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Calorimetry Lab Magnesium and Calcium

Data Collection

Quantitative Data

Time ( 0.5 s) 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135

T1 MgO ( 0.5 C) 27.0 31.5 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0

T2 MgO ( 0.5 C) 26.0 31.5 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0

T1 Mg ( 0.5 C) 26.0 36.5 46.0 47.0 47.0 47.0 47.0

T2 Mg ( 0.5 C) 27.0 36.5 42.0 46.0 47.0 47.0 47.0

T1 CaO ( 0.5 C) 26.1 30.9 31.2 31.1 31.1 30.9 30.5 30.3 30.3 30.3

T2 CaO ( 0.5 C) 25.3 30.5 30.3 30.3 30.3 30.3 30.3 30.3 30.2 30.2

T1 Ca ( 0.5 C) 25.5 30 37 40 37 37 37 37 36.9 36.9

T2 Ca ( 0.5 C) 26.1 29.1 34.5 37 38.1 38.9 38.7 38.7 38.7 38.5

Table 1: The temperature of the reactions and the time taken. T1 indicates trial number 1 and T2 trial 2

Mass ( 0.01 g) Moles (mol.)

T1 MgO 1.01 0.025

T2 MgO 1.01 0.025

T1 Mg 0.496 0.021

T2 Mg 0.500 0.021

T1 CaO 1.03 0.018

T2 CaO 1.07 0.019

T1 Ca 0.44 0.011

T2 Ca 0.45 0.011

Table 2: The weight of the metal and metal oxides used and the amount of moles of the substance it equals to.

T1 CaO - Temp Change


31.4 31.2 Temperature (C ) 31 30.8 30.6 30.4 30.2 30 0 20 40 60 80 Time (s) 100 120 140 160 y = -0.0104x + 31.57 R = 0.905 Appendix A: As the temperature of the Calcium experiments drop after a point, a linear relationship is established in order to find the maximum heat, or Y-intercept. Out of the trials, the linear relationship with the highest R2 values will b utilised.

T2 Ca - Temp Change
38.95 38.9 38.85 Temperature (C ) 38.8 38.75 38.7 38.65 38.6 38.55 38.5 38.45 60 70 80 90 100 Time (s) 110 120 130 140 y = -0.0053x + 39.26 R = 0.8

This is the linear relationship with the highest R2 value among the two trials. The YIntercept is the temperature which is used in the temperature change values. A linear relationship need to be established because there is loss of heat through the calorimeter.

Qualitative Observations Metal MgO Before -Powdery -White -A distinct scent is given by the substance in the calorimeter before MgO is applied Magnesium strip was bent in the middle Distinct scent, same as the MgO trials, was given from the substance in the calorimeter CaO White powder During Warms quickly After The rise in heat plateaus after a few seconds. The resultant is clear and colourless and a different scent is produced clear and colourless and change in scent

Mg

The reaction rose in temperature very quickly and steam was produced

The temperature quickly increased a small amount Calcium began to glow, slowly turns white. And temperatures rose

Clear and colourless and has a very distinct smell no solid remains

Ca

hard and brittle, and is very difficult to get an accurate amount

Data Processing: To find the heat of the enthalpy of reaction, the following formula is required:

= the enthalpy of solution m= Mass c=specific heat = Change in temperature of the solution n= moles = - 427,019 5.8% = - 427.0 24.8 kJ Similarly, the calculations of the other trials can be averaged out to

Reactants Products Enthalpies MgCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) MgO (s) + 2 HCl (aq) Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq) H2 (g) + MgCl2 (aq) H2 (g) + O2 (g) H2O (l) Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s) Table 4: A deduction of the enthalpy of combustion of Mg from the original reaction equations % errorMg = theoretical experimental x 100 theoretical =| = 1.4% Reactants Products Enthalpies CaCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) CaO (s) + 2 HCl (aq) Ca (s) + 2 HCl (aq) H2 (g) + CaCl2 (aq) H2 (g) + O2 (g) H2O (l) Ca(s) + O2(g) CaO(s) Table 5: A deduction of the enthalpy of combustion of Ca from the original reaction equations
( )

% errorCa = theoretical experimental x 100% theoretical =|


( )

= 0.88% Conclusion: In conclusion, the enthalpies of the combustion of Magnesium and Calcium were calculated without actually conducting said dangerous experiments by utilizing the framework which is adapted into Hesss Law. Using the original formation reactions and by rearranging the reactions, one could eliminate a few reactants and products from the experiment, making this a safe alternative to actually setting the metals on fire. As the % error from the accepted value (confirmed through various sources on the internet) is also quite low, thus the results from experiment were quite accurate. Although the % error for the combustion of Ca reaction remains relatively low, it is much more likely that it was a coincidence. When propagating for the y-intercept (or the initial temperature of the reaction, also the highest temperature of the exothermic reactions), the R2 values for the lines of best fit were quite low. Therefore, the lines of best fit did not match up with the points very well. The best set of data from the trials of Ca and CaO were utilized in the calculation of the change in temperature in order to keep the results accurate. In order to counter the large discrepancy between the points, the trials for Ca and CaO were conducted for longer than the Mg and MgO trials. The reason why the temperature dipped after it hit a maximum is because a new calorimeter was used and thus some control variables were violated. However, since those two reactions have no relation, it did not contribute too much to the error. To improve this, temperature should be recorded in shorter intervals of time. Another point of error was not calculating the heat given off by the actual metals. As the enthalpies of reaction are derived purely with the values of HCl, some of the heat released is not accounted for. This is the near negligible heat the metals would account for due to their low specific heats and mass in these reactions. However, considering that both of the calculated enthalpies were different from the accepted values by near negligible amounts, this may have contributed in the error.