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WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY A REVOLUTION IN MODERN COMMUNICATION

WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY

A REVOLUTION IN MODERN COMMUNICATION

WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY A REVOLUTION IN MODERN COMMUNICATION

Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology

Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology A Report On WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY A REVOLUTION IN MODERN COMMUNICATION

A Report On

WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY A REVOLUTION IN MODERN COMMUNICATION

Submitted to:

Md. Murshikul Alam

Associate Professor and Head of the Department of Humanities

&

Khanam Nargis Sultana

Assistant Professor

Submitted by:

Name

Student ID

Md.

Redwan Islam

1006066

Md.

Rayhan Khan

1006067

Abdullah Abu Sayed

1006068

Arifuzzaman Faisal

1006069

Kamruzzaman Nahid

1006070

Mohammad Tariqul Islam

1006071

Forwarding Letter

25 th June, 2012

To

MD. Murshikul Alam Associate Professor and Head of the Department of Humanities And Khanam Nargis Sultana Assistant Professor Department of Humanities Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology

Subject: A report on “Wireless Technology: A Revolution in Modern Communication”.

Dear Teachers, With due respect we would like to submit to you a report on “Wireless Technology: A Revolution in Modern Communication”.

These days, almost every person uses wireless devices. They are popular because they are being portable, light and easy to use. It is being used in almost every sector in purpose of communication. The everyday people use it to communicate between themselves; hospitals use it to have a better knowledge about their patients; military uses it for better assessment of an operable zone and so on. Wireless technology has its use in space research too, which is not the scope of the report. And all thanks goes to the pioneers of this technology for whom we now live a comfortable life almost doubling our memoirs compared to our ancestors.

We would like to thank you for helping us with suggestions and advices for completing this report. We would also like to pay solemn gratitude to all the persons who provided us with the necessary information. Time was short and length was limited and so there may be some lacking and errors in the report. We earnestly apologize for such mistakes on our part. Therefore we request your honour to kindly consider such cases and oblige thereby.

Sincerely Yours,

Md.

Redwan Islam

1006066

Md.

Rayhan Khan

1006067

Abdullah Abu Sayed

1006068

Arifuzzaman Faisal

1006069

Kamruzzaman Nahid

1006070

Mohammad Tariqul Islam

1006071

Level-II, Term-I Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering.

Table of Contents

Title

i

Forwarding Letter

ii

Table of Contents

iii

List of Illustrations

iv

Summary

v

1. Introduction

1

2. What is wireless technology?

2

3. History of Wireless Technology:

3

4. Wireless network:

4

4.1 WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Networking):

4

4.2 WLAN (Wireless Local Area Networking):

5

4.3 WMAN (Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks):

6

4.4 Mobile Device Network:

7

5. Mobile communication

7

5.1 A Short Evolution of Mobile Phones

7

5.2 Furute Estimates about Mobile Phones

8

6. Wireless Communication in Medical Sector

9

7. Usage of Wireless Communication in Bangladesh

10

8. Security Risks of Wireless Technology

11

9. Health Risks Related with Wireless Devices

11

10. Conclusions

13

11. Recommendations

14

Appendices

15

References

16

Glossary

17

List of Illustrations

Figure-1: A chart showing basics of wireless technology……………………………………02

Figure-2: Development of radio transmission in the world‟s history……………………… 03

05

Figure-4: Different types of wireless networks………………………………………………06

Figure-3: IR Transmitter and Photodiode…………….……………………………………

Figure-5: A pictorial description of Telemedicine………………………………….………

09

Figure-6: Cartoon representation of interception attack……………………………………

11

Figure-7: Energy Emission in Wireless Devices……………………………………

………12

Table-1: Key Global Telecom Indicators in 2011………………………

Table-2: 2011: Mobile ad expenditure in US $ million……………………… …………….09 Table-3: Subscriptions in Bangladesh……………………………………………………… 10

………………….08

Summary

Wireless technology is on a triumphant march since its introduction to the society. Wireless devices are used everyday by the people of different needs. As a result a lot of different types of wireless network have emerged. Some are designed for short distance transmissions while others are designed for long distance communication. Some are designed as a mesh network so that people on the move never goes out of the network. All this together made wireless communication fairly easy for the user. And it can be seen that a large number of subscribers are constantly connected to the wireless network backbone. The figures are just surprising. People use it for getting to know each other, keeping long distant relationship healthy, taking care of each other and so on. And when they need to know any information the peek into the internet and within seconds they know what they need. In developed countries doctors use it to know whereabouts and conditions of their patients. Despite all the blessings, wireless technology has some security and health risk. There are plenty of potential security risks for which a person‟s valuable data might be stolen or privacy might be hampered. Since most modern wireless device uses latest security protocols, the risks are relatively low compared to what‟s been in the past. But the health risks remain almost unchanged. Radiation harms human health. However, because of all the benefits it gives the people, humankind certainly cannot do without it.

