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THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD Whereas the indicative expresses facts and is closely related to reality, the subjunctive "represents

something not as actual reality, but as formed in the mind of the speaker as a desire, wish, volition, conception, thought; sometimes with more or less hope of realization, or, in the case of a statement, with more or less belief; sometimes with little or no hope or faith." !eorge "urme, #$%&'%$#( While the indicative is informative, relating facts to moments in real time, the subjunctive is prescriptive, it indicates a theoretically possible or potential course of events that the world may take. )he subjunctive expresses value judgements, commentaries about theoretical or desirable situations or commands aimed at making somebody bring about a certain state of affairs. )he subjunctive can be either synthetic using old inflectional forms( or analytic * periphrastic employing modal verbs, the most widely used being should(. +n its turn, the synthetic subjunctive classifies into an old subjunctive and a new one. ,ll of them have present and past forms. SYNTHETIC SUBJUNCTIVE - OLD O!MS )he old subjunctive is used in "o#$%las and after wo%ld #athe# expressing preference( and had &ette# interpreted as suggestion or advice(' Long live the Queen! So be it! Come what may! Grammar be hanged! I would rather go to the mountains than to the seaside. I would rather have lived in the country. It's rather late, I had better leave now. Would rather can be replaced by re!er, but this re-uires the use of the gerund' I re!er reading to writing. ,t the same time, ,merican .nglish tends to use this type of subjunctive in contexts such as "It's im ortant that you go there." where /ritish .nglish uses the analytic subjunctive 0 "It's im ortant that you should go there." SYNTHETIC SUBJUNCTIVE - NE' O!MS )he new forms of the synthetic subjunctive 0 second !orm o! the verb for the present subjunctive 1/. )2 /. has W.3. for all persons( and had # third !orm o! the verb for the past subjunctive 0 are used in the following contexts' #( after i"' $e wouldn't acce t your a ologies i! he %new about your lies. hypothetical situation( &hey wouldn't have come to the meeting i! they hadn't been invited. hypothetical past situation( ,n alternative to the last example is a structure introduced by %nless 4 only if not( always followed by the verb in the affirmative. 5owever, not all negative i! sentences can be turned into unless sentences'

&hey wouldn't have come to the meeting unless they had been invited. I! I don't come bac% in time, I'll give you a call. 'I'll give you a call unless I come bac% in time. +f one situation depends on another, we can replace i! with (#o)ided, on condition that or as lon* as, which are followed by the indicative' I'll lend you the money rovided you don't tell my mother. I won't scold you again as long as you behave nicely. )he same context mentioned above allows the use of i! it were not !or for present reference(, i" it hadn+t &een "o# for past reference( or &%t "o#, all followed by noun phrases' I! it weren't !or your interest in his studies, he would !ail all his e(ams. I! it hadn't been !or )im, I would have drowned in the sea. *ut !or her ambition, she wouldn't have managed to overcome that di!!icult situation. ,part from the subjunctive forms mentioned so far, i! can be followed by modal verbs that preserve their original meaning in these contexts' sho%ld, will, wo%ld and co%ld. Should after i!, as well as the parallel structure ha en to, makes the possibility of an event seem unlikely' I! you should hear !rom him + i! you ha in!orm me, Will after i! introduces the idea of your willingness to do what is suggested; would in similar contexts is more tentative, more polite' I! you will -oin me to that meeting, I would be very grate!ul. I! you would !ill in these !orms now, I could grant you the loan sooner. 2n the other hand, will in i! sentences can also express obstinate insistence, usually referring to a bad habit' I! you will laugh at eo le all the time, no wonder nobody wants to tal% to you. )he negative counterpart of will indicates one6s refusal to do something' I! he won't listen to me, I can't hel him. 1/. ,part from these two types of conditional tenses that employ subjunctive forms, there is a third possibility that uses the indicative usually, the simple present( in the subordinate and a future form in the main clause see resent tense sim le with !uture value(. When we aim at emphasizing completion after i!, we use a perfect form, suggesting that the event in the conditional sentence necessarily precedes the event in the main clause' en to hear !rom him, will you

