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M.Eng.

(Communication & Computer) KT6124

Telecommunication Network

Course Briefing Semester I, 2012-2013

Rosdiadee Nordin

Ir. Dr. Rosdiadee Nordin


Maxis (2002-2006)

Electrical: DC system (rectifier & battery bank) and AC system (generator, power protection; lightning, DB) Core Switching: MSC, HLR, VLR, Switch Commander & regional E1 expansion

Tutor (2006), Lecturer (2011), P.Eng. & SMIEEE (2012) BSc. UKM (Electronics & Electrical), Malaysia, 2001 Ph.D. Univ. of Bristol, Wireless Engineering, 2011 Research Area Wireless Communications

Pre-4G (LTE): MIMO, OFDMA 4G and beyond (LTE-A & ??): Carrier Aggregation, Coordinated Multipoint, Energy Efficient Communications, TV White Space Applied: Wireless Indoor Localization and Wireless Sensor for Bicycle Performance Monitoring

Email: adee@eng.ukm.my Telephone: 03-892118402

KT6124

Synopsis Program Booklet

KT6124 TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK This course give an introduction to telecommunication system and network. The discussion will cover various aspect of telecommunication such as standards, transmission and planning, multiplexing and hierarchy, switching, signalling, telecommunication traffics and services.

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Syllabus Program Booklet


KT6124 TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK Switching system engineering: Types of public switched network. Switching system: circuit, store and forward, packet. Numbering, routing system and charging. Subscriber function. Telephone system basic requirement. Telephone equipment characteristics. Local circuit and hybrid transformation. Dialing system: decadic and DTMF. Subscriber and group switching. Analog and digital switching. Switching: Strowger, cross-bar and time and space. Digital analysis. Controlling sections. Stored Programmable Controlled exchange. Signaling: subscriber, line and register. Transmission system: FDM and PCM 30/32 channel. CCITT, CCIR function in switching planning. Digital Network: ISDN, SDH. Teletraffic Engineering: telephone traffic performance. Teletraffic and queuing theory. Delay and loss system, Grade of service. Erlang and Bernoulli distribution. Broadband network: ATM and B-ISDN. Intelligent network.

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Course Outline
Introduction Transmission Multiplexing and Hierarchy Switching Telecommunication Traffics Switching Network Signaling Services

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References
1. J.E.Flood, Telecommunications Switching, Traffic and Networks, Prentice Hall, 1994 2. Roger L. Freeman, Fundamentals of Telecommunications, 2nd Edn., John Wiley & Sons, 2005 3. Clarke, M.P., Network & Telecommunications: Design & Operation, Wiley 4. Harry G. Perros, Connection-Oriented Networks, Wiley, 2005.

Softcopy

Softcopy

Softcopy

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References
1. G. Gananasiwam, Telecommunications Switching and Networks, New Edge International Publisher, 2006 2. T. Viswanathan, Telecommunication Switching System And Networks, PHI, 2006

Softcopy

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Evaluation
Assignments (3) Midterm exam Quiz Final exam

20-30% 20-30% 10% 40-50%

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Previous Performance (Sem. 1, 2011-2012)

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Previous Performance (Sem. 1, 2010-2011)

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TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK

Introduction
Semester 1, 2012/2013

Introduction
Tele/communications - The process of transmitting a message between two remote locations. - Message - could be Voice, Music, Textual, Pictorial (graph, diagram, image, etc.) or moving image (video). Better proportion of data communications links and speech is being converted into digital forms, as well as data will eventually be conveyed more naturally in these digital forms. The purpose of telecommunications is to convey information from one location to another.

Data : Precise communication Voice : More convenient to convey information, thats why voice communication has predominated for over a century

The telephone network, until the last three decades, was almost entirely

analog

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Introduction
Communication

Telecommunication
Narrowband vs. wideband Baseband vs. Broadband
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Introduction
Narrowband vs. wideband wired/wireless data

rate

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Introduction
Baseband :

a single data signal is transmitted directly on a wire. The data is transmitted directly on the wire using positive and negative voltages. RS-232 interface is an example of baseband transmission.

