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Cavalrymen of Vijayanagara

The history of glorious Vijayanagara Empire (1336-1565 AD) is one of the few alarming
stories ever told by the rubbles of architectural wonders of the past. Vijayanagara
embarked on the obvious pledge of protecting Hinduism when the Tughalaq Sultanates
occupied the Yadav Kingdom of Maharashtra. Defenseless Hindus in the south were
desperately looking for someone to rescue them from the clutches of Islam. Harihara of
the Sangama Dynasty founded the Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagara in 1336 AD when
the Hoysala Empire was on its last legs. The commanders of the Hoysala Dynasty,
including Bommayya Nayaka were of critical assistance to Harihara and his brother
Bukka Raya in establishing the much-needed Hindu kingdom on the north banks of the
Tungabadra River in Anegundi. At the request of Bommayya, the Kalachuri chief of the
South Konkan, Mangaldeva peacefully merged with Vijayanagara. Mangaladeva was
the ancestor of Salwa Narasihma Devaraya who was the original ruler of the Salva
Dynasty of Vijayanagara. The Salwas of Vijayanagara were the Kalachuris hiding from
Kalyani Chalukyas and Veerashaiva mercenaries in Uttara Kannada. They were also
known to some historians as the tribal rulers of South Konkan.

Deva Raya II of the Sangama Dynasty constructed the forts of Ankola and Mirjan in the
fifteenth century. The forts were protecting trades with Arabia and China. They were
built with the typical contemporary fortification architecture. The Mirjan fort protected
spice exports. The Ankola fort was a supplementary buttress to the Vijayanagara
armada guarding the ports between Bhatkal and Goa. They were built in oval shapes on
leveled grounds with 20- 25 feet high barricades surrounded by moats, 15 feet deep and
20 feet wide. Large laterite stones from the local mines were cut and veneered squarely
and neatly. The fort barricades were built with twofold walls and 4-8 feet of space in
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between them; the hollow space was filled with earthen debris. The stone cubes were
arranged without any fastening materials. At Mirjan the water filled moats were packed
with hordes of crocodiles and the deep ditches of the fort in Ankola were filled with
sticky clay. The eclectic fortification methods of Vijayanagara implemented in the
coastal region promised security to the flourishing sea trade.

Anjaneya, the monkey god was the foremost divinity of the Sangama Dynasty.
Anjaneya is a well respected character in the epic of Ramayana. The Anjanadri Hill,
situated across from Hampi village was Anjaneyas alleged holy birthplace and Hampi
was his mythical kingdom. The Sangamas believed in the spirit of Anjaneya guarding
the Vijayanagara Empire. They built Anjaneya temples all across the empire, including
a temple of Anjaneya in the Ankola fort. The chieftain of Adil Shah, Sharif ul Mulk of
Ponda, destroyed the Anjaneya and Koteshwara temples, but left the fort intact. Sonda
Nayakas later on claimed the fort and rebuilt the temples. The ruler of Mysore, Hyder
Ali, conquered Uttara Kannada in 1763 AD and took control of the forts in Ankola and
Mirjan. Since the fall of Vijayanagara, the Ankola Fort changed hands a few times and
temples were refurbished at least twice before the Colonial Rule. The Collector of North
Kanara visited the fort in 1880 AD. He wrote in his report about the exotic cluster of
tropical old trees such as mango, tamarind, mangosteen, guava, custard apple, cashew,
and java plum growing wildly inside the fort. As described by the local fairy tale,
Sarpamalika, a person blessed by a snake built the fort in an unspecified era

On the Portuguese map of Konkan drawn in the early sixteenth century, the Bay of
Colla (Ankola harbor) was shown 13 knots south of Liga (Kali River). The important
ports, Cintakala (Sadashivgad) and Mergeo (Mirjan) were also marked. It suggests that
Ankola was once called Colla by Portuguese. Adjacent to the Colla Bay in the east there
was a place called Pale which might have been the present day Bole. What was the
reason for showing Bole on the Portuguese map? Perhaps Ankola was named in the
beginning of the sixteenth century when the father of Arasappa Nayaka of Sonda,
Salwa Devarasa (Devaraya Nayaka), was the governor of Banavasi Nadu. His mistress
who lived in Ankola was a famous dancer. People flocked to see her dance recitals in a
local temple. Ankola was named after the dancer but her name was not found; the
closest feminine name one can guess would be Ankila. Naming a temple town after the
concubine of a chieftain seems hilarious but dancing for gods in fashionable costumes

