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Theory Reference Page: 1

17.7. Spectrum Analysis

Two types of spectrum analyses (ANTYPE,SPECTR) are supported: the deterministic response and the nondeterministic random vibration method. Both excitation at the support and excitation support are allowed. The three response spectrum methods are the single-point, multiple-point analysis method. The random vibration method uses the power spectral density (PSD) approac

The following spectrum analysis topics are available:

Assumptions and RestrictionsThe following spectrum analysis topics are available: Description of Analysis Single-Point Response Spectrum

Description of Analysisanalysis topics are available: Assumptions and Restrictions Single-Point Response Spectrum Damping Participation Factors

Single-Point Response SpectrumAssumptions and Restrictions Description of Analysis Damping Participation Factors and Mode Coefficients

DampingDescription of Analysis Single-Point Response Spectrum Participation Factors and Mode Coefficients Combination of

Participation Factors and Mode Coefficientsof Analysis Single-Point Response Spectrum Damping Combination of Modes Reduced Mass Summary Effective Mass and

Combination of ModesSpectrum Damping Participation Factors and Mode Coefficients Reduced Mass Summary Effective Mass and Cumulative Mass

Reduced Mass SummaryFactors and Mode Coefficients Combination of Modes Effective Mass and Cumulative Mass Fraction Dynamic Design

Effective Mass and Cumulative Mass FractionMode Coefficients Combination of Modes Reduced Mass Summary Dynamic Design Analysis Method Random Vibration Method

Dynamic Design Analysis MethodMass Summary Effective Mass and Cumulative Mass Fraction Random Vibration Method Description of Method Response Power

Random Vibration Methodand Cumulative Mass Fraction Dynamic Design Analysis Method Description of Method Response Power Spectral Densities and

Description of MethodDynamic Design Analysis Method Random Vibration Method Response Power Spectral Densities and Mean Square Response

Response Power Spectral Densities and Mean Square ResponseMethod Random Vibration Method Description of Method Cross Spectral Terms for Partially Correlated Input PSDs

Cross Spectral Terms for Partially Correlated Input PSDsResponse Power Spectral Densities and Mean Square Response Spatial Correlation Wave Propagation Multi-Point Response

Spatial CorrelationCross Spectral Terms for Partially Correlated Input PSDs Wave Propagation Multi-Point Response Spectrum Method

Wave Propagationfor Partially Correlated Input PSDs Spatial Correlation Multi-Point Response Spectrum Method Missing Mass Response

Multi-Point Response Spectrum MethodCorrelated Input PSDs Spatial Correlation Wave Propagation Missing Mass Response Rigid Responses 17.7.1. Assumptions

Missing Mass ResponseWave Propagation Multi-Point Response Spectrum Method Rigid Responses 17.7.1. Assumptions and Restrictions 1. The

Rigid ResponsesMulti-Point Response Spectrum Method Missing Mass Response 17.7.1. Assumptions and Restrictions 1. The structure is

17.7.1. Assumptions and Restrictions

1. The structure is linear.

2. For single-point response spectrum analysis (SPOPT,SPRS) and dynamic design ana

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DDAM), the structure is excited by a spectrum of known direction and frequency comp uniformly on all support points or on specified unsupported master degrees of freedom 3. For multi-point response spectrum (SPOPT,MPRS) and power spectral density (SPOP structure may be excited by different input spectra at different support points or unsup ten different simultaneous input spectra are allowed.

17.7.2. Description of Analysis

The spectrum analysis capability is a separate analysis type (ANTYPE,SPECTR) and it must be frequency analysis. If mode combinations are needed, the required modes must also be expand Mode-Frequency Analysis.

The four options available are the single-point response spectrum method (SPOPT,SPRS), the analysis method (SPOPT,DDAM), the random vibration method (SPOPT,PSD) and the multiple- spectrum method (SPOPT,MPRS). Each option is discussed in detail subsequently.

17.7.3. Single-Point Response Spectrum

Both excitation at the support (base excitation) and excitation away from the support (force excit the single-point response spectrum analysis (SPOPT,SPRS). The table below summarizes thes the input associated with each.

Table 17.3 Types of Spectrum Loading

 

Excitation Option

 

Excitation at Support

Excitation Away Fro

Spectrum input

Response spectrum table (FREQ and SV commands)

Amplitude multiplier table ( commands)

Orientation of load

Direction vector (input on SED and ROCK commands)

X, Y, Z direction at each no by FX, FY, or FZ on F com

Distribution of loads

Constant on all support points

Amplitude in X, Y, or Z dire (selected by VALUE on F

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Type of input

Velocity

Acceleration

Displacement

Response spectrum type (KSV on SVTYP command)

0

2

3,4

17.7.4. Damping

Damping is evaluated for each mode and is defined as:

Damping is evaluated for each mode and is defined as: where: b = beta damping (input

where:

Damping is evaluated for each mode and is defined as: where: b = beta damping (input

b

= beta damping (input as VALUE, BETAD command)

w

i = undamped natural circular frequency of the ith mode

x c = damping ratio (input as RATIO, DMPRAT command)

N m =

number of materials

as RATIO , DMPRAT command) N m = number of materials { f i } =
as RATIO , DMPRAT command) N m = number of materials { f i } =

{f i } = displacement vector for mode i

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[K j ] = stiffness matrix of part of structure of material j

j ] = stiffness matrix of part of structure of material j = modal damping ratio

= modal damping ratio of mode i (MDAMP command)

Note that the material dependent damping contribution is computed in the modal expansion pha damping contribution must be included there.