A baseband signal is an information signal that has not undergone the modulation process. represents voice, data, or video information signal. must be band-limited before being used to modulate a carrier signal.

Broadband :

is a technique where the data to be transmitted is sent using a carrier signal, such as a sinusoidal wave. Many different frequency carrier signal can be transmitted simultaneously, more than one signal can be sent on the same wire.

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Introduction
When data (or any other signal) is to be conveyed outside ones

place, this involves the modulation of the broadband signal onto a carrier frequency, either by

Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Phase Shift Keying (PSK) or Combination of the ASK and PSK (QPSK, /4-PSK, DQPSK)

In baseband signal, speech is being conveyed by Pulse Code

Modulation (PCM) The standard digital voice channel that available in today has a capacity of 64 Kbps, or a multiplexed of 1.544Mbps [T1], 2.048Mbps [E1]

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Telecommunication System

Transmitter Transmission Channel

Receiver

Input Transducer Encoder Modulator Amplifier

Air, Free Space Copper Cable Optical Fiber

Output Transducer Decoder Demodulator Amplifier


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Telecommunication System

Information signal input Encoder Modulator/ Transmitter Transmission Channel Free-space loss Reflection Refraction Scattering Multipath Diffraction Shadowing Noise Interference Demodulator/ Receiver

Information signal output

Decoder

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Telecommunication System
Sensor/Transducer : transform one form of energy into another eg. Sound Electrical Transmitter: amplifies and processes the electrical replica of message for

transmission Receiver: amplifies and processes the received electrical signal in reverse manner to recover the original message Transmission Channel : a path connecting Transmitter [Tx] to Receiver [Rx], which is characterized by attenuation, etc Factors involve in a communication system:

Type of information (data, text, graphic, voice, music, multimedia, etc.) Information format (analog, discrete, digital, random, deterministic, periodic etc.) Transmission speed (low, medium, high, etc.) Transmission medium (wired, wireless) Transmission distance (short, medium, long) Modulation techniques (AM, PM, ASK, PSK, PCM, QAM, OFDM, etc.) Error control (BCD, Gray, Morse, ASCII, FEC, cyclic, etc.)

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Telecommunication System

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Telecommunication System

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Telecommunication Services
Teleservice Bearer services Supplementary services Services capabilities (supports for VAS)

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PSTN
Public

Switch Telephone Network POTS

CCITT, from French: Comit Consultatif International Tlphonique et Tlgraphique

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PSTN Topology

A star network higher-order or multiple-star network

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Transmission Topology

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Transmission Topology

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Transmission Topology

As the area covered by a star network and the number of stations served by it grow, line costs increase and it then economic to divide the network into several smaller network served by its own exchange

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PSTN Topology

North America Customers loop Central Office End office Class 5 office Inter-office trunk Junctor Toll office Toll network

British Local/Access Network Exchange Local Exchange Junction Trunk Trunk exchange Trunk network

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PSTN
Transmission links/nodes

Customer nodes Switching nodes Transmission nodes Service nodes Transmission systems Switching systems Signalling system

Subsystem

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Telecommunication Standard

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COMMUNICATION STANDARDS

A set of rules that must be followed by communication devices to allow for interoperability between equipment from different manufacturer Example rules

Which voltage used to represent 0, which voltage used to represent 1 How many start bits, how many stop bits Which voltage(s) used for start bits, which voltage(s) used for stop bits How many bits in one frame (7 bits, 8 bits, 10 bits, ) The format of control signals, how many control pins Ensures a large market for equipment and software Allows products from different vendors to communicate Freeze technology May be multiple standards for the same thing RS232, IEEE 802.11 (WiFi), etc.

