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Fundamentals of Vapor Recovery “Waste Gas” IS LOST PRODUCT And LOST REVENUE Presented by: Larry
Fundamentals of Vapor
Recovery
“Waste Gas” IS LOST PRODUCT
And LOST REVENUE
Presented by:
Larry S. Richards
Hy-Bon Engineering Co.
VAPORVAPOR RECOVERYRECOVERY SYSTEMSSYSTEMS What is Vapor Recovery?… A little history
VAPORVAPOR RECOVERYRECOVERY
SYSTEMSSYSTEMS
What is Vapor
Recovery?…
A little history
HISTORYHISTORY
HISTORYHISTORY
OILOIL STORAGESTORAGE FROMFROM THETHE PASTPAST
OILOIL STORAGESTORAGE FROMFROM THETHE
PASTPAST
OPENOPEN PITPIT OILOIL STORAGESTORAGE
OPENOPEN PITPIT OILOIL STORAGESTORAGE
EARLYEARLY TANKSTANKS
EARLYEARLY TANKSTANKS
EARLYEARLY TANKSTANKS
EARLYEARLY TANKSTANKS
VAPORVAPOR RECOVERYRECOVERY SYSTEMSSYSTEMS
VAPORVAPOR RECOVERYRECOVERY
SYSTEMSSYSTEMS
TANKTANK OPERATIONSOPERATIONS AsAs thethe oiloil residesresides inin thethe tanks,tanks, itit givesgives offoff
TANKTANK OPERATIONSOPERATIONS
AsAs thethe oiloil
residesresides inin
thethe tanks,tanks, itit
givesgives offoff
vapors,vapors,
therebythereby
increasingincreasing
thethe pressurepressure
insideinside thethe
tank.tank.
SourcesSources ofof MethaneMethane LossesLosses ApproximatelyApproximately 26.626.6 BcfBcf/yr/yr ofof MethaneMethane
SourcesSources ofof MethaneMethane LossesLosses
ApproximatelyApproximately 26.626.6 BcfBcf/yr/yr ofof MethaneMethane
areare lostlost fromfrom storagestorage tankstanks
FlashFlash losseslosses
occuroccur whenwhen crudecrude isis transferredtransferred fromfrom
containmentcontainment atat aa highhigh pressurepressure toto containmentcontainment
atat aa lowerlower pressurepressure
WorkingWorking losseslosses
occuroccur whenwhen crudecrude levelslevels changechange andand whenwhen
crudecrude inin thethe tanktank isis agitatedagitated
StandingStanding losseslosses
occuroccur withwith dailydaily andand seasonalseasonal temperaturetemperature andand
pressurepressure changeschanges
Source:Source: NaturalNatural GasGas STARSTAR PartnersPartners
VAPORVAPOR RECOVERYRECOVERY SYSTEMSSYSTEMS PURPOSE • Vapor Recovery units are designed to comply with EPA standards,
VAPORVAPOR RECOVERYRECOVERY
SYSTEMSSYSTEMS
PURPOSE
• Vapor Recovery units are designed to comply with EPA
standards, provide additional profits to the oil producer
and eliminate the emission of stock tank vapors to the
atmosphere.
• Most vapors contain varying amounts of methane,
ethane, isopentane, propane, and butane and contribute
to the gravity of lease crude.
• Dissipation of these products to the atmosphere on a
conventional tank battery means a reduction in gravity of
the liquid in the tank, thereby decreasing its value.
ENVIRONMENTALENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDSHAZARDS ThisThis flareflare waswas causingcausing aa varietyvariety ofof healthhealth
ENVIRONMENTALENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDSHAZARDS
ThisThis flareflare waswas
causingcausing aa varietyvariety
ofof healthhealth andand
environmentalenvironmental
concernsconcerns –– aa gasgas
streamstream nownow
generatinggenerating overover
$150,000$150,000 perper
monthmonth inin
additionaladditional
revenue.revenue. MethaneMethane
gasgas hashas 2323 timestimes
thethe impactimpact asas aa
greenhousegreenhouse gasgas asas
CO2CO2 –– althoughalthough
almostalmost 100%100% ofof
industryindustry focusfocus isis
currentlycurrently onon CO2.CO2.
WHYWHY LETLET $$ ESCAPEESCAPE INTOINTO THETHE AIR?AIR? BesidesBesides beingbeing anan environmentalenvironmental
WHYWHY LETLET $$ ESCAPEESCAPE INTOINTO
THETHE AIR?AIR?
BesidesBesides beingbeing anan
environmentalenvironmental
hazard,hazard, escapingescaping
vaporsvapors actuallyactually
costcost thethe operatoroperator
money.money. WhatWhat
money?money?
UncapturedUncaptured
profits!!profits!! AnAn
averageaverage tanktank
batterybattery cancan emitemit
fromfrom $15,000$15,000 toto
$50,000$50,000 inin
naturalnatural gasgas perper
month!month!
$$ $$ $$ $$
$$
VAPORVAPOR RECOVERYRECOVERY SYSTEMSSYSTEMS
VAPORVAPOR RECOVERYRECOVERY
SYSTEMSSYSTEMS
StandardStandard VaporVapor RecoveryRecovery UnitUnit Vent Line Back Pressure Valve Control Pilot Suction Line
StandardStandard VaporVapor RecoveryRecovery UnitUnit
Vent Line
Back Pressure
Valve
Control
Pilot
Suction
Line
Electric
Control
Panel
Crude Oil
Bypass
Stock
Suction
Valve
Tank(s)
Scrubber
Gas
Gas Sales
Meter Run
Check Valve
Liquid
Transfer Pump
Condensate
Sales
Electric Driven
Rotary Compressor
Return
System Configuration Automated bypass allows precise pressure control and extends driver / compressor life
System Configuration
Automated bypass allows
precise pressure control and
extends driver / compressor
life dramatically.
VRU’s cannot operate
effectively without this
element in their design
System Configuration Automated liquid transfer systems are imperative due to the amount of condensate derived
System Configuration
Automated liquid transfer
systems are imperative
due to the amount of
condensate derived from
this wet gas stream.
VAPORVAPOR RECOVERYRECOVERY TypicalTypical stockstock tanktank vaporvapor recoveryrecovery unitunit inin
VAPORVAPOR RECOVERYRECOVERY
TypicalTypical stockstock
tanktank vaporvapor
recoveryrecovery unitunit inin
operation.operation. ThisThis
unitunit isis
configuredconfigured toto
capturecapture 9090
mcfdmcfd ofof gasgas
andand dischargedischarge
intointo aa 4040 psigpsig
salessales line.line.
VRUVRU EvaluationEvaluation ChecklistChecklist
VRUVRU EvaluationEvaluation
ChecklistChecklist
IsIs thethe unitunit onon locationlocation aa vaporvapor recoveryrecovery unitunit ?? DoesDoes itit havehave aa
IsIs thethe unitunit onon locationlocation aa vaporvapor
recoveryrecovery unitunit ??
DoesDoes itit havehave aa pressurepressure sensingsensing devicedevice onon thethe
tankstanks oror onon thethe skid?skid?
DoesDoes itit havehave aa bypassbypass systemsystem toto circulatecirculate gasgas
betweenbetween thethe compressorcompressor andand thethe inletinlet oror suctionsuction
vessel?vessel?
IsIs thethe correctcorrect typetype ofof compressorcompressor beingbeing utilized?utilized?
