Sunteți pe pagina 1din 7

Hastuti,

Jurnal PROTEIN

Pengaruh Penyuntikan Poly I:C terhadap Ekspresi Protein Yang Bertanggung Jawab Terhadap Sistem Kekebalan obster !ir Tawar "Cherax quadricarinatrus #on $artens% The E&&e't o& Poly I:C In(e'tion )n Protein E*pression +i'h ,esponsible to Immune System o& )& ,ed'law "Cherax quadricarinatrus #on $artens%
Sri -wi .astuti /akultas Peternakan Perikanan 0ni1ersitas $uhammadiyah $alang Jl2 ,aya Tlogomas 3o2 456 $alang2 Telp2 "7859% 56589:2 email: sridwihastuti;yahoo2'om
!bstra't

Ba'kground: Redclaw (Cherax quadricarinatrus Von Martens) is one of aquaculture or anis!


w"ic" widel# cultured in !an# countries$ T"e occurred of diseases often %eco!e a constrain in aquaculture industr# and "a&e not sol&ed entirel#$ T"erefore t"e understandin of redclaw i!!une siste! is i!'ortant as an effort and strate ic to co!%at disease 'ro%le!s in aquaculture$ $ethods: T"is researc" ai!s to in&esti ate t"e effect of Pol# I:( in)ection on t"e e*'ression of 'rotein w"ic" res'onsi%le on t"e i!!une siste! of redclaw for e*a!'le is M* 'roteins$ +ni!al used in t"is stud# was redclaw wit" si,e of -./01 , in)ected wit" Pol# I:( or P"osfat 2uffer 3aline (P23) (as control)$ +ni!al in)ected wit" 0 ! 4!l Pol# I:( or P23 t"en sa!'led to et its "ae!oc#te and "e'ato'ancreas$ ,esult: 5el electro'"oresis of "ae!oc#te s"owed t"at t"ere is a 'rotein wit" !olecular wei "t of .-/ 67 89a w"ic" indicated as :#'o'olisac"arrides and ;/-,./ lucan 2indin Protein (:52P)$ <"ile, el electro'"oresis of "e'ato'ancreas s"owed an e*'ression of 'rotein wit" t"e %and of !olecular wei "t %elow ==$0 89a$ T"is 'rotein can %e assu!ed as a !e!%er of M* 'rotein w"ic" "as anti&iral 'ro'ert#$ Keywords : 'ol# i:c, "ae!oc#tes, l#'o'olisac"arrides and ;/-,./ lucan %indin 'rotein (l %'), !* 'rotein !bstraksi atar Belakang: :o%ster air tawar ( Cherax quadricarinatrus Von Martens) !eru'a8an "ewan a8uati8 #an %a#a8 di%udida#a8an di %e%era'a ne ara$ 9ala! 8e iatan %udida#a "ewan a8uati8, resi8o seran an 'en#a8it serin 8ali !uncul dan sa!'ai saat ini %elu! %isa diatasi secara tuntas$ Ole" 8arena itula" 'e!a"a!an #an !endala! ter"ada' siste! 8e8e%alan redclaw san at %er una dala! u'a#a dan strate i 'enan ulan an 'en#a8it$ Penelitian ini %ertu)uan untu8 !en eta"ui 'en aru" 'en#unti8an Pol# I:( ter"ada' e8s'resi 'rotein #an %ertan un )awa% ter"ada' siste! 8e8e%alan lo%ster air tawar !isaln#a M* 'rotein$ $etode: Metode #an di una8an adala" e8s'eri!en den an !ateri u)i %eru'a lo%ster air tawar %eru8uran -./01 ra! #an disunti8 den an Pol# I:( atau P"osfat 2uffer 3aline (P23) se%a ai 'e!%andin den an dosis 0 ! 4!l 'er e8or lo%ster air tawar dan dia!%il "e!osit dan "e'ato'an8reasn#a$ .asil: Hasil ele8troforesis "e!osit !endete8si %a"wa ada 'rotein den an %erat !ole8ul .-/67 89a #an 8e!un 8inan adala" :#'o'olisac"arrides and ;/-,./ lucan 2indin Protein (:52P)$ 3e!entara ele8troforesis "e'ato'an8reas !enun)u88an e8s'resi 'rotein #an ditun)u88an ole" %and #an %erada 'ada %erat !ole8ul te'at di%awa" ==$0 89a$ Protein #an di!a8sud 8e!un 8inan !eru'a8an fa!ili dari M* 'rotein #an !e!'un#ai a8ti&itas anti&irus$ Kata kun'i: 'ol# i:c, "e!osit, l#'o'olisac"arrides and ;/-,./ lucan %indin 'rotein 'rotein (l %'), !*

