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Bidirectional VF Control of Single and 3-Phase Induction Motors sing the PIC!6F7"
Author# Pad$ara%a &eda$ale Microchi' (echnolog) Inc* (he $otor is energi+ed ,ith a single-'hase AC 'o,er su''l)- ,ith a ca'acitor connected in series ,ith the start ,inding .also called an au/iliar) ,inding0 as sho,n in Figure !* (he 1alue of the ca'acitor is chosen so that the total i$'edance on the au/iliar) ,inding 'roduces sufficient 'hase shift in current to generate a rotating $agnetic field in the air ga'* ()'icall)- the current flo,ing through the start ,inding leads the current flo,ing through the $ain ,inding 2) 93 degrees* B) adding a $icrocontroller-2ased control circuit to the $otor- the 1oltage across the $ain ,inding and start ,inding can 2e $aintained at 93 degrees to each other* (he other ad1antage is that the starting ca'acitor can 2e re$o1ed fro$ the circuit- thus reducing the total s)ste$ cost*

IN(456 C(I5N
Single-'hase induction $otors are e/tensi1el) used in a''liances and industrial controls* (he Per$anent S'lit Ca'acitor .PSC0 single-'hase induction $otor is the si$'lest and $ost ,idel) used $otor of this t)'e* (he classification- construction and ,or7ing 'rinci'le of single-'hase induction $otors are e/'lained in detail in thea''licationnote8ACInductionMotor Funda$entals9 .AN::70 a1aila2le fro$ Microchi'* For VF theor) and 2asic o'erations- refer to AN::7 $entioned a2o1e- and 8S'eed Control of 3-Phase Induction Motor sing PIC!: Microcontrollers9 .AN:;30*

B) design- PSC $otors are unidirectional- ,hich $eans the) are designed to rotate in one direction* B) adding either e/tra ,indings- and e/ternal rela)s and s,itches- or 2) using gear $echanis$s- the direction of rotation can 2e changed* In this a''lication note ,e ,ill discuss in detail- ho, to control the s'eed of a PSC $otor in 2oth directions using a PIC!6F7" $icrocontroller and 'o,er electronics* (he PIC!6F7" $icrocontroller ,as chosen 2ecause it is one of the si$'lest and lo,-cost general 'ur'ose $icrocontrollers Microchi' has in its 'ortfolio* <1en though it does not ha1e the P=Ms in hard,are to dri1e co$'le$entar) P=M out'uts ,ith dead 2and insertedall P=Ms are generated in fir$,are using ti$ers and out'ut to general 'ur'ose out'ut 'ins*

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<?<C(4ICA? <@ IV<?AN( CI4C I( 5F A PSC M5(54


? AC N

Main =inding

SAuirrel Cage 4otor

Starting =inding


A $ulti'hase in1erter can 2e used to dri1e the $otor* (,o $ethods are discussed in the ne/t section*

(B<54& 5F 5P<4A(I5N
A PSC $otor is usuall) a "-'hase as)$$etricall) ,ound $otor* (he $ain ,inding is designed to ta7e the load current* (he current flo,ing through the start ,inding is $uch less than the $ain ,inding* (hereforethe start ,inding ,ill ha1e a different electrical characteristic co$'ared to the $ain ,inding* In order to 'roduce the Magneto$oti1e Force .MMF0 'roduced 2) the start ,inding 1er) near to the $ain ,inding- the start ,inding has additional turns- higher resistanceand reduced current flo,ing through it* (his $a7es the $otor ,indings as)$$etrical*

C "33D Microchi' (echnolog) Inc*

6S33967A-'age !

64IV< (5P5?5>&
sing an B-Bridge In1erter
(he first a''roach is relati1el) eas) as far as the 'o,er circuit and control circuit are concerned* 5n the in'ut side- a 1oltage dou2ler is used and on the out'ut side an B-2ridge- or "-'hase in1erter- is used as sho,n in Figure "* 5ne end of the $ain and start ,indings are connected to each half 2ridge and the other ends are connected together to the neutral 'oint of the AC 'o,er su''l)- ,hich also ser1es as the center 'oint for the 1oltage dou2ler* (he control circuit reAuires four P=Ms ,ith t,o co$'le$entar) 'airs ,ith sufficient dead 2and 2et,een the co$'le$entar) out'uts* P=M3-P=M! and P=M"-P=M3 are the P=M 'airs ,ith dead 2and* (he PIC!6F7" does not ha1e P=Ms designed in the hard,are to out'ut the ,a) ,e need* (herefore- the P=Ms should 2e generated in fir$,are and out'ut to the 'ort 'ins* sing P=Ms- the 6C 2us is s)nthesi+ed to gi1e t,o sine 1oltages at 93 degrees out of 'hase ,ith 1ar)ing a$'litude and 1ar)ing freAuenc) according to the VF 'rofile* If the 1oltage a''lied to the $ain ,inding lags the start ,inding 2) 93 degrees- the $otor runs in one .i*e*- for,ard0 direction* (o re1erse the direction of rotation- the 1oltage su''lied to the $ain ,inding should lead the 1oltage su''lied to the start ,inding*

Figure 3 and Figure ; sho, the $ain and start ,inding 1oltages in for,ard and re1erse res'ecti1el)*

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PSC 64IV< =I(B AN B-B4I6><

P=M! ? P=M3 P=M! AC


V$ VMAIN >ate 6ri1er VS(A4( V$ E F G"



Main =inding

P=M" P=M3 P=M3 P=M" Start =inding

6S33967A-'age "

C "33D Microchi' (echnolog) Inc*