (itkf4r pprtKHurTily. tlie deleniiinitiun and the intcltr^ffuce. it is rfill jM^siUv. Tliere wen; otfer exanipleji, -Jjwt those >uv well kin>^j. 1 don't think it is form* to toy you have t^imvc . lot of money. If lui|s. of enure. It makes it ewjiM ewjiM11 and all lliaf, hut it isn't k-ssentUI.-! k-ssentUI.-! think thi you can " . many extutijvtt? uiwiv tlat lAtrue. _ . .'_
VH>*Ti(K WIIJ- UK RTtiPOKHF, TO VJKTN'AK X S K I E

j-. KKIUIT*. Sv-nj^iM'. I wi*uld IwKicrflly ajrn* with what vou aiv sayjn<; taul ot;vioui-ty KTC* e/iuld find ekwq/tions to JJJJ!B of evory<hjn<i <-\ err^-herc and I wiKl^frtand really lte esst>ntial quetl'>n is going to if tin- ckMi> to tin- 'Iftdit* of Vietnam. '-;_ -XAV. I .i^nf with that, I can assure you tjrnt this roniv' iad. r4rtainly, I jf0"1^ to do everything we can. Tiiat is what iiriiip4 an* al*>ut. It is just \>\ roincidenre you canie to Wiishluilu* very in'idfi of tJii-in. We only;^;cMU'd these Jjearinp* on Tuesday ofthis wwk. I |>erw>nalltv Ix-lieve-t^ut the great nuk^Mity of all the. pro/vie of this country are in atwrd ith your desire, arid c<-rtaiuly mine, to (jet tle war over at Hu.* earliettt-du^wihle moment. All we arc eoiujeriund with at the mojncut in tlic lx>t "jirocedure to brinjf that

&b>nU Ync jiuij^xlure tO'tM-iMWdc tbe1Pr<*ddtfiit to take ihc rftepStSuxtvill brir^i thaitfbuiit."I foj one have iiciiv-liope now than t lutd Ht any time in ti^ list 6 year- !>etttt:sc ofticve.nrltliinjfs you iiave'jiK'iiilkiK'.'d. F ; think there ixa vcn- cond '.'IwinH! thM ft'-willlie brti:ht atiout. in the
l- V1KT'M VETKll'.N's ,\AINST HIK WAR
' ' . '

. I think you and your **Mird;U<!M hive, contributed * great dea' it the His you have taken; As jL**id in. tfic beginning, the fact that you , MiQwn tioth frn-sif. ocmviuttou *nrf patience ab(rtti this matter and ei Mii> wiiu^ tbhi r/xjuiiifti-d ycmr.vlf ni the most oommemlabic manner lias [vet! life mont t'tfcx-tivc dohion^trafton. if I may u<ic that word. .Ml1ichjr|) you ha*- tloiHuitstratixl ;n Ue oflcse Uiat has be>me disa[^rovcl f in WMIW i-ircb's. I think you hipvc- dtrftjoristptted iti f he most

v iiaKn-ned, thai the yoimger peneretion has lost fa,ith in oijr.J; em. I dorvt thtiti; it is'rornvt. I jhink the ptiraiiivi^ to-Mihirli you " hasvUv;i tme. It arose at a tiine when ilu-ru^an .nrftstfh'for it u of timing is cMtwt. .Km J I'oiijjralulai*1 you amKhanlc^vou very-""'' 'Senator Symington wouldMik- to a.-k n qtu-stion. Seiiatcr ,Sv\i i virrrix. Vt>j*. M r. Ker/y, I loid l<> Icav*uiiirkia^' up tin- .selective .serv'uv nill in tlie Aruu-1 .S lint I.K'iil "

of iineKtions here, four i>f .grliicli I tt'ouhl ask." ' ( )\-j:r the yt-pnt nii-irilK-rs of this nupifutt.T who^pki^oiit in Aftfw^tf icm t< t-Iie wtr vviiv t/ftin ai^ciisti 1 of #tii\i\ni\y, our Iwyx ii; th<: bar-Ir.AVhAL' ' jri.yoiir njiiiiiiw, is ^iiA'uttitu'-ii* of Hervjcttnieii in VictntUD,fl$but .:ooL , ^ - . XIr Kfj:i:r. If I roiild ^Kfwer tl'af. it k very /j:$ri(ir.['&enaior. !. ,y,^M-| Jii^ know. t:tr\'-t':fot tojret intotJic guwt- :rf Hiving I rejreslrt.r<-ej-ytindy over flien-, l>ut let me try tit iy us ntniijrfitforw^njly . . a*"F ^fft'we liatl :in aclverti^fCKeiit. niu-fi.Jl [M^V. to show j-'i: what t]n--, '' tr<iiis rw!. {.< tin iirl'hykoy und tii^revj^Hw to if uTthti' Twn-.iiid v a luilf \ve<4> frofn Victii;nii js K'HMir^H;ij.(-i-. \\\- nvUvi fu-irislli aUiut .V t'o hO letteiva <fjLy ft>ij m)|> .V-ftlv. IrVe nnv r'-.'.r'hvO^hoiU-'J'1 letter* :t ihi.v.-fr'Jiii tr.N|rt nrrli-injf ar un l N<'. Votk (if1\f'r<r %>')&*' nf <j;tM<. | (II-PK :n.id_f w;in'e't l^J>riti^ -<U'; ff>xtn. I illdn'-f >J.''VA nj H-'H^'rrj^ t-i Iv Ti-*itif>iiij' f.!uvj:>t;t '"' iH'ih*'1 M*ef.j.tiii{|ifA to yoii :.r-' n-ry, \' fy ^uoviiij.'. -myiJ- ofT)'io>t y/fin^'ii J.rr Vii-ffkti! r.vJrt^iiii-ii on jSiiiiiv. --f: r3---i:i'ti ri^jt-^'t ^rf-rJj-.wh^vh wy. von !:nnvi'.*f>cf u^ .
.(..Ill iif lieie." "Vo :iri f i n 1 on!\ I t - t i n - vv^- l,:nP t'ot"' " Vfi' !:;:*<' r ' l<: J.M '.!.< l>;ick : it ' r|:i/-/." \\'.- n-rt.'Hi-:l jCiTSif' 1 : t! " (?.(;>! r j of Jl'cJ' J|. A i l l . ' i f T w - --i"'i|.(l i^, :,-. >,;;c Ictfcf T''rt{*>';OK'l|lhi'r-. from :t-l:e|if/,{rn|. . . .