17.7.5. Participation Factors and Mode Coefficients

The participation factors for the given excitation direction are defined as:

factors for the given excitation direction are defined as: where: g i = participation factor for
factors for the given excitation direction are defined as: where: g i = participation factor for

where:

g i = participation factor for the ith mode

{f} i = eigenvector normalized using

for the ith mode { f } i = eigenvector normalized using (Nrmkey on the MODOPT

(Nrmkey on the MODOPT command has n

{D} = vector describing the excitation direction (see

{F} = input force vector

)
)

The vector describing the excitation direction has the form:

The vector describing the excitation direction has the form: where: Contains proprietary and confidential information of

where:

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Theory Reference Page: 5 X, Y, Z = global Cartesian coordinates of a point on the
Theory Reference Page: 5 X, Y, Z = global Cartesian coordinates of a point on the
Theory Reference Page: 5 X, Y, Z = global Cartesian coordinates of a point on the

X, Y, Z = global Cartesian coordinates of a point on the geometry

X o , Y o , Z o = global Cartesian coordinates of point about which rotations are done (reference po

{e} = six possible unit vectors

We can calculate the statically equivalent actions at j due to rigid-body displacements of the ref the concept of translation of axes [T] (Weaver and Johnston([279.])).

For spectrum analysis, the D a values may be determined in one of two ways:

1. For D values with rocking not included (based on the SED command):

with rocking not included (based on the SED command): where: Contains proprietary and confidential information of
with rocking not included (based on the SED command): where: Contains proprietary and confidential information of
with rocking not included (based on the SED command): where: Contains proprietary and confidential information of

where:

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S X , S Y , S Z = components of excitation direction (input as SEDX, SEDY, and SEDZ

SED command)

direction (input as SEDX , SEDY , and SEDZ SED command) 2. or, for D values

2. or, for D values with rocking included (based on the SED and ROCK command):

rocking included (based on the SED and ROCK command): R is defined by: where: C X
rocking included (based on the SED and ROCK command): R is defined by: where: C X
rocking included (based on the SED and ROCK command): R is defined by: where: C X

R is defined by:

(based on the SED and ROCK command): R is defined by: where: C X , C

where:

C X , C Y , C Z = components of angular velocity components (input as OMX, OMY, and OMZ, re

command)

x = vector cross product operator

r X =

X n - L X

r Y =

Y n - L Y

r Z = Z n - L Z

X n , Y n , Z n = coordinate of node n

L X , L Y , L Z = location of center of rotation (input as CGX, CGY, and CGZ on ROCK command)

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In a modal analysis, the ratio of each participation factor to the largest participation factor (outp printed out.

to the largest participation factor (outp printed out. where: m = 0, 1, or 2, based
to the largest participation factor (outp printed out. where: m = 0, 1, or 2, based

where:

m = 0, 1, or 2, based on whether the displacements, velocities, or accelerations, respectively, a label, the third field on the mode combination commands SRSS, CQC, GRP, DSUM, NRLSUM

A i = mode coefficient (see below)

The mode coefficient is computed in five different ways, depending on the type of excitation (SV

1. For velocity excitation of base (SVTYP, 0)

( SV 1. For velocity excitation of base ( SVTYP , 0) where: S v i

where:

S vi = spectral velocity for the i th mode (obtained from the input velocity spectrum at fre

effective damping ratio

)
)

f i = i th natural frequency (cycles per unit time =

i = i t h natural frequency (cycles per unit time = w i = i

w i = i th natural circular frequency (radians per unit time)

2. For force excitation (SVTYP, 1)

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Theory Reference Page: 8 where: S f i = spectral force for the i t h

where:

S fi = spectral force for the i th mode (obtained from the input amplitude multiplier table

effective damping ratio

the input amplitude multiplier table effective damping ratio ). 3. For acceleration excitation of base (

).