(Rotary(Rotary vanevane compressors,compressors, rotaryrotary screwscrew
compressorscompressors oror venturiventuri jetjet designdesign recommendedrecommended
vs.vs. reciprocatingreciprocating compressors)compressors)
IsIs thethe productionproduction systemsystem properlyproperly configuredconfigured toto capturecapture thethe ventvent
IsIs thethe productionproduction systemsystem properlyproperly
configuredconfigured toto capturecapture thethe ventvent gas?gas?
IsIs thethe pipingpiping fromfrom thethe tankstanks toto thethe compressorcompressor
slopedsloped downwarddownward withwith nono visiblevisible liquidliquid trapstraps
(U(U inin thethe piping)?piping)?
AreAre thethe tankstanks manifoldedmanifolded togethertogether properly?properly?
IsIs aa gasgas blanketblanket beingbeing used?used?
IsIs thethe pressurepressure sensingsensing devicedevice sensingsensing pressurepressure
offoff thethe toptop ofof thethe tanks?tanks?
BenefitsBenefits ofof VaporVapor RecoveryRecovery UnitsUnits CaptureCapture upup toto 9595 percentpercent ofof
BenefitsBenefits ofof VaporVapor RecoveryRecovery
UnitsUnits
CaptureCapture upup toto 9595 percentpercent ofof
hydrocarbonhydrocarbon vaporsvapors thatthat accumulateaccumulate
inin tankstanks
RecoveredRecovered vaporsvapors havehave muchmuch higherhigher BtuBtu
contentcontent thanthan pipelinepipeline qualityquality naturalnatural gasgas
RecoveredRecovered vaporsvapors cancan bebe moremore valuablevaluable
thanthan methanemethane alonealone
ReduceReduce regulatoryregulatory && liabilityliability exposureexposure
CriteriaCriteria forfor VRUVRU LocationsLocations SteadySteady sourcesource andand sufficientsufficient quantityquantity
CriteriaCriteria forfor VRUVRU LocationsLocations
SteadySteady sourcesource andand sufficientsufficient quantityquantity
ofof losseslosses
AvailableAvailable gatheringgathering systemsystem
OutletOutlet forfor recoveredrecovered gasgas
AccessAccess toto pipelinepipeline oror onon--sitesite fuelfuel useuse
TankTank batteriesbatteries thatthat areare subjectsubject toto
state/federalstate/federal airair regulationsregulations
VRUVRU DecisionDecision ProcessProcess Identify possible locations for VRUs QuantifyQuantify thethe volumevolume ofof
VRUVRU DecisionDecision ProcessProcess
Identify possible locations for VRUs
QuantifyQuantify thethe volumevolume ofof losseslosses
Determine the value of recoverable losses
Determine the cost of a VRU project
Evaluate VRU project economics
QuantifyQuantify VolumeVolume ofof LossesLosses EstimateEstimate losseslosses fromfrom chartchart basedbased onon oiloil
QuantifyQuantify VolumeVolume ofof LossesLosses
EstimateEstimate losseslosses fromfrom chartchart basedbased onon oiloil
characteristics,characteristics, pressure,pressure, andand temperaturetemperature
atat eacheach locationlocation
EstimateEstimate emissionsemissions usingusing thethe E&PE&P TankTank
ModelModel
MeasureMeasure losseslosses usingusing orificeorifice wellwell
testertester andand recordingrecording manometermanometer
EstimatedEstimated VolumeVolume ofof TankTank VaporsVapors 110110 100100 9090 8080 7070 6060 5050 4343 4040
EstimatedEstimated VolumeVolume ofof TankTank
VaporsVapors
110110
100100
9090
8080
7070
6060
5050
4343
4040
3030
2020
1010
1010
2020
3030
4040
5050
6060
7070
8080
PressurePressure ofof VesselVessel DumpingDumping toto TankTank (Psig)(Psig)
4400°° AAPPII aandnd OOvveerr
UUnnddeerr 3300°° AAPPII
3300°° AAPPII ttoo 3399°° AAPPII
GORVapor
Vapor Vented
Vented from
from Tanks-
Tanks- SCF/BBL
SCF/BBL - - GOR
EstimatingEstimating TankTank EmissionsEmissions ExampleExample 1:1: PressurePressure ofof thethe VesselVessel
EstimatingEstimating TankTank EmissionsEmissions
ExampleExample 1:1:
PressurePressure ofof thethe VesselVessel dumpingdumping toto thethe
tanks:tanks:
4040 PSIGPSIG
APIAPI GravityGravity ofof thethe Oil:Oil:
4040
BarrelsBarrels ofof OilOil throughthrough thethe batterybattery perper day:day:
1,0001,000
EstimatingEstimating TankTank EmissionsEmissions ExampleExample 1:1: 6060 SCFSCF perper bblbbl XX 10001000 bblsbbls
EstimatingEstimating TankTank EmissionsEmissions
ExampleExample 1:1:
6060 SCFSCF perper bblbbl XX 10001000 bblsbbls perper dayday ==
60,00060,000 SCFDSCFD oror 6060 mcfdmcfd ofof gasgas
6060 mcfdmcfd ofof gasgas XX $6$6 perper mcfmcf == $360$360 perper dayday
oror $10,800$10,800 perper monthmonth
EstimatingEstimating TankTank EmissionsEmissions ExampleExample 2:2: PressurePressure ofof thethe VesselVessel
EstimatingEstimating TankTank EmissionsEmissions
ExampleExample 2:2:
PressurePressure ofof thethe VesselVessel dumpingdumping toto thethe
tanks:tanks:
7070 PSIGPSIG
APIAPI GravityGravity ofof thethe Oil:Oil:
3535
BarrelsBarrels ofof OilOil throughthrough thethe batterybattery perper day:day:
500500
EstimatingEstimating TankTank EmissionsEmissions ExampleExample 2:2: 6767 SCFSCF perper bblbbl XX 500500 bblsbbls perper
EstimatingEstimating TankTank EmissionsEmissions
ExampleExample 2:2:
6767 SCFSCF perper bblbbl XX 500500 bblsbbls perper dayday ==
33,50033,500 SCFDSCFD oror 33.533.5 mcfdmcfd ofof gasgas
33.533.5 mcfdmcfd ofof gasgas XX $6$6 perper mcfmcf == $201$201 perper dayday
oror $6,030$6,030 perper monthmonth
EstimatingEstimating TankTank EmissionsEmissions ChartChart methodmethod isis aa quickquick andand easyeasy wayway toto
EstimatingEstimating TankTank EmissionsEmissions
ChartChart methodmethod isis aa quickquick andand easyeasy wayway toto getget
aa fastfast ballparkballpark estimateestimate
NoticeNotice thethe impactimpact ofof higherhigher gravitygravity oil,oil, asas wellwell
asas higherhigher separatorseparator pressurespressures
ThisThis methodmethod isis VERYVERY CONSERVATIVECONSERVATIVE andand
generallygenerally underestimatesunderestimates actualactual emissionemission
