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17.7. Spectrum Analysis
Two types of spectrum analyses (ANTYPE,SPECTR) are supported: the deterministic response and the nondeterministic random vibration method. Both excitation at the support and excitation support are allowed. The three response spectrum methods are the singlepoint, multiplepoint analysis method. The random vibration method uses the power spectral density (PSD) approac
The following spectrum analysis topics are available:
Assumptions and Restrictions
Description of Analysis
SinglePoint Response Spectrum
Damping
Participation Factors and Mode Coefficients
Combination of Modes
Reduced Mass Summary
Effective Mass and Cumulative Mass Fraction
Dynamic Design Analysis Method
Random Vibration Method
Description of Method
Response Power Spectral Densities and Mean Square Response
Cross Spectral Terms for Partially Correlated Input PSDs
Spatial Correlation
Wave Propagation
MultiPoint Response Spectrum Method
Missing Mass Response
Rigid Responses
17.7.1. Assumptions and Restrictions
1. The structure is linear.
2. For singlepoint response spectrum analysis (SPOPT,SPRS) and dynamic design ana
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DDAM), the structure is excited by a spectrum of known direction and frequency comp uniformly on all support points or on specified unsupported master degrees of freedom 3. For multipoint response spectrum (SPOPT,MPRS) and power spectral density (SPOP structure may be excited by different input spectra at different support points or unsup ten different simultaneous input spectra are allowed.
17.7.2. Description of Analysis
The spectrum analysis capability is a separate analysis type (ANTYPE,SPECTR) and it must be frequency analysis. If mode combinations are needed, the required modes must also be expand ModeFrequency Analysis.
The four options available are the singlepoint response spectrum method (SPOPT,SPRS), the analysis method (SPOPT,DDAM), the random vibration method (SPOPT,PSD) and the multiple spectrum method (SPOPT,MPRS). Each option is discussed in detail subsequently.
17.7.3. SinglePoint Response Spectrum
Both excitation at the support (base excitation) and excitation away from the support (force excit the singlepoint response spectrum analysis (SPOPT,SPRS). The table below summarizes thes the input associated with each.
Table 17.3 Types of Spectrum Loading
Excitation Option 

Excitation at Support 
Excitation Away Fro 

Spectrum input 
Response spectrum table (FREQ and SV commands) 
Amplitude multiplier table ( commands) 
Orientation of load 
Direction vector (input on SED and ROCK commands) 
X, Y, Z direction at each no by FX, FY, or FZ on F com 
Distribution of loads 
Constant on all support points 
Amplitude in X, Y, or Z dire (selected by VALUE on F 
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Type of input 
Velocity 
Acceleration 
Displacement 
Response spectrum type (KSV on SVTYP command) 
0 
2 
3,4 
17.7.4. Damping
Damping is evaluated for each mode and is defined as:
where:
b 
= beta damping (input as VALUE, BETAD command) 
w 
_{i} = undamped natural circular frequency of the ith mode 
x _{c} = damping ratio (input as RATIO, DMPRAT command)
N _{m} =
number of materials
{f _{i} } = displacement vector for mode i
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[K _{j} ] = stiffness matrix of part of structure of material j
= modal damping ratio of mode i (MDAMP command)
Note that the material dependent damping contribution is computed in the modal expansion pha damping contribution must be included there.
17.7.5. Participation Factors and Mode Coefficients
The participation factors for the given excitation direction are defined as:
where:
g _{i} = participation factor for the ith mode
{f} _{i} = eigenvector normalized using
(Nrmkey on the MODOPT command has n
{D} = vector describing the excitation direction (see
{F} = input force vector
The vector describing the excitation direction has the form:
where:
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X, Y, Z = global Cartesian coordinates of a point on the geometry
X _{o} , Y _{o} , Z _{o} = global Cartesian coordinates of point about which rotations are done (reference po
{e} = six possible unit vectors
We can calculate the statically equivalent actions at j due to rigidbody displacements of the ref the concept of translation of axes [T] (Weaver and Johnston([279.])).