3. For acceleration excitation of base (SVTYP, 2)

ratio ). 3. For acceleration excitation of base ( SVTYP , 2) where: S a i

where:

S ai = spectral acceleration for the i th mode (obtained from the input acceleration respo

frequency f i and effective damping ratio

).respo frequency f i and effective damping ratio 4. For displacement excitation of base ( SVTYP

4. For displacement excitation of base (SVTYP, 3)

ratio ). 4. For displacement excitation of base ( SVTYP , 3) where: S u i

where:

S ui = spectral displacement for the i th mode (obtained from the input displacement res

frequency f i and effective damping ratio

).res frequency f i and effective damping ratio 5. For power spectral density (PSD) ( SVTYP

5. For power spectral density (PSD) (SVTYP, 4) (Vanmarcke([34.]))

spectral density (PSD) ( SVTYP , 4) (Vanmarcke([ 34. ] )) Contains proprietary and confidential information

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where:

S pi = power spectral density for the i th mode (obtained from the input PSD spectrum a

)
)

effective damping ratio

x = damping ratio (input as RATIO, DMPRAT command, defaults to .01)

The integral in

RATIO , DMPRAT command, defaults to .01) The integral in is approximated as: where: L i
RATIO , DMPRAT command, defaults to .01) The integral in is approximated as: where: L i

is approximated as:

where:

L i = f i (in integer form)

S pj = power spectral density evaluated at frequency (f) equal to j (in real form)

Df = effective frequency band for f i = 1.

When S vi , S fi , S ai , S ui , or S pi are needed between input frequencies, log-log interpolation is don

defined.

input frequencies, log-log interpolation is don defined. table are evaluated at the input curve with the

table are evaluated at the input curve with the lowest damping ratio, not at the effective damping

17.7.6. Combination of Modes

) may be combined in diff

the response of the structure. For all excitations but the PSD this would be the maximum respon excitation, this would be the 1-s (standard deviation) relative response. The response includes well as element results and reaction forces if computed in the expansion operations (Elcalc = Y

The modal displacements, velocity and acceleration (

= Y The modal displacements, velocity and acceleration ( Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS,

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Theory Reference Page: 10 command).

In the case of the single-point response spectrum method (SPOPT,SPRS) or the dynamic-desig (SPOPT,DDAM) options of the spectrum analysis , it is possible to expand only those modes wh factor exceeds the significant threshold value (SIGNIF value on MXPAND command). Note that must be available at the time the modes are expanded.

Only those modes having a significant amplitude (mode coefficient) are chosen for mode combi having a coefficient of greater than a given value (input as SIGNIF on the mode combination co GRP, DSUM, NRLSUM, ROSE and PSDCOM) of the maximum mode coefficient (all modes are considered significant.

The spectrum option provides six options for the combination of modes. They are:

Complete Quadratic Combination Method (CQC)provides six options for the combination of modes. They are: Grouping Method (GRP) Double Sum Method

Grouping Method (GRP)modes. They are: Complete Quadratic Combination Method (CQC) Double Sum Method (DSUM) SRSS Method (SRSS) NRL-SUM

Double Sum Method (DSUM)Quadratic Combination Method (CQC) Grouping Method (GRP) SRSS Method (SRSS) NRL-SUM Method (NRLSUM) Rosenblueth

SRSS Method (SRSS)Method (CQC) Grouping Method (GRP) Double Sum Method (DSUM) NRL-SUM Method (NRLSUM) Rosenblueth Method (ROSE) These

NRL-SUM Method (NRLSUM)Method (GRP) Double Sum Method (DSUM) SRSS Method (SRSS) Rosenblueth Method (ROSE) These methods generate

Rosenblueth Method (ROSE)Sum Method (DSUM) SRSS Method (SRSS) NRL-SUM Method (NRLSUM) These methods generate coefficients for the combination

These methods generate coefficients for the combination of mode shapes. This combination is generalization of the method of the square root of the sum of the squares which has the form:

square root of the sum of the squares which has the form: where: R a =

where:

R a = total modal response

N = total number of expanded modes

e ij = coupling coefficient. The value of e ij = 0.0 implies modes i and j are independent and appro

dependency increases

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R i = A i Y i = modal response in the i th mode (

)
)

R j = A j Y j = modal response in the j th mode

A i = mode coefficient for the i th mode

A j = mode coefficient for the j th mode

Y i = the i th mode shape

Y j = the j th mode shape

Y i and Y j may be the DOF response, reactions, or stresses. The DOF response, reactions, or s

displacement, velocity or acceleration depending on the user request (Label on the mode comb SRSS, CQC, DSUM, GRP, ROSE or NRLSUM).

The mode combination instructions are written to File.MCOM by the mode combination comma in POST1 automatically performs the mode combination.

17.7.6.1. Complete Quadratic Combination Method

This method (accessed with the CQC command), is based on Wilson, et al.([65.]).

the CQC command), is based on Wilson, et al.([ 65. ] ). where: Contains proprietary and

where:

CQC command), is based on Wilson, et al.([ 65. ] ). where: Contains proprietary and confidential

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Theory Reference Page: 12 r = w j / w i 17.7.6.2. Grouping Method This method

r

= w j / w

i

17.7.6.2. Grouping Method

This method (accessed with the GRP command), is from the NRC Regulatory Guide([41.]). For specializes to:

from the NRC Regulatory Guide([ 41. ] ). For specializes to: where: Closely spaced modes are
from the NRC Regulatory Guide([ 41. ] ). For specializes to: where: Closely spaced modes are

where:

NRC Regulatory Guide([ 41. ] ). For specializes to: where: Closely spaced modes are divided into