1. Introduction

For years after years it has been the unquenchable thirst of human to communicate with people living in the distance with the minimum effort. But never the path of making life comfortable has been always easy. Rather, form the history it is seen that, the more people tried to make their life easier, the more problems they had to face. But as far as the human being is concerned, the nature of them is always to see the unseen, to know the unknown, to gain the things not gained. Thus, no challenge remains challenge to the human being for very long. Moreover, what was challenge yesterday is reality today.

But the way was not so smooth. There were hard battles, tough challenges and large barriers. And also there were endless failures, through the establishment of a nice, reliable and indiscreet, communication system. And with the advancement of trade and commerce, the need for more sophisticated, smoother and better communication system arose greatly. Thus, wireless technology became the need of time and the need of the era. Wireless technology has now advanced on a triumphant march and has already spread among the nations of the world. The most awaited dreams of human being have taken the form of reality with the help of uncountable and unimaginable attempts of the electronics and communication engineers of the world.

Wireless technology is now the part and parcel of modern communication. It signals and data are more likely to be sent by air, rather by wire. Data transfer has been being possible within a twinkling of an eye. People can send almost anything and everything on the fly.

Nevertheless, there lies the problem with the cost and speed of wireless devices. Not all parts of the world are highly blessed with it. Besides, wireless technology is 1000 times slower than the wired connections. Although the devices found in the market are on par with each other. But nevertheless, engineers are trying their level best to create the best devices in the least price. Since it is now a must for the present era, it has to be available for all like a must one.

2. What is wireless technology?

Wireless means, „no wire‟. And wireless technology means technologies that do not require any use of wire. For example, devices like mobile, radio, and systems like optical signal transmission, Bluetooth, infrared, etc., do not require wires to transmit data and information. Well, although their names are completely different they all mean the same thing. Analogue or Digital Signals of varied frequencies transmitted through the air. Analogue frequencies are most often generated from digital signals. Since modern devices work on the digital signals only, conversion of analogue to digital and vice versa is done in the devices.

It is to be noted that, the backbone of wireless system is a wired system. The wired system being very fast compared to wireless is very feasible. But in a place where hundreds of devices are to be connected in the system, a wired system becomes cumbersome. So the basic system follows that, the mother hub, the backbone of the system, is wired to which all the wireless devices are connected. For example, the submarine cable system, the backbone of world‟s internet, is capable of a speed more than one thousand gigabit per second data transmission. To it more wired systems are connected. Then the service providers take another set of wired connection from it. And after this step there may be regular wireless devices of speed of fifty six or one hundred megabit per second.

The Mother Hub (Backbone)

or one hundred megabit per second. The Mother Hub (Backbone) • Usually wired connected device with

Usually wired connected device with very high speed data transmission and reciption. Controls the main data flow.

Child Hubs

and reciption. Controls the main data flow. Child Hubs • Can be connected with or without

Can be connected with or without wires to the mother. Can be several of them. Generates Wireless field.

Wireless

Devices

These devices are

connected to the child hub. In absence

of a child connects to the mlother.

Figure-1: A chart showing basics of wireless technology.

It is customary to think why use wireless technology if it‟s slow. The answer is that it is portable. There may be hundreds of hubs to which a wireless device can connect to, scattered through a wide area. A user may go from one place to another connecting to different hubs on the way and not having the problem of carrying a set of cables. And the speed although slow may be enough for user‟s purpose.

3. History of Wireless Technology:

From the early beginning of the electrical communication system, signals found their easiest way to be transferred through cables or wires. However, with the advancement of civilization, trade and commerce wired technology and cable networks began to face challenges that became really tough for the system to overcome. It became greatly cumbersome to manage the tangled wires required for the system to operate. Therefore, the need for technologies that do not require wires to transmit signals came into existence.