levelslevels
QuantifyQuantify VolumeVolume ofof LossesLosses E&PE&P TankTank ModelModel ComputerComputer softwaresoftware
QuantifyQuantify VolumeVolume ofof LossesLosses
E&PE&P TankTank ModelModel
ComputerComputer softwaresoftware developeddeveloped byby APIAPI
andand GRIGRI
EstimatesEstimates flash,flash, working,working, andand standingstanding losseslosses
CalculatesCalculates losseslosses usingusing specificspecific operatingoperating
conditionsconditions forfor eacheach tanktank
ProvidesProvides compositioncomposition ofof hydrocarbonhydrocarbon losseslosses
E&PE&P TANKTANK INPUTINPUT SCREENSCREEN
E&PE&P TANKTANK INPUTINPUT SCREENSCREEN
E&PE&P TANKTANK OUTPUTOUTPUT SCREENSCREEN
E&PE&P TANKTANK OUTPUTOUTPUT
SCREENSCREEN
E&PE&P TANKTANK EXAMPLEEXAMPLE OUTPUTOUTPUT
E&PE&P TANKTANK EXAMPLEEXAMPLE
OUTPUTOUTPUT
-- Emission Composition ------------------------------------------------------------------ Component Uncontrolled
-- Emission Composition ------------------------------------------------------------------
Component
Uncontrolled
Uncontrolled
Controlled
Controlled
[ton/yr]
[lb/hr]
[ton/yr]
[lb/hr]
H2S
12.137
2.771
0.607
0.139
O2
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
CO2
85.667
19.559
85.667
19.559
N2
2.284
0.521
2.284
0.521
C1
122.391
27.943
6.120
1.397
C2
159.072
36.318
7.954
1.816
C3
415.158
94.785
20.758
4.739
i-C4
96.442
22.019
4.822
1.101
n-C4
261.360
59.671
13.068
2.984
i-C5
82.901
18.927
4.145
0.946
n-C5
97.357
22.228
4.868
1.111
C6
28.130
6.422
1.407
0.321
C7
26.984
6.161
1.349
0.308
C8
10.294
2.350
0.515
0.118
C9
2.081
0.475
0.104
0.024
C10+
0.544
0.124
0.027
0.006
Benzene
Toluene
E-Benzene
Xylenes
2.029
0.463
0.101
0.023
0.250
0.057
0.013
0.003
0.032
0.007
0.002
0.000
0.264
0.060
0.013
0.003
n-C6
19.202
4.384
0.960
0.219
224Trimethylp
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
Total
1424.579
325.246
71.229
16.262
-- Emission Summary ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Item Uncontrolled Uncontrolled
-- Emission Summary ----------------------------------------------------------------------
Item Uncontrolled Uncontrolled Controlled Controlled
[ton/yr]
[lb/hr]
[ton/yr]
[lb/hr]
Total HAPs
Total HC
VOCs, C2+
VOCs, C3+
21.780
4.973
1.089
0.249
1324.491
302.395
66.225
15.120
1202.100
274.452
60.105
13.723
1043.029
238.134
52.151
11.907
Uncontrolled Recovery Info.
Vapor
71.3400
[MSCFD]
HC Vapor
66.3900
[MSCFD]
GOR
35.67
[SCF/bbl]
-- Emission Composition ------------------------------------------------------------------ Component Uncontrolled
-- Emission Composition ------------------------------------------------------------------
Component
Uncontrolled
[ton/yr]
Concontrolled
[lb/hr]
Controlled
Controlled
[ton/yr]
[lb/hr]
H2S
12.137
2.771
0.607
0.139
O2
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
CO2
85.667
19.559
85.667
19.559
N2
2.284
0.521
2.284
0.521
C1
122.391
27.943
6.120
1.397
C2
159.072
36.318
7.954
1.816
C3
415.158
94.785
20.758
4.739
i-C4
96.442
22.019
4.822
1.101
n-C4
261.360
59.671
13.068
2.984
i-C5
82.901
18.927
4.145
0.946
n-C5
97.357
22.228
4.868
1.111
C6
28.130
6.422
1.407
0.321
C7
26.984
6.161
1.349
0.308
C8
10.294
2.350
0.515
0.118
C9
2.081
0.475
0.104
0.024
C10+
0.544
0.124
0.027
0.006
Benzene
Toluene
E-Benzene
Xylenes
2.029
0.463
0.101
0.023
0.250
0.057
0.013
0.003
0.032
0.007
0.002
0.000
0.264
0.060
0.013
0.003
n-C6
19.202
4.384
0.960
0.219
224Trimethylp
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
Total
1424.579
325.246
71.229
16.262
-- Stream Data --------------------------------------------------------------------------- No. Component MW LP Oil
-- Stream Data ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
No. Component
MW
LP Oil
Flash Oil
Sale Oil
Flash Gas
W&S Gas
Total Emissions
mol %
mol %
mol %
mol %
mol %
mol %
1 H2S
34.80
0.0508
0.0358
0.0065
0.6793
1.4580
1.0368
2 O2
32.00
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
3 CO2
44.01
0.2437
0.0950
0.0002
6.4933
4.6923
5.6664
4 N2
28.01
0.0102
0.0005
0.0000
0.4189
0.0235
0.2374
5 C1
16.04
0.9543
0.1553
0.0000
34.5319
7.6894
22.2079
6 C2
30.07
0.6701
0.3661
0.0087
13.4456
17.7009
15.3993
7 C3
44.10
2.1827
1.7950
1.0502
18.4760
37.9263
27.4061
8 i-C4
58.12
1.1269
1.0530
0.9606
4.2332
5.5332
4.8301
9 n-C4
58.12
4.6091
4.4328
4.2283
12.0182
14.3518
13.0896
10 i-C5
72.15
3.1066
3.1043
3.0959
3.2018
3.5131
3.3447
11 n-C5
72.15
5.0558
5.0864
5.1064
3.7713
4.1125
3.9280
12 C6
86.16
4.1726
4.2496
4.3162
0.9366
1.0199
0.9748
13 C7
100.20
10.3655
10.5937
10.7945
0.7742
0.8517
0.8098
14 C8
114.23
10.8426
11.0945
11.3173
0.2563
0.2861
0.2700
15 C9
128.28
5.5127
5.6428
5.7580
0.0450
0.0543
0.0492
16 C10+
166.00
45.9695
47.0631
48.0331
0.0087
0.0106
0.0095
17 Benzene
78.11
0.5685
0.5803
0.5906
0.0723
0.0795
0.0756
18 Toluene
92.13
0.2132
0.2181
0.2224
0.0075
0.0084
0.0079
19 E-Benzene
106.17
0.0711
0.0728
0.0743
0.0008
0.0009
0.0009
20 Xylenes
106.17
0.6802
0.6962
0.7104
0.0068
0.0077
0.0072
21 n-C6
86.18
3.5939
3.6646
3.7261
0.6222
0.6798
0.6486
22 224Trimethylp
114.24
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
MW
Stream Mole Ratio
Heating Value
Gas Gravity
Bubble Pt. @ 100F
RVP @ 100F
Spec. Gravity @ 100F
123.89
125.93
127.59
37.91
45.66
41.47
1.0000
0.9768
0.9570
0.0232
0.0197
0.0430
[BTU/SCF]
2001.39
2458.73
2211.37
[Gas/Air]
1.31
1.58
1.43
[psia]
56.28
20.19
8.70
[psia]
18.38
11.68
7.71
0.800
0.803
0.806
TANKTANK TESTTEST A chart recorder is set up on the tank battery for a 24-hour
TANKTANK TESTTEST
A chart recorder is set
up on the tank battery
for a 24-hour pressure
test. The resultant
chart is brought into the
office for evaluation.
Information such as
ambient temperature,
test apparatus size and
orifice size is recorded
and used in the
calculation of volume of
tank vapors.