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perhaps made her eligible for such an honor. Regardless, Ankola in the past was well
known for its enchanting Devadasis. People from far and wide visited Ankola for its
Urvashi like flirting women. A merchant of Venice, M. Caesar Frederick, in his diary
mentioned visiting Ankola in 1567 AD. According to some, the name for Ankola came
from the plant, Alangium Lamarckii (Botanical name) which in Hindi was called
Ankola or Akola plant. It is hard to believe that Ankola was named after an odd shrub
growing wild in India and East Africa. However the claims of branding Ankola after a
concubine or rare plant somehow seem to be fabricated long after the town of Ankola
was mentioned in the sixteenth century by Caesar Frederick.

The Ankola fort is one of the oldest known structures in Ankola. The ancient shrines
instituted by Kalachuris in Bhavikeri, Jain Basadi in Honnebail and Jain Tirtankara
(Mahavira?) Basadi of Ankola is even older than the Ankola fort. Obviously, the safety
promised by the fort gave enough confidence for the growth of the town of Ankola. The
next significant add-ons to the town were the lovely temples built during the reign of
the Salwa and Tuluva dynasties. Three temples, Venkataramana 1495 AD, Aryadurga
1506 AD, and Laxmi Narayana 1510 AD were constructed within a mile radius from the
fort. The urbanization process set the town boundary that was marked by the Ankola
harbor and three temples. Half a mile to the west of the fort was the bustling Hale Peti
(old bazaar). By the end of the sixteenth century, Ankola had many spinning and
weaving mills. The Ankola port exported textile and raw cotton. In the seventeenth
century during Adil Shahi rule the textile industry got bigger and the port was
expanded. The blemished landscape of the old port which was called Bandra or Bandar
(port in Persian) existed even in the beginning of the twentieth century.

The Kalachuri (Salwa) soldiers of Kalagod gained the trust of the reigning Sangama
Dynasty. Salwa Narasihma Devaraya was the chief commander during the rule of
Virupaksha Raya II. The strength of Vijayanagara began to weaken and the empire was
sinking into chaos and lawlessness. The Goa territory was lost to the Bahamani Sultans.
After the death of Virupaksha, his son Prouda Raya, even weaker than his father
became the king. Salwa Narasihma Devaraya (1485-1491 AD) in 1485 AD took over the
kingdom from the negligent emperor Proudha Raya of the Sangama Dynasty. It was the
beginning of the Salwa Dynasty (1485-1505 AD) that belonged to the Nadavaras of
Uttara Kannada. Narasihma Devaraya was the savior of the empire that was about to

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slip into mutiny. He diligently benchmarked the war discipline and battle codes to keep
his soldiers fit and alert. After taking over the reign, he immediately chose Nadavaras
and Bunts as the chieftains of the cavalry of Vijayanagara. The Kalachuri chieftain of
Haduvalli, an autonomous principality of Vijayanagara opposed to the coronation of
Narasihma Devaraya. Perhaps it was due to the rivalry between the Salwa families of
Adlur and Haduvalli. The Salwas of Haduvalli were the cousins of the Salwas of Adlur.
Narasihma Devaraya removed the chief of Haduvalli bringing the region under the
command of Banavasi Nadu. Tuluva Narasa Nayaka, who hailed from the Bunt
community of Kundapura, Dakshina Kannada was appointed as the chief commander
of the Vijayanagara military. Narasa Nayaka was married to Nagamma, a Salwa
woman of Uttara Kannda. In 1491 Narasihma Devaraya died leaving behind two
juvenile children, Timma Bhupa and Narasihma II.