The development of wireless communications began with the physicist Michael Faraday in the 19 th century. He discovered the principle of electromagnetic induction in 1831, which demonstrated the concept of electric currents producing magnetism. After that in 1873 Maxwell‟s equations for electricity and magnetism were published in A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism implicitly showed that electromagnetic waves propagate through free space at the speed of light. Later, in 1876, alexander graham bell invented the telephone. And after that Nicole Tesla, Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose and Marconi came into the floor. In 1893, Nikola Tesla demonstrated the first public radio communication. One year later, during a November 1894 public demonstration at Town Hall of Kolkata, Bose ignited gunpowder and rang a bell at a distance using millimetre range wavelength microwaves. During the same time around 1896 Marconi did almost the same work. But in 1899 Marconi sent and received the first radio signal across the English Channel which is regarded as a major success.

Electromagnetic Induction; Faraday

(1831) Maxwell's Equations; Maxwell (1873) Demonstration of Radio; Tesla (1895) Large Distance Demonstration;
(1831)
Maxwell's Equations; Maxwell
(1873)
Demonstration of Radio;
Tesla (1895)
Large Distance
Demonstration;
Bose (1896)
Radio crosses English Channel;
Marconi (1899)

Figure-2: Development of radio transmission in the world‟s history.

In 1900s, things started moving quickly. In 1901 St John‟s, New Foundland, Marconi received the first trans-Atlantic wireless signal from Poldhu, England and. By 1903, the first international wireless conference transpired in berlin, Germany. In 1905 the first distress signal sent using Morse code. In 1919 Radio Corporation of America (RCA) was incorporated, and consumer radio broadcasts for news and entertainment soon became popular. The 80s brought wireless technologies to the forefront of public consciousness. 2000 was the first year that digital outnumbered analog subscriptions Modern mobile phones are called smart because they can do multiple things.

Moreover, the use of wireless communication system is not just for mobile phones. They are used in schools, colleges to give the teachers and students an open connection the internet, in hospitals to provide a safe network for doctors to operate. Also used in warfare to collect and implement information which led to a popular belief that today all the countries are constantly at war with each other namely “Information War”. Of course, the future will continue to forge further advancements in the wireless technology realms and bring surprise to the lives on Walton's Mountain.

4. Wireless network:

The term network is used to define an interconnection between several devices. Current interpretation is that it is the communicative interconnection of human beings who use different devices. Network technologies have developed much over the birth of telecommunication and it is still in progress. In a short span of time has led the telecommunication technology to advance from wired to wireless network. Although it was quite challenging for mankind, and for engineers to establish networks and signal gateways but nothing is impossible for the creature of such calibre and now it is a reality that the medium with the highest wave impedance is now the medium of the most reliable, fastest, and smoothest communication.

Wireless networks have spread its varieties to a great extent with the advancement of time. Some of the worth mentioning ones are given below:

4.1 WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Networking):

Wireless personal area networks (WPANs) interconnect devices within a relatively small area which is generally 10-300sq-ft. For example, both Bluetooth radio and infrared (IR) light provides WPAN. ZigBee also supports WPAN applications. Wi-Fi PANs has become commonplace as equipment designers start to integrate Wi-Fi into a variety of consumer electronic devices. Intel‟s "My Wi-Fi" and Microsoft‟s "virtual Wi-Fi" capabilities have made Wi-Fi PANs simpler and easier to set up and configure.

Some of the worth mentioning and worth describing WPANs can be described as follows:

Infrared: IR data transmission is employed in short-range communication among computer peripherals and personal digital assistants. These devices usually conform to standards published by IrDA, the Infrared Data Association. Remote controls and IrDA devices use infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to emit infrared radiation which is focused by a plastic lens, combination of various concave and convex lenses, into a narrow beam. The beam is modulated, i.e. switched on and off, to encode the data, it is analogous to the SOS system but very fast. The receiver uses a silicon photodiode to convert the infrared radiation to an electric current. Infrared communications are useful for indoor use as well as the transmitter and the receiver has to be very close to each other in order for the process to be a success. Free space optical communication using infrared lasers is very expensive and in-efficient.

Bluetooth: Bluetooth is a specification for the use of low-power radio communications to wirelessly link phones, computers and other network devices over short distances. The name Bluetooth is borrowed from Harald Bluetooth, a king in Denmark more than 1,000 years ago. Bluetooth uses a technology named Spread-Spectrum Frequency Hopping. Bluetooth technology was conditioned primarily to support simple wireless networking of personal consumer devices and peripherals, including cell phones, PDAs, and wireless headsets over 30 feet radius at 1mbps speed. Bluetooth was and still has been serving as an outstanding device and technology for data transfer. It is also popular in hospitals network for individual wards.

is also popular in hospitals network for individual wards. ZigBee: ZigBee is new mode of wireless

ZigBee: ZigBee is new mode of wireless technology specified for a suite of

high level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on an IEEE 802 standard for personal area networks. Applications

include wireless light switches, electrical meters with in-home-displays, and other consumer and industrial equipment that require short-range wireless transfer of data

at relatively low rates. The technology defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be

simpler and less expensive than other WPANs, such as Bluetooth.