TANKTANK TESTTEST Ultrasonic meters and Mass flow meters are also highly effective The key is
TANKTANK TESTTEST
Ultrasonic meters and Mass flow meters
are also highly effective
The key is DURATION – a minimum of
24 hours of emissions must be charted
for accurate results
WhatWhat isis thethe RecoveredRecovered GasGas Worth?Worth? ValueValue dependsdepends onon BTUBTU contentcontent ofof
WhatWhat isis thethe RecoveredRecovered GasGas
Worth?Worth?
ValueValue dependsdepends onon BTUBTU contentcontent ofof gasgas
ValueValue dependsdepends onon howhow gasgas isis usedused
OnOn--sitesite fuelfuel -- measuredmeasured inin termsterms ofof fuelfuel thatthat
nono longerlonger mustmust bebe purchasedpurchased
NaturalNatural gasgas pipelinepipeline -- measuredmeasured byby thethe higherhigher
priceprice forfor richrich (higher(higher Btu)Btu) gasgas (=2.5(=2.5 X)X)
GasGas processingprocessing plantplant -- measuredmeasured byby salesale ofof
NGLsNGLs andand methane,methane, whichwhich cancan bebe separatedseparated
ValueValue ofof RecoveredRecovered GasGas GrossGross revenuerevenue perper yearyear == (Q(Q xx PP xx 365365 xx
ValueValue ofof RecoveredRecovered GasGas
GrossGross revenuerevenue perper yearyear == (Q(Q xx PP xx 365365 xx
B)B) ++ NGLNGL
QQ == RateRate ofof vaporvapor recoveryrecovery (Mcfd)(Mcfd)
PP == PricePrice ofof naturalnatural gasgas
BB == BtuBtu adjustmentadjustment (typically(typically 2.5)2.5)
NGLNGL == ValueValue ofof naturalnatural gasgas liquidsliquids
EstimatingEstimating TankTank EmissionsEmissions ExampleExample 1:1: 6060 SCFSCF perper bblbbl XX 10001000 bblsbbls
EstimatingEstimating TankTank EmissionsEmissions
ExampleExample 1:1:
6060 SCFSCF perper bblbbl XX 10001000 bblsbbls perper dayday ==
60,00060,000 SCFDSCFD oror 6060 mcfdmcfd ofof gasgas
6060 mcfdmcfd ofof gasgas XX $6$6 perper mcfmcf == $360$360 perper dayday
oror $10,800$10,800 perper monthmonth
6060 mcfdmcfd XX $6$6 XX 2.52.5 ++ 22 bblsbbls/thousand/thousand ($100)($100) ==
$1,000$1,000 perper dayday oror $30,000$30,000 perper monthmonth
EstimatingEstimating TankTank EmissionsEmissions ExampleExample 2:2: 6767 SCFSCF perper bblbbl XX 500500 bblsbbls perper
EstimatingEstimating TankTank EmissionsEmissions
ExampleExample 2:2:
6767 SCFSCF perper bblbbl XX 500500 bblsbbls perper dayday ==
33,50033,500 SCFDSCFD oror 33.533.5 mcfdmcfd ofof gasgas
33.533.5 mcfdmcfd ofof gasgas XX $6$6 perper mcfmcf == $201$201 perper dayday
oror $6,030$6,030 perper monthmonth
33.533.5 mcfdmcfd XX $6$6 XX 2.52.5 ++ 11 bblbbl ($50)($50) ==
$552.50$552.50 perper dayday OROR $16,575$16,575 perper monthmonth
CostCost ofof aa VRUVRU (cont(cont’’d)d) Vapor Recovery Units Sizes and Costs Median Capacity Compressor
CostCost ofof aa VRUVRU (cont(cont’’d)d)
Vapor Recovery Units Sizes and Costs
Median
Capacity
Compressor
Installation
Capital
(Mcfd)
Horsepower
Costs ($)
O&M Costs
($/year)
Costs ($)
25
5 – 10
15,125
7,560 – 15,125
5,250
50
10
– 15
19,500
9,750 – 19,500
6,000
100
15
– 25
23,500
11,750 – 23,500
7,200
200
30
– 50
31,500
15,750 – 31,500
8,400
500
60
– 80
44,000
22,000 – 44,000
12,000
Note: Cost information provided by Partners and VRU
manufacturers.
Source: Natural Gas Star Partners
WhatWhat IsIs thethe Payback?Payback? Financial Analysis for VRU Projects Peak O&M Value of Capacity
WhatWhat IsIs thethe Payback?Payback?
Financial Analysis for VRU Projects
Peak
O&M
Value of
Capacity
Installation &
Capital Costs 1 ($)
Costs
Gas 2
(Mcfd)
($/year)
($/year)
Payback 3
Return on
Investment 4
(%)
25
26,470
5,250
25,869
1 yrs, 4 mos
73
50
34,125
6,000
51,738
9
mos
132
100
41,125
7,200
103,477
7
mos
234
200
55,125
8,400
206,955
3
mos
360
500
77,000
12,000
465,648
2
mos
589
1 Unit cost plus estimated installation cost of 75% of unit cost.
2 $5.67 per Mcf x ½ capacity x 365. Assumed price includes value of Btu-enriched gas (1,285 Btu/scf).
3 Based on 10% discount rate for future savings. Excludes value of recovered gas liquids.
4 Calculated for 5 years.
Source: Natural Gas Star Partners
EPA Website – PRO Tools To evaluate this practice for your situation, fill in the
EPA Website – PRO Tools
To evaluate this practice for
your situation, fill in the
values below and click
"Calculate Results".
NATURAL GAS & CRUDE OIL
TANK VALUES
Pressure of the vessel dumping to the
tank (PSIG)
23
psi
API gravity (degrees)
42
api gravity
Amount of crude oil cycled through the
tank (bbl/d)
2,000 bbl/day
Number of days per year the Vapor
Recovery Unit will be operated (days/yr)
351 days
CALCULATE CAPITAL AND O&M COST
ESTIMATES
Click to calculate estimates for capital equipment costs and O&M costs.
Calculate
EPA Website – PRO Tools CAPITAL EQUIPMENT AND O&M COSTS Enter your own values for
EPA Website – PRO Tools
CAPITAL
EQUIPMENT AND
O&M COSTS
Enter your own values for the capital equipment
listed below or accept the estimates.
Vapor Recovery Unit cost ($)
$30,068
Vapor Recovery Unit installation cost ($) $22,551
Depreciable life of equipment (Years)
10
Vapor Recovery Unit O&M cost ($/year)
$8,649
http://www.ergweb.com/gasstar/analytical_tool/VaporRecovery.asp
EPA Website – PRO Tools GENERAL ECONOMIC VALUES Natural gas cost ($/Mcf) Natural gas cost
EPA Website – PRO Tools
GENERAL ECONOMIC
VALUES
Natural gas cost ($/Mcf)
Natural gas cost escalator (%)
O&M cost escalator (%)
Discount rate (%)
Marginal tax rate* (%)
Investment tax credit (%)
Working interest for capital costs (%)
Each variable can
be added based on
your companies
specific conditions
and contract terms
Working interest for O&M costs (%)
Working interest for gas savings (%)
EPA Website – PRO Tools Analysis results for: INSTALLING VAPOR RECOVERY UNITS ON CRUDE OIL
EPA Website – PRO Tools
Analysis results for:
INSTALLING VAPOR RECOVERY UNITS ON CRUDE OIL STORAGE
TANKS
Gas emission reduction
5 Year gas savings
141,453
(mcf)
First Year gas savings
28,291
Without-tax effect
5 Year NPV
$504,434
Payback (Years)
0.36
DCFIRR
279%
Simple ROI
279%
With-tax effect
5 Year NPV (AT)
$350,477
Payback (AT) (Years)
0.47
DCFIRR (AT)
208%
Simple ROI (AT)
201%
To save this specific case for viewing in the Results Summary
page, provide a name and click "Save"
OtherOther CostsCosts toto ConsiderConsider RegulatoryRegulatory LiabilityLiability ExposureExposure PublicPublic
OtherOther CostsCosts toto ConsiderConsider
RegulatoryRegulatory LiabilityLiability ExposureExposure
PublicPublic RelationsRelations ExposureExposure
PositivePositive oror NegativeNegative
LitigationLitigation ExposureExposure
BPBP andand ShellShell lawsuitslawsuits
ProducingProducing aa cleanclean energyenergy sourcesource (natural(natural gas)gas)
andand simultaneouslysimultaneously improvingimproving airair qualityquality inin thethe
communitycommunity –– withwith anan economiceconomic paybackpayback ofof
usuallyusually lessless thanthan 33 monthsmonths
HYHY--BONBON ENGINEERINGENGINEERING COMPANY,COMPANY, INC.INC. SettingSetting aa NewNew Standard!!Standard!!