Closely spaced modes are divided into groups that include all modes having frequencies lying b frequency in the group and a frequency 10% higher. No one frequency is to be in more than one

17.7.6.3. Double Sum Method

The Double Sum Method (accessed with the DSUM command) also is from the NRC Regulatory

case,

the DSUM command) also is from the NRC Regulatory case, specializes to: Contains proprietary and confidential

specializes to:

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Theory Reference Page: 13 where: = damped natural circular frequency of the ith mode w i

where:

Theory Reference Page: 13 where: = damped natural circular frequency of the ith mode w i

= damped natural circular frequency of the ith modeTheory Reference Page: 13 where: w i = undamped natural circular frequency of the i t

w i = undamped natural circular frequency of the i th mode

= modified damping ratio of the i t h mode th mode

The damped natural frequency is computed as:

i t h mode The damped natural frequency is computed as: The modified damping ratio is

The modified damping ratio

natural frequency is computed as: The modified damping ratio is defined to account for the earthquake
natural frequency is computed as: The modified damping ratio is defined to account for the earthquake

is defined to account for the earthquake duration time:

where:

t d = earthquake duration time, fixed at 10 units of time

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17.7.6.4. SRSS Method

The SRSS (Square Root of the Sum of the Squares) Method (accessed with the SRSS comman

Regulatory Guide([41.]). For this case,

the SRSS comman Regulatory Guide([ 41. ] ). For this case, reduces to: 17.7.6.5. NRL-SUM Method

reduces to:

Regulatory Guide([ 41. ] ). For this case, reduces to: 17.7.6.5. NRL-SUM Method The NRL-SUM (Naval

17.7.6.5. NRL-SUM Method

The NRL-SUM (Naval Research Laboratory Sum) method (O'Hara and Belsheim([107.])) (acces NRLSUM command), calculates the maximum modal response as:

NRLSUM command), calculates the maximum modal response as: where: |R a 1 | = absolute value

where:

|R a1 | = absolute value of the largest modal displacement, stress or reaction at the point

R ai = displacement, stress or reaction contributions of the same point from other modes.

17.7.6.6. Rosenblueth Method

The Rosenblueth Method ( [ 1.92, Revision 2July 2006] ) is accessed with the ROSE command.

i t h t h e R O S E c o m m a n

The equations for the Double Sum method (above) apply, except for

for the Double Sum method (above) apply, except for . For the Contains proprietary and confidential

. For the

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Theory Reference Page: 15 the sign of the modal responses is retained:

Page: 15 the sign of the modal responses is retained: 17.7.7. Reduced Mass Summary For the

17.7.7. Reduced Mass Summary

For the reduced modal analysis, a study of the mass distribution is made. First, each row of the

of the mass distribution is made. First, each row of the summed and designated . UY

summed and designated

is made. First, each row of the summed and designated . UY and UZ terms are

. UY and UZ terms are handled similarly. Rotational master DOFs

and UZ terms are handled similarly. Rotational master DOFs , and , structure. If any of
and UZ terms are handled similarly. Rotational master DOFs , and , structure. If any of

, and

,

structure. If any of the three is more or significantly less, probably a large part of the mass is rel

reaction points, rather than close to master DOFs. In other words, the master DOFs either are in or are poorly located.

17.7.8. Effective Mass and Cumulative Mass Fraction

The effective mass (output as EFFECTIVE MASS) for the i th mode (which is a function of excitat (Clough and Penzien([80.])):

is a function of excitat (Clough and Penzien([ 80. ] )): Note from that so that

Note from

of excitat (Clough and Penzien([ 80. ] )): Note from that so that the effective mass

that

of excitat (Clough and Penzien([ 80. ] )): Note from that so that the effective mass

so that the effective mass reduces to

] )): Note from that so that the effective mass reduces to . This does not

. This does not apply to the force spectrum, for which th

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Theory Reference Page: 16 independent of the mass distribution.

The cumulative mass fraction for the ith mode is:

The cumulative mass fraction for the i th mode is: where N is the total number

where N is the total number of modes.

17.7.9. Dynamic Design Analysis Method

For the DDAM (Dynamic Design Analysis Method) procedure (SPOPT,DDAM) (O'Hara and Bels weights in thousands of pounds (kips) are computed from the participation factor:

of pounds (kips) are computed from the participation factor: where: w i = modal weight in

where:

w i =

modal weight in kips

386 = acceleration due to gravity (in/sec2)

The mode coefficients are computed by:

to gravity (in/sec2) The mode coefficients are computed by: where: S a i = the greater

where:

S ai = the greater of A m or S x

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A

m = minimum acceleration (input as AMIN on the ADDAM command) defaults to 6g = 2316.0

S

x = the lesser of g A or w i V

g

= acceleration due to gravity (386 in/sec2)

A

= spectral acceleration

to gravity (386 in/sec2) A = spectral acceleration V = spectral velocity A f , A

V = spectral velocity

A = spectral acceleration V = spectral velocity A f , A a , A b

A f , A a , A b , A c , A d = acceleration spectrum computation constants (input as AF, AA, AB, AC, AD

command)

V f , V a , V b , V c = velocity spectrum computation constants (input as VF, VA, VB, VC on the VDD

DDAM procedure is normally used with the NRL-SUM method of mode combination, which was

, O'Hara and Be

normalize the mode shapes to the largest modal displacements. As a result, the NRL-1396 parti

mode coefficients A i will be different.