Figure -3: IR Transmitter and Photodiode

4.2 WLAN (Wireless Local Area Networking):

A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices over a short distance using

a wireless mesh distribution method, usually providing a connection through an access point for internet access using wired connection as a backbone. Fixed wireless technology implements point-to-point links also known as mesh networks between computers or networks at two distant locations, often using dedicated microwave or modulated laser light beams over line of sight paths.

Wi-Fi: Wi-Fi is a popular technology that allows an electronic device to exchange data

wirelessly, using radio waves, over a computer network, including high-speed Internet connections. Wi-Fi is defined as any "wireless local area network (WLAN) products that are based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards”. However, since most modern WLANs are based on these standards, the term "Wi-Fi" is used

in general English as a synonym for "WLAN".

A device that can use Wi-Fi, such as a personal computer, video game console, smartphone, tablet, or digital audio player, can connect to a network resource such as the internet via a wireless network access point. Such an access point popularly known as Wi-Fi hotspot has a range of about 20 meters indoors and a greater range outdoors. Because of mobility, ease of installation, flexibility, cost, reliability, security, speed, Wi-Fi is the most reliable WPAN now-a-days , used in home, small businesses, large corporations & campuses, healthcare , wireless ISP (WISP), travellers and so on.

4.3 WMAN (Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks):

Wireless metropolitan area networks are a type of wireless network that connects several wireless LANs. Wi-MAX is a type of Wireless MAN and is described by the IEEE 802.16 standard.

Wi-MAX: Wi-MAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a Protocol of communication network without wire, based on the standard IEEE 802.16, which allows communications over long distances than Wi-Fi, and a greater bandwidth which Cover approximately 40km. Wi-Max is feasible in areas without pre-existing physical cable or telephone networks.

The Goal of Wi-MAX is to provide high-speed Internet access to home and business subscribers, without wires. Its frequency range is 10-66 GHz and sub 11 GHz. This very modern technology supports legacy voice systems, Voice over IP, TCP/IP, applications with different QoS requirements.

Infrared WPAN Bluetooth ZigBee WLAN Wi-Fi Wireless Networks WMAN Wi-MAX GSM/CDMA Mobile Device 3G/WCDMA
Infrared
WPAN
Bluetooth
ZigBee
WLAN
Wi-Fi
Wireless
Networks
WMAN
Wi-MAX
GSM/CDMA
Mobile Device
3G/WCDMA
Network
D-AMPS/PCS

Figure-4: Different types of wireless networks.

4.4

Mobile Device Network:

With the development of smartphones, cellular telephone networks routinely carry data in addition to telephone conversations:

Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) or CDMA: The GSM network is divided into three major modes of systems: the switching system, the base station system, and the operation and support system. The cell phone connects to the nearest base system station which then connects to the operation and support station; it then connects to the switching station where the call needs to be transferred to is sent. GSM is the most common standard and is used for a majority of cell phones.

3G or WCDMA: It is an improvement over GSM or CDMA known respectively as 3G or WCDMA. These are the mostly used network system for newer devices. More improvements like 4G is already in practiced and 5G is in proposal.

Besides these, there are other systems like AMPS, D-AMPS, PCS not much used these days.

5. Mobile communication

Mobile communication is possibly the most fascinating and the most widely spread means of wireless communication, which can be termed as a sorcery in the communication system. And because of the vast usage, the high reliability, large availability, huge variations for all classes of people, one can easily term it to be the unit and unique of modern communication.

5.1 A Short Evolution of Mobile Phones

The first mobile telephone call made from a car occurred in St. Louis, Missouri, the USA on June 17, 1946, using the Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service. In 1956, the world‟s first partly automatic car phone system, Mobile System A (MTA), was launched in Sweden. The world's first commercial automated cellular network was launched in Japan by NTT in 1979, initially in the metropolitan area of Tokyo. In 1991, the second generation (2G) cellular technology was launched in Finland by Radiolinja on the GSM standard, which sparked competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators.

