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LudmilaBEJENARU

REFLEXEBIZANTINENCULTURA
CENTRALIESTEUROPEAN


REFLEXEBIZANTINENCULTURA
CENTRALIESTEUROPEAN
Autor:LudmilaBEJENARU
Conductortiinific:Prof.univ.dr.IoanaNicolae(AndreiGrigor)

Lucrare realizat n cadrul proiectului Valorificarea identitilor culturale n


procesele globale, cofinanat din Fondul Social European prin Programul
OperaionalSectorialDezvoltareaResurselorUmane20072013,contractul
definanarenr.POSDRU/89/1.5/S/59758.
Titlurileidrepturiledeproprietateintelectualiindustrialasuprarezul
tatelor obinute n cadrul stagiului de cercetare postdoctoral aparin
AcademieiRomne.

Puncteledevedereexprimatenlucrareaparinautoruluiinuangajeaz
ComisiaEuropeaniAcademiaRomn,beneficiaraproiectului.

Exemplargratuit.Comercializareanaristrintateesteinterzis.
Reproducerea,fieiparialipeoricesuport,esteposibilnumaicuacordulprealabil
alAcademieiRomne.

ISBN9789731671253

Depozitlegal:Trim.II2013

LudmilaBEJENARU

Reflexebizantine
nculturacentral
iesteuropean

EdituraMuzeuluiNaionalalLiteraturiiRomne
ColeciaAULAMAGNA

Cuprins

BIZANULIMODELULCULTURALALLUMIICRETINE
CUVNTNAINTE .......................................................................................... 9
I.BIZANULCAENTITATEMENTALIMOTENIREA
EUROPEAN................................................................................................... 14
1.ImperiulBizantin:definiie,etimologie,periodizare ............................. 14
2.ContribuiilastudiulBizanului.Reprezentaniiopere...................... 20
a.InteresulRenateriipentruculturabizantin .................................... 20
b.Istoriografiabizantinnspaiulcentraliesteuropean.
Influene,perspective............................................................................ 27
c.Influenelebizantinenconstituireaspiritualitiiromneti.......... 43
d.BizandupBizanspaiulspiritualalEuropeidesudest ........ 53
e.DelapanslavismlaideologiiProetContrabizantine...................... 54
II.BIZANULNRAPORTCUCIVILIZAIILEICULTURILE
CENTRALISUDESTEUROPENE............................................................ 61
1.Unitateastructuralaavechilorculturidinariacentralisudest
european .................................................................................................... 61
a.CodexTheodosianus ............................................................................. 63
b.Cartearomneascdenvturiindreptarealegii ................. 64
c.DrumuluiMtsii,DrumulSriiiDrumulmaredelavaregi
lagreci ..................................................................................................... 66
2.SlaviiiBizanul .......................................................................................... 72
a.Slaviioenigmetnografic ........................................................... 72
b.KnejiiruiirelaiilecuBizanul ......................................................... 74
c.Slaviidesud.Bulgaria,SloveniaiSerbia .......................................... 85
III.INFLUENABIZANTINNICONOGRAFIAISTILURILE
ARTEINAREALURILECENTRALISUDESTEUROPENE............... 89