"'. I t h i l l l . t l n a .Id' ivvpifr-'.-Tit^. .r'i[c i^riju;-. ffViiii/v, ..oliilHfil V- H J t J i It.;.

?o . fccltfoy at* fci^ ., . . _ . x -,.,-_tamost-bf tleiu the muizmisn ofthocrtlptiuceis, th hollywui :t . i?_ _f ri-L ;*' 'j? '^-* t-r- 1 ." . ! .-"i^ ^ ^i ijr-Ji J?

, jiroblnni.Swuttx>rSrMi^oTOSf.T^4iikyojv. / - -* V - ' 7: r - Has thr fact Coaprnss &"5 mvor passed *rtcc!l*ra.tiyhof;_. ... mined thc:ibvr^ of^U^.-apn-i<M!U'in.yiet&an. to tlw.fi-^tf^pif.your - .-/%

IX VISTTXAX

of wic
I I$t ru-tck aiB thc^rowlfi ot tiixt iroUem wa* oxftijn*rd -on iotvjpifofpti>i>leinthei{>i;itar>-.How-5ciripns:U.^ty.5>ruI>lcai .^-~:-r.^

_.if<; ICnutvi;.:TJij prbWcw Is Jr-ktreoifely sejtwas.1 It is"f-?ri<w:JD r. . -ftjtt\' <lifffcrciit"Knys. 1 Ij^fipv^ ttvo.CoiuiitJwJiwn s today lm>kca . Jt cJbrJ tirnicmliCT tlieir muiics. Tl^.'ce "ww- .'5/XiO -r awis-; f"a?T Iiecofrt . . l^i probk-ia esiste for A .nniftfopr of rca^oas, n^t the w (lie twypfcess. It Js.thn *nly wiy to j^i Umn^h i. A Jqi- of-gu v, )0, ftO pcrwiiit stay rf<nod 24 hours * 4ay jugt^ttt gp-'f :flir<up:)i the Yipfu*h)- W ,".. .'!-:^'- ...-.* : " : ". :' ', -' - . , - , - - Mr. :Kjnnr, Sist^' to^fiO pciwrfrt, w.thfe.fijruw! uaeA that try wiacf.Uiiig; -let's ty. >h one pfttnt.^f.that. . J. woM.fi t give yim figure plhat&uA)' Jtl's sav. of pot, acJ yrfAJnly coul^nt h^finxiff say y :irc luti-d draic^Jicisv^tit I do know tljj?Mjio problem for tire umg Vetpjow i <niif^>cr*us we have^ let^s ty, *. v^U'-rwi, PKt ii}> s ^Ijf'Iubit iin Aiyra^L .He VOHIW bick Ur^liis'wxiatry (Uirt'tltf |jtf^ei off an nirjdtra- tM *" h<4)U- corf* him flotrw $90 U itttfc t^ic4tct of tiif (nainoiny, ttt: raij'r pet a )ol>. He docur/i . Ke tHm* ctiiai&Al or jiwt find." hw norotJ souro* 3|itatioii of (he war^tht prnptiiitSB of }i#ck ajid forU), J' com.VJ ad^ia to this. I'ljcw w n real dru-jr wlheV/ ' itl - in. Xir - - City - Juts 30'fads altwatw! for Ufitg York JIJTII luv ftn : Kc railing lixtj ;vd f ir.aIJy ' don't know -wJiat . And joHt fi-opiitfytlH' aamo hof*|nUil jrat'c throe ntvfTR to Ncv York iiKt*hiit y for witcQwh.fMirfJOfhV It 4 vry, .*vrv .wjcEc^[ccad. tt i u ycrjf seriot,^ f>robln. J thinV that i>; roufffWH Htwjrf't .uiufcrtwlw to irtvcflfi^ate the soun'4* f*c*iwe I inany:iwi{>n(>twtts oM4iun Ky imd ^rfh^ni being invoked hi (ru/fic Jittd f think flwre are w>mp s-eryjwiint* things !ip? xt ainke,

uanuvwn* ;Einorson. in.aa cdse-dic Stated s

ront rnUahk' in that country ?" Si r.iiuir jjvMiNuTos. It.isn't, quiff-Mutf, QJieiy in tins country:, do \<ui think i ' - - . ' ^. " " Mr KKRI:V. It flcpeiifj^ on w}ier' vou are. f Applause. 1 S's::itor.SvttiMi-iox. V,V are t;ilktu; about ha'o'm, not |ai.or l^SO. - .Ntr. RV..MIV. I midersUrd that, hut if you walk up HUtli Street in :i I nui ^Iln srimi'lMMix 0:111 help vou out pretty fast. (Xausrhter.]
.\i?i IK-U'V <F INVUKM \tlov TiU:uLl.H OITU'IAF. MHJTAUV