Ten years later, in 2001, the third generation (3G) was launched in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard. At the end of 2011, there were 6 billion mobile subscriptions, estimates The International Telecommunication Union. That is equivalent to 87 percent of the world population. And is a huge increase from 5.4 billion in 2010 and 4.7 billion mobile subscriptions in 2009. Mobile subscribers in the developed world has reached saturation point with at least one cell phone subscription per person. This means market growth is being driven by demand developing world, led by rapid growth of mobile phone users in China and India, the world's most populous nations.

Although it should be noted there is a large difference between the number of subscriptions and subscribers. This is due to the fact that many subscribers have several subscriptions.

However, it should be noted that in some developing regions, it is common for several people

to share one subscription, having for example a family or village phone.

A global approximation about usage in 2011 is given below:

Table-1: Key Global Telecom Indicators in 2011.

 

Global

Developed

Developing

Africa

Arab

Asia &

CIS

Europe

The

nations

nations

States

Pacific

Americas

Mobile

5,981

1,461

4,520

433

349

2,897

399

741

969

cellular

subscriptions

(millions)

Per 100

86.7%

117.8%

78.8%

53.0%

96.7%

73.9%

143.0%

119.5%

103.3%

people in

concerned

area

Active mobile

1,186

701

484

31

48

421

42

336

286

broadband

subscriptions

(millions)

Per 100

17.0%

56.5%

8.5%

3.8%

13.3%

10.7%

14.9%

54.1%

30.5%

people

Source: International Telecommunication Union (November 2011)

 

5.2 Furute Estimates about Mobile Phones

Mobile is now used for communications at various distances, of various forms. Communication in modern days is not confined to speeches only. It has spread about in texts, e-mails, multimedia, and many more. Some of the statistics given below clearly show the fact:

Portio Research (February 2012): 7.8 trillion SMS trillion messages were sent in 2011. SMS traffic is expected to reach 9.6 trillion in 2012.

Portio Research (February 2012): Mobile subscribers worldwide will reach 6.5 billion by the end of 2012, 6.9 billion by the end of 2013 and 8 billion by the end of 2016.

The International Telecommunication Union estimates that Asia Pacific‟s share of the mobile subscribers will rise from 50.7 percent in 2011 to 54.9 percent in 2016 and Africa and Middle East will overtake Europe as the second largest region for mobile subscribers.

Portio Research (February 2012): 207 billion MMS were sent in 2011, rising to 276.8 million in 1016.

Mobile IM is used by 7.9 percent of mobile subscribers; this is projected to rise to 30.9 percent in 2016.

Informa (May 2012):Global mobile IM traffic (from operators and OTT providers) will increase from 1.6 trillion messages in 2011 to 7.7 trillion messages in 2016, doubling its share of global messaging traffic from 17.1 percent in 2011 to 34.6 percent in 2016.

Global expenditure on mobile ads (search, display and messaging) in 2011 was US$5.3 billion, according to IAB and IHS Screen Digest. Search draws in the most revenue with $3.3 billion. And expenditure in Asia exceeds North America and Europe. For example 2011 ad spends is given below.

Table-2: 2011: Mobile ad spend in US $ million

Region

Display

Search

Messaging

Total

Europe

367

900

114

1,380

North America

572

811

295

1,677

Latin America

31

74

83

188

Asia/Pacific

491

1,384

41

1,916

Middle East & Africa

44

124

4

172

Global

1,504

3,292

536

5,333

Source: IAB and IHS Screen Digest

 

6. Wireless Communication in Medical Sector

Wireless technology can be used for various purposes for medical needs, some of them are:

Blood Donor Search: When a patient needs blood people rush to blood banks or go for an emergency TV advertisement. But they are most often not fruitful as well as there is a risk of foul blood especially in blood banks. Along with those there can be a database of all the willing blood donors. When a patient needs blood, the automated system contacts a potential blood donor through SMS or recorded calls, who is very near to the concerning hospital and of the patient‟s blood type.

near to the concerning hospital and of the patient‟s blood type. Figure-5: A pictorial description of

Figure-5: A pictorial description of Telemedicine.

Telemedicine: Wireless telemedicine is a new, glamorous and evolving area in telemedicine and telecare systems. Previously it is seen that there are telephone based healthcare systems where a person is required to call to a certain number to get professional medical suggestions. But healthcare personnel require real time access to accurate patient data, including clinical histories, treatments, medication, tests, laboratory results and insurance information. With large-scale wireless networks and mobile computing solutions, such as cellular 3G, Wi-Fi mesh and Wi-Max, healthcare personnel can tap into vital information anywhere and at any time.