Narasa Nayaka in 1491 crowned the older son of Narasihma Devaraya, and shortly
after the coronation the new king was murdered. The influential commander, Salwa
Timmayya (Timmarsa) was saddened by the murder of Timma Bhupa. Disagreements
between Narasa Nayka and Timmarasa began to swell. The chiefs of Vijayanagara lost
their trust in Narasa Nayaka. In order to prevent possible unrest in Hampi, immediately
the juvenile brother of Timma Bhupa, Narasihma II was made the king of Vijayanagara
(in 1491). Timmarasa was enticed with the rights and privileges of Mahapradhan (prime
minister). Tuluva Narasa Nayaka took over the reign, faking the role of caretaker. In an
effort to legitimatize his rule, he seemingly played the role of a savior of Hinduism like
the Sangama kings. When Narasihma II became fourteen years old, he was placed in
confinement in Penukonada. Narasa Nayaka died in 1502 and three years later Salwa
Narasihma II was murdered; The Salwa dynasty of the Nadavaras of Uttara Kannada
came to an end in 1505. Vijayanagara during the Salwa Dynasty had the largest Cavalry
in Southeast Asia, consisting of thirty five thousand horses. Salwas, being passionate
horse riders, built their military with a strong cavalry which dominated their war
strategies. The Tuluvas, successors of Salwas, also gave importance to the cavalry force.

Krishna Devaraya was the son of Salwa Nagamma and Tuluva Narasa Nayaka.
Nagamma was called Salwa Nagala Devi after her marriage to Narasa Nayaka. Nagala
Devi was a Jain woman from Banavasi Nadu. She was related to Salwa Timmarasa
(Timmayya Nayaka). Krishna Devaraya was not born in Hampi. His date of birth and

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birthplace are unknown. He was probably born in Banavasi Nadu, his maternal wing.
The sculpture at Hampi of young Krishna Devaraya sitting with his relative from Bole,
a coastal village near Ankola in Uttara Kannada is intriguing. Bole was village in
Banavasi Nadu during the Vijayanagara Empire. The relative in the carving might be
Krishna Devarayas cousin and also brother-in-law, Salwa Devaraya, governor of
Banavasi Nadu. Probably Nagala Devi was a woman from Bole. Nadavaras of Bole for
long time had treasured Pawanas (gold coins) of Vijayanagara featuring the Hindu
gods. The coins possessed by the Krishna Naiks family later in the twentieth century
were converted to jewelries for nuptial ceremonies.

Timmarasa was a progeny of the Salwa Dynasty. Tuluva Narasa Nayaka made him the
prime minister of Vijayanagara. Viranarasihma (1505-1509 AD), the half brother of
Krishna Devaraya extended Timmarasas tenure. Krishna Devaraya (1509-1529 AD)
ascended to the throne of Vijayanagara after the death of his brother and Timmarasa
continued with his obligatory role. Timmarasa was the prime minister under three
different kings. He arranged the coronation of the emperor on the holy day of
Gokulashtami, the celebration of God Krishnas birthday. He was the fatherly figure to
the Emperor. Krishna Devaraya, acting on the advice of Timmarasa, built Nagalanagara
near Hospete, Karnataka as the memorial of his mother. Tirumala Raya, the son of
Krishna Devaraya was made Yuvaraja (crown prince) in 1524 AD. He accidentally died
and was suspected of poisoning. Krishna Devaraya accused his trusted advisor,
Timmarasa and had him blinded. Also his innocent son Timmanna was executed. The
love story between Krishna Devaraya and Timmarasa ended in tragedy. Krishna
Devaraya apparently regretted of his actions in his death bed.

The Venkataramana Temple in Tirupati was the prime holy place of Krishna Devaraya.
He rejuvenated the temple lavishly with gold and diamonds. Sculptured gold statues of
Krishna Devaraya and his two wives, Chinnamma and Tirumala, were instituted in the
temple corridor. Till 1945, a sacred silver pot from the Tirupati Venkataramana Temple
known as Kalasa was brought to Bole every year in October. The Kalasa spent one holy
week in Krishna Naiks house at Bole and a week in Kanabera temple, Bhavikeri. The
unique relation between Bole and Tirupati obviously makes one think of the kinship of
Krishna Devaraya with the Nadavaras of Bole and Vandige. Two families of Bole are
still living in two hundred year old huge homes with thick fort like walls and carved

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doors and pillars. The gigantic proportions of these old structures indicate some sort of
stately relations to the residents of the homes in Bole. These antique houses were built
two centuries after the end of Vijayanagara but what kind of structures did exist in Bole
during Vijayanagara? One family of Bole and one from Vandige, in the early
Nineteenth century concealed large amount of their ancestral gold in an anonymous
temple, since they were concerned about the confiscation of treasures by the Colonial
rulers. A generation after the families couldnt find their gold in the temple. Further
research of Bole and Vandige villages may shed light on the ancestry of Nadavaras and
their relations to Vijayanagara.