For spectrum analysis, the D ^{a} values may be determined in one of two ways:
1. For D values with rocking not included (based on the SED command):
where:
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S _{X} , S _{Y} , S _{Z} = components of excitation direction (input as SEDX, SEDY, and SEDZ
SED command)
2. or, for D values with rocking included (based on the SED and ROCK command):
R is defined by:
where:
C _{X} , C _{Y} , C _{Z} = components of angular velocity components (input as OMX, OMY, and OMZ, re
command)
x = vector cross product operator
r _{X} = 
X ^{n}  L _{X} 
r _{Y} = 
Y ^{n}  L _{Y} 
r _{Z} = Z ^{n}  L _{Z}
X ^{n} , Y ^{n} , Z ^{n} = coordinate of node n
L _{X} , L _{Y} , L _{Z} = location of center of rotation (input as CGX, CGY, and CGZ on ROCK command)
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In a modal analysis, the ratio of each participation factor to the largest participation factor (outp printed out.
where:
m = 0, 1, or 2, based on whether the displacements, velocities, or accelerations, respectively, a label, the third field on the mode combination commands SRSS, CQC, GRP, DSUM, NRLSUM
A _{i} = mode coefficient (see below)
The mode coefficient is computed in five different ways, depending on the type of excitation (SV
1. For velocity excitation of base (SVTYP, 0)
where:
S _{v}_{i} = spectral velocity for the i ^{t}^{h} mode (obtained from the input velocity spectrum at fre
effective damping ratio
f _{i} = i ^{t}^{h} natural frequency (cycles per unit time =
w _{i} = i ^{t}^{h} natural circular frequency (radians per unit time)
2. For force excitation (SVTYP, 1)
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where:
S _{f}_{i} = spectral force for the i ^{t}^{h} mode (obtained from the input amplitude multiplier table
effective damping ratio
).
3. For acceleration excitation of base (SVTYP, 2)
where:
S _{a}_{i} = spectral acceleration for the i ^{t}^{h} mode (obtained from the input acceleration respo
frequency f _{i} and effective damping ratio
).
4. For displacement excitation of base (SVTYP, 3)
where:
S _{u}_{i} = spectral displacement for the i ^{t}^{h} mode (obtained from the input displacement res
frequency f _{i} and effective damping ratio
).
5. For power spectral density (PSD) (SVTYP, 4) (Vanmarcke([34.]))
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where:
S _{p}_{i} = power spectral density for the i ^{t}^{h} mode (obtained from the input PSD spectrum a
effective damping ratio
x = damping ratio (input as RATIO, DMPRAT command, defaults to .01)
The integral in
is approximated as:
where:
L _{i} = f _{i} (in integer form)
S _{p}_{j} = power spectral density evaluated at frequency (f) equal to j (in real form)
Df = effective frequency band for f _{i} = 1.
When S _{v}_{i} , S _{f}_{i} , S _{a}_{i} , S _{u}_{i} , or S _{p}_{i} are needed between input frequencies, loglog interpolation is don
defined.
table are evaluated at the input curve with the lowest damping ratio, not at the effective damping
17.7.6. Combination of Modes
) may be combined in diff
the response of the structure. For all excitations but the PSD this would be the maximum respon excitation, this would be the 1s (standard deviation) relative response. The response includes well as element results and reaction forces if computed in the expansion operations (Elcalc = Y
The modal displacements, velocity and acceleration (
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In the case of the singlepoint response spectrum method (SPOPT,SPRS) or the dynamicdesig (SPOPT,DDAM) options of the spectrum analysis , it is possible to expand only those modes wh factor exceeds the significant threshold value (SIGNIF value on MXPAND command). Note that must be available at the time the modes are expanded.
Only those modes having a significant amplitude (mode coefficient) are chosen for mode combi having a coefficient of greater than a given value (input as SIGNIF on the mode combination co GRP, DSUM, NRLSUM, ROSE and PSDCOM) of the maximum mode coefficient (all modes are considered significant.