\Si-ii:ittii' S'."MrvTn\vMr. KI-HT, from ywrr ex]Hri'nro in ^' <lo i f i n r i i i u k it i.< jxvrilili- for the Pivsidciit ort'outrress to it aivur:iu> and ujtdistoitod iiifmiiiiitioti tliroii^li ofli.Mal military chaniu-ls. rS'houtsoJ-'Xo" ffmn tlir.audicnfe.) -. .. >?T. Kiaun'. rloii"t know-.- ^'iiator SVMIVCTOS. am hofiinninir to tlJjik you liaiv- r^jtn -up)v-rT>-r-s here. '" ^ - Mr. Krjutr. I tJ>ii't know wjier? tlwy <'jnrt-fnmi.sir. i t h:ui 'jiiv^ ; f- i xj'ru i ;)f^ wirii rtua. S'Mutor, I nail w i t h that ami I i-w iVo,UI often iu|itt<; ht-bw snot re|Hrts wK:di w>-v nfte.r i-ii )u.r"iioif, :uul i ' -ever ri vi'M,. Ain't I often tmd athuU'niy <>iu Mtissioi>:^ in tlif--!>taiv.and ,_ Stripes anrNlu- vt-'-y mission we liad Itwii'.te had IMI iobf>]ed hi nf.v UHSandtrijiIedin fijo'J^n. " - .- . Th</ iitel1tjceiic.'e in'-^ioiis thiMnselvc*? HI*:' TKIHCC! ou v^-rv. verv f\iiii!vy in/ftniiatioii. S'ver-T? frHMiils of niitu* v>ij'.i:iteHij*>iti'''e ofTuws ai'i f . irtiiik you slu>iild have them in soii'UJ:u- fofesiify. <*niv iaSjiijror; t. iv friend of n\wc nnl hf ^rJre me u '-^u

.if .you, ^zv}- i j

L al: j * thiiriii ijp'-iriii tlie military, sir. ui- i-i'>n. n mniiv jrf . '? f^pon an^.iw- BLhM.tiuH' h:iv<- ,\ ^(ideii<y,fi>mol1 ylwv-'l i vi-iifr Stvretyrr L:i:n{ i:\nv- tt> <ion for !''m. ^V'!|ftlJ.fl' oiji-e ati-1 rhAy ^iin; I /C (!' :;* Hnjjr'r^Ki, if iva-jJij'
ji t\ti' 1'fTtJjif

g lw an*- T kflui/.yrrse >t 3il

out iJ ni'l !*
l l-.-foJv ni lrl ii<>< run

/!i)l huve a
the :

tljink you bnVft- fitH^ett^^crtow certainly from J~;p,rvii.iju! awteto*u~adrniVttJ:i.tijny last days in the I vas ^indmrjiedv-MHl 1 nave sivii eweUy what tlie reis np tlitH-cholon, thr chain of ^rtniniiiul, and h*oVthi;*s pet - i ' d and ^xxmlc say toltie man al>ovc liiiu'ii'hat'is uei-dcd to Itc wid. to kivp cvorj'iKHly nappy, and so T don't i think trio oitthc tliinp -is listoiiva. - - . * r IT w'juctH rambling answer. s .^M'jiator .SrMixuroN. How do you Uiink tliis could lc oJiaii^d? Mr. JvfJuiY. I Iiavc nevftr reaily pivcn that spcct of it all that niui-h it. \ wish -I had this ititflJigenco officer with nvv. Ifo i a very voting num.
KWOKT1XU <IP Vin-KAX WAK IX THK FBf>S

Senrtor SVMI xerox. Tlicn- has Iwn mnsidei-ahl^ critu-i.siu of tlu war's n'|K>rt iiifj i>y the {>rcss and news inwlia. What urr your thonjrhf* on Hnil^ Mr, K^mv. On tliaf I could definitely comment. I think the ]>tess INWU i-jttreiiMily ne^ipnt L iti tepottlug. At <NU; |M>iut and at the time they iuive not been able. to report because the (iowmntrnt s eimntry has uot altawwithom to. I wejrf to Saiipiii to try to lY^V*1 we.rfc-ruaniiip misKiojia In tlu- Mrkonj; IVita. We were ninna^ iifidrt ljrna^h_tlif^tivt>is on an o(K>ralibu called SaiJord Mtul we tkouijGlrt>w "'

Admiral ZiitriM-uli t !OHown tin** rivvi>k

. Y/V Siitfou aufJ.toW ilut"^i* fwmbc*- of


fxio!r^&ti Tiave'eot <^' <fJJ the AJIWWWI people thii* .!-*s,^Vell; f an't rite tliat kuidjo^JUip. 1. <tt*t rriUfi/>JJwt iUtJ> btTjjiise jf I du I would hw tffj'fltftfreJiiati.'VL, ttrt<l we, fwve t< Int. wry vatY{ul.alx>iit juitt b<jw mudt we-Wy -a'nd wbin** We -ar<V)MlWyj it {tvo.r ^m/^rftttv today. w 0: .nuttier of 1a?t, itt tlw Xuti.'Miid Pr HiiJUlin^- rt might in- Jjoin^ on at tliih-iiiiuutv -iu w-Jiir'Ji fniMif inf'/wtjftfiou oflker* -|u> niv-iiiembefx >f onr tfroup. *nd f(niM*r Armv cK^>rtew an- tfoiup to testify to <iire<-T orders of fu-uxriiij' J >'fi'f'ii they liad to fuke out I'ertuin |<JC^U;VK, phrase* ili*^1 fMit<Jirtiw<1 *ud w i>i!. down tiu^ juu> und, in aet, the infoncwtion they tfmc tii'M'Kiiteh ttiul diiwiioii* llwy tiu\r neM'xiitf'Ji wfn>n at ion WHH <foiu(f on wlurti the iniliinry didn't want tin-

v >-'---..

"Xv,<-

on what was going oh rhc;, jvoidd -offer them transiiortatkin to iro someplace else, there id stnuctiung else happened and they would fly a guy <r>'' miles from where the. operation -A'as. So the war has not-been - rajuHTXid correctly. . ' - " " . .. kXiow from a reporter of Timeshowed tbe massacre of 150 Oanv

'- ' " "

'"-

2CS

" '

here...So it "Is a terrible problem, and I think that really it is a quftstiou of t-lio. Government allowing free ideas to be exchanged and if it is going to fight a war then fight it correctly. The only people who can prevc.it My Lais arc the press and if there is something to hide perhaps we. shouldn't be there in the first place. Senator J-YMJXCTOX. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. - [Applausc.j
KKgCKST KlK I.ETTKKS SKST TO VIETNAM VETKIt.VSs AGAINST V.\K