17.7.10. Random Vibration Method

section on the single-point response spectrum. Note that unlike

on the single-point response spectrum. Note that unlike The random vibration method ( SPOPT ,PSD) allows

The random vibration method (SPOPT,PSD) allows multiple power spectral density (PSD) input these inputs can be:

1. full correlated,

2. uncorrelated, or

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Theory Reference Page: 18 3. partially correlated.

The procedure is based on computing statistics of each modal response and then combining th that the excitations are stationary random processes.

17.7.11. Description of Method

For partially correlated nodal and base excitations, the complete equations of motions are segre and the restrained (support) DOF as:

of motions are segre and the restrained (support) DOF as: where {u f } are the

where {u f } are the free DOF and {u r } are the restrained DOF that are excited by random loading

displacement on D command). Note that the restrained DOF that are not excited are not include (zero displacement on D command). {F} is the nodal force excitation activated by a nonzero val command). The value of force can be other than unity, allowing for scaling of the participation fa

The free displacements can be decomposed into pseudo-static and dynamic parts as:

can be decomposed into pseudo-static and dynamic parts as: The pseudo-static displacements may be obtained from

The pseudo-static displacements may be obtained from hand side of the equation and by replacing {u f } by {u s }:

of the equation and by replacing {u f } by {u s }: by excluding the
of the equation and by replacing {u f } by {u s }: by excluding the

by excluding the first t

in which [A] = - [K ff ]-1[K fr ]. Physically, the elements along the i th column of [A] are the pseudo-st

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Theory Reference Page: 19

due to a unit displacement of the support DOFs excited by the ith base PSD. These displaceme

load step 2 on the .rst file. Substituting light damping yields:

step 2 on the .rst file. Substituting light damping yields: and into The second term on

and

2 on the .rst file. Substituting light damping yields: and into The second term on the

into

the .rst file. Substituting light damping yields: and into The second term on the right-hand side
the .rst file. Substituting light damping yields: and into The second term on the right-hand side

The second term on the right-hand side of the above equation represents the equivalent forces excitations.

Using the mode superposition analysis of Mode Superposition Method and rewriting

analysis of Mode Superposition Method and rewriting the above equations are decoupled yielding: where: n =

the above equations are decoupled yielding:

and rewriting the above equations are decoupled yielding: where: n = number of mode shapes chosen
and rewriting the above equations are decoupled yielding: where: n = number of mode shapes chosen

where:

n = number of mode shapes chosen for evaluation (input as NMODE on SPOPT command)

y j = generalized displacements

w j and x j = natural circular frequencies and modal damping ratios

The modal loads G j are defined by:

modal damping ratios The modal loads G j are defined by: The modal participation factors corresponding

The modal participation factors corresponding to support excitation are given by:

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Theory Reference Page: 20 and for nodal excitation: Note that, for simplicity, equations for nodal excitation

and for nodal excitation:

Theory Reference Page: 20 and for nodal excitation: Note that, for simplicity, equations for nodal excitation

Note that, for simplicity, equations for nodal excitation problems are developed for a single PSD excitation PSD tables are, however, allowed in the program.

These factors are calculated (as a result of the PFACT action command) when defining base or cases and are written to the .psd file. Mode shapes {f j } should be normalized with respect to th

.
.
shapes { f j } should be normalized with respect to th . 17.7.12. Response Power

17.7.12. Response Power Spectral Densities and Mean S Response

Using the theory of random vibrations, the response PSD's can be computed from the input PSD transfer functions for single DOF systems H(w) and by using mode superposition techniques ( R POST26). The response PSD's for ith DOF are given by:

17.7.12.1. Dynamic Part

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Theory Reference Page: 21 17.7.12.2. Pseudo-Static Part 17.7.12.3. Covariance Part where: n = number of mode

17.7.12.2. Pseudo-Static Part

Theory Reference Page: 21 17.7.12.2. Pseudo-Static Part 17.7.12.3. Covariance Part where: n = number of mode

17.7.12.3. Covariance Part

21 17.7.12.2. Pseudo-Static Part 17.7.12.3. Covariance Part where: n = number of mode shapes chosen for

where:

n = number of mode shapes chosen for evaluation (input as NMODE on SPOPT command)

r 1 and r 2 = number of nodal (away from support) and base PSD tables, respectively

The transfer functions for the single DOF system assume different forms depending on the type

PSDUNIT command) of the input PSD and the type of response desired (Lab and Relkey on th command). The forms of the transfer functions for displacement as the output are listed below fo

1. Input = force or acceleration (FORC, ACEL, or ACCG on PSDUNIT command):

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Theory Reference Page: 22 2. Input = displacement (DISP on PSDUNIT command): 3. Input = velocity