Advantages

Disadvantages

Example standards

PROTOCOL & STANDARD: MAN vs MACHINE

PROTOCOL & STANDARD: MAN VS MACHINE

Telecommunication Standard
Definition: Standards are documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics, to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fitted for their purpose. Goal: Technological coordination by providing... Compatibility => determination of interfaces between cooperating technical units (e.g. cellular phone and radio network) Portability => easy exchange/replacement of components and/or data of a technical system (e.g. exchangeable memory devices) Interoperability => joint operation of different systems (e.g. communication of different computers via the Internet)

Telecommunication Standard
single company => de facto standards associations of a plurality of companies, consortia => multi-company commercial standard formal commercial standards bodies => multi-company official/commercial standard government standards bodies => multi-company official standard

Telecommunication Standard
telecommunications global function ITU information technology ITU-T (CCITT) ISO JTC 1 W3C IEC

Isoc

ECMA

IEEE

GSC ETSI regional function T1 ANSI ARIB CWTS APT TTC

ITSTC

RW-CC

CEN
WG1

WS1

WS2

WS3 WG6

WG5 WG4 WG3

WG2

Forum
Org1 Org2

Telecommunication Network
Bearer Service

provides a "transport system" for exchanging information Tele-services includes functions for connection, and a uniform "language" for communication and for shaping the messages conveyed Example: two telephones talk to each other via telephone network Also, Voice/Data/Text/Image etc

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Typical Network Services


PSTN(Public Switched Telephone Network) PLMN(Public Land Mobile Network) PSPDN(Packet Switched Public Data Network) ISDN(Integrated Services Digital Network) Frame Relay Signaling Network(CAS/CCS) Internet IN(Intelligent Network)

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Network Services

Teleservices depend on particular terminal apparatus e.g. telephone, teleprinter Bearer Services transmission capacity that can be used for any desired function e.g. private circuit

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Network Services

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More About WANs

Virtual private networks (VPNs):


A private network configured within a public network Can be built on top of the Internet Service offered by the telephone companies and ISPs

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Value added networks (VANs):

Public data networks that add value by transmitting data and by providing access to commercial databases and software Use packet switching Subscription based Often used in electronic data interchange (EDI) systems

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Public switched data network technologies (PSDN)


Data flows through a public network managed by a telecommunications carrier Most common technologies: ISDN (integrated service digital network) X.25 Frame relay Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)

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example of modulation

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ASK/FSK/PSK

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Sending Multiple Bits Simultaneously


Each of the three modulation techniques can be

refined to send more than one bit at a time. It is possible to send two bits on one wave by defining four different amplitudes. This technique could be further refined to send three bits at the same time by defining 8 different amplitude levels or four bits by defining 16, etc. The same approach can be used for frequency and phase modulation.

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Sending Multiple Bits Simultaneously

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Hybrid Amplitude and Phase modulation


QAM : Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

represents 4 bits per baud (I.e. V = 16)

90o 135o 45o

180o

0o

8 phase changes 2 different amplitude levels Therefore V = 16

225o 270o

315o

Used in ITU V.32 modems

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Digital Encoding of Analog Signals (PCM)


Concept:

Take samples of analog signal. To each sample - assign a code. Then transmit that code (digital signal). If we sample at the rate of twice the bandwidth of the channel then the resulting digital signal contains all the information in the original analog signal - Nyquists theorem (1924)

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PCM - Pulse Code Modulation


Samples time

Each is assigned a n-bit binary code


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PCM
Transmitting an analog signal over a digital network

(e.g. Voice on telephone n/w)


Each signal is sampled 8000 times per second Each sample is converted to a 7 bit code 1 bit is added for control information there are 128 different such codes (27) The digital signal is then transmitted at 64,000 = 64 Kbps = 8*8000

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Differential PCM

Voice signals do not change extremely/rapidly Changes of more than +/- 16 levels between samples is very rare Hence use just 5 bits instead of 7 to represent each sample If signal jumps very widely then several samples are needed to catch up

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Delta Modulation

Voice signals do not change very rapidly Transmit only one bit at each sample (indicating a +1 or 1) to indicate whether the signal is increasing or decreasing. Amplitude of next sample differs from previous one by 1 unit (either +1 or -1). If very rapid changes take place then the coding takes a while to catch up

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Problems (Delta Modulation)