-76

Hastuti,

Jurnal PROTEIN

PE3-!.0 0!3 :o%ster air tawar (Cherax quadricarinatus) #an di daera" asaln#a +ustralia di8enal den an se%utan redclaw !eru'a8an s'esies #an 'otensial untu8 di%udida#a8an$ Hewan ini !e!'un#ai %e%era'a 8eun ulan se%a ai or anis!e %udida#a, #aitu da'at di'eli"ara dala! 'adat 'ene%aran #an tin i, 'ertu!%u"an ce'at di%andin den an lo%ster air tawar )enis lain, re'rodu8sin#a #an !uda", dan da'at %erta"an 'ada 8ondisi 8ualitas air #an %uru8 se'erti 8andun an o8si en terlarut #an renda" (Meade > <atts, -??7@ Mu,inic et al$, 0116)$ Hewan ini suda" %an#a8 di%udida#a8an di %e%era'a ne ara se'erti Ecuador, Israel, ("ina, +!eri8a 3eri8at (2ar8i, 5ur, > Aar'lus, 011-@ ("en > Ed erton, 011-@ Jacinto et al$, 0116) serta Indonesia$ 9en an se!a8in %er8e!%an n#a %udida#a 8eara" intensifi8asi a8an !enin 8at8an stress 'ada "ewan #an selan)utn#a a8an !en#e%a%8an !unculn#a !asala" 'en#a8it se%a ai!ana #an diala!i ole" %udida#a udan windu dala! siste! intensif (:oren,on et al$, -??B)$ 2e%era'a ne ara tela" !en ala!i 8eru ian #an %esar a8i%at 'en#a8it w"ite s'ot #an dise%a%8an infe8si &irus <33V 'ada %udida#a udan (C"an , Huan , Du, > Hew, 0110), dan tela" dila'or8an %a"wa &irus <33V #an !eru'a8an &irus den an tin 8at 'ato enitas #an san at tin i tela" dite!u8an da'at !en infe8si lo%ster air tawar dala! u)i la%oratoriu! (Ed erton et al$, 0110)$ 2e%era'a &irus lain )u a tela" dite!u8an da'at !en#eran redclaw (Ed erton, -??=@ Ed erton > Owens, -???@ Ed erton et al$, -??6@ Ed erton et al$, 0111), se"in a infe8si &irus !en)adi fo8us uta!a #an "arus diwas'adai dala! %udida#a lo%ster air tawar 8"ususn#a )i8a %udida#a tela" %er8e!%an 8eara" intensif$ Ole" 8arena itula" 'e!a"a!an #an !endala! ter"ada' siste! 8e8e%alan redclaw san at %er una dala! u'a#a dan strate i 'enan ulan an 'en#a8it$ 3e%a ai "ewan #an !asu8 dala! 8elas 8rustasea, redclaw tida8 !e!'un#ai siste! 8e8e%alan ada'tif dan ter antun 'ada