1.Artaimonahismulcomponenteesenialealecommonwealth
ulmedievalorthodoxbizantin. ................................................................ 90
a.TradiiaisihastnrileOrtodoxiei..................................................... 91
b.Athosleagnulvietiimonahale ....................................................... 100
c.Isihasmulsrbimodelulpustniciei ................................................. 103
d.Renatereaisihastrus ...................................................................... 106
e.Micareapaisianncontextpanortodox ......................................... 111
f.Reprezentrialemonahismuluinliteraturiart ........................ 116
g.Schimburileculturalepuniunificatoarensudestul
Europei.................................................................................................. 126
3.Canonulbizantin.Componentelestilisticealearteibizantine........... 128
4.Valenelemodeluluiculturalbizantinnarhitecturadinspaiul
centraliesteuropean ............................................................................. 141
a.Complexitateainflueneibizantineasupraculturiiruse ................ 141
5.Valenebizantineniconografie.............................................................. 152
a.Icoanamijlocdetransmitereamesajuluievanghelic .................. 152
b.IcoanaluiHristosfundamentaliconografieicretine................. 155
c.IcoanaMaiciiDomnului ...................................................................... 157
d.TeofanGreculmodelulartistuluiisihast..................................... 160
e.Troiaicondiiadeafirus ............................................................. 161
6.SfntaCuvioasParaschevamultfolositoaresimbolalunitii
Ortodoxieidepretutindeni ..................................................................... 165
a.ImagineaSfinteiParaschevanBulgaria........................................... 167
b.ReprezentareaSfnteiParaschevanmozaic.................................. 170
c.BisericicunumeleSfinteiParaschiva ................................................ 172
7.NebuniantruHristossauncercareaderevenirelaBizan .......... 174
a.NebuniantruHristos,fenomenulnebunieimistice................... 174
b.SpiritulnebunieintruHristosnculturarus ............................ 176
c.FilmulOstrovulsaudespreactualitateanebunieintru
Hristos................................................................................................. 178

IV.RSFRNGERIALEBIZANTINISMULUIDINSPAIUL
ROMNESCNCIRCUITULVALORILORCULTURALEEST
EUROPENE .................................................................................................... 180
1.Participarearomnilorlapromovareaspirituluibizantinn
spaiulculturalcentaliesteuropean ................................................... 180
2.ContribuiileluitefancelMarelapstrareaunitiispaiului
culturalbizantin........................................................................................ 182
a.Mnstireapova ............................................................................... 184
b.MnstireaCurchi................................................................................ 186
c.MnstireaCpriana............................................................................ 187
d.CetilemoldavedinregiuneaPrutNistru ..................................... 189
e.CetateaHotin ........................................................................................ 190
f.CetateaSoroca ....................................................................................... 192
g.CetateaOrhei ........................................................................................ 193
h.CetateaAlb.......................................................................................... 193
i.CetateaChilia......................................................................................... 194
3.ElenaVoloancaprezenremarcabilnculturarusdin
secolulalXVlea........................................................................................ 195
a.BroderiileEleneiVoloanca ................................................................ 205
CONCLUZII ....................................................................................................... 210
BIBLIOGRAFIEGENERAL ........................................................................... 221
ADDENDA
FOREWORD ................................................................................ 226
TABLEOFCONTENTS ............................................................. 231

ADDENDA

Foreword
Byzantiumandtheculturalmodel
ofcristianworld

Attheallegedbordertemporal,mental,culturalbetweenoldand
modern,betweencommonandexceptional,Byzantiumisrevealedin
all its grandeur and fame. The Byzantine Empire, with its more than
millennial existence, has always concerned the great spirits, prompting
vividdiscussions.Admiredorchallengedbyourcontemporaries,territorial
andspiritual,unknowntoothers,Byzantiumaimstoeventuallyregainthe
place it deserves on the world stage of history and culture. Even if it
perished from a strictly institutionalized point of view, Byzantium is still
waiting for its social and political dimensions to be explored and
evaluated along with the role that it undoubtedly had in defining the
culturalprofile/modeloftheChristianworld,especiallyoftheOrthodox
one.ThetitleofourprojectByzantinereflectionsinCentralandEastern
EuropeancultureismotivatedbytheimportanceofByzantiumitselfand
by the need to fill a void in the interdisciplinary / multidisciplinary /
transdisciplinary research, which opens an unexpected horizon of
reading, of information that is subject to a concentric and condensed
analysisandinterpretation.
The overall objective of the project is that of addressing from an
interdisciplinary / multidisciplinary / transdisciplinary perspective the
reflections of Byzantine origin in Central and Eastern European
civilizationsandcultures,ofinvestigatingthewayinwhichByzantiumhad
found expression, was mirrored and reflected in the civilizations and
culturesfromthegeoculturalareasmentioned,particularlythroughitsreal