HYHY--BONBON ENGINEERINGENGINEERING
COMPANY,COMPANY, INC.INC.
SettingSetting aa NewNew Standard!!Standard!!
Technical Solutions for Capturing Vented Stock Tank Gas “Waste Gas” IS LOST PRODUCT And LOST
Technical Solutions for
Capturing Vented Stock Tank
Gas
“Waste Gas” IS LOST PRODUCT
And LOST REVENUE
Presented by:
Larry S. Richards
Hy-Bon Engineering Co.
CASECASE STUDIESSTUDIES
CASECASE STUDIESSTUDIES
1000 MSCFD 500 psi $5.00 x 1.13 x 1000 MSCFD = $5650 1131 BTU/cu. ft
1000 MSCFD
500 psi
$5.00 x 1.13 x
1000 MSCFD = $5650
1131 BTU/cu. ft
$5.00 x 0 MSCFD = $0
70
MSCFD
80
psi
1401 BTU/cu. ft
Vented
$5.00 x 0 MSCFD = $0
90
MSCFD
25
psi
1588 BTU/cu. ft
Vented
$5.00 x 0 MSCFD = $0
100 MSCFD
0 psi
2534 BTU/cu. ft
Vented
TOTAL GAS SALES
= $5650
THETHE SOLUTIONSOLUTION AA systemsystem waswas designeddesigned toto allowallow thethe customercustomer toto
THETHE SOLUTIONSOLUTION
AA systemsystem waswas designeddesigned toto allowallow thethe customercustomer toto
capturecapture thethe ventedvented gasgas fromfrom allall phasesphases ofof hishis
separationseparation process.process. AA multimulti--stagestage unitunit waswas
designeddesigned andand builtbuilt thatthat tooktook thethe gasgas fromfrom thethe tanktank
vaporsvapors atat atmosphericatmospheric pressure,pressure, gatheredgathered thethe ventvent
gasgas fromfrom thethe otherother separatorsseparators andand delivereddelivered thethe
streamstream toto thethe salessales lineline atat 500500 psig.psig.
CrudeCrude OilOil AnalysisAnalysis 600600 PSIGPSIG SEPARATIONSEPARATION
CrudeCrude OilOil
AnalysisAnalysis
600600 PSIGPSIG
SEPARATIONSEPARATION
AtAt 500500 psigpsig separationseparation pressurepressure thethe gasgas hashas aa BTUBTU contentcontent ofof 11311131
AtAt 500500 psigpsig
separationseparation pressurepressure
thethe gasgas hashas aa BTUBTU
contentcontent ofof 11311131
BTU/cu.BTU/cu. ft.ft.
500500 PSIGPSIG
SEPARATIONSEPARATION
AtAt 8080 psigpsig separationseparation pressurepressure thethe gasgas hashas reachedreached aa BTUBTU valuevalue ofof
AtAt 8080 psigpsig separationseparation
pressurepressure thethe gasgas hashas
reachedreached aa BTUBTU valuevalue
ofof 14011401 BTU/BTU/ cu.cu. ft.ft.
8080 PSIGPSIG
SEPARATIONSEPARATION
AtAt 2525 psigpsig separation,separation, thethe gasgas streamstream isis atat itsits richestrichest pointpoint
AtAt 2525 psigpsig
separation,separation, thethe gasgas
streamstream isis atat itsits
richestrichest pointpoint yet,yet,
withwith aa BTUBTU valuevalue
ofof 15881588 BTU/cu.BTU/cu. ft.ft.
2525 PSIGPSIG
SEPARATIONSEPARATION
ThisThis gasgas streamstream reachesreaches itsits mostmost valuablevaluable pointpoint duringduring storagestorage
ThisThis gasgas streamstream
reachesreaches itsits mostmost
valuablevaluable pointpoint
duringduring storagestorage inin
thethe oiloil tank.tank. ThisThis
gasgas hashas aa BTUBTU valuevalue
ofof 25142514 BTU/BTU/ cu.cu. Ft.Ft.
Obviously,Obviously, thisthis gasgas
isis worthworth capturing!capturing!
OILOIL TANKTANK
STORAGESTORAGE
1000 MSCFD 500 psi $5.00 x 1.13 x 1000 MSCFD = $5650 1131 BTU/cu. ft
1000 MSCFD
500 psi
$5.00 x 1.13 x
1000 MSCFD = $5650
1131 BTU/cu. ft
$5.00 x 1.40 x
70 MSCFD = $490
70
MSCFD
80
psi
Multi-Stage Gas Booster
1401 BTU/cu. ft
Recovered
$5.00 x 1.59 x
90 MSCFD = $716
90
MSCFD
25
psi
1588 BTU/cu. ft
Recovered
VRU
$5.00 x 2.53 x
100 MSCFD = $1267
100 MSCFD
0 psi
2534 BTU/cu. ft
Recovered
TOTAL GAS SALES
= $8123
MONTHLY GAS SALES INCREASE
= $74,190
CaseCase StudyStudy 22 MidMid SizeSize IndependentIndependent inin Hobbs,Hobbs, NMNM areaarea MarchMarch ‘‘0404
CaseCase StudyStudy 22
MidMid SizeSize IndependentIndependent inin Hobbs,Hobbs, NMNM areaarea MarchMarch ‘‘0404
InstallationInstallation ofof 22 VRUVRU’’ss onon 22 stockstock tanktank batteries,batteries, eacheach emittingemitting
approximatelyapproximately 9090 MSCFDMSCFD ofof 25002500 btubtu tanktank vaporsvapors // 4545 psigpsig salessales
lineline
PreviousPrevious gasgas salessales revenue:revenue: $0$0 (venting)(venting)
MonthlyMonthly gasgas revenue:revenue: $5$5 XX 2.52.5 XX 9090 MSCFDMSCFD XX 3030 daysdays
xx 22 tankstanks == $$ 67,50067,500
CapitalCapital expense:expense: $24,$24,000000 XX 22 unitsunits == $48,000$48,000
Payback:Payback: 2121 DAYSDAYS
Case Glycol Gross Sales Unit Per Day Gas Study 3 1000 MSCFD Sales 800 psi
Case
Glycol
Gross Sales
Unit
Per Day
Gas
Study 3
1000 MSCFD
Sales
800 psi
$5.00 x 1000 MSCFD = $5000
Heater
1000 BTU/cu.ft.
Producing
$5.00 x 0 MSCFD = $0
Well
60 MSCFD
100 psi
1200 BTU/cu.ft.
Flared
$5.00 x 0 MSCFD = $0
90 MSCFD
TOTAL GAS SALES = $5000
0 psi
2000 BTU/cu.ft.
Flared
Price Based upon $5.00/MMBTU
Case Gross Sales Glycol Unit Gas Per Day Study 3 Sales 1000 MSCFD $5.00 x
Case
Gross Sales
Glycol Unit
Gas
Per Day
Study 3
Sales
1000 MSCFD
$5.00 x 1000 MSCFD = $5000
800 psi
Heater
1000 BTU/cu.ft.
Producing
$5.00 x 1.2 x
60 MSCFD = $360
Well
Gas Booster
60 MSCFD
100 psi
1200 BTU/cu.ft.
RECOVERED
90 MSCFD
0 psi
VRU
$5.00 x 2.0 x
90 MSCFD = $900
2000
BTU/cu.ft.