Tin- OiiAiBM\x. With regard to the letters you have mentioned. I wondered alvnit them. I have revived a great many letters, but usually pai-tii-ularly in those from Vietnam, the men would say-that they would not like me to use tliem or use their names for fear of retaliation. Of course, 1 resisted their request. If you h\'e those letters, it might !H> interesting, if you would like to, nnd if the writer lias no objection, f ^ubmii them for the n-cotd which would be for the in' . o "f 01 .XGIXG HOOD OF TizdMfi; ix VJKTKAM Mr. K>I:KY. *iuitor, ] wmld like to a'd A comment on that. You A* the mwid i: changing over there and P search :md destroy mission r iA a WHceh MII avrtid mission, and trooj* don'tyou know, like tliat rtr.>hi th>t to k pkce, tliAt wa? mentioned in-the New York Times whiyi thev re used to go in after a pirco of dwtd roachineiy. because it didn't havf any value. They are making tlieir own judgments. There i|$ * ii i 'movement Jn tins country now an well u over there, und soon tlu $e jvoplc, tiesfe ntn, who are prescribing wars for these young men (t light arc going to find out they are going to have to find HOIUC otiter u ten to fight them 4jecauae we are going to change prescription*. They arx- going to h*re to duttige doctors, because we are not g<iing-to fig U for them, Tliat is what thtv tre going to rpftlixe. Tlwre is. now a mi re niilitaut .tttitude eveii within tle. military itself, among thew soldier eejijenced In'.tlj*- adi-prtiaements recently in the'New York Tiihes in whi/-h- n^mlxTB -of the Firet Air Cm.vlrj" publicly jsignnd MJI jind said. fcWe would inardi on tlie 24th if we could ne there, but we ean't U-fause we are in Vietnam." TJiosc men ate. mtyert, obviously to gome kind of discipline, but jieople. are beginning to be willing tt> siil'iDJt to that. And I would jiut f *; ym. I would like to enter the letters in testimony when I. can get ht<d of them nd f tliink you are jruingtoweethis wifl U^ar/Hitiniiingthtng, -.(An of the date of publication llic iufurntttrkui referred to had nof Ttu- CIIAIKMAV, If you would like to we ' iwor[xrat Home of in tfieivroj-d.

KXTrrun "THE SELLING OF TIDE HFJCTAGOX*' Thi* s inspired by your reply to the Senator from Missouri's question. Did YOU liappen to see a documentary called, "The Soiling of the Pentagon*? ' Mr. KERRV. Yea. 3 did. I thought it was the most powerful and persuasive! and helpful documentary in recent years. The CHAIRMAN- wut you know what happened* to CBS? They have been pilloried by the Mr. KERKY. They are doing all right. The.C'iLMKjiAN." Yon thin! they can defend themscl vest Mr. KKi:ur. I think they have r'yes, sir. 1 think the public opinion in thin country Iwliflves that. uTlie* Selling of the Pentagon." I was public information officer lieforo I went to Vietnam, and I know thai those things wen- just- the way they said l>eoiusc I conducted several of those tours on a ship, and 1 have seeu my own men wait hours until jK-ople got away, and I liave seen cooks put on special uniforms for tliein. I have seen good food come out for the \-isitors and everything else. It really happens. The CHAIRMAN. Tlie Senator from New York has returned. World he rare to ask a question ?
KKMU.ITIOK OON'CKBNIXC VIKnTAJT MTTEttAXS' KXCAMPMKST

StMiator JAVTW. I don't want io delay either the witness or the mimitfw. Senator Case was tied up on the floor on your resolution on the encampment and the oxi*ctea ocvurred, of course. It has pone to the mlendar. Senator SvMJSforoN-. If you will yield. Senator. J have to preside. at 1 o'clock. I thank you for yourtesttuiony. Mr. KKKKV. Tliank vou. Senator, f Aj'^'iuse. J Senator jAvmi. It has gone to the ralendar but I think the point ha been very well made by, I think, the total number of sensors. Tliere were wmie -~ Senators. Senator Case wax kind enough to o*pre*f my view. I wish to associate myuelf with tlic sUtt-ntent Senator Syn>iiigtr>n nude when I wan here as to your credential*. That w what we always tliink about whh a witness and your credent;iah< couldn't be higher. - The moral and morale \aau- you have raised will have to ix finally artd uron by the romviitfcc. I think it always firefl ins to a dee|M'r e,nne of etnergenry nd dedication wJien we hi*ar from a young man like yourwlf in what we know to \n: t\\v rdteetion of tlie attitude of so iuiaay others who hav Nerved in a way which the Atiierit^iu jjcople *o clearly luidentand. It ix not AS, cffettive unletM you liuve thotte eredctitialK.Tlie kind vou have, Tlie only otluT tfiing I would like to add in I his :

210
KVAIA'ATIOX OF T&.T1MOVV

I hope you will understand me and I think you \vill agree with me. Your testimony about what you know and wluit you sec, how von feej and liow vour colleagues feel, is entitled to tlie highest standing and iority. When it comes to the hits and pieces of information, you low, like you heard that Madam Ky is associated with the sale of narcotics or some other guv got a good ineal, I bojie you will undcrst.ind &o Senators and evafuators of testimony we Itavo to take tltat in the context of many other things, but I oouldnt think of anyIxjdy whose testimony I would rather liavc and act on from the |toim of view of what tliis is doing to our young men wt, are sending over there, how they feel altout it. what the impact is on the conscience of a countrv, what the impact is on even the future of the military services from the point of view of the men who served, than your own. Thank you very much. Mr. KEKKV. Thank you. Senator. [Applause.] The CHAIKMAX. Mr. Kerry, I am sure you can scJise Hie committee members appreciate very much your coming. Do you have anything f urtlier tn say In-fore we recess I Kxn:sio.v OK AHPKWIATIHX

Mr. Knoiv. No, sir: J would just like to suy on lxhalf of the Vietnain Veterans Aguinst the War that we do appivHatv the efforts made by the. Senators to put that resolution on the. floor, to help us. help us in their office* in the event we were am-sti-d a'nd particularly fr thi<:hance to ex]jress tJc thoughts that 1 have put forward today. I appreciate it. The CuAitiiAV. You iiave certainly done a remarkable job oi it. I nui't imagine their having selorll a U'tter representative or sjK>kesniai>. Tltankyou very much. [Applause.] <Wiereupon. at 1 p.r*i, tlie committee was adjounied subjwt to tine call of the Chair.)