siste! 8e8e%alan ala!i (innate immunity) dala! !e!'erta"an8an diri ter"ada' seran an 'ato en$ Innate immunity #an di!ili8i ole" 8rustasea !a!'u !endete8si 'ola !ole8uler #an !eru'a8an ciri s'esifi8 suatu 'ato en (3ritun#aluc8sana, 011-), se'erti !isaln#a li'o'ol#sacc"arida (:P3) dari %a8teri ra! ne atif, l#coli'ids dari !#co%acteria, asa! li'oteic"oic %a8teri ra! 'ositif, !annans dari #east, E/-,./ lucan dari )a!ur dan rantai anda dari RN+ &irus (Hoff!an, Aafatos, Janewa#, > E8e8owit,, -???)$ Redclaw !e!'un#ai satu set rese'tor #an dise%ut den an pattern recognition proteins 4 receptors (PRPs or PRRs)$ Pendete8sian su%stansi !i8ro%ial dari 'ato en ole" PRPs a8an !en a8tif8an %e%era'a !ole8ul %iolo is #an %ertan un )awa% dala! siste! 8e8e%alan tu%u" ter!asu8 'rotein anti!i8ro%ial (antimicrobial peptides) (3ritun#aluc8sana, 011-)$ Pen#unti8an &irus sintetis #an !iri' rantai anda RN+ &irus (Pol# I:() 'ada &erte%rata tela" ter%u8ti !a!'u !en indu8si res'on anti&irus den an cara indu8si siste! interferon (IFN system)$ IFN system !eru'a8an siste! 'erta"anan tu%u" #an 'erta!a untu8 !elawan infe8si &irus 'ada &erte%rata$ T#'e I siste! interferon terdiri dari F dan ; interferons, #an !en indu8si sintesis dari %e%era'a 'rotein, ter!asu8 'rotein 8inase R (PAR),, adenosine dea!inase dan M* 'roteins (Plant > T"une, 0116)$ 3tudi #an tela" dila8u8an 'ada i8an #an diin)e8si den an Pol# I:( !enun)u88an 8e!unculan M* 'rotein #an %er'eran se%a ai a en anti&irus (V$ Jensen > Ro%ertsen, 0111@ J$ G$ :ee, Hirono et al$, 0111@ Plant > T"une, 0116@ Ga' et al$, 011.)$ 5el ele8troforesis !enun)u88an %a"wa M* 'rotein !e!'un#ai %erat !ole8ul antara B0$7 dan B= 89a (I$ Jensen, +l%uqueque, 3o!!er, > Ro%ertsen, 0110@ N# aard et al$, 0111@ Plant > T"une, 0116)$ 3aat ini %elu! ada 'enelitian tentan 'en aru" Pol# I:( ter"ada' siste! i!!unitas 8rustasea$ Aarena itula" 'enelitian ini %ertu)uan untu8 !en eta"ui e8s'resi 'rotein 'ada redclaw #an diin)e8si den an Pol# I:($ $!TE,I -!3 $ET)-E

-77

Vol. 14 No. 2 Tahun 2

Pen aru" Pen#unti8an Pol# I:( ter"ada' E8s'resi Protein

.ewan 0(i dan Penyuntikan Redclaw #an %eru8uran -./01 ra! di'eli"ara dala! a8uariu! den an &olu!e air =1 liter, tia' a8uariu! diisi den an 6 e8or redclaw$ +8uariu! + %erisi "ewan u)i #an diin)e8si den an Pol# I:( den an dosis 0 ! 4!l dan a8uariu! 0 %erisi 6 e8or "ewan u)i #an diin)e8si den an P"osfat 2uffer 3aline (P23) (se%a ai 8ontrol4'e!%andin )$ In)e8si dila8u8an secara intra!uscular 'ada %a ian &entral (otot a%do!inal)$ 3etela" 6 "ari, "ae!ol#!'" dan "e'ato'an8reas dari "ewan u)i disa!'lin dan dila8u8an u)i lan)utan$ Sampling .aemolymph dan .epatopankreas Hae!ol#!'" dia!%il dari 'an 8al 8a8i )alan 8e li!a !en una8an s#rin e #an %eru8uran - !l, #an se%elu!n#a tela" diisi den an -11 Hl larutan +lse&erIs #an terdiri atas -?,. !M 3odiu! citrate @ 0.?,J !M 3odiu! c"loride@ -J0,7 !M 5lucose dan =,0 !M E9T+ 'H B,.) untu8 !en "indari 'en u!'alan "ae!ol#!'"$ He'ato'an8reas dia!%il den an !e!%eda" "ewan u)i 'ada %a ian ce'"alot"ora*, !e!oton se%a ian 8ecil "e'ato'an8reas dan dileta8an dala! 011 Hl '"os'"ate %uffer 8onsentrasi 71 !M, 'H B$6, 8e!udian dita!%a"8an den an - Hl PM3K (-1 ! 4!l dala! iso'ro'anol) untu8 !ence a" a8ti&itas 'roteoliti8$ 3a!'el 8e!udian disi!'an 'ada su"u %e8u (/J1 L) sa!'ai di una8an$ Persiapan <el Elektro&oresis Hae!ol#!'" disentrifus 'ada B11 * sela!a -7 !enit 'ada su"u 6 L(, su'ernatant di%uan dan 'ellet disus'ensi8an dala! 71 Hl '"os'"ate %uffer 8onsentrasi 71!M$ Protein dala! sus'ensi sel diu8ur den an 2(+ 'rotein assa# 8it (Pierce 2iotec"nolo #, M3+)$ 2erdasar8an "asil 'en u8uran 'rotein, sus'ensi sel 8e!udian diencer8an untu8 !enca'ai