Salwa Devaraya Nayaka, the son in low of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka was the Governor of
Banavasi Nadu. Devarayas younger brother, Salwa Krishna was the care taker of the
Bhatkal port. Devaraya facilitated building many temples in Uttar Kannada including
Aryadurga of Ankola. The old fort in Ankola built during the reign of the Sangama
Dynasty was Devaraya Nayakas abode. The name of Timmanna Nayaka was somehow
associated with the Portuguese horse trade. He was possibly a commander who
perhaps lived in Ankola fort along with Devaraya Nayaka. The Vijayanagara navy had
two hundred boats to guard the horse trade. There was a mile long restricted and partly
underground passage from the fort to the Ankola harbor. The passage provided secret
access to the harbor. Saraswata accountants came from Goa to manage the horse trade.
Saraswats with Devarayas help brought the idol of Laxmi Narayana from Nagwe, Goa
to Ankola. The Laxmi Narayana temple was built in Ankola in 1510 in Vandige, a
suburb of Ankola.

The South Indian sultry weather was not suitable for breeding horses. Vijayanagara
kings imported Arabian horses from the Middle East. During the Tuluva Vira
Narasihma regime (1503-1509 AD) both Portuguese and Arabs sold horses to
Vijayanagara kings in tandem with Bijapur Adil Shah. The most celebrated emperor,
Krishna Devaraya, was concerned about the trade practices of Arabs. He made the trade
agreement exclusively with Portuguese for supplying horses and dropped the Arabian
suppliers. Devaraya Nayaka along with his assistant, Timmanna Nayaka was made
responsible for complying with the Portuguese Trade Agreement. The Portuguese
stopped supplying horses to Adil Shah, who in due course started buying horses from
pirates at high prices. Timoji of Goa was an infamous pirate who maneuvered from

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Anjadiv and was a threat to cargo ships between Bhatkal and Goa. Still he was clever
enough to maintain relations with the Portuguese and Vijayanagara. Timoji helped the
Portuguese with his spy network to penetrate through the strong garrison built by Adil
Shah in Goa. The Portuguese Viceroy, Alfonso de Albuquerque in 1510 AD defeated
Yusuf Adil Shah and occupied Tiswadi Island of Goa. Even after receiving high honors
from Portuguese, Timoji returned to his notorious profession. Piracy became persistent
nuisance. Jointly, the Portuguese and Devaraya Nayaka captured Timoji, who was later
executed by the Portuguese. The Haduvalli chief didnt help to prevent pirate incidents
in Bhatkal. The sovereign status savored by the Haduvalli principality was ceased by

The logistics of transporting horses from the ports of Konkan to Vijayanagara was a
well organized efficient routine. Portuguese Horses arriving at Goa and Bhatkal ports
were brought to Vasare-Kudaragi (Abode for Horses) before transporting them to
Vijayanagara. Vasare is sited on the north-shore of the Gangavali River, seven miles east
of Ankola. Being in the middle of Bhatkal and Goa ports, the village of Vasare was
chosen for the sole purpose of consolidating horses arriving at two different ports. The
horses were transferred from the cargo ships to smaller ships and transported to Ankola
and Vasare-Kudaragi ports. The horses were brought for cost assessment to Jamagod,
which was a flatland of Bole. The relics of horse tracks and stone columns for tying
down horses existed till 1960s in Jamagod. A road, the Bellari Margh was constructed
for transporting horses. The Bellari Road started in Agsur which was about three miles
east of Vasare. Between Agsur and Vasare-Kudaragi a circular racetrack half a mile in
diameter was built to try out the horses. The horses were washed in the Ganagavali
River and before heading towards Hampi, prayed at the Hulideva (Tiger God) temple
in Agsur for protecting horses from tiger attacks.