2. Input = displacement (DISP on PSDUNIT command):

22 2. Input = displacement (DISP on PSDUNIT command): 3. Input = velocity (VELO on PSDUNIT

3. Input = velocity (VELO on PSDUNIT command):

command): 3. Input = velocity (VELO on PSDUNIT command): where: w = forcing frequency w j

where:

w = forcing frequency

w j = natural circular frequency for jth mode

i =

w j = natural circular frequency for jth mode i = Now, random vibration analysis can

Now, random vibration analysis can be used to show that the absolute value of the mean square free displacement (ABS option on the PSDRES command) is:

free displacement (ABS option on the PSDRES command) is: where: Contains proprietary and confidential information of

where:

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| |Re = denotes the real part of the argument

Page: 23 | |Re = denotes the real part of the argument C v (u s
Page: 23 | |Re = denotes the real part of the argument C v (u s

C v (u si , u di ) = covariance between the static and dynamic displacements

The general formulation described above gives simplified equations for several situations comm

a

. When only nodal excitations exist, the last two

practice. For fully correlated nodal excitations and identical support motions, the subscripts

from the

needs

uncorrelated nodal force and base excitations, the cross PSD's (i.e.

nodal force and base excitations, the cross PSD's (i.e. thru 167 do not apply, and only
nodal force and base excitations, the cross PSD's (i.e. thru 167 do not apply, and only

thru

force and base excitations, the cross PSD's (i.e. thru 167 do not apply, and only the

167 do not apply, and only the first term within the large parentheses in

and only the first term within the large parentheses in m) are zero, and only t
and only the first term within the large parentheses in m) are zero, and only t

m) are zero, and only t

= m in thru need to be considered. thru can be rewritten as:
= m in
thru
need to be considered.
thru
can be rewritten as:
in thru need to be considered. thru can be rewritten as: where: = modal PSD's, terms
in thru need to be considered. thru can be rewritten as: where: = modal PSD's, terms
in thru need to be considered. thru can be rewritten as: where: = modal PSD's, terms

where:

need to be considered. thru can be rewritten as: where: = modal PSD's, terms within large

= modal PSD's, terms within large parentheses of

where: = modal PSD's, terms within large parentheses of th Contains proprietary and confidential information of

th

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Theory Reference Page: 24

Closed-form solutions for piecewise linear PSD in log-log scale are employed to compute each (Chen and Ali([193.]) and Harichandran([194.])) .

each (Chen and Ali([ 193. ] ) and Harichandran([ 194. ] )) . Subsequently, the variances

Subsequently, the variances become:

194. ] )) . Subsequently, the variances become: The modal covariance matrices are available in the
194. ] )) . Subsequently, the variances become: The modal covariance matrices are available in the
194. ] )) . Subsequently, the variances become: The modal covariance matrices are available in the

The modal covariance matrices

the variances become: The modal covariance matrices are available in the .psd file. Note that represent

are available in the .psd file. Note that

matrices are available in the .psd file. Note that represent mode combination ( PSDCOM command) for
matrices are available in the .psd file. Note that represent mode combination ( PSDCOM command) for

represent mode combination (PSDCOM command) for random vibration analys

The variance for stresses, nodal forces or reactions can be computed (Elcalc = YES on SPOPT

MXPAND)) from equations similar to

. If the stress varian

MXPAND )) from equations similar to . If the stress varian thru the mode shapes (

thru

)) from equations similar to . If the stress varian thru the mode shapes ( f

the mode shapes (f ij ) and static displacements

thru the mode shapes ( f i j ) and static displacements with mode stresses and

with mode stresses

( f i j ) and static displacements with mode stresses and static stress the node

and static stress

the node force variance is desired, replace the mode shapes and static displacements with mod

and static nodal forces

and static displacements with mod and static nodal forces . Finally, if reaction variances are desired,

. Finally, if reaction variances are desired, replace the mode shape

displacements with mode reaction

replace the mode shape displacements with mode reaction and static reactions . Furthermore, the variances o

and static reactions

shape displacements with mode reaction and static reactions . Furthermore, the variances o Contains proprietary and

. Furthermore, the variances o

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Theory Reference Page: 25 time derivatives (VELO and ACEL options respectively on the PSDRES command) of all the qu above can be computed using the following relations:

the qu above can be computed using the following relations: 17.7.12.4. Equivalent Stress Mean Square Response
the qu above can be computed using the following relations: 17.7.12.4. Equivalent Stress Mean Square Response

17.7.12.4. Equivalent Stress Mean Square Response

The equivalent stress (SEQV) mean square response is computed as suggested by Segalman e

mean square response is computed as suggested by Segalman e where: Y = matrix of component

where:

Y = matrix of component "stress shapes"

e where: Y = matrix of component "stress shapes" Note that the the probability distribution for

Note that the the probability distribution for the equivalent stress is neither Gaussian nor is the m However, the"3-s" rule (multiplying the RMS value by 3) yields a conservative estimate on the u equivalent stress (Reese et al([355.])). Since no information on the distribution of the principal s intensity (S1, S2, S3, and SINT) is known, these values are set to zero.