8onsentrasi 'rotein - ! 4!l$ 3el 8e!udian die8stra8si dala! 393 sa!'le %uffer, 8e!udian di'anas8an sela!a 7 !inutes 'ada su"u ?7 L($ 3a!'el #an !en andun -1H 'rotein di runnin 'ada -1N 393 'ol#acr#la!ide els (393/P+5E) sela!a 67 !enit den an te an an 011V (:ae!!li, -?B1)$ He'ato'an8reas di"o!o enisasi !en una8an 'estle 8e!udian disentrifus 'ada -1,111 * sela!a -7 !inutes 'ada 6 L($ 3u'ernatant (fase cair) dia!%il 8e!udian disentrifus se%an#a8 0 8ali untu8 !e "ilan 8an le!a8 #an %erle%i"an$ Aonsentrasi 'rotein 8e!udian diu8ur se'erti cara untu8 "e!oc#tes diatas dan 8e!udian diencer8an sa!'ai 8onsentrasi - ! 4!l$ 3a!'el dita!%a"8an den an 0 &olu!e 393 sa!'le %uffer, di'anas8an sela!a 7 !enit 'ada ?7 L( and dirunnin 'ada 393/P+5E -1N ele8troforesis sela!a 67 !inutes 'ada 011V, sesuai !etode :ae!!li, -?B1$ 393/P+5E #an di una8an adala" standards (2io/Rad, Hercules, (+)$ Resol&in el terdiri dari TrisOH(l %uffers -$7 M 'H B$J se!entara 3tac8in el terdiri atas 1$7 M 'H J$J$ 5el 8e!udian diwarnai den an (oo!assie 2rilliant 2lue R/071 (2io/Rad, Hercules, (+)$ .!SI -!3 PE$B!.!S!3 .emosit 3e!ua "ewan u)i %ai8 'ada 'erla8uan Pol# I:( dan P23 teta' "idu' sa!'ai saat sa!'lin $ Hasil ele8troforesis "e!osits disa)i8an 'ada 5a!%ar -$ 9ari "asil ele8troforesis dida'at8an %a"wa tida8 ada 'er%edaan dala! e8s'resi 'rotein antara 'erla8uan den an Pol# I:( dan P23$ Na!un de!i8ian ele8troforesis !endete8si %a"wa ada 'rotein den an %erat !ole8ul .-/67 89a #an 8e!un 8inan adala" :#'o'olisac"arrides and ;/-,./ lucan 2indin Protein (:52P) ('ana")$

-7=

Hastuti,

Jurnal PROTEIN

<ambar 92

Hasil Ele8troforesis Protein He!osit$ Aolo! -P 'rotein !ar8er@ Aolo! 0,.,=,B P sa!'el 'rotein "e!osit "ewan u)i den an 'en#unti8an Pol# I:( @ Aolo! 6,7,J,? P sa!'el "ewan den an 'en#unti8an P23 (8ontrol) %erat !ole8ul te'at di%awa" ==$0 89a, 'rotein ini se%enarn#a )u a !uncul 'ada sa!'el dari 'erla8uan den an P23 (5a!%ar 0$ 8olo! . dan =), na!un 8e!unculann#a !enin 8at secara n#ata 'ada sa!'el "e'ato'an8reas dari 'erla8uan Pol# I:( (5a!%ar 0$, 8olo! 0 dan 7)$ Protein #an di!a8sud diindi8asi8an den an tanda 'ana" 'ada a!%ar, 8e!un 8inan !eru'a8an fa!ili dari M* 'rotein #an !e!'un#ai a8ti&itas anti&irus$