The spectrum option provides six options for the combination of modes. They are:
Complete Quadratic Combination Method (CQC)
Grouping Method (GRP)
Double Sum Method (DSUM)
SRSS Method (SRSS)
NRLSUM Method (NRLSUM)
Rosenblueth Method (ROSE)
These methods generate coefficients for the combination of mode shapes. This combination is generalization of the method of the square root of the sum of the squares which has the form:
where:
R _{a} = total modal response
N = total number of expanded modes
e _{i}_{j} = coupling coefficient. The value of e _{i}_{j} = 0.0 implies modes i and j are independent and appro
dependency increases
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R _{i} = A _{i} Y _{i} = modal response in the i ^{t}^{h} mode (
R _{j} = A _{j} Y _{j} = modal response in the j ^{t}^{h} mode
A _{i} = mode coefficient for the i ^{t}^{h} mode
A _{j} = mode coefficient for the j ^{t}^{h} mode
Y _{i} = the i ^{t}^{h} mode shape
Y _{j} = the j ^{t}^{h} mode shape
Y _{i} and Y _{j} may be the DOF response, reactions, or stresses. The DOF response, reactions, or s
displacement, velocity or acceleration depending on the user request (Label on the mode comb SRSS, CQC, DSUM, GRP, ROSE or NRLSUM).
The mode combination instructions are written to File.MCOM by the mode combination comma in POST1 automatically performs the mode combination.
17.7.6.1. Complete Quadratic Combination Method
This method (accessed with the CQC command), is based on Wilson, et al.([65.]).
where:
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r
= w _{j} / w
_{i}
17.7.6.2. Grouping Method
This method (accessed with the GRP command), is from the NRC Regulatory Guide([41.]). For specializes to:
where:
Closely spaced modes are divided into groups that include all modes having frequencies lying b frequency in the group and a frequency 10% higher. No one frequency is to be in more than one
17.7.6.3. Double Sum Method
The Double Sum Method (accessed with the DSUM command) also is from the NRC Regulatory
case,
specializes to:
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where:
= damped natural circular frequency of the ith mode
w _{i} = undamped natural circular frequency of the i ^{t}^{h} mode
= modified damping ratio of the i ^{t}^{h} mode
The damped natural frequency is computed as:
The modified damping ratio
is defined to account for the earthquake duration time:
where:
t _{d} = earthquake duration time, fixed at 10 units of time
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17.7.6.4. SRSS Method
The SRSS (Square Root of the Sum of the Squares) Method (accessed with the SRSS comman
Regulatory Guide([41.]). For this case,
reduces to:
17.7.6.5. NRLSUM Method
The NRLSUM (Naval Research Laboratory Sum) method (O'Hara and Belsheim([107.])) (acces NRLSUM command), calculates the maximum modal response as:
where:
R _{a}_{1}  = absolute value of the largest modal displacement, stress or reaction at the point
R _{a}_{i} = displacement, stress or reaction contributions of the same point from other modes.
17.7.6.6. Rosenblueth Method
The Rosenblueth Method ( ^{[} 1.92, Revision 2July 2006] _{)} _{i}_{s} _{a}_{c}_{c}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{R}_{O}_{S}_{E} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{m}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{.}
The equations for the Double Sum method (above) apply, except for
. For the
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Theory Reference Page: 15 the sign of the modal responses is retained:
17.7.7. Reduced Mass Summary
For the reduced modal analysis, a study of the mass distribution is made. First, each row of the
summed and designated
. UY and UZ terms are handled similarly. Rotational master DOFs
, and
,
structure. If any of the three is more or significantly less, probably a large part of the mass is rel
reaction points, rather than close to master DOFs. In other words, the master DOFs either are in or are poorly located.
17.7.8. Effective Mass and Cumulative Mass Fraction
The effective mass (output as EFFECTIVE MASS) for the i ^{t}^{h} mode (which is a function of excitat (Clough and Penzien([80.])):
Note from
that
so that the effective mass reduces to
. This does not apply to the force spectrum, for which th
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The cumulative mass fraction for the ith mode is:
where N is the total number of modes.
17.7.9. Dynamic Design Analysis Method
For the DDAM (Dynamic Design Analysis Method) procedure (SPOPT,DDAM) (O'Hara and Bels weights in thousands of pounds (kips) are computed from the participation factor:
where:
w _{i} =
modal weight in kips
386 = acceleration due to gravity (in/sec2)
The mode coefficients are computed by:
where:
S _{a}_{i} = the greater of A _{m} or S _{x}
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A 
_{m} = minimum acceleration (input as AMIN on the ADDAM command) defaults to 6g = 2316.0 
S 
_{x} = the lesser of g ^{A} or w _{i} V 
g 
= acceleration due to gravity (386 in/sec2) 
A 
= spectral acceleration 
V = spectral velocity
A _{f} , A _{a} , A _{b} , A _{c} , A _{d} = acceleration spectrum computation constants (input as AF, AA, AB, AC, AD
command)
V _{f} , V _{a} , V _{b} , V _{c} = velocity spectrum computation constants (input as VF, VA, VB, VC on the VDD
DDAM procedure is normally used with the NRLSUM method of mode combination, which was
, O'Hara and Be
normalize the mode shapes to the largest modal displacements. As a result, the NRL1396 parti
mode coefficients A _{i} will be different.