Krishna Devaraya died of a sudden illness in 1529 AD. Instability spread all over
Vijayangara. The feudatories began to revolt and sultanates announced Jihad against
the Hindu empire. Achuta Devaraya, the half brother of Krishna Devaraya held on to
the empire uneventfully till 1542 AD. Then the control of the kingdom was taken over
by the son-in-law of Krishna Devaraya, Ramaraya of the Aravidu Dynasty. He was the
regent for the boy-king Sadashivaraya, the nephew of Krishna Devaraya. But actually
Sadashivaraya was held in custody by Ramaraya and his brothers, Venkatadri and

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Tirumalaraya. Ramaraya was never officially enthroned, since he was not a progeny of
the Tuluva Dynasty. His greed kept him in power till he was quite old. The
subordinate and feudal rulers could not interact with Ramaraya. The cavalrymen were
subservient to the Tulu dynasty and didnt approve of Ramarayas role. Ramaraya
tried to curb the dominance of the cavalry by reducing its strength from 35,000 to 20,000
and tripled the elephant brigade. The war strategy had to change significantly.
Vijayanagara, rather than relying on cavalry to penetrate into enemy defense, used slow
moving mighty elephants as spearhead to pound the enemys line of attack. Even
though the Vijayanagara army was large in figures it was equipped for minor battles
that could oppress the Sultanates individually.

Ramaraya removed competent officials and replaced them with people related to him.
Ramaraya in 1557 made a secretive accord with Ali Adil Shah and his wife adopted Ali
as her adopted son. Ali amicably complied with Rama Rayas demands only to build
muscle for a future confrontation. He appointed Muslim commanders, Gilani brothers
who had defected from the army of Ali Adil Shah. A few competent chieftains left
Vijayanagara to join Goa and Travancore kingdoms. Salwa Honnappa Nayaka, the chief
commander of the cavalry appointed by Achuta Raya was murdered. The relations with
the Portuguese in Goa deteriorated. Ramaraya fought irrelevant battles followed by
unsatisfying victories and mediocre results. The army consisting of three hundred
thousand soldiers was tired of trivial wars and was morally fragmented. The natural
resources of the empire were steadily declining, and the maintenance of its large
military became unbearably expensive. Highly elevated trajectory of the standard of
living in Hampi was gradually declining. The feudatories could not afford the rising
taxation imposed on them. Ramarayas abysmal dictatorship was a precursor to the
imminent demise of Vijayanagara.

Ramaraya lacked the political savvy to be a successful ruler of Vijayanagara. He

underestimated the grave threat of the Bahamani Sultanates. His political organization
existed to carry out deliberate insults to the neighboring Sultanates. Ramaraya
scornfully disrespected the cabinet and military chieftains. His despicable behavior was
passionately hated by his subordinates and the sultanates. There was no broad plan in
place to maintain the integrity of the south Indian empire. The growing antagonism
against Ramaraya was the reason for the alliance of the southern sultanates. The five

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Bahamani Sultans, Ibrahim Qutub Shah: Golconda, Hussain Nizam Shah: Ahmad
Nagar: Ali Adil Shah Bijapur, Burhan Imad Shah: Berar, Ali Barid Shah: Bidar met at
Talikota in Deccember 1564. The martial muscle of Vijayanagara was no longer strong
enough to wage a war against the joint forces of Sultanates. But Ramarayas egotism
and desire for self-promotion blinded him from the reality of looming danger. The
Sultans through their stealth operatives were well informed of the war strategies of
Ramaraya. Sultans were ready for the long waited opportunity, with the agile cavalry of
40,000 horses and far reaching robust cannons.

The soldiers of Vijayanagara had to cross the Krishna River to meet the joint forces of
Sultanates at Rakkasagi and Tangadagi, situated ten miles apart on the north bank of
the Krishna River. Ramarayas two Islamic commanders, the Gilani brothers who
controlled large legions of foot-soldiers, deserted the Vijayangara army in the middle of
the war. Ali Adil Shahs sneaky plot of secretly inserting Gilani brothers two years
before the war in the Vijayanagara army worked out flawlessly. The army of
Vijayanagara was shocked by the sudden unanticipated crafty strategy of Sultanates.
The war took an asymmetrical form within a few hours, like a knockout in the first
round of a boxing bout. Perplexed, Ramaraya was captured and was beheaded by
Hussain Nizam Shah of Ahamadnagar. It was an act of burning vengeance of Hussain
Shah, who was dishonored and offended by Ramaraya on many occasions in the past.
The massive army of Vijayanagara succumbed to the methodically planned guile of
Sultanates. Hussain Shah marched around on the war field with Ramarayas head held
on a spear. The Bahamani soldiers stampeded over the retreating Vijayanagara army.
Thousands of fleeing soldiers of Vijayangara while trying to cross the river were shot
with arrows. Adil Shah had sent a private letter to Ramaraya a few days before the war
stating that he would stay neutral. On the contrary the night before the war the soldiers
of Adil Shah had secretly crossed river to the south bank of Krishna. The Vijayanagra
soldiers were massacred from both sides of the river. Thousands of dead bodies were
floating in the river and Krishna turned into a river of blood. The Vijayanagara army
was destroyed and the heroic effort of its soldiers abruptly came to a sad conclusion.