.epatopankreas 5el ele8troforesis "e'ato'an8reas ditun)u88an 'ada 5a!%ar 0$ Hasil ele8troforesis !enun)u88an adan#a %e%era'a 'rotein #an terre8s'resi$ Aolo! - dan B !enun)u88an 'rotein !ar8er, se!entara 8olo! 0 dan 7 !eru'a8an sa!'el 'rotein dari 'erla8uan Pol# I:(, 8olo! . dan = !eru'a8an 'rotein dari sa!'le 'erla8uan P23 (8ontrol)$ E8s'resi 'rotein #an !en)adi 'er"atian adala" #an ditun)u88an ole" %and #an %erada 'ada

<ambar 42

5el ele8troforesis Protein #an tere8s'resi dari "e'ato'an8reas Redclaw$ Aolo! -,B P !ar8er@ 8olo! 0,. P treat!ent Pol# I:(@ 8olo! 6 P treat!ent :P3 @ 8olo! 7, = P treat!ent P23

-7B

Vol. 14 No. 2 Tahun 2

Pen aru" Pen#unti8an Pol# I:( ter"ada' E8s'resi Protein

Hasil ele8troforesis "e!osit !enun)u88an 8e!uculan 'rotein #an diasu!si8an se%a ai :52P %erdasar8an %erat !ole8uln#a$ 9ila'or8an %a"wa :52P !e!'un#ai %erat !ole8ul antara .= dan 61 89a (J$ G$ :ee, <an et al$, 0111)$ E8s'resi :52P 'ada 'erla8uan den an Pol# I:( 8e!un 8inan 8arena "ewan u)i tela" terinfe8si ole" %a8teri dari lo8asi 'e!eli"araan$ 3e%a ai!ana di8eta"ui e8s'resi :52P %iasan#a !enin 8at 'ada "ewan #an terinfe8si %a8teri atau )a!ur$ Pen i8atan li'o'olisa8arida %a8teri ter"ada' :52P a8an !en a8tif8an s#ste! 'roPO dan en untu8 anti%a8teri$ (Hoff!an, Reic"art, > Hetru, -??=@ 3$ G$ :ee > 3oder"all, 0110)$ Rou* dan 8awan/8awan !ene!u8an %a"wa :52P da'at terindetifi8asi 'ada "e!osit "ewan #an se"at !au'un #an terinfe8si ole" <33V (Rou*, Pain, Ali!'el, > 9"ar, 0110)$ 3elan)utn#a di8ata8an %a"wa :52P 'rotein #an 8e!un 8inan %esar %er'eran 'entin dala! 'ato enitas &irus se%a ai!ana %a8teri dan )a!ur$ Aarena itu !asu8 a8al )i8a 'en#unti8an "ewan u)i den an rantai anda &irus RN+ sintetis da'at !eran san e8s'resi :52P$ He!osits 8rustasea di8eta"ui %er'eranan dala! innate immunity secara selular dan "u!oral (I$ 3oder"all > 3oder"all, 0110)$ +8an teta'i "an#a sedi8it infor!asi tentan siste! 8e8e%alan 'ada or an lain$ Ole" 8arena itu 'enelitian ini )u a !en a!ati e8s'resi en 'ada "e'ato'an8reas #an %er'eran dala! siste! 8e8e%alan$ He'ato'an8reas adala" or an 8unci #an terli%at dala! res'on 8e8e%alan 8rustasea$ Ole" 8arenan#a, da'at diasu!si8an se%a ai te!'at uta!a 'rodu8si !ole8ul #an %er'eran dala! s#ste! 8e8e%alan (5ross, 2artlett, 2rowd#, ("a'!an, > <arr, 011-@ Jo"nson, -?JB)$ 5ross dan re8ann#a !en#ata8an %a"wa or an te!'at filtrasi "ae!ol#!'" 'encerna8an se'erti "e'ato'an8reas se"arusn#a %er'eran 'entin dala! siste! 8e8e%alan tu%u" (5ross et al$, 011-)$ 9ila'or8an dari %e%era'a studi %a"wa "e'ato'an8reas !e!'un#ai a8ti&itas anti!i8ro%a !elawan %a8teri, )a!ur, dan &irus (J$ R$ ("is"ol! > 3!it", -??0@ 5ross et al$, 011-@ Hau , A)uul, 3tens&a , 3andsdalen, > 3t#r&old, 0110@ Jo"nson, -?JB@ :uo et al$, 011.@ Pan et al$, 0111)$