17.7.10. Random Vibration Method
section on the singlepoint response spectrum. Note that unlike
The random vibration method (SPOPT,PSD) allows multiple power spectral density (PSD) input these inputs can be:
1. full correlated,
2. uncorrelated, or
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The procedure is based on computing statistics of each modal response and then combining th that the excitations are stationary random processes.
17.7.11. Description of Method
For partially correlated nodal and base excitations, the complete equations of motions are segre and the restrained (support) DOF as:
where {u _{f} } are the free DOF and {u _{r} } are the restrained DOF that are excited by random loading
displacement on D command). Note that the restrained DOF that are not excited are not include (zero displacement on D command). {F} is the nodal force excitation activated by a nonzero val command). The value of force can be other than unity, allowing for scaling of the participation fa
The free displacements can be decomposed into pseudostatic and dynamic parts as:
The pseudostatic displacements may be obtained from hand side of the equation and by replacing {u _{f} } by {u _{s} }:
by excluding the first t
in which [A] =  [K _{f}_{f} ]1[K _{f}_{r} ]. Physically, the elements along the i ^{t}^{h} column of [A] are the pseudost
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due to a unit displacement of the support DOFs excited by the ith base PSD. These displaceme
load step 2 on the .rst file. Substituting light damping yields:
and
into
The second term on the righthand side of the above equation represents the equivalent forces excitations.
Using the mode superposition analysis of Mode Superposition Method and rewriting
the above equations are decoupled yielding:
where:
n = number of mode shapes chosen for evaluation (input as NMODE on SPOPT command)
y _{j} = generalized displacements
w _{j} and x _{j} = natural circular frequencies and modal damping ratios
The modal loads G _{j} are defined by:
The modal participation factors corresponding to support excitation are given by:
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and for nodal excitation:
Note that, for simplicity, equations for nodal excitation problems are developed for a single PSD excitation PSD tables are, however, allowed in the program.
These factors are calculated (as a result of the PFACT action command) when defining base or cases and are written to the .psd file. Mode shapes {f _{j} } should be normalized with respect to th
17.7.12. Response Power Spectral Densities and Mean S Response
Using the theory of random vibrations, the response PSD's can be computed from the input PSD transfer functions for single DOF systems H(w) and by using mode superposition techniques ( R POST26). The response PSD's for ith DOF are given by:
17.7.12.1. Dynamic Part
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17.7.12.2. PseudoStatic Part
17.7.12.3. Covariance Part
where:
n = number of mode shapes chosen for evaluation (input as NMODE on SPOPT command)
r _{1} and r _{2} = number of nodal (away from support) and base PSD tables, respectively
The transfer functions for the single DOF system assume different forms depending on the type
PSDUNIT command) of the input PSD and the type of response desired (Lab and Relkey on th command). The forms of the transfer functions for displacement as the output are listed below fo
1. Input = force or acceleration (FORC, ACEL, or ACCG on PSDUNIT command):
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2. Input = displacement (DISP on PSDUNIT command):
3. Input = velocity (VELO on PSDUNIT command):
where:
w = forcing frequency
w _{j} = natural circular frequency for jth mode
i =
Now, random vibration analysis can be used to show that the absolute value of the mean square free displacement (ABS option on the PSDRES command) is:
where:
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 Re = denotes the real part of the argument
C _{v} (u _{s}_{i} , u _{d}_{i} ) = covariance between the static and dynamic displacements
The general formulation described above gives simplified equations for several situations comm
a
. When only nodal excitations exist, the last two
practice. For fully correlated nodal excitations and identical support motions, the subscripts
from the
needs
uncorrelated nodal force and base excitations, the cross PSD's (i.e.
thru
167 do not apply, and only the first term within the large parentheses in
m) are zero, and only t
where:
= modal PSD's, terms within large parentheses of
th
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Closedform solutions for piecewise linear PSD in loglog scale are employed to compute each (Chen and Ali([193.]) and Harichandran([194.])) .