TOTAL GAS SALES = $6260
RECOVERED
MONTHLY GAS SALES
INCREASE = $37,800
Price Based upon $5.00/MMBTU
CaseCase StudyStudy 44 –– ChevronChevron ChevronChevron installedinstalled eighteight VRUsVRUs atat crudecrude
CaseCase StudyStudy 44 –– ChevronChevron
ChevronChevron installedinstalled eighteight VRUsVRUs atat crudecrude
oiloil stockstock tankstanks inin 19961996
Project Economics – Chevron
Methane
Loss
Reduction
Total
1
(Mcf/unit/yr)
Approximate
Savings per
Unit
Savings
Total Capital
and Installation
Costs
Payback
21,900
$43,800
$350,400
$240,000
<1 yr
1 Assumes a $2 per Mcf gas price; excludes value of recovered NGLs. Refer
to the Lessons Learned for more information.
Source: Natural Gas Star Partners
CaseCase StudyStudy 55 LargeLarge IndependentIndependent inin NorthNorth TexasTexas inin JuneJune ‘‘0404
CaseCase StudyStudy 55
LargeLarge IndependentIndependent inin NorthNorth TexasTexas inin JuneJune ‘‘0404
InstallationInstallation ofof 11 VRUVRU onon aa stockstock tanktank batterybattery emittingemitting approximaapproximatelytely 190190
MSCFDMSCFD ofof 24002400 btubtu tanktank vaporsvapors // 5050 psigpsig salessales lineline
PreviousPrevious gasgas salessales revenue:revenue: $0$0 (venting)(venting)
MonthlyMonthly gasgas revenue:revenue: $5$5 XX 2.42.4 XX 190190 MSCFDMSCFD XX 3030 daysdays
== $$ 68,40068,400
CapitalCapital expense:expense: $32,000$32,000
Payback:Payback: 1414 DAYSDAYS
OtherOther EmissionEmission SourcesSources GasGas cancan alsoalso bebe capturedcaptured fromfrom separatorsseparators
OtherOther EmissionEmission SourcesSources
GasGas cancan alsoalso bebe
capturedcaptured fromfrom
separatorsseparators andand
otherother fieldfield
equipment.equipment.
ThisThis unitunit isis
capturingcapturing naturalnatural
gasgas offoff severalseveral
separatorsseparators forfor
salesale downdown aa highhigh
pressurepressure line.line.
OtherOther EmissionEmission SourcesSources ThisThis unitunit capturescaptures aa 98%98% CO2CO2 gasgas streamstream inin
OtherOther EmissionEmission SourcesSources
ThisThis unitunit capturescaptures
aa 98%98% CO2CO2 gasgas
streamstream inin aa fieldfield
outsideoutside Snyder,Snyder,
Texas.Texas. FloodedFlooded
screwscrew compressorcompressor
forfor volumesvolumes toto 1.51.5
MMSCFD.MMSCFD. TheThe CO2CO2
isis capturedcaptured andand rere--
injectedinjected intointo thethe
formation,formation,
dramaticallydramatically
reducingreducing
operatingoperating costs.costs.
COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR SELECTIONSELECTION CRITERIACRITERIA HOWHOW DODO WEWE CHOOSECHOOSE THETHE APPROPRIATEAPPROPRIATE
COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR
SELECTIONSELECTION CRITERIACRITERIA
HOWHOW DODO WEWE CHOOSECHOOSE THETHE
APPROPRIATEAPPROPRIATE COMPRESSOR?COMPRESSOR?
TYPICALTYPICAL COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR TYPESTYPES USEDUSED ININ LOWLOW PRESSUREPRESSURE RotaryRotary VaneVane
TYPICALTYPICAL COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR TYPESTYPES
USEDUSED ININ LOWLOW PRESSUREPRESSURE
RotaryRotary VaneVane
CompressorsCompressors
EccentricallyEccentrically mountedmounted
rotorrotor
CentrifugalCentrifugal forceforce
causescauses vanesvanes toto slideslide inin
oror outout
GasGas isis forcedforced intointo
decreasingdecreasing spacespace
therebythereby causingcausing
compressioncompression
JacketJacket waterwater coolingcooling
systemsystem
RPMRPM rangerange 400400 toto 16001600
ROTARYROTARY VANEVANE OPERATINGOPERATING PRINCIPLEPRINCIPLE Gas enters the suction flange at low pressure. The rotor is
ROTARYROTARY VANEVANE OPERATINGOPERATING
PRINCIPLEPRINCIPLE
Gas enters the suction flange
at low pressure. The rotor is
mounted eccentrically toward
the bottom of the
compressor. Centrifugal
force imparted as the rotor
turns forces the blades out
against the cylinder wall. The
gas is forced into a ever
decreasing space, thereby
compressing the gas which
then exits the discharge. The
rotor clearance at the bottom
(typically .005”) is sealed with
lubricating oil to create a
closed system within the
cylinder.
RotaryRotary VaneVane CompressorCompressor TypicalTypical OperatingOperating ParametersParameters
RotaryRotary VaneVane CompressorCompressor
TypicalTypical OperatingOperating ParametersParameters
DifferentialDifferential pressurepressure
equalequal toto oror lessless thanthan
6060 psigpsig (for(for singlesingle--
stagestage models).models).
VolumeVolume fromfrom
approximatelyapproximately 1515
MSCFDMSCFD toto 22
MMSCFDMMSCFD (for(for singlesingle--
compressorcompressor units).units).