Pol# I:( !eru'a8an dsRN+ sintetis #an tela" di8eta"ui !e!'un#ai efe8 ter"ada' s#ste! 8e8e%alan ala!i (innate) &erte%rate dala! !elawan infe8si &irus !elalui indu8si interferons (IKN) #an selan)utn#a a8an !e!acu 'en aturan trans8ri'si %er%a ai en #an !elindun i sel dari 8erusa8an dan 8e!atian (:o8er, +de!a, C"an , > Ae'ler, 0116@ 3alinas et al$, 0116)$ T#'e I IKN !eru%a" sel !en)adi anti&irus den an indu8si 'rotein se'erti 0I, 7I/oli oaden#late s#nt"etase (O+3), dsRN+ de'endent 'rotein 8inase (PAR) dan M* 'rotein #an da'at !en "a!%at re'li8asi &irus (3alinas et al$, 0116)$ T#'e I IKNs di'rodu8si ole" %er%a ai ti'e (Ro%ertsen et al$, 011.)$ Toll li"e receptor (T:R) #an %erlo8asi 'ada 'er!u8aan sel !a!'u untu8 !en enali dan !en i8at stru8tur &irus #an 8e!udian !en indu8si IKN !elalui )alur NKQ; toll untu8 !en a8tif8an !e8anis!e 'erta"anan ter"ada' !ateri asin #an !asu8 dala! tu%u" den an !en indu8si M* 'rotein, #an !eru'a8an an ota 5TP/ases su'erfa!il#, #an !e!'un#ai a8ti&itas anti&irus (3$ :ee > Vidal, 0110)$ +8an teta'i, tida8 ada data #an !en ata8an %a"wa in&erte%rata !e!'un#ai rese'tor #an !a!'u untu8 !en enali &irus dan "o!olo #an )elas dari interferon (:o8er et al$, 0116)$ 2erat !ole8ul dari 'rotein #an tere8s'resi den an 'erla8uan Pol#I:( 'ada 'enelitian 8ali ini sa!a se'erti M* 'rotein #an lain$ :e%i" lan)ut di8ata8an u're ulasi e8s'resi 'ada ele8troforesis se%a ai res'on ter"ada' 'en#unti8an Pol#I:( )u a !en indi8asi8an a8ti&itas se'erti M* 'rotein$ 3equencin 'rotein di'erlu8an untu8 !en identifi8asi secara le%i" detil 'rotein #an tere8s'resi$ Ji8a "asil sequencin !e!%u8ti8an %a"wa 'rotein terse%ut adala" an ota dari M* 'rotein, 'enelitian ini a8an !e!%u8ti8an adan#a M* 'rotein 'ada 8rustasea, dan #an le%i" 'entin la i !un 8in !en indi8asi8an adan#a a8ti&itas anti&irus #an le%i" luas 'ada in&erte%rata$ <alau'un M* 'rotein dan !e8anis!e indu8sin#a 'ada 8rustasean !asi" %elu! )elas, na!un di'erca#a %a"wa 8rustasea !e!ili8i 'rotein anti!i8ro%a #an da'at !eres'on infe8si %a8teri, )a!ur, dan &irus$ Protein anti!i8ro%a ini tida8 "an#a terleta8 'ada "ae!ol#!'", ta'i )u a da'at didete8si 'ada or an atau )arin an #an lain se'erti "e'ato'an8reas (J$ R$ ("is"ol! > 3!it", -??0@