LEGISLATIVE PROPOSALS RELATING TO THE WAR IX SOUTHEAST ASIA


WEDNESDAY, APKH. 28, 1971

UNITED STATES SENATE, COMMITTEE ON FOUEIGN RELATIONS, Wtuhvngtom, D.C. Tiie committee. met, jmrsutuii to notice, at 10 n.m., in room 4221, New Semite Office Building, Senator J. W. Fi'lbright (chairman) Present: Senators Fulbright, Pell, McGee, Aiken, Javits, viul Scott. The CHMUMAN. The <-oramiU^' will <-ome to order, please.
Oi'ENING STATEMENT

The committee is meeting Kwlay to continui* heariitgs on jR'iiding ion rotating to the war in Southeast AMU. The C'oiniiiittei' on Foreign Kclulioii* hu> >itv\ay.s ttttouijtti'd to ucroniiixnlutc citix.cn^ \\lio \\i.-li<-<i to rvjirc.-.^ llx-ir vicu on matters |M-ii(ling l>efort- it. W<- havt- tri'.l to provide an opportunity for all ]>oint> of view to Ix- cxpn'.t.scd IHTMUM* niciiil>4-t> o{ tlii.- mmmittfc Ix-Urn' that Uio constitutional riglit of cilixx-ns to jx-tition their government should tx-.inorf than * right in theon'. h i'lould he u working doL-trine, particular!)' or: matters as vital a* :-r and {N*are. It is in this M>irit that tlie committee ha> given rejireentatives of Students and Voutii for a People's l*e*ce lliL ojjH>rtunity toexer'ine tli4-ir c-on>titutioi)l right to jwtiiion their goveniment for redretw of grievaiMVs. The witneHM'n for the group this inoniing are John Scagliotli, Susan Gregory, Jay (Vv.>n, (,1iip Mondial), and KatJ ( y SinUT. Would each' of vou please identify yourM-lf for t he reporter. Who will i>egin? Mr. CUAVEN. I will Ix'gin. The CHAIUMAK, Aie you Mr. Craven? Mr. CKAVEV Ye-, Mr, The ('HAIUWA*. AN each of you make* your statement, give the reporter your full name. V/iu may proceed, Mr. (.Yawn.

sTATurarr OF JAY CIAVEH. STUDEITB AVD YOUTH FOE A


PEOPLE'S PEACE Mr. < 'UAVKV. We might intnxlti.v ourselves Ix-fon- we tx-gin. The CHAIUMAN. All right. Mr. CttnvKK. Thin is Chin Marshall from Senttle, Wash.; John Scu<_'li'>tli fnxn \ashua, N'.il.; Susan Cregnry fnm Washington, U.C.;mid K athy Sister froi

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We wore hoping that we would speak, all make our statements l>efore being asked questions and we would answer the questions as we felt \ve could deal with it. The CHAIRMAN. All right, you may jjroceod. GROUND IXVASION INTO IAOS Mr. OiiAvrx. On February 6,-1921^-lhe United -States and Saigon forces invaded J^aos. The American {x>o|>lc were not Informed of ihis invasion. A press blackout prevailed over new snwn in Southeast- A.-na, and instead of talking about tiie situation in Jjuos on -t'eliruary C, Richard N'ixon, instead talktvi-about eeul>gy in Anii-rica. He began by sayiig "In his tragedy, 'Murder in the'Cathedral,' T. S. Eliot wrote, vli-an the air, clean the t&y, wash the wind'." The President continued to say "I propose to Uie Congress a sweeping and .comprehensive prrjrram to do just tliat and more fo end this plunder of America'*, natural heritage." This kind of statement is iromc in the face of aground invasion injho I,IK*,. It is ironic as President Nixon talk> about ending the plunder of Aiueii-A's natural heritage at a time when the country of Laos is bein dcstroyeil more intensively and ui a more protracted aerial bomlmrdm'Uit than any country in the history of civilization. It is ironic too to examine T. S. Eliot's poem as it goes on saying in fact:
'.'Ir.an thf air, clean the nky, wmMi the wind, Tttkf nton<- from ytonr anJ wasj them. This land i foul, the water if foul, our IxvsU and oursclve* drfikd with blood. A rain of blood lias Winded my vy(i>. How, how can I i''cr rctnni to the *oft quiet tWMon., NilChtM Htny with nx. Stop HUD, bold tMsvon, Ic4 the day not come, let the spring not come. Can I look again today at coni.aon thinK* and (MJP thcJn all 0mtred with Mood through a curtain of falling blood. We did not u .-"li anything to hupjx u. In liff ilvrc j* not ";ine to urievc, but thin, tbi* i.< out of life. This u out of time, and an intiint eternity of evil wroan. BOllBiyO OF LAOS

The irony continues as on February' 8, most Americans became aware for the firet time of any Amerumn involvement in Lav whaUoever. When in fact Amenc^tn involvement in IMM began in the 1950'a, with CIA intervention in I^aotian affain*. Bombing of IMO began in May of 1964, before the bombing of N'orth Vietnam. It is interesting tluit tlie Sta. Department has referred to the activity in Ijaos in liie |mst a a "uecret war," that Deputy Secretary of State William Sullivan haK re<-entlv called the air war in northern J^aos, "The other war." The bombardment of northern I^aos, an area totally unrelated to the wtiviik-K in South Vietijum, the bombing of northern I^aos, with the civilian popubuion cx)iitrIlcd by the Pathet ljiu>, an area that has been de-ifroyed through the use of inU'imive bonibardin^ut and (lie tiuuiunjf'*! Imttlcf^ld; thix kii.-d of warfare being employed with n authorization from CongreM, no explanation from the iJuvcnuncni, the (Jovernmcnt in fact lying under oath in testimony wiien iuiit M-verai weeks iigo A>*ibtanl Socretary of Defefiiu* Doolin stated tliat Americans uere IM>I bombing civilian area in