A lot of other medical stuffs can be done using wireless network. For instance after Haiti

earthquake the rescue missions, medical and relief courses were done using a direct satellite uplink from different GPS devices and analysing the map of that area using the co-ordinates from the saved Open Map. As a result the rescue missions were synchronized and all the teams knew what they had to do within seconds and certainly it helped a lot.

7. Usage of Wireless Communication in Bangladesh

Although wireless tech is used immensely in the developed nations Bangladesh has lagged behind in this sector. The mobile operators still use 90‟s GSM or CDMA technology. Although the current scenario shows that the country will suffer a massive damage if suddenly WT is taken away, but the technology is out-dated and very slow. Also, Bangladesh

is not using its 140 gigabit per second internet backbone to full swing. Rather only up to 22

gigabit per second bandwidth has been made public. As a result it cannot achieve necessary

progress in the field of communication compared to nearby countries like India. But, because

of

small market being occupied with five large operators there is an immense competition and

so

cost of carrying a mobile is relatively low compared to other parts of the world.

There are five major telecom operators. As of December 2011 there are 85.42 million subscribers. The figures are given in a table below.

Table-3: Subscriptions in Bangladesh

Company

Subscription (million)

% Subscription

% Population

Grameenphone

36.49

42.72

20.27

Banglalink

23.75

27.80

13.19

Robi Axiata

16.13

18.88

08.96

Airtel Bangladesh

6.02

07.05

03.34

Citycell

1.82

02.13

01.01

Teletalk

1.21

01.42

00.67

Source: marketreasearch.com

 

However, there had been a progress in use of technology by the internet service providers. For example- Wi-MAX based providers has emerged. This has made previous wireless based services like GPRS and EDGE less popular. Also, Wi-MAX is significantly slow compared

to other parts of the world because the service providers cannot get enough bandwidth.

8.

Security Risks of Wireless Technology

However, wireless technology is not free from security breach. For the past ten years a lot of networks worldwide have been damaged by crackers and caused valuable information to be lost or stolen. Since data travels through air, any device with proper settings can intercept and retrieve the data. To prevent this encryption of data is introduced. Despite that the transmissions were vulnerable to several types of attack such as interception, insertion, padding, timing, looping or even brute force search attacks where an adversary uses all the combinations to break the encryption. Using these attacks a hacker can take over one‟s bank account or take all his personal data.

over one‟s bank account or take all his personal data. Figure-6: Cartoon representation of interception attack.

Figure-6: Cartoon representation of interception attack.

The Wi-Fi WEP security was destroyed back in 2002 by a brute force search attack and resulted in creation of much stronger standards now known as WPA or WPA2.

9. Health Risks Related with Wireless Devices

Many scientific studies have found that short term use of any kind of wireless device has almost no adverse effect on human body. But long term studies do prove that long term close contact with some wireless devices can be a threat to human health. The wireless technology is based upon Electromagnetic Radiation. The radiation that wireless devices use is called Radiofrequency Signals or RF signals. However, the wireless devices use the less harmful non-ionizing RF signal. Ionizing RF signals can damage live cell greatly and also cause cancer very easily. Non-ionizing RF signal is much safer, but recent studies has proved that it can cause serious health hazards also if it is used for a long time and very close to the transmitting end.

Undoubtedly, mobile phones are the mostly used wireless device in the world. But unfortunately, it is proven that it can harm human body greatly. Mobile phones don‟t only receive signals, but also they transmit a good amount of RF signals. The only known biological effect of RF energy is heating. RF exposure from cell phone use does cause

heating; however, it is not sufficient to measurably increase body temperature. A recent study showed that when people used a cell phone for 50 minutes, brain tissues on the same side of the head as the phone‟s antenna metabolized more glucose than did tissues on the opposite side of the brain.

Energy Emission in Wireless Devices (Watts)

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Bluetooth Wi-Fi Headsets Commercial Radio
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Bluetooth
Wi-Fi
Headsets
Commercial Radio
Cellphone Base

Stations

Figure-7: Energy Emission in Wireless Devices.

Moreover, research author Dr. Siegal Sadetzki, who is a cancer specialist at Tel Aviv University of Israel, investigated the cases of nearly 500 people diagnosed with benign and malignant tumours of the salivary gland. It was found that those who had used the mobile phones against the side of their heads for many hours a day were 50 per cent more likely to develop a tumour of the parotid gland compared to infrequent users. In the study, published by the American Journal of Epidemiology, Dr. Sadetzki speculated that the greatest effects will be found in heavy users and children over a period of time. She also highlighted rural users as being slightly more at risk than those in cities, because there are fewer masts and the phones have to emit more radiation to ensure a clear connection.