17.7.13. Cross Spectral Terms for Partially Correlated Inp

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Theory Reference Page: 26

For excitation defined by more than a single input PSD, cross terms which determine the degree between the various PSDs are defined as:

the degree between the various PSDs are defined as: where: S n n ( w )

where:

S nn (w) = input PSD spectra which are related. (Defined by the PSDVAL command and located

(TBLNO) n)

C nm (w) = cospectra which make up the real part of the cross terms. (Defined by the COVAL co

m (TBLNO1 and TBLNO2) identify the matrix location of the cross term)

Q nm (w) = quadspectra which make up the imaginary part of the cross terms. (Defined by the Q

where n and m (TBLNO1 and TBLNO2) identify the matrix location of the cross term)

The normalized cross PSD function is called the coherence function and is defined as:

function is called the coherence function and is defined as: where: Although the above example demonstrates

where:

is called the coherence function and is defined as: where: Although the above example demonstrates the

Although the above example demonstrates the cross correlation for 3 input spectra, this matrix from 2 x 2 to 10 x 10 (i.e., maximum number of tables is 10).

For the special case in which all cross terms are zero, the input spectra are said to be uncorrela correlation between nodal and base excitations is not allowed.

17.7.14. Spatial Correlation

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Theory Reference Page: 27

The degree of correlation between excited nodes may also be controlled. Depending upon the d excited nodes and the values of R MIN and R MAX (input as RMIN and RMAX on the PSDSPL c

excitation PSD can be constructed such that excitation at the nodes may be uncorrelated, partia correlated. If the distance between excited nodes is less than R MIN , then the two nodes are full

distance is greater than R MAX , then the two nodes are uncorrelated; if the distance lies betwee

excitation is partially correlated based on the actual distance between nodes. The following figu R MIN , R MAX and the correlation are related. Spatial correlation between excited nodes is not a

PSD analysis (PSDUNIT,PRES).

Figure 17.5: Sphere of Influence Relating Spatially Correlated PSD Excitation

of Influence Relating Spatially Correlated PSD Excitation Node i excitation is fully correlated with node j

Node i excitation is fully correlated with node j excitation

Node i excitation is partially correlated with node k excitation

Node i excitation is uncorrelated with node

k excitation Node i excitation is uncorrelated with node excitation Contains proprietary and confidential information

excitation

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Theory Reference Page: 28

For two excitation points 1 and 2, the PSD would be:

28 For two excitation points 1 and 2, the PSD would be: where: D 1 2

where:

For two excitation points 1 and 2, the PSD would be: where: D 1 2 =

D 12 = distance between the two excitation points 1 and 2

S o (w) = basic input PSD ( PSDVAL and PSDFRQ commands)

17.7.15. Wave Propagation

To include wave propagation effects of a random loading, the excitation PSD is constructed as:

of a random loading, the excitation PSD is constructed as: where: = separation vector between excitations

where:

random loading, the excitation PSD is constructed as: where: = separation vector between excitations points and
random loading, the excitation PSD is constructed as: where: = separation vector between excitations points and

= separation vector between excitations points

as: where: = separation vector between excitations points and m {V} = velocity of propagation of

and m

{V} = velocity of propagation of the wave (input as VX, VY and VZ on PSDWAV command)

of the wave (input as VX, VY and VZ on PSDWAV command) = nodal coordinates of

= nodal coordinates of excitation point

on PSDWAV command) = nodal coordinates of excitation point Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS,

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Theory Reference Page: 29

More than one simultaneous wave or spatially correlated PSD inputs are permitted, in which ca [S(w)] reflects the influence of two or more uncorrelated input spectra. In this case, partial correl basic input PSD's is not currently permitted. Wave propagation effects are not allowed for a pre (PSDUNIT,PRES).

17.7.16. Multi-Point Response Spectrum Method

The response spectrum analysis due to multi-point support and nodal excitations (SPOPT,MPR hundred different excitations (PFACT commands). The input spectrum are assumed to be unrel each other.

Most of the ingredients for performing multi-point response spectrum analysis are already devel subsection of the random vibration method. As with the PSD analysis, the static shapes corresp for base excitation are written as load step #2 on the *.rst file, Assuming tha

written as load step #2 on the *.rst file, Assuming tha t h input spectrum table
written as load step #2 on the *.rst file, Assuming tha t h input spectrum table
written as load step #2 on the *.rst file, Assuming tha t h input spectrum table

th input spectrum table have already been computed (by

th table are obtained as:

factors,

mode coefficients for the

, for the

obtained as: factors, mode coefficients for the , for the where: = interpolated input response spectrum
obtained as: factors, mode coefficients for the , for the where: = interpolated input response spectrum

where:

as: factors, mode coefficients for the , for the where: = interpolated input response spectrum for

= interpolated input response spectrum for the PSDVAL and PSDUNIT commands)

response spectrum for the PSDVAL and PSDUNIT commands) t h table at the j t h

th table at the j th natural frequency (define

For each input spectrum, the mode shapes, mode stresses, etc. are multiplied by the mode coeff modal quantities, which can then be combined with the help of any of the available mode combin (SRSS, CQC, Double Sum, Grouping, NRL-SUM, or Rosenblueth method), as described in the p the single-point response spectrum method.