226

legacy,Orthodoxy,fromwhichtheChristianartconstantlysprings,whichis
the same in terms of tradition, but always another by adapting to current
times.Thescientificnoveltyandoriginalityofourprojectliesinthecomplex
investigationofByzantinetrends,elementsandideaswhichappearincentral
andEasternEuropeanculturethroughtheapplicationofnewmethodologies
of historical, theological, philosophical and culturological research of the
problem, united by this interdisciplinary scientific approach involving
investigativemethodsspecifictodisciplinessuchasculturalhistoriography,
history of ideas, art history, cultural anthropology, philosophy of culture,
sociology, literary history, history and philosophy of law, as well as
combinatorialmethodsthatcomplementeachotherorinteract.
Webelievethattheresearchthemeproposediswelcomegiventhat
the aspects of Byzantine reflection in Central and Eastern Europe culture
were not fully reported by exegetes, much less in the Romanian cultural
space, where an interdisciplinary approach to the problem is almost
nonexistent.Theappropriatenessofthisresearchthemeisjustifiedbythe
existenceofasmallnumberofarticles,studiesandworksdedicatedtothe
proposedissue,andespeciallybytheneedtoemphasizethewayinwhich
theByzantineartandhistoryrelatestotherevaluationofculturalidentities
ofdifferentplacesandcultures.Theuniquecharacterofthethemeofour
researchprojectalsocomesfromtherecoveryofaconsiderableamountof
culturalhistorical and theoretical information about the phenomenon of
Byzantine culture footprint in Central and Eastern European cultural
space. The contribution of the research we suggest consists not only in
synthesizing some observations regarding the way in which Byzantium
was reflected in the cultural space discussed, but rather, in highlighting
the interdisciplinary relationships which forge the Byzantine reflections
onaculturalintertextualitythatcrossesareasandevencontinents.
Also, our contribution aims to highlight the key aspects of
interculturalism and acculturation of the analyzed cultural spaces by
certain cultural, historical implications, through the Byzantine Christian
rite, matrimonial alliances, ethnological component, contributions in the
field of legal, administrative, military and diplomatic organization. The
importanceoftheproposedsubjectisoverwhelming,becauseitintegrates

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intotheindissolubleunityofmanyculturalcivilizationsandspacesand
also opens and offers prospects to know the whole by means of a
commonsuperiorspace,promotingtheunityindiversityofCentraland
EasternEuropeanculturalspace.Researchesonthecircuitofvaluesinthe
culturalareaoftheEasternandSouthernSlavs,knowingly,cometoenrich
our project, while the national perspective of each of the cultures in
question calls for meditation and completion revaluation, for the readers
continuation of analysis on ones own, for the discovery of new insights
intoknowledge.
The research project aimed at achieving a comprehensive overview
of the various aspects of Byzantine culture reflections revolving in the
southoftheDanube,intheRomanianandSlavicEasternarea,compared
tothegeneralEuropeanculturalphenomena.Also,wesoughttohighlight
theoriginalityofeachcultures,describinganddefiningtheirindependence
and individuality, knowing that each of the cultures of the area of focus
keptaspecificstockofvalues.Webelievethatthefruitofourapproach,the
monograph Reflexe bizantine n cultura central i esteuropean
(Byzantine Reflections in Central and Eastern European Culture), will be
found useful primarily by the specialists in Byzantinology, art history,
literature,philosophyofcultureandculturalhistoriography,whoaregiven
the opportunity to find in a single work interdisciplinary /
multidisciplinary/transdisciplinaryreferencesandinterpretationsabout
theByzantineculturalimpactonCentralandEasternEuropeancultures.
Our good thoughts and feelings of gratitude go to the Romanian
Academy, and particularly to Academician Eugen Simion; without the
logistical support of the Academy our research and the publishing of this
volumewouldnothavebeenpossible.
To Mr. Ioan Valeriu Frank a great and wise partner of dialogue
and to the team of project POSDRU/89/1. 5/S/59758 Valorificarea
identitilor culturale n procesele globale (Revaluation of cultural
identities in global processes) many thanks and congratulations for
projectmanagement.
We address our not at all formal thanks to PhD Prof. Ioana Nicolae
(Andrei Grigor) who gave us the support we required for our