RelativelyRelatively lowlow suctionsuction
temperaturestemperatures
(<(< 120120°° F)F)
RotaryRotary VanesVanes AdvantagesAdvantages ExcellentExcellent forfor relativelyrelatively highhigh volumesvolumes
RotaryRotary VanesVanes
AdvantagesAdvantages
ExcellentExcellent forfor relativelyrelatively highhigh volumesvolumes andand relativelyrelatively
lowlow differentialdifferential pressurespressures
•• EfficientEfficient atat lowlow pressurespressures
•• CanCan handlehandle wetwet gasgas relativelyrelatively easyeasy
•• ComparativelyComparatively lowlow initialinitial costcost andand ongoingongoing
maintenancemaintenance
DisadvantagesDisadvantages
•• LimitedLimited asas toto dischargedischarge pressurepressure
•• LimitedLimited asas toto suctionsuction temperaturetemperature capabilitiescapabilities
••
••
FreeFree liquidliquid causescauses bladeblade breakagebreakage problemsproblems
TYPICALTYPICAL COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR TYPESTYPES USEDUSED ININ LOWLOW PRESSUREPRESSURE FloodedFlooded ScrewScrew
TYPICALTYPICAL COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR TYPESTYPES
USEDUSED ININ LOWLOW PRESSUREPRESSURE
FloodedFlooded ScrewScrew
CompressorsCompressors
TwinTwin helicalhelical rotorsrotors
OilOil isis bothboth thethe coolingcooling
mediummedium andand thethe
compressioncompression mediummedium
VariousVarious configurationsconfigurations ofof
gears,gears, internalinternal portingporting andand
loader/loader/unloaderunloader valvesvalves
availableavailable
GasGas mixedmixed withwith oil.oil. MustMust bebe
separatedseparated afterafter
compressioncompression
RotaryRotary ScrewScrew PackagesPackages
RotaryRotary ScrewScrew PackagesPackages
GeneralGeneral PrinciplePrinciple -- RotaryRotary ScrewsScrews
GeneralGeneral PrinciplePrinciple -- RotaryRotary ScrewsScrews
General Principle - Rotary Screws - Continued
General Principle - Rotary
Screws - Continued
3-D MODEL FINISHED PRODUCT
3-D
MODEL
FINISHED
PRODUCT
3-D MODEL FINISHED PRODUCT
3-D
MODEL
FINISHED
PRODUCT
OilOil FloodedFlooded ScrewScrew CompressorCompressor TypicalTypical OperatingOperating ParametersParameters
OilOil FloodedFlooded ScrewScrew CompressorCompressor
TypicalTypical OperatingOperating ParametersParameters
DifferentialDifferential pressurepressure
equalequal toto oror lessless thanthan
300300 psigpsig (for(for singlesingle--
stagestage models).models).
VolumeVolume fromfrom
approximatelyapproximately 2020
MSCFDMSCFD toto 2.52.5 MMSCFDMMSCFD
(for(for singlesingle--compressorcompressor
units).units).
VirtuallyVirtually anyany
temperaturetemperature (<(< 180180°° F)F)
OilOil FloodedFlooded ScrewsScrews AdvantagesAdvantages ExcellentExcellent inin aa largelarge volume/mediumvolume/medium
OilOil FloodedFlooded ScrewsScrews
AdvantagesAdvantages
ExcellentExcellent inin aa largelarge volume/mediumvolume/medium differentialdifferential pressurepressure
rangerange
CanCan handlehandle wetwet gasgas betterbetter thanthan rotaryrotary vanesvanes
ExcellentExcellent temperaturetemperature controlcontrol forfor controllingcontrolling condensatecondensate
falloutfallout
DisadvantagesDisadvantages
MoreMore sophisticatedsophisticated systemsystem ww oil/gasoil/gas separatorseparator
HigherHigher maintenancemaintenance
HigherHigher operationaloperational expenseexpense (oil,(oil, filters,filters, etc.)etc.)
TYPICALTYPICAL COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR TYPESTYPES USEDUSED ININ LOWLOW PRESSUREPRESSURE LiquidLiquid RingRing
TYPICALTYPICAL COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR TYPESTYPES
USEDUSED ININ LOWLOW PRESSUREPRESSURE
LiquidLiquid RingRing
CompressorsCompressors
VacuumVacuum pumppump
technologytechnology
UsesUses lobeslobes ratherrather thanthan
vanesvanes
GasGas isis mixedmixed withwith nonnon--
lubricatinglubricating oil.oil. MustMust bebe
separatedseparated afterafter
compression.compression.
GoodGood forfor extremelyextremely lowlow
differentialdifferential pressures.pressures.
CompressionCompression oiloil mustmust bebe
segregatedsegregated fromfrom
lubricationlubrication oiloil
LiquidLiquid RingRing CompressorCompressor TypicalTypical OperatingOperating ParametersParameters
LiquidLiquid RingRing CompressorCompressor TypicalTypical
OperatingOperating ParametersParameters
DifferentialDifferential pressurepressure
equalequal toto oror lessless thanthan 2525
psigpsig (for(for singlesingle--stagestage
models).models).
VolumeVolume fromfrom
approximatelyapproximately 1515 MSCFDMSCFD
toto 2.52.5 MMSCFDMMSCFD (for(for
singlesingle--compressorcompressor units).units).
VirtuallyVirtually anyany suctionsuction
temperaturetemperature (<(< 180180°° F)F)
LiquidLiquid RingsRings AdvantagesAdvantages HighHigh volumetricvolumetric efficiencyefficiency FewFew movingmoving
LiquidLiquid RingsRings
AdvantagesAdvantages
HighHigh volumetricvolumetric efficiencyefficiency
FewFew movingmoving partsparts
DisadvantagesDisadvantages
ExtremelyExtremely limitedlimited onon dischargedischarge pressurepressure
UsedUsed primarilyprimarily inin vacuumvacuum applicationsapplications
HigherHigher operationaloperational expenseexpense (oil,(oil, filters,filters, etc.)etc.)
TYPICALTYPICAL COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR TYPESTYPES USEDUSED ININ LOWLOW PRESSUREPRESSURE ReciprocatingReciprocating
TYPICALTYPICAL COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR TYPESTYPES
USEDUSED ININ LOWLOW PRESSUREPRESSURE
ReciprocatingReciprocating
CompressorsCompressors
Piston/cylinderPiston/cylinder
arrangementarrangement
MayMay bebe air,air, waterwater
oror oiloil cooledcooled
AgesAges oldold
technologytechnology
MayMay bebe slowslow
speedspeed oror highhigh
speedspeed
ReciprocatingReciprocating CompressorCompressor TypicalTypical OperatingOperating ParametersParameters
ReciprocatingReciprocating CompressorCompressor
TypicalTypical OperatingOperating ParametersParameters
DifferentialDifferential pressurepressure
inin excessexcess ofof 20002000--
30003000 psigpsig (for(for multimulti--
stagestage models).models).
VolumesVolumes inin excessexcess
ofof 2020 MMSCFDMMSCFD
(dependent(dependent uponupon
suctionsuction pressure).pressure).
RelativelyRelatively highhigh
suctionsuction
temperaturestemperatures (<(<
200200°° F)F)
ReciprocatingReciprocating CompressorsCompressors AdvantagesAdvantages HighHigh volume/highvolume/high pressurepressure
ReciprocatingReciprocating CompressorsCompressors
AdvantagesAdvantages
HighHigh volume/highvolume/high pressurepressure
AbleAble toto handlehandle spikesspikes inin pressurepressure
RelativelyRelatively lowlow maintenancemaintenance
DisadvantagesDisadvantages
LowLow suctionsuction pressurepressure resultsresults inin largelarge firstfirst stagestage cylindercylinder
sizesize
InefficientInefficient atat lowlow pressurespressures
RingsRings andand valvesvalves failfail inin wetwet gasgas applicationsapplications
ControlControl isis difficultdifficult atat atmosphericatmospheric pressurespressures
TYPICALTYPICAL COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR TYPESTYPES USEDUSED ININ LOWLOW PRESSUREPRESSURE DryDry ScrewScrew
TYPICALTYPICAL COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR TYPESTYPES
USEDUSED ININ LOWLOW PRESSUREPRESSURE
DryDry ScrewScrew
CompressorsCompressors
SimilarSimilar inin designdesign toto
floodedflooded screwscrew
LubricatingLubricating oiloil nevernever
comescomes inin contactcontact
withwith processprocess gasgas
ExtremelyExtremely highhigh rpmrpm //
veryvery sophisticatedsophisticated
sealseal systemssystems
NoiseNoise suppressionsuppression
systemssystems reqreq’’dd
DryDry ScrewScrew CompressorCompressor TypicalTypical OperatingOperating ParametersParameters NotNot
DryDry ScrewScrew CompressorCompressor TypicalTypical
OperatingOperating ParametersParameters
NotNot recommendedrecommended
forfor volumesvolumes lessless
thanthan 22 MMSCFD.MMSCFD.