Finally, the response of the structure is obtained by combining the responses to each spectrum method.

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Theory Reference Page: 30

The mode combination instructions are written to the file Jobname.MCOM by the mode combinat Inputting the file in POST1 (/INPUT command) automatically performs the mode combination.

17.7.17. Missing Mass Response

The spectrum analysis is based on a mode superposition approach where the responses of the neglected. Hence part of the mass of the structure is missing in the dynamic analysis. The missi method ([373.]) permits inclusion of the missing mass effect in a single point response spectrum multiple point response spectrum analysis (SPOPT,MPRS) when base excitation is considered

Considering a rigid structure, the inertia force due to ground acceleration is:

structure, the inertia force due to ground acceleration is: where: {F T } = total inertia

where:

{F T } = total inertia force vector

S a0 = spectrum acceleration at zero period (also called the ZPA value), input as ZPA on the MM

Mode superposition can be used to determine the inertia force. For mode j, the modal inertia for

the inertia force. For mode j, the modal inertia for where: {F j } = modal

where:

{F j } = modal inertia force for mode j.

Using equations

j } = modal inertia force for mode j . Using equations and , this force

and

} = modal inertia force for mode j . Using equations and , this force can

, this force can be rewritten:

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Theory Reference Page: 31

Theory Reference Page: 31 The missing inertia force vector is then the difference between the total

The missing inertia force vector is then the difference between the total inertia force given by

the sum of the modal inertia forces defined by

:
:
given by the sum of the modal inertia forces defined by : The expression within the
given by the sum of the modal inertia forces defined by : The expression within the

The expression within the parentheses in the equation above is the fraction of degree of freedo

in the equation above is the fraction of degree of freedo The missing mass response is

The missing mass response is the static shape due to the inertia forces defined by equation :

static shape due to the inertia forces defined by equation : where: {R M } is

where:

{R M } is the missing mass response

The application of these equations can be extended to flexible structures because the higher tru supposed to be mostly rigid and exhibit pseudo-static responses to an acceleration base excitati

In Single Point Response Spectrum Analysis, the missing mass response is written as load step Multiple Point Response Spectrum analysis, it is written as load step 3.

Combination Method

Since the missing mass response is a pseudo-static response, it is in phase with the imposed ac phase with the modal responses. Hence the missing mass response and the modal responses d

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Theory Reference Page: 32 combined using the Square Root of Sum of the Squares (SRSS) method.

The total response including the missing mass effect is:

The total response including the missing mass effect is: 17.7.18. Rigid Responses For frequencies higher than

17.7.18. Rigid Responses

For frequencies higher than the amplified acceleration region of the spectrum, the modal respon periodic and rigid components. The rigid components are considered separately because the co responses are all in phase. The combination methods listed in Combination of Modes do not ap

The rigid component of a modal response is expressed as:

ap The rigid component of a modal response is expressed as: where: R r i =

where:

R ri = the rigid component of the modal response of mode i

a i = rigid response coefficient in the range of values 0 through 1. See the Gupta and Lindley-Yo

R i = modal response of mode i

The corresponding periodic component is then:

of mode i The corresponding periodic component is then: where: Contains proprietary and confidential information of

where:

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Theory Reference Page: 33

R pi = periodic component of the modal response of mode i

Two methods ([374.]) can be used to separate the periodic and the rigid components in each m one has a different definition of the rigid response coefficients a i .

Gupta Method

of the rigid response coefficients a i . Gupta Method a a i = 0 i

a

a

i

=

0

i = 1

for F i

for F i

where:

. Gupta Method a a i = 0 i = 1 for F i for F

. Gupta Method a a i = 0 i = 1 for F i for F

F 1

F 2

Fi = ith frequency value.

F1 and F2 = key frequencies. F1 is input as Val1 and F2 is input as Val2 on RIGRESP comman GUPTA.

Lindley-Yow Method

input as Val2 on RIGRESP comman GUPTA. Lindley-Yow Method where: S a 0 = spectrum acceleration

where:

S a0 = spectrum acceleration at zero period (ZPA). It is input as ZPA on RIGRESP command with

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Theory Reference Page: 34

S ai = spectrum acceleration corresponding to the ith frequency

Combination Method

The periodic components are combined using the Square Root of Sum of Squares (SRSS), the (CQC) or the Rosenblueth (ROSE) combination methods.

Since the rigid components are all in phase, they are summed algebraically. When the missing (accessed with MMASS command) is included in the analysis, since it is a rigid response as we those components. Finally, periodic and rigid responses are combined using the SRSS method.

The total response with the rigid responses and the missing mass response included is express

responses and the missing mass response included is express Release 12.0 - © 2009 SAS IP,

Release 12.0 - © 2009 SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved.

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