Samples cannot keep up with rapidly changing signal

time

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Predictive Encoding
Both sender and receiver extrapolate from the last

few values received to predict what the next value would be. The transmitter sends a value only if it were different from what is predicted

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Data transfer in the presence of noise


Shannons Law:
C = B * log2 (1 + S/N) where: C = achievable channel capacity B= Bandwidth of line (in Hz) S = Average signal power N = Average Noise power S/N = Signal to Noise Ratio this is usually measured in decibels (dB) where dB = 10 * log10 (S/N)

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Telephone Channel Capacity


Voice Channel 0-4,000 Hz

Voice Bandwidth 300-3,300 Hz

Voltage Guard Band

Guard Band

300

Frequency (Hertz)

3,300

4,000

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Example: Channel capacity of a telephone line (voice

grade):
typical signal to noise ratio of a voice grade line = 30 decibels i.e. 30 = 10* log10(S/N) => S/N = 1,000 Bandwidth = 3,000 Hz Thus C = 3,000 * log2 (1+1,000) C = 30, 894 bits per second = 30 Kbps (approx) This is the extreme limit though, hardly ever reached since ideal conditions are not present.

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Converting Voice (analog) to digital :


Use PCM Sample 8,000 times in each second Time between each sample = 1/8,000 = 125 s (not

perceptible to the human ear) Voice signals lie between 300 3,300 Hz hence we are sampling at twice the frequency What does Nyquists theorem imply ?

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Quantization
Linear and Non-Linear (logarithmic)

A-law and -law

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Quantization

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Data Encoding
Data needs to be encoded in a format that computers

can understand :

ASCII (8 bits), 128 characters, 1 bit used for error detection EBCDIC (8 bits), 256 characters Baudot (5 bits) Morse

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Digital Signal Encoding

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Transmitting Data
In order for data to be transmitted and received in a

legible form

The receiver must know where a character starts a character ends in the stream of bits that is received from a transmitter

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Transmitting Data
Flow Control

Hardware flow control RTS/CTS Software flow control XON/XOFF

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Flow Control
Necessary when data is being sent faster than it can

be processed by receiver Computer to printer is typical setting Can also be from computer to computer, when a processing program is limited in capacity

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Stop-and-Wait Flow Control


Simplest form Source may not send new frame until receiver

acknowledges the frame already sent Very inefficient, especially when a single message is broken into separate frames

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Stop-and-Wait Flow Control

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Transmission Mode
Simplex transmission

Only one way communication

Half duplex transmission

Two ways communication, but one at a time; not simultaneously

Full duplex transmission

Simultaneously in both directions

Unicast, Multicast, Anycast, Broadcast

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Half Duplex versus Full-Duplex


Half-duplex: M odems transmit in both directions, only one direction at a time.
Local PC to remote PC transmission Local PC transmits Remote PC receives

Turnaround time Local PC receives Remote PC to local PC transmission Remote PC transmits

Full-duplex: M odems transmit in both directions simultaneously


Local PC transmits and receives Local PC to remote PC transmission Remote PC receives and transmits

Remote PC to local PC transmission

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Modes of transmission
Asynchronous

Each character is considered a unit of information All timing and error checking is included within Information is sent as a block of data Control and error checking information is added to each block

Synchronous

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Asynchronous Transmission
Each character is sent independent of the next (or

previous character sent) Before each character is a START bit Time between each character is not constant Requires control bits for each character sent (for error checking) At the end of each character is a STOP bit At least 3 of 9 bits (for a 7 bit code) sent are not information but overhead. Hence this is inefficient

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Synchronous Transmission
Information is transmitted in a block of bits Each block is preceded by a sequence of bits called

a preamble Each block ends with a sequence of bits called a postamble Control bits are added to allow error checking The data plus preamble plus postamble plus control information is called a Frame. Much more efficient as compared to Asynchronous transmission More complex and expensive to implement than Asynchronous
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Asynchronous versus Synchronous


Asynchronous transmission
1000011 modem Characteristics: Data is sent one character at a time Each character has a start and 1, 1.5, or 2 stop bits Synchronization is reestablished for each character Time between character is unsynchronized and of random length Stop bit 1010101 1010010 Start bit 1010100
modem