213
1.4105. When in fact the reality of the situation is that the automated battlefield' Avith electronic sensors scattered throughout the coHntryside of Laos, where swisors pick up sound or heat of animals or people n areas. onil in bombing strikes, laser guided bombing strikes, are launched against the civilian areas in Laos. This* is called the loran sensor exstem. . flii*. U.S. Government is now engaged ir developing advanced techniques in the automated battlefield, with the P&ve-Lanec missile system , which. will aU<m' ground tareeUng tlirough hand held laser beams which c&n target are'us and rail in bombing strikes from above. As we sit here tliis morning more than 100 tons of bombs will be " dropped on L*OH forevery hour that we are here. We have a situation whmi- tayers of Aircraft oifSiintlv hover over Laos; light spotter plants al .'2.000 f-t ; A-l~, A-2G, t-28 prop bpmlwrs, A-47, AC-ISO gunshtps, flare ships, anil rescue gunship helicopters at 5,000 fe<U; A-119 gunships which are capable of firing 36,000 rounds of amiaunitiuu a minute, enough ammunition to put a bullet in PV.MTV square foot over an area the size of a football field; F-4 and F-105 jet reconnaisbancc, and jet fighters at 10,000 feet: KC-135 supertankers at 20,000 f4*t; B-52 bombers at 30,000 feet, EC -130 commAnd and c-ontrol uircTaft at 35,000 feet. Tnese bomberK.drop napalm and white phosphorous which burns 'iviliuns dive, 50Q-pound Iwuibs which burv p(*ople alive, anujv-rsounel bombs and frugment&tiou bombs which cut people to shreds. One bombing sorties by n plane dropping a full load of antij>ersonnel bombs disperses 250,000 sterl riel'cts. We all know thnt aitipvrsonnel bombs, the use of antipersonnel bc^nbs, is <nuiawed by international law.
RJTfATJOS CUEA.TED IK LAOS

. We turn- created a situation in Laos where the jx?oj)le in the civilian areas have literally had to take refuge in underground tunnels ami in. -eaves, an agonizing exix-rience as only sonic are able to come out only - t night to do small vegetable farming and > -nail rice fanning. Several weeks ago Laotian women, met ii. Caritula at a coi.i rcnce for Indoctunew and Ajnerican women, and the women from tlie Pat he t Lao were taUdng: aU>iU, anuirig other thingx, a need for medical assistance. We are talking about how children were being born who were never able to come out in the sunlight and were suffering vitamin deticicju-ie*- talking about how children ere suffering pneumonia, at early ages because of the dampnetw in the caves in which they were forced to live, In responding to the situation the U.S. Government, according to the Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars, his hvui. using 5,000-, 10,000-, and 15,000-|>ouud bombs against l.n< , bombs tiiat literitlly vibrmte people to death even when they are taku.'g refuge in cave* or in tunnels.
LACK OP COHOttE JIONAL AUTUOttlZATIOli AVO JKFOBMAT1OV

'f*h! question tiat arWH, given Uie information of an automated war machine in L*OM, an automated war ujacbine that General Westmoreland calli* * quiet revolution in ground warfftre MM be calls for a ooUnu*tJoo of that revolution by further exploitation of our tech-

214 nologv, tlie question that ariso is \i by has the Senate, the Congress of the United States, not nuthori/.cd or even Iweii consulted in this activity. Why is it that the Congress has nul authorized this \\lion in fact "t he Ambassador to I **)* authorizes every single target that is used }>y the American railit-ary in flying bombing sorties over I^aos? And why is it that mo-*! American people heard for the -first tiaie in February of 1971, of 1'nited States activity in Lays; that the first information about bombing in Laos was revealed in MaitJi J970, 6 year? after bombing began? Why is it that the American people were not giv<<n information of this kind of activity?
I N C R K A S I N G lEf.PEUATJ<j\ OK SITTATIOX t\ IMMX'mXA" .

The situation in Indochina, i* becoming increasingly desjerate a* e.ach day gwson. Al it time when fhe bombardment is ex-alaim;*, wheir civilian population^ r- being destroyed, when ihe entire society of tlie Plain, of Jar* ha> bee.n destroyed; uhen American?- an- engaged in de-hide over whcthtT-Saiguii or Anirrican ground troops are being u.M-d in l:i(; at a tiuie when the automated battle niuchine wa.-> functioning no ground troops were ux-d at Hiroshima, Nagasaki, or Oif-jlen. Xo ground troops nave b4--n ne.c^xsary during the protracted air war over LHOS. bi >jite of the withdrawal of Saigon troop>, ihe bombing c-ominucs, bombing that averages brtvvci-n 500 to 100 soilies u ?IHV. Hombing which, according to the New York Time-., reached it ]>ruk of I ,>00 4laih *ortie> during the \M incurMoii. Why is it that when we .-peak (if deft>ndirig the people of South Vielnum, tin- rculiiy of the Mlualioii i- tin;! jwojilc till over South Vietnam, boll) r. the countr\side and in the cities, are ri-iiiir up against the Aiucricuii involvement in t h a t country, and we do not understand that it i a repudiation of U>. military prepuce in S<,,itli Vietnam. Kxamples of this could IN* seen during a I -week |>criod beginning Augiifti HO last summer when on AuguM 2'-\ a \\onmn and her daugliUT were rajied, a ra|e lhat reniilteil in death, by an Aniericnn (II. 'i heir funeral literally turned inio a riot t h a t \venl from tin* funeral to American ba*c.-, where rniiiiury cur^ were burned and destroyed. An Ann rii-aii soldier '.I davs hiter i.m over a sho<-shine Ixiy in Saigon killing h';u, >hoe*hiue fx*ys ]>ojed their money to give him a funeral and hi* fuiK-ral al>o iiirned into an lull-American riot. Siuo'eifis meeting at ihe I'niver-iiy at Suigoii on August ill, I9/". were talking alxmt trying to .-i<>|) ipul'-ory military training mid recriiitmenl on their eumjiu, inlKing iilxjin trying to get Thieu's ^'ret |u|ice o/F their cuinpn-. They hail their meeting invade*] by ihe Saigon jolice, \\here 117 .-indent.-, were urrehted and *enl to the 'J'iger < 'nge> at .' 'on NM (The fi.Uouin;: infonnaiioii u.-i- -.iil^-ijurnily supplied:;
Th' -tuH'-iii- -nirTi'<) l>riii;i| IMMUNE ::n(| itidTmu'iii'tii lull- In |>ri-":i Tin-* liui" tli" -I'.ii- iif ilni-i |K:I!IHI:- v. inn I In | .in ifivin n |ii' -iif.ilivi- nwi uilli
I l l ' r i l Ml > I I U H ' I III 111 Cl I l l l n ' l