-7J

Hastuti,

Jurnal PROTEIN

Hau et al$, 0110@ :uo et al$, 011.@ C"an et al$, 0116)$ 9en an de!i8ian 'erlu 'enelitian le%i" lan)ut untu8 !enda'at8an 'e!a"a!an #an le%i" dala! tentan !e8anis!e anti&irus 'ada 8rustasea dala! "u%un ann#a den an M* 'rotein$ 9i'erlu8an sequencin ter"ada' 'rotein #an tela" dite!u8an dala! 'enelitian ini untu8 !e!asti8an %a"wa 'rotein terse%ut !asu8 dala! olon an M* 'rotein$ Perlu )u a dila8u8an 'enelitian lan)utan den an 'en#unti8an Pol# I: ( den an %er%a ai dosis dan sa!'lin #an dila8u8an dala! wa8tu #an %er%eda untu8 !en eta"ui dosis letal in)e8si Pol# I:( dan !e!a"a!i 8ineti8a 'rotein #an di"ara'8an$ 9isaran8an )u a untu8 !eneliti e8s'resi 'rotein 'ada or an lain se'erti l#!'"oid or an$ KESI$P0 !3 -!3 S!,!3 Kesimpulan Saran -!/T!, P0ST!K! 2ar8i, +$, 5ur, N$, > Aar'lus, I$ (011-)$ $anagement o& interspe'i&i' &ood 'ompetition in &ish='ray&ish 'ommunal 'ulture: the e&&e'ts o& the spatial and temporal separation o& &eed$ +quaculture# 2 1, .6./.76$ ("en, D$, > Ed erton, 2$ K$ (011-)$ /reshwater 'ray&ish 'ulture in China$ +quaculture !a a,ine# 2$# 6-/ 66$

:e Moullac, 5$, > Haffner, P$ (0111)$ En1ironmental &a'tors a&&e'ting immune responses in Krustasea$ +quaculture, -?-(-/.), -0-/-.-$ :e Moullac, 5$, :e 5rou!ellec, M$, +nsquer, 9$, Kroissard, 3$, :e&#, P$, > +quaco'$ (-??B)$ .aematologi'al and phenolo*idase a'ti1ity 'hanges in the shrimp Penaeus stylirostris in relation with the moult 'y'le: prote'tion against 1ibriosis$ Kis" and 3"ellfis" I!!unolo #, B, 00B/0.6$ :ee, 3$ G$, > 3oder"all, A$ (0110)$ Early e1ents in krustasean innate immunity$ Kis" and 3"ellfis" I!!unolo #, -0, 60-/6.B$ :ian , C$, 3ottru'/Jensen, :$, > 3oder"all, A$ (-??B)$ Pa'i&astin? a no1el 9@@=k-a heterodimeri' proteinase inhibitor 'ontaining a uniAue trans&errin 'hain$ Procedin of t"e National +cade!# of 3cience M3+, ?6, ==J0/ ==JB$ :oren,on, 3$, 5iulianini, P$ 5$, > Kerrero, E$ +$ (-??B)$ ipopolysa''haride=indu'ed hypergly'aemia is mediated by C.. release in krustaseans$ 5eneral and (o!'arati&e Endocrinolo #, -1J, .?7/ 617$ :unde, H$, > Ro%ertsen, 2$ (-??B)$ The 'omplement 'omponent C8 is produ'ed by hepato'ytes and beha1es as an a'ute=phase protein in !tlanti' salmon? Salmo salar 2? a&ter in(e'tion o& B=9?8=glu'an$ 9e&elo'!ental and (o!'arati&e I!!unolo #, 0-, -71$ Meade, M$ E$, > <atts, 3$ +$ (-??7)$ +eight gain and sur1i1al o& (u1enile !ustralian 'ray&ish Chera* Auadri'arinatus &ed &ormulated &eeds$ Journal of t"e <orld +quaculture 3ociet#, 0=, 6=?/6B6$ 3a8ai, M$ (-???)$ Current resear'h status o& &ish immunostimulants$ +quaculture, -B0, =./?0$ 3a8ai, M$, Tani uc"i, A$, Ma!oto, A$, O awa, H$, > Ta%ata, M$ (011-)$ Immunostimulant e&&e'ts o&