Efficiency (1000 character transmission) Control / overhead bits: 1 start and stop bits per character 2 control bits per character x 1000 characters = 2000 control bits 7000 data bits / 9000 total bits = 77.7% efficient

Synchronous transmission
1000011101010110100101010100 modem Characteristics: Data is sent as a block of uninterrupted characters Synchronization characters precede and follow the data block The data block may be 1000 uninterrupted characters Synchronization is maintained whether data is actually being sent and detected or not Modems remain synchronized during idle time Synchronization character
modem

Efficiency (1000 character transmission) Control / overhead bits: 48 total control bits per block using HDLC 48 control bits per block x 1 block = 48 control bits 7000 data bits / 7048 total bits = 99.3% efficient

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Serial versus Parallel Transmission


Serial mode Message is sent one bit at a time

Sender

|0|1|0|1|1|0|1|1|

Receiver

Parallel mode Receiver Each character is sent over a different wire, simultaneously The size of messages depends on its context Credit card authorization = 1000 bits One page typed memo = 15000 bits |0|1|0|1|1|0|1|1| One second of digital voice = 56000 bits One second of Full motion video = 100 million bits Sender

UART vs. USART

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Type of Comms Protocols


SERIAL DATA TRANSMISSION PARALLEL DATA TRANSMISSION
IEEE-488 Parallel (HPIB or

GPIB ) Centronics Parallel Protocol (Printer ) SCSI IDE ISA (Industrial Standard Architecture, 16 bit) PCI (Referral Component Interconnect, 32 bit) AGP

Different type of media

RS 232, RS 422, RS 485 UART (Universal Asynchronous receiver-transmitter) USART (Universal SynchronousAsynchronous receiver-transmitter) MIDI IEEE1394, also called "FireWire" CAN (Controller Area Network) USB (Universal Serial Bus) I2C (Inter Integrated Circuit) -Philips SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface bus) Micro-wire Ethernet Fiber optics Bluetooth WiFi

SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
RS232

The most popular serial communication standard developed by Electronics Industries Association (EIA) in the 1960s DTE: Data Terminal Equipment (e.g. PC) DCE: Data Communication Equipment or Data CircuitTerminating Equipment (e.g. modem, switch, router, and other communication device) DTE and DCE have different pin definitions

DTE v.s. DCE


INTERFACES/CONNECTORS
RS-232

DB-25 25-pin connector DB-9 9-pin connector Pin definition for DTE

We can either use all 9 pins, or just use 3 pins: TxD, RxD, GND TxD: transmit data RxD: receive data GND: signal ground The remaining pins are for more sophisticated controls

DB-25 Male

DB-25 Female

INTERFACES/CONNECTORS
RS-232 (DB9 and DB25)

SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS

Basic data communications H/W


Modem - MOdulator/DEModulator

used to convert digital signals from a computer to analog signals via modulation so as to transmit over telephone networks
CODECs
1000001 PSTN
Phone network modem modem

Local PC

Remote PC 1000001

Input Digital data

Processing Transform digital data input to analog data output (modulation)

Output - Input Analog

Processing Transform analog data input to digital data output (demodulation)

Output Digital data

Old modem (voice-graded telephone line) - ASK Modern modem FSK Sophisticated modem - PSK

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MODEM STANDARDS

V.29 2400 bauds 9600 bps 16-QAM, 4-QAM

MODEM STANDARDS

MODEM OPERATION 56k

MODEM STANDARDS 56k

Asymmetrical Stream

Dial Up Operation (1)

Dial Up Operation (2)

Dial Up Operation (3)

HARDWARE & INTERFACES

Modem Standards
V.22bis

transmission rate 2400 bps baud rate 600 bauds data compression V.42bis Error correction V.42 Modulation method 4QAM and TCM

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Modem Standards
V.32

transmission rate 9.6 Kbps Baud rate 2400 bauds Data compression/error correction same Modulation method 4-QAM and TCM

V.32bis

same as above except uses 6-QAM and TCM

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