It .'. > 'iini'mh i uriiilii. ili'in n< Innt'T - I n k ' - liv ATIII-II'':III -luil'-til- ;iinj \ i- "ii. . ' . > - . Ihrii'i^ii'iul .--.-.ili \ i - : i nn 1'i.it lli< if\>r,-~ii>r. f im|>ii-i>iifii -:n<J'':il i 'Ir.i'm'i < - ' \ -.ml Iti ir ri l> 'i i.n.itli iu;i'|i- |'(^--il-I'
V< I t d ' - r -in- In I V ' i ^ l i |IMI.(H|ll;,|n| JiHI.OINI |iolltll"ll (iri-iilii-C l'i .-H'lMl \ li'ln.illi

rr,~.i;irl H)I'I 'i iff I ir,linin;iti .iiui I. nti:nir I ri'.iltn 'III in I ',<>-i .|I I." I- . ' il< "J !<< i>'i:. I. ir<- .il'ij i < \i >'i iln.'iii \IMIII mi r< C'l'iinit I m> I ' . . ; ' - . \;ilu- \ i"l1' '(in < ' i :ii|. . r. ,. ,ii'. .in m-;i! 'I ji.nrli >i-r :i;:ii| Ann lie. Mi lili.''ili^ pil'il li> !i, : i \'ir'!i X i . ' l i i . - i ' . w i l d v. limn HI HP- rnii'-i ttn 'i.

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i I*EOPLE*S FEACE TREATT

ll is from this emerging dynamic iu Vietnam that the People's Peace Treaty addwses itself to. The People's Peace Treaty first dcclares that me Anicrican and the Vietnamese people air not enemies. In a war that we am not even being informed of, in a war in which the Government, tre executive administration of this Governnvuit, c* lying under oath, we feel as if this war cannot be conducted iu our* name. We. have entered into discussions with studenU from Saigon, from North Vietnam, and from the National IJheration Froot of South Vietnam, to agree wjwn common conditions for peace. CThe treaty refern-d to follows:)
JUNT TuK.Tr.of |>KACK.|}>:Tu-r.KVTtti:l'K(fiJ: 'nt> THK I'MTKII ST.VTKS AXD Tin: '.PI-.OPM; <r SOI-TII ViKf-KAM AXD NUKTK VII.TN \u Bf it known thai the American and Virtimmi-bP pcnplf uri- nut rin-iiii<.i. 'Ttk>* war if carried out in thr uami* of l.ic pfu|ilc of thr I iiii<<d Sl.tti-* and South \Vtiuun but uittuiut oiir rou-niit. ft dmirox* tin- land nixt |<iil; trfO'irt.narii. It drains Anujrira of it." n-sourcfs, it. youth and it* donor. Wo hcri-by aicnv-to <-nd t hi-, war on itie follow ini? (CCIIIH, >o that l>nih - '-:--_ -j^[4w^ UvMiiHiT<h'-i(i\^'iJu)i'|'litloiic4-iuidi'aJidi'Vo : ! "' ; - ^i fyiil({iri{f a f<Kn<'iy lukvd or 1iiiiun)i cqiialit\ and rif-ixft for t i n : _* . "In'rrjr&inic ltJ Aur, \v.- nls/> rvjtrt all finn> of racism tind dfu ' agaiiMt ]x-o|>l>- on iti<' lo.-r> of color, c'ut, -x, na.'ionoJ nrr groupinr wnitiico!isii.ut* i aniiiti < Rr' oft)icar [.'ilii'i*^ pr-sanit and IMMI, of tin- I'ni^-d Stut'-n. 1. Tin1 AfiiiTirnii* iicrf' in itniii''Uuit" ^i>d tutnl uillidr.tunl from Vii'f'iaiu :ind (Hililirly tn .! tin- di tr l>y uhirh nil Arurriciui frn> will !' n-movi-d. Thi* Vii-inaiin-Mi* pltrdt'*- (hat *," S<M>II a thf C.S. (iovcrnnifnt [iiililicly wts a dU- fur tot id MithdrxMal: ?.. Tbt;y will iiK'r-Juifii.-iiHiinin to nccnn* thi- n-fc-iuM' of all Aim-ricar. |iri^oiu;r includtUK pilots cu|jti:r>il wluli- iMxnhing North \ h-l uain. .'I. TlnTi- will IM- an inuii'iiiat'- eititp-fw >*'irvii-n I'.S. forri-t awl (lio- li'd li\' the Provisional it*v)iitntiiiry floviTiitnrtif of Soul n V id nain. 4. 1'lit-y will i-nUT dJ.M'ik-sion.t of (Ur proi:i-dnro U> Riioniti:^- the Nifr-ty of all withdrawing tro|Mi. .". The AuifrU-uiix pl'-djp- lo >-nd l!if iin[iivilioiv of TluMi-K> -Klii'-in n lb' [-<>\i\>of Soiiih Vii-tntttn in order lo inx'irr tln'ir riitlit to .-i-lf-di'iiTi)iiii:it|.m and HO that all i>oliticl jirinoniTH can ! n'I-a.J-d. 0. Tlu- \intiiutnr-"' pU'diC' to form provisional roulition icoviTnnx-iit to dfinmratir It-ctioiw. All |r:ifs UKI'II' t'i n-iji't il>r fniiltsi i>' in nlnrh itll rio<:Ui \ 'irt iiaiiicsM1 ran ]purtiri|iul<- fnt-i\ willioul t|i>of ant fort-ici' trfwjw. 7. Tlw South \ i>* Hiitwu' pl>*diC" (o r'-r dH>'ii<u<ioii nf |>r-'>n 'iiiri-. to Kor.in* lo<- llic mtfnty and poll Ural fni-doni of (hi^x- Soui.li \ H-IIII IIK-.-U- ulio li:ivoUalmru'J-J I4illi tlii- I'.S. or u i t i i Ih" 1 l'.S.-.siip;>iirii-il ri-Ki'm*. H. Tlw AUKTH'IUI- und Vi'(ruliii"w ii^n'r li> r.|MTi th - ind''!!''!!^'!!!1'1, jx'M''1 ;uid neutrality of IJUK ajid f'uinlio'iijt in nrrord i'h ill" \'.t't4 :id \W("fM'Vii roll1.' ,ii,.>., Hiid not to inli'rf' f in ih>> iiil'TiinI :4)TAir- of lh' ^f lun rounlrii" . y I '|o'. thi-n" jioini- of ai:i iii' il il, in ;>l''d^' ' :'! l l i f u;r uinl r nil nlh> r >|i|>'iM in- in t i n - -.,11,11 n! 'l(-<i"!i-riiiiii;i:ioif und iii'Mi.:)! r> , ( f"i t'l- ii,J-(7iJi'iiri' :ii"J, ;,-ilii 'jj fn-i'd 1111 of tli'- j >;! of V n/r>4:ii> I nd :l I' iiiJ Slat".. . Uy rut fviiiic tli>- :i&i'< rin-in. >. in".J."' in i i i k > - wh.i'i-i-r urln>n jri- :ipjrri>|n ;!>:- 'o liiii'li'li "ni t i n ' I' rln- of ||ii~ jonil 'Ji.'.ilv ami lir i i i - ' i r r \'\-> :n n |,f.ilir.' l. lh' fn\i riuiK'i ' of t! I niii 'I Si;i!"-