Subsequently, the variances become:
The modal covariance matrices
are available in the .psd file. Note that
represent mode combination (PSDCOM command) for random vibration analys
The variance for stresses, nodal forces or reactions can be computed (Elcalc = YES on SPOPT
MXPAND)) from equations similar to
. If the stress varian
thru
the mode shapes (f _{i}_{j} ) and static displacements
with mode stresses
and static stress
the node force variance is desired, replace the mode shapes and static displacements with mod
and static nodal forces
. Finally, if reaction variances are desired, replace the mode shape
displacements with mode reaction
and static reactions
. Furthermore, the variances o
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17.7.12.4. Equivalent Stress Mean Square Response
The equivalent stress (SEQV) mean square response is computed as suggested by Segalman e
where:
Y = matrix of component "stress shapes"
Note that the the probability distribution for the equivalent stress is neither Gaussian nor is the m However, the"3s" rule (multiplying the RMS value by 3) yields a conservative estimate on the u equivalent stress (Reese et al([355.])). Since no information on the distribution of the principal s intensity (S1, S2, S3, and SINT) is known, these values are set to zero.
17.7.13. Cross Spectral Terms for Partially Correlated Inp
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For excitation defined by more than a single input PSD, cross terms which determine the degree between the various PSDs are defined as:
where:
S _{n}_{n} (w) = input PSD spectra which are related. (Defined by the PSDVAL command and located
(TBLNO) n)
C _{n}_{m} (w) = cospectra which make up the real part of the cross terms. (Defined by the COVAL co
m (TBLNO1 and TBLNO2) identify the matrix location of the cross term)
Q _{n}_{m} (w) = quadspectra which make up the imaginary part of the cross terms. (Defined by the Q
where n and m (TBLNO1 and TBLNO2) identify the matrix location of the cross term)
The normalized cross PSD function is called the coherence function and is defined as:
where:
Although the above example demonstrates the cross correlation for 3 input spectra, this matrix from 2 x 2 to 10 x 10 (i.e., maximum number of tables is 10).
For the special case in which all cross terms are zero, the input spectra are said to be uncorrela correlation between nodal and base excitations is not allowed.
17.7.14. Spatial Correlation
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The degree of correlation between excited nodes may also be controlled. Depending upon the d excited nodes and the values of R _{M}_{I}_{N} and R _{M}_{A}_{X} (input as RMIN and RMAX on the PSDSPL c
excitation PSD can be constructed such that excitation at the nodes may be uncorrelated, partia correlated. If the distance between excited nodes is less than R _{M}_{I}_{N} , then the two nodes are full
distance is greater than R _{M}_{A}_{X} , then the two nodes are uncorrelated; if the distance lies betwee
excitation is partially correlated based on the actual distance between nodes. The following figu R _{M}_{I}_{N} , R _{M}_{A}_{X} and the correlation are related. Spatial correlation between excited nodes is not a
PSD analysis (PSDUNIT,PRES).
Figure 17.5: Sphere of Influence Relating Spatially Correlated PSD Excitation
Node i excitation is fully correlated with node j excitation
Node i excitation is partially correlated with node k excitation
Node i excitation is uncorrelated with node
excitation
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For two excitation points 1 and 2, the PSD would be:
where:
D _{1}_{2} = distance between the two excitation points 1 and 2
S _{o} (w) = basic input PSD ( PSDVAL and PSDFRQ commands)
17.7.15. Wave Propagation
To include wave propagation effects of a random loading, the excitation PSD is constructed as:
where:
= separation vector between excitations points
and m
{V} = velocity of propagation of the wave (input as VX, VY and VZ on PSDWAV command)
= nodal coordinates of excitation point
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More than one simultaneous wave or spatially correlated PSD inputs are permitted, in which ca [S(w)] reflects the influence of two or more uncorrelated input spectra. In this case, partial correl basic input PSD's is not currently permitted. Wave propagation effects are not allowed for a pre (PSDUNIT,PRES).
17.7.16. MultiPoint Response Spectrum Method
The response spectrum analysis due to multipoint support and nodal excitations (SPOPT,MPR hundred different excitations (PFACT commands). The input spectrum are assumed to be unrel each other.