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investigationontheByzantinereflectionsinCentralandEasternEuropean
culture.
For our European partners Department of Byzantinology and
Balkanic studies of Saint Klement Ohridski University, Sofia, Bulgaria,
and the Center of Slavistics of the University of Riga, Latvia, where we
performedourresearchinternshipsundertheguidanceofprofessorsPhD
Hab. Hristo Matanovi and PhD. Hab Ludmila Sproge prosperity, new
scientific results, new opportunities for the intellectual and professional
development of students and to facilitate quality research through active
participationinthedevelopmentoftheEuropeanHigherEducationArea.
Manythankstothelibraries,whosecollectionofbooksweusedduring
the traineeship: National Library Saint Kiril and Methodius in Sofia, the
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Library, the Library of the Institute of
BalkanisticinSofia,NationalLibraryofLatvia,theLibraryofAcademiesof
SciencesofLatvia,Romania,Russia,Moldova,theRussianNationalLibrary,
the Fundamental Library of Humanities from Lomonosov University, the
universityLibrariesofIai,Chernivtsi,Riga,Sofia.
The impact of the research internship was primarily defined by the
factthatweenjoyedtheprestigeofaEuropeantrainingundertheguidance
ofprestigiousteachersinRomania,BulgariaandLatvia,andtheexperience
was shared through discussions, written reports, the files and CD of
internships.Thepotentialimpactofthetransferofknowledgeisreflected
intheireffectivevalorizationofpracticalandscientificactivities.Wewilluse
the knowledge acquired during the research internships in the drafting of
work, while the skills and abilities will be used in the provision of quality
education in the field of Central and Southeastern European cultures and
civilizations,bypromotingtheEuropeandimensionineducation.
The cognition and discovery of other cultural spaces and European
and global approaches, by interacting with the institutions organizing the
internships,gaveustheopportunitytointeractwithotherculturesbesides
the Romanian one, helped us overcome language and cultural barriers,
unfounded prejudices, become spiritually richer, discover the
extraordinary unity in diversity, built mostly on Orthodoxy. In the
multiculturalcontextoffered,thepromotionoftolerance(towardscultural

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differencesorofothertypes)hasbeenanacquisitionofaEuropeanvalue
transferableandapplicabletootherculturesaswell.
Theestablishmentanddelineationofabibliographicdatabaseinthe
field, the elaboration of records, the completion of the personal library
during the scholarship period with over 100 titles in the field, represents
the added value of our research internship from an interdisciplinary /
multidisciplinary/transdisciplinaryperspectiveregardingthestudyofthe
ByzantinereflectionsonthecentralandEasternEuropeancivilizationsand
cultures, but what is more important is the investigation of the way in
whichByzantiumhadfoundexpression,wasmirroredandreflectedinthe
Central and SouthEastern European civilizations and cultures from the
nationalperspectiveofeachoftheculturesinquestion.
Obviously,allthemeritsofthismonographarealsoduetotheones
mentioned above, while any possible shortcomings, omissions, belong
exclusivelytotheauthor.

PhDUniversityLecturerLudmilaBejenaru

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Tableofcontents

BYZANTIUMANDTHECULTURALMODELOFTHECHRISTIAN
WORLDFOREWORD...................................................................................... 9
I.BYZANTIUMASMENTALENTITYANDEUROPEAN
HERITAGE....................................................................................................... 14
1.ByzantineEmpire:definition,etymology,timing .................................. 14
2.ResearchesontheByzantinehistoryandspirituality.
Representativesandworks....................................................................... 20
a.RenaissancesinterestinByzantineculture....................................... 20
b.ByzantinehistoriographyinCentralandEasternEurope.
Influences,interferences,Perspectives .............................................. 27
c.ByzantineinfluencesintheformationofRomanian
spirituality ............................................................................................. 43
d.ByzantiumafterByzantiumspiritualspaceofSouthEast
Europe..................................................................................................... 53
e.FrompanslavismtoforandagainstByzantineideologies ............. 54
II.BYZANTIUMINRELATIONTOCENTRALANDSOUTH
EASTERNEUROPEANCIVILIZATIONSANDCULTURES ................. 61
1.StructuralunitoftheancientculturesofCentralandSouth
EasternEurope ........................................................................................... 61
a.CodexTheodosianus ............................................................................ 63
b.Romanianbookofdoctrineandlawstraightening........................ 64
c.TheroadofSilkandtheGreatroadfromVarangianstothe
Greeks .................................................................................................... 66
2.SlavsandByzantium.................................................................................. 72
a.TheSlavsanethnographicenigma................................................. 72
b.RussianprincesandrelationswithByzantium ................................. 74