An Argentinean group of medical researchers from the National University of Cuyo believe that cellular phones can increase the chances of developing Osteoporosis. Cell phones tend to lower bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), which are major elements that help in the generation of new bones every 11 years, in a healthy body.

However, not all such devices are harmful to health. Danger may arise when we are exposed to strong transmission of RF signals very closely. But luckily it doesn‟t happen in most of the cases except cell phones. It is safe to use most of the wireless devices. It can be illustrated with a funny example: one has to lay on a Wi-Fi router for more than 1,500,000 minutes (almost 3 years) to get a Wi-Fi burn!

10. Conclusions

It can be said with adamant voice that wireless technology has revolutionized the way people used to interact with each other. Past days people had to go on foot or make a small journey to meet other people and know how they are doing. But modern technology has made it possible fairly easier as people can just make a call or take a laptop to use a wireless network to talk to other people on Skype TM . A large number of population use wireless network today. And the number is ever increasing. Even in Bangladesh the subscriptions are increasing day by day. It‟s because people need it. However the risks are thought provoking and care has to be taken.

11. Recommendations

Well, it is already seen that wireless technology is not free from its mess. The users, the engineers and the government all have to play a role to make the technology effective, safe and feasible. The following recommendations are given for consideration with respect to Bangladesh:

10. Since Bangladesh primarily needs the necessary data transmission speed it is advised that all the bandwidth of the submarine link is made available to the public. Bandwidth cannot be stored or kept for future use. So, not using at full speed doesn‟t gain anything, rather it‟s lossy.

11. Since Bangladesh in a developing country, a lot of foreign companies make it target to sell their cheap but harmful device. Such devices are known for emission RF signals. There should a standard be maintained. The devices which emit RF at red level should be banned from the market to ensure public health.

12. Since progress is relatively delayed in Bangladesh there may be a lot of wireless terminals that uses old encryption technology like WEP. Such terminals should be identified and replaced with new devices that use WPA or WPA2 to prevent any kind of security breach. This can be done in user level rather than in government level.

13. Users should limit their use of cellphones as it is a large resource of RF signals. They should use it only when necessary. For a person who must use cellphone all the time it is advised that they should use headphones. One point should be noted that, the volume in the headphone should be relatively low. Loud and screech sound harms the eardrums.

14. Using wireless to any devices while driving car is totally insecure and should never ever be practiced.

The following recommendations are for the engineers who design wireless network or device:

Devices should be made with as carefully as possible. Care must be taken so that the device emits as less RF signals as possible.

While designing a transmission network, less penetrating waves should be used i.e. such wave should be used which is less penetrating as well as less dispersive so that clear transmission can be done. To achieve these devices can be made more sophisticated so that transmission and receiving can be done even with bad waves.

While fabricating ICs for such devices care should be taken so that the ICs produce very low amount of heat. Heat, produced in cell phones, damages the brain. Sometimes, it also gives burns.

Appendices

Wireless Technology: A Revolution in Modern Communication Questionnaire

Name:

Age:

Gender:

1. Do you know anything about wireless technology?

a. Yes

b.

No.

2. Which wireless technology or device you use in your everyday life? Double tick the one which you use most. (You may choose more than one option)

a.

Cellphone

b.

WLAN

c.

Wireless Headset, Speaker

d.

Wireless Computer Parts

e.

Others

3. How many hours do you spend working with a wireless device?

a.

Less than 1

b.

1-5

c.

5-10

d.

10-15

e.

15-20

f. All day long

4. If you have a cellphone what purpose do you use it?

a.

Calling

b.

Texting

c.

Browsing

d.

Social Networking

e.

Public Correspondence

f.

Entertainment

g.

Others

5. Do you think wireless technology is economical?

a. Yes

b.

No

c.

I don‟t have any idea.

6. Are you concerned about the health risk with wireless technology?

a. Yes

b.

No

7. Do you use any communication device while driving a car?

a.

Yes

b.

No

c.

I don‟t drive

8. Do you think wireless technology can be used for better healthcare?

a.

Yes

b.

No

c.

No comment.

9. Should our government put emphasis on the growth and expansion of wireless technology?

a.

Yes

b.

No

c.

No comment.