DischargeDischarge pressurepressure
upup toto 600600 psipsi
VolumesVolumes inin excessexcess
ofof 2525 MMSCFDMMSCFD
TYPICALTYPICAL COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR TYPESTYPES USEDUSED ININ LOWLOW PRESSUREPRESSURE VaporVapor JetJet UtilizesUtilizes
TYPICALTYPICAL COMPRESSORCOMPRESSOR TYPESTYPES
USEDUSED ININ LOWLOW PRESSUREPRESSURE
VaporVapor JetJet
UtilizesUtilizes
pressurizedpressurized waterwater
toto affectaffect gasgas
gatheringgathering
NoNo movingmoving
internalinternal partsparts
UsesUses producedproduced
waterwater inin aa closedclosed
systemsystem
SeparationSeparation ofof gasgas
andand waterwater
requiredrequired
VAPORVAPOR JETJET VAPORVAPOR RECOVERYRECOVERY TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGY SEPARATOR TANK VAPORS JET PUMP (EDUCTOR) SALES
VAPORVAPOR JETJET VAPORVAPOR
RECOVERYRECOVERY TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGY
SEPARATOR
TANK VAPORS
JET PUMP
(EDUCTOR)
SALES LINE
PRODUCED
WATER
RETURN
WATER PUMP
WATER/GAS
MIX
PRODUCED
WATER
VaporVapor JetJet TypicalTypical OperatingOperating ParametersParameters DifferentialDifferential pressurepressure
VaporVapor JetJet TypicalTypical OperatingOperating
ParametersParameters
DifferentialDifferential pressurepressure equalequal
toto oror lessless thanthan 4040 psigpsig (for(for
singlesingle--stagestage models).models).
VolumeVolume fromfrom approximatelyapproximately
55 MSCFDMSCFD toto 7575 MSCFDMSCFD (for(for
singlesingle--compressorcompressor units).units).
SuctionSuction TemperatureTemperature isis notnot
anan issue.issue.
GasGas compositioncomposition andand
saturationsaturation levellevel isis notnot anan
issue.issue.
GasGas cancan bebe sentsent downdown thethe
pipeline,pipeline, oror rere--injectedinjected intointo
thethe formationformation
JETJET PUMPPUMP VAPORVAPOR RECOVERYRECOVERY RANGESRANGES Jet Pump Size ( in. ) 1 1/2 2 2
JETJET PUMPPUMP VAPORVAPOR
RECOVERYRECOVERY RANGESRANGES
Jet Pump Size ( in. )
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
Operating Medium Pressure ( psig )
200
200
200
Operating Medium Rate (
gpm )
45
82
143
Gas Volume Recovered ( Mcfpd )
25
45
77
Centrifugal Pump Eff. ( % )
26
42
53
Motor Eff. ( % )
0.9
0.9
0.9
KW-HR/day
401
453
625
Power Cost ( $/KW-HR )
0.045
0.045
0.045
Electrical Cost ( $/Mcf )
0.74
0.45
0.36
TechnologicalTechnological AdvancementsAdvancements LowLow PressurePressure GasGas ManagementManagement SystemsSystems
TechnologicalTechnological
AdvancementsAdvancements
LowLow PressurePressure GasGas ManagementManagement
SystemsSystems
Sensing Technology Pressure sensing achieved with diaphragm actuated mechanical device / set pressures achieved by
Sensing Technology
Pressure sensing
achieved with
diaphragm
actuated
mechanical device
/ set pressures
achieved by
manually setting
counter weights in
conjunction with
proximity switch
Sensing Technology High sensitivity electronic transmitters are now commercially viable for low pressure applications
Sensing Technology
High sensitivity
electronic
transmitters are now
commercially viable
for low pressure
applications
Sensing Technology These transmitters are highly accurate to extremely minute pressures – and do not
Sensing Technology
These transmitters
are highly accurate
to extremely
minute pressures –
and do not require
a highly trained
technician to
calibrate.
LubricationLubrication SystemsSystems Advancements in lubrication systems monitoring and control have dramatically
LubricationLubrication SystemsSystems
Advancements
in lubrication
systems
monitoring and
control have
dramatically
increased
bearing life
LubricationLubrication SystemsSystems Lubrication requirements are precisely monitored and detailed reporting
LubricationLubrication SystemsSystems
Lubrication
requirements are
precisely
monitored and
detailed reporting
capabilities are
easily downloaded
into handheld
“palm” devices or
directly into Excel
format.
ControlControl SystemsSystems PLCPLC drivendriven autoauto ignitionignition forfor naturalnatural gasgas drivedrive
ControlControl SystemsSystems
PLCPLC drivendriven autoauto
ignitionignition forfor naturalnatural
gasgas drivedrive enginesengines
reducereduce
compressorcompressor
downtimedowntime andand
pumperpumper
requirementsrequirements
Technology Advancements ControlControl systemssystems cancan rangerange fromfrom almostalmost completelycompletely
Technology Advancements
ControlControl systemssystems
cancan rangerange fromfrom
almostalmost
completelycompletely
manualmanual toto
incrediblyincredibly
sophisticatedsophisticated
Technology Advancements Programmable Logics Controllers have dramatically expanded the capability of these packages
Technology Advancements
Programmable Logics Controllers have
dramatically expanded the capability of these
packages
Automated restart is now possible on BOTH electric and
engine drive units
Technology Advancements Typical Shutdown indicators include: High Discharge Temperature High Discharge Pressure High
Technology Advancements
Typical Shutdown indicators include:
High Discharge Temperature
High Discharge Pressure
High Liquid Level
Low Suction Pressure
Lube Oil No-Flow
Excessive Vibration
Technology Advancements Even the most basic PLC can be configured to automatically call the cell
Technology Advancements
Even the most basic PLC can be
configured to automatically call
the cell phone number of the
correct field personnel based on
the specific cause of the
shutdown.
Technology Advancements RemoteRemote MonitoringMonitoring NowNow commerciallycommercially availableavailable onon
Technology Advancements
RemoteRemote MonitoringMonitoring
NowNow commerciallycommercially availableavailable onon thisthis sizesize
equipmentequipment
AbilityAbility toto remotelyremotely monitormonitor allall variablesvariables capturedcaptured
byby thethe PLCPLC fromfrom anan internetinternet linklink forfor aa couplecouple
hundredhundred dollarsdollars aa monthmonth
AbilityAbility toto viewview actualactual realreal timetime videovideo footagefootage ofof
thethe unitunit ifif requiredrequired
HYHY--BONBON ENGINEERINGENGINEERING COMPANY,COMPANY, INC.INC. SettingSetting aa NewNew Standard!!Standard!!
HYHY--BONBON ENGINEERINGENGINEERING
COMPANY,COMPANY, INC.INC.
SettingSetting aa NewNew Standard!!Standard!!