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c.SouthSlavs.Bulgaria,SloveniaandSerbia......................................... 85
III.BYZANTINEINFLUENCEINICONOGRAPHYANDART
STYLESINCENTRALANDSOUTHEASTERNEUROPE..................... 89
1.Artandmonasticismessentialcomponentsofthemedieval
OrthodoxByzantinecommonwealth....................................................... 90
a.HesychastictraditioninOrthodoxcountries ..................................... 91
b.AthosMonasticlifecradle ................................................................ 100
c.Serbianhesychasmandthehermitagemodel.................................. 103
d.Russianhesychasticrevival................................................................ 106
e.PaisianmovementinapanOrthodoxcontext................................. 111
f.Representationsofmonasticisminliteratureandart...................... 116
g.CulturalexchangesunifyingbridgesinSouthEastern
Europe................................................................................................... 126
3.Byzantinecanon.StylisticcomponentsofByzantineart ................... 128
4.ValencesoftheByzantineculturalmodelinthearchitectureof
theCentralandEasternEuropeanarea................................................ 141
a.ComplexityofByzantineinfluenceonRussianculture................. 141
5.Byzantinevalencesiniconographya.Theiconmeansof
transmittingtheGospelmessage ........................................................... 152
a.IconofChristthefoundationofChristianiconography .............. 152
b.TheIconofVirginMary...................................................................... 155
c.TheophanestheGreekthemodeloftheartisthesychast ......... 157
d.AndreiRublevstrinityandtheconditionofbeingRussian ...... 160
e.FerapontovoandtheRubliovianmodelofharmonysearch ......... 161
6.St.ParaschevasymbolofOrthodoxunityallovertheworld.......... 165
7.FoolishnessforChristortheAttempttoreturntoByzantium ....... 174
a.FoolishnessforChrist,themysticalmadnessphenomenon ....... 174
b.ThespiritofFoolishnessforChristinRussianculture................ 176

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c.TheislandorabouttheactualityoftheFoolishnessfor
Christ ................................................................................................... 178
IV.REFLECTIONSOFTHEROMANIANBYZANTINISMINTHE
EASTERNEUROPEANCULTURALVALUESCIRCUIT....................... 180
1.RomaniansparticipationinpromotingtheByzantinespiritin
theCentralandEastEuropeanculturalarea....................................... 180
2.StephentheGreatscontributionstopreservingtheunityof
Byzantineculturalarea ........................................................................... 182
a.TipovaMonastery ............................................................................... 184
b.CurchiMonastery ................................................................................ 186
c.CaprianaMonastery............................................................................ 187
d.TheMoldovancitiesfromthePrutDniesterregion....................... 189
e.Hotin ..................................................................................................... 190
f.Sorocacity ............................................................................................. 192
g.Orheicity.............................................................................................. 193
h.WhiteCity ............................................................................................ 193
i.Chiliacity .............................................................................................. 194
3.ElenaVoloancaremarkablepresenceinthefifteenthcentury
Russianculture.......................................................................................... 195
a.ElenaVoloancasembroidery ............................................................... 205
CONCLUSIONS................................................................................................ 210
GENERALREFERENCES................................................................................ 221

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EdituraMuzeuluiNaionalalLiteraturiiRomne
CNCSPNIIACREDED20120374
Copertacoleciei:AULAMAGNA
Machetare,tehnoredactareiprezentaregrafic:
LuminiaLOGIN,NicolaeLOGIN
Logisticeditorialidiseminare:
OvidiuSRBU,RaduAMAN

Traducereasumaruluiisintezei,corecturibundetipar
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ISBN9789731671253

Apruttrim.II2013