Most of the ingredients for performing multipoint response spectrum analysis are already devel subsection of the random vibration method. As with the PSD analysis, the static shapes corresp for base excitation are written as load step #2 on the *.rst file, Assuming tha
^{t}^{h} input spectrum table have already been computed (by
^{t}^{h} table are obtained as:
factors,
mode coefficients for the
, for the
where:
= interpolated input response spectrum for the PSDVAL and PSDUNIT commands)
^{t}^{h} table at the j ^{t}^{h} natural frequency (define
For each input spectrum, the mode shapes, mode stresses, etc. are multiplied by the mode coeff modal quantities, which can then be combined with the help of any of the available mode combin (SRSS, CQC, Double Sum, Grouping, NRLSUM, or Rosenblueth method), as described in the p the singlepoint response spectrum method.
Finally, the response of the structure is obtained by combining the responses to each spectrum method.
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The mode combination instructions are written to the file Jobname.MCOM by the mode combinat Inputting the file in POST1 (/INPUT command) automatically performs the mode combination.
17.7.17. Missing Mass Response
The spectrum analysis is based on a mode superposition approach where the responses of the neglected. Hence part of the mass of the structure is missing in the dynamic analysis. The missi method ([373.]) permits inclusion of the missing mass effect in a single point response spectrum multiple point response spectrum analysis (SPOPT,MPRS) when base excitation is considered
Considering a rigid structure, the inertia force due to ground acceleration is:
where:
{F _{T} } = total inertia force vector
S _{a}_{0} = spectrum acceleration at zero period (also called the ZPA value), input as ZPA on the MM
Mode superposition can be used to determine the inertia force. For mode j, the modal inertia for
where:
{F _{j} } = modal inertia force for mode j.
Using equations
and
, this force can be rewritten:
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The missing inertia force vector is then the difference between the total inertia force given by
the sum of the modal inertia forces defined by
The expression within the parentheses in the equation above is the fraction of degree of freedo
The missing mass response is the static shape due to the inertia forces defined by equation :
where:
{R _{M} } is the missing mass response
The application of these equations can be extended to flexible structures because the higher tru supposed to be mostly rigid and exhibit pseudostatic responses to an acceleration base excitati
In Single Point Response Spectrum Analysis, the missing mass response is written as load step Multiple Point Response Spectrum analysis, it is written as load step 3.
Combination Method
Since the missing mass response is a pseudostatic response, it is in phase with the imposed ac phase with the modal responses. Hence the missing mass response and the modal responses d
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The total response including the missing mass effect is:
17.7.18. Rigid Responses
For frequencies higher than the amplified acceleration region of the spectrum, the modal respon periodic and rigid components. The rigid components are considered separately because the co responses are all in phase. The combination methods listed in Combination of Modes do not ap
The rigid component of a modal response is expressed as:
where:
R _{r}_{i} = the rigid component of the modal response of mode i
a _{i} = rigid response coefficient in the range of values 0 through 1. See the Gupta and LindleyYo
R _{i} = modal response of mode i
The corresponding periodic component is then:
where:
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R _{p}_{i} = periodic component of the modal response of mode i
Two methods ([374.]) can be used to separate the periodic and the rigid components in each m one has a different definition of the rigid response coefficients a _{i} .
Gupta Method
a
a
_{i}
=
0
_{i} = 1
for F _{i}
for F _{i}
where:
F _{1}
^{F} _{2}
Fi = ith frequency value.
F1 and F2 = key frequencies. F1 is input as Val1 and F2 is input as Val2 on RIGRESP comman GUPTA.
LindleyYow Method
where:
S _{a}_{0} = spectrum acceleration at zero period (ZPA). It is input as ZPA on RIGRESP command with
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S _{a}_{i} = spectrum acceleration corresponding to the ith frequency
Combination Method
The periodic components are combined using the Square Root of Sum of Squares (SRSS), the (CQC) or the Rosenblueth (ROSE) combination methods.
Since the rigid components are all in phase, they are summed algebraically. When the missing (accessed with MMASS command) is included in the analysis, since it is a rigid response as we those components. Finally, periodic and rigid responses are combined using the SRSS method.
The total response with the rigid responses and the missing mass response included is express
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