References

Wireless Technology History: The Importance of Wireless Technologies in Modern Business Applications; http://marketforme.articlealley.com/wireless-technology-history-the-

importance-of-wireless-technologies-in-modern-business-applications-667372.html;

Retrieved: 12/06/2012

Jagadish Chandra Bose; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jagadish_Chandra_Bose#Radio_research; Retrieved: 16/06/2012

Guglielmo Marconi; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi#Radio_work; Retrieved: 16/06/2012

Mobile phone; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_phone; Retrieved: 12/06/2012

Bluetooth; http://compnetworking.about.com/cs/bluetooth/g/bldef_bluetooth.htm; Retrieved:

13/06/2012

Wireless Network Industry Report; http://www.wireless- nets.com/resources/downloads/wireless_industry_report_2007.html; Retrieved: 13/06/2012

Facts About Wi-MAX; http://www.techpluto.com/wimax-in-detail/; Retrieved: 13/06/2012

Wireless Networks Bluetooth to Mobile; http://www.technologystation.net/2010/03/wireless- networks-bluetooth-to-mobile.html; Retrieved: 13/06/2012

Infrared; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrared#Communications; Retrieved: 13/06/2012

ZigBee; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZigBee#Communication_models; Retrieved: 13/06/2012

Wi-Fi; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wi-Fi; Retrieved: 13/06/2012

Key Global Telecom Indicators for the World Telecommunication Service Sector; http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/at_glance/KeyTelecom.html; Retrieved: 12/06/2012

Mobile Messaging Futures 2012-2016; http://www.portioresearch.com/en/reports/current- portfolio/mobile-messaging-futures-2012-2016.aspx; Retrieved: 12/06/2012

Global mobile statistics 2012 Part A: Mobile subscribers; handset market share; mobile operators; http://mobithinking.com/mobile-marketing-tools/latest-mobile-stats/a#subscribers; Retrieved: 12/06/2012

Mobile Instant Messaging Use to Triple in Five Years Exceeding 1.3 billion Users by 2016; http://www.juniperresearch.com/viewpressrelease.php?pr=248; Retrieved: 12/06/2012

Global Mobile Advertising Market Valued at $5.3 Billion (€3.8 Billion) in 2011; http://www.iab.net/about_the_iab/recent_press_releases/press_release_archive/press_release/ pr-060612_global; Retrieved: 12/06/2012

Wireless technologies for telemedicine, http://shdl.mmu.edu.my/1988/1/1338.pdf,

Retrieved:12/06/2012

Overview of Mobile Telecommunication industry in Bangladesh;

http://mushfiq009.wordpress.com/%E2%80%9Coverview-of-mobile-telecommunication-

industry-in-bangladesh-%E2%80%9D/; Retrieved: 18/06/2012

Wi-Fi security WEP, WPA and WPA2 ; http://www.hsc.fr/ressources/articles/hakin9_wifi/hakin9_wifi_EN.pdf; Retrieved:

18/06/2012

Bangladesh Telecom Market; http://www.telecomlead.com/inner-page-details.php?id=8141; Retrieved: 18/06/2012

Are there health risks in using Wi-Fi technologies?; http://www.wapa.org.za/are-there-health- risks-in-using-wifi-technologies; Retrieved: 18/06/2012

Glossary

Hub: A point where many routes meet and traffic is distributed, dispensed or diverted. Backbone: In engineering point of view all the infrastructures are built around a central structure known as backbone. Signals: Waves with small amplitudes. It can be a combination of sine waves (analog signal) or square waves (digital signal). Analogue Signal: Summation of sine waves. Digital Signal: Summation of square waves. RF: Radio Frequency. RCA: Radio Corporation of America. Established in 1919 and defunct in 1986. Bandwidth: The difference between the highest and lowest frequency in a group of signals. Walton's Mountain: A fictional place from "The Walton" series. Popularly referred to as "The World". PDA: Personal Digital Assistant. Introduced in 1992 as a multitasking device. Today almost all PDAs are Smart Phones. IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Established in 1963. The largest professional association of EE engineers. Spread Spectrum: A method of generating signals in a particular bandwidth. OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. A method of encoding digital data on multiple carrier frequencies. LAN: Local Area network. ISP: Internet Service Provider. A local business group which provides internet access to a certain area. IP: Internet Protocol. This protocol provides internet connection. TCP: Transmission Control Protocol. Controls transmission. NTT: Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation. GPS: Global positioning System. A sensor system that determines the position of the GPS device in the globe. GPRS: General Pocket Radio Service. An early mobile internet service. EDGE: Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution also known as Enhanced GPRS or EGPRS. An improvement over GPRS. WEP, WPA, WPA2: Wi-Fi security protocols.