Hoff!an, J$ +$, Aafatos, K$ ($, Janewa#, ($ +$, > E8e8owit,, R$ +$ 2$ (-???)$ Phylogeneti' perspe'ti1es in innate immunity$ 3cience, 0J6, -.-./-.-J$ Hoff!an, J$ +$, Reic"art, J$ M$, > Hetru, ($ (-??=)$ Innate immunity in higher inse'ts$ (urrent O'inion in I!!unolo #, J, J/-.$ Janewa#, ($ +$ J$ (-?J?)$ !pproa'hing the asymptole> E1olution and re1olution in immunology$ (old 3'rin Ha%our 3#!'osiu! of Ruantitation 2iolo #, 76, -/-.$

-7?

Vol. 14 No. 2 Tahun 2

Pen aru" Pen#unti8an Pol# I:( ter"ada' E8s'resi Protein

nu'leotide isolated &rom yeast ,3! on 'arp? Cyprinus 'arpio $ Journal of Kis" 9iseases, 06, 6../6.J$ 3el&in, J$, Hu*le#a, +$J$, :i'ton, +$P$ 0116$ Immunomodulatory potential o& marine se'ondary metabolites against ba'terial diseases o& shrimp$ +quaculture 0.1 : 06-O06J 3!it", V$ J$, > Ratcliffe, N$ +$ (-?J1)$ .ost de&en'e rea'tions o& the shore 'rab? Car'inus maenas " 2%B 'learan'e and distribution o& in(e'ted parti'les$ Journal of Marine 2iolo # +ssociated MA, =1, J?/-10$ 3oder"all, I$, > 3oder"all, A$ (0110)$ Immune rea'tions$ In 9$ M$ Holdic" (Ed$), 2iolo # of Kres"water (ra#fis" (''$ 6.?/6=6)$ Iowa, M3+: 2lac8well 3cience$ 3oder"all, A$ (-?J0)$ Prophenolo*idase a'ti1ating system and melaniCation=a re'ognition me'hanism o& arthropods 9e&elo'!ent and (o!'arati&e I!!unolo #, =, =1-/=--$ 3oder"all, A$, > (erenius, :$ (-??Ja)$ ,ole o& the prophenolo*idase=a'ti1ating system in in1ertebrate immunity$ (urrent O'inion in I!!unolo #, -1(-), 0./0J$

3oder"all, A$, > (erenius, :$ (-??J%)$ ,ole o& the prophenolo*idase=a'ti1ating system in in1ertebrate immunity$ (urrent O'inion in I!!unolo #, -1, 0./0J$ 3ritun#aluc8sana, A$ (011-)$ Chara'terisation o& some immune genes in the bla'k tiger shrimp? Penaeus monodon$ Mn'u%lis"ed 9issertation of 9octor of P"iloso'"#, M''sala Mni&ersit#, 3weden$ 3ritun#aluc8sana, A$, > 3oder"all, A$ (0111)$ The proP) and 'lotting system in krustaseans2 +quaculture, -?-(-/.), 7./=?$ Tuc8o&a, :$, > 2ile), M$ (-??=)$ $e'hanisms o& antigen pro'essing in in1ertebrates: are there re'eptors> In 2 Cooper "Ed2%? !d1an'es in Comparati1e and En1ironmental Physiolog# (In&erte%rate I!!une Res'onses:(ells and Molecular Products) (Vol$ 0., ''$ 6-/B0)$ 2erlin: 3'rin er$ C"an , D$, Huan , ($, Du, D$, > Hew, ($ :$ (0110)$ Identi&i'ation and lo'aliCation o& a prawn white spot syndrome 1irus gene that en'odes an en1elope protein$ Journal of 5eneral Virolo #, J., -1=?/-1B6$

-=1