VVi' IIP- ri*N|iniiili(iir lt> :i\>[n'n\i fl<-'Jj l l u > liulorliinoi' |M-H| ! llijil c u l l fur Minlmm-il nfiJ r i H i c i i i i i u l r i j urinil'. at Mil* J I - M H I , io inn-i- DMiii inlmiiii-(riili"li In n ,>!>'n'.-li n llnil M i l l I-IH! t i n - w n r . )" >J ii wild./ t i n - ( 'oiipv^v IIKU iiul IIMIIIIC<| itr. rfn|)uii^)t/ilif>-, ju n

210

situation where analysts from the Institute of Policy Studies in Washington spt-culatf that it is questionable whether Congress could even he effective in oivinjr to end this war, we ourselves we taking netioti to ratify and Catideiucnl the (n-act- treaty. The city courti-il in Detroit, Mich., last night ratified the People's Peace Treaty miVi declared that their implementation procedure was beginning In he planned and that it would involve levying war tuxes on all war materials being shipj>ed from or through the eitv of Detroit. The peace treaty has IMMMI presented as a resolution to the House of Representatives. Hundreds of college* across the country have ratified the ;ioaee treaty, prii-sU, women/ working jieople, students and Members of Congress have ratified the pcwe treaty in an attempt to demand an end to tl.c wur, to recogni/.e conditions for peace and to stop manipulation h\ the Nixon administration of an unwilling p*Hjle who have declureil their op|Misitioii to the war.
ItEI-KAs;: AM> TREATMENT OK IMUSONKKS OK WAB

To end the kind <>f manipulation that comes when Richard Nixon talks abi.ut American troops remaining in Vietnam milil all prisoners of ,vur are relrased when in fact historv shows the prisoners have never hci-ii reli'aM'ti before- cessation of hostilities. To eiul tin- kind of nanipulutiini that rxUts as v\e an* forced to Ix-licvi- that the N'<>rth Vietnamese people uiul (jovenimciit are barbaric in their t r c u t n u n t of prisoners, prlsoiiei.-: who ure held in North Vietnam all of whom are Ixunbinf: pilil.-, hii havi* illegullv tioun as many as .10 or 00 lnMuliinj; mi>sion> uyainst North Vietnam and been resiM>n>iblf for the deaths of thousamls of civilian:., have destroyed lumpitals, schiMiU. and civilian turrets. Our own American chunvitiism has hlinded us to the fact that those pilots arc. considered war criminals. Nobody tnlks ul>oiii the treulmi-nt of ^rixxier-i hc'ul in South Vieli':mi for which tit.- I'.S. (jovernnieiii is re>,)oiisil)le. Nobody hi-rds information (hut conies from people like (i'-orp- Sruilli, a captain in the Go-en B4-ret?. who uas captured on November 'J2, 11MJ3, by the National hiberadon Front in South Vieimuii. When (t-orci- Smith wit, captured he s|eak.s about how lie was never physically mistreated during hi.- captivity with ihe Vieicoiift. He talks uboilt ho'A he was feil iideijuuteiy, llov, he received muil n-pilurlv. He tulk> about in fa>-i ili.x-ii^ii)ii>. that lie w>is able to have, en>ul ilis<'iiHsio:is, with his >rminis; he talkn about b'.-fore Cl.ristmus beinc iLskcd what he wanted for ('hristir.iis dinner and answering i-hicken arv.1 bread. Vieti'img uurd.s wnt a courier son.c 20 miles nn f<jo( to briiijL' <-!ncken and breiul for (Jeoftfe Smith's ami tin* other American jirisoneis' dinner. Smith talked about .-.ort of celling up the nexr morning and saying to the cuurd, "\Vell, you know, ('hristmaA IN not the only lioliduv we have in America. We have Thank.-civiii^ and Labor Day mid Fourth of July, my unnh.-r.-urv and my bitthday." And the Vict