The majestic empire succumbed to the united coalition of Sultanates in the historic
battle of Talikota on January 26, 1565. Aftermath of the battle was quite obvious. It was
the gloomiest night when an enormous breaking wave of the Bahamani soldiers rolled

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over Hampi. The victorious Bahamani soldiers savagely slaughtered its residents,
destroyed temples, robbed the palaces and pillaged treasures amassed for two
centuries. The scourge of tyranny spread all over Hampi and beyond. The bustling city
of rulers and riches turned into a ghost town. The stylish human habitation of Hampi
was savagely foraged by looters and scavengers. Ramarayas fixated unruly
disengagement weakened the integrity of the strongest empire of that time. Shrinking
the strong cavalry built by Krishna Devaraya to accommodate a few more elephants
proved to be a misstep of Ramaraya. But naively hiring the commanders defected from
Adil Shahs army proved to be the biggest blunder ever committed in the history of
Vijayanagara. His greed for power turned out to be the blinders. Indirectly Ramaraya
became his own executioner.

The war of Talikota was not entirely a war between two religious factions, as many
historians stated. The inequalities in wealth, political freedom and religious rights were
the major reasons for the hostilities between the two neighbors. The wealth of
Vijayanagara was accentuated by the rich crops of fertile southern table land, diamond
mines of Krishna and Tungabadra region, high-priced spices of Malenadu and natural
ports of South Konkan. Bahamani Sultanates strived to seize the resourceful
Vijayanagara for centuries. The prolonged conflict between two rivals to control the
diamond mines was stretched out for two centuries. The serial of wars that began in
1358 between Bukkaraya and Mohammad Shah was concluded by Ramaraya and
Bahamani Sultanates in 1565 at the battle of Talikota. The confederation of the
Sultanates came out victorious but the war drained out any vigor left in them. Sultans
rejoiced the capture of the diamond mines but diamonds were all gone out of the mines.
The superior quality diamond supply of South Africa entered the European markets
around the same time. The Tungabadra diamond rush proved to be an exhaustive
endeavor and the victory celebration of the sultans was short lived. The Inter-sultanate
conflicts obviously disintegrated the coalition and Mogul rulers of Delhi gobbled up the
Deccan sultanates one by one.

The manifestation of Vijayanagara was enviously admired by the visiting emissaries

and dignitaries from Europe and Asia. Abdur Razzak, the ambassador from Persia in
1443 made a note The eyes never saw such a place like the city of Vijayanagara, and
ears never heard that there existed anything to equal such a splendor. The glorifying

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eulogies by the famous visitors like, Niccolo Conti (1420s), Abdur Razzak (1443), Duarte
Barbosa (1504-14), Domingo Paes (1520-22) and Fernao Nuniz (1535-37) made
Vijayanagara arrogant and conceited, only to meet its ultimate destiny. The deadly war
of Talikota was the most dreadful disaster that Nadavaras ever encountered. The ill-
fated cavalrymen rode their horses into the death trap. After the battle what might have
happened to all the women and young children left behind in Vijayanagara, is hard not
to think. Nadavaras never regained the lost charisma and status. Their virtue was on
decline and confidence was shattered. For two centuries they played the second fiddle
in the kingdoms of Adil Shah, Keladi Nayakas and Mysore Sultans, and then for the
next hundred and fifty years they were seen as militants by the British. In all situations
the memories of Vijayanagara lingered on. Hampi was remorsefully remembered as the
graveyard of their ancestors. Nadavaras still sing moving songs referring to the last war
of Vijayanagara. Once a highly esteemed vibrant city, an object of admiration by scores
of foreign travelers during the late medieval ages is now a vast landscape of relics and
rubles watched over by the UNESCO World Heritage Society.