I! you have !inished your meal, I will clear the lates. 1/. 7iterary .nglish also allows inversion of the subject and the auxiliary verb instead of an if clause $ad I arrived earlier instead of I! I had arrived earlier, Were I to return sooner instead of I! I were to return sooner, etc.( $ad and were are in fact the auxiliaries most commonly involved in such emphatic structures. 8( after i" only to add emphasis to a hypothetical situation or to suggest a sense of regret when combined with the past subjunctive; -uite often the second part of the sentence is left out' I! only I won the com etition! I! only she had told me the truth, I wouldn't have tried to tal% her out o! selling the car! %( after e)en i" - e)en tho%*h' &hey would re-ect her ro osal even i! she !ollowed their instructions. .ou wouldn't have !ound her even i! you had hired a rivate detective. 1/. +t is also possible to employ the indicative after even i!+though, however with a difference in meaning. "ompare' I still don't li%e him even i! he tried to be nice to me last time I saw him . factual( I wouldn't li%e him even i! he tried to be nice to me. hypothetical( 9( after as i" - as tho%*h to express an unreal comparison' $e is loo%ing at me as i! I were his long/lost brother. &hey were acting as i! they hadn't recogni0ed him. &( after it+s .hi*h/ ti$e we employ either the long infinitive or a :or ; ,ccusative ; +nfinitive construction to suggest that the right moment to do something has come, or we use the present form of the subjunctive to imply that we are rather late in doing something' It's time 1!or us2 to ac% our luggage and go. It's 1high2 time you in!ormed her o! your !ailure. <( after wish I wish he came bac% sooner. I wish they hadn't le!t !or 3ome. 1otice that a construction with wo%ld after wish is possible when the speaker intends to express an annoying habit, to invite someone6s cooperation or to indicate that either people or events frustrate his desires' I wish you would sto interru ting me. I wish you would hurry u . I wish it would sto raining. =( after wo%ld #athe# when the speaker6s preference involves another person6s performance of an action'

I would rather they invited me to the theater. $e would rather his daughter hadn't behaved li%e a !ool. >( after s%((osin* * s%((ose or i$a*ine' Su ose you inherited a huge !ortune, how would you s end it, Su osing they hadn't arrived in time, would you still have attem ted to save the %id, Imagine we'd never s ent this time together! $( after in case, which introduces a contingency or possibility against which a precaution is needed in advance, we use either the indicative or the analytic subjunctive to suggest greater improbability(' I'll ma%e a ca%e in case 4ather &ed dro s by in the a!ternoon. I'll save a seat !or you in case you should decide to come.

THE 0N0LYTIC SUBJUNCTIVE )his type of subjunctive appears in complement )5,)0clauses of various kinds, suggesting theoretical or potential states or events. :unction of the verb * adjective contained in the main clause or the noun phrase that functions as the antecedent of the relative clause which contains the subjunctive, such sentences often express either a command, an order, a resolution, an intention, etc. or a wish, a suggestion, a piece of advice, etc. I demand that they should be treated with more res ect. I desire that he should be granted the scholarshi . It is desirable that he could obtain the loan to ay !or his studies. It is my desire that she should be invited to our rece tion. SUBJECT 0ND OBJECT CL0USES #( after exercitive verbs' as%, beg, advise, order, instruct, ro ose, urge, recommend, suggest etc. in object clauses' rohibit, command,

$e suggested that we should ta%e the ath to the le!t. God !orbid that your husband should !ind out you've been cheating on him! &he %ing ordered that his %ingdom should be divided among his sons. 8( after boulomaic verbs' want, wish, ho e, desire, choose in object clauses' I wish you should be here. I didn't choose that they should shun her. I desire that you should com ly with my re5uest.

%( after verbs of linguistic communication' tell, say, arrange, in!orm, oint out, remar%, insist, convince, ersuade etc. in object clauses' $e told them that I should be more care!ul with the %ids. She convinced me that I should a ly !or a grant. I insist that the meeting should be over by ten. 9( in assertive sentences after doubt, thin%, matter, !ancy, imagine, com lain in object clauses' 6nd that you should deceive us, well, I don't e(actly understand it, but I can imagine it. It doesn't matter that 7a( should have bought a Cadillac. I doubt that I should succeed. &( after emotive verbs and adjectives' - non0factive intransitive adjectives in subject clauses(' be good + right + best + im ortant + essential + natural + 1un2li%ely + necessary etc.' It is im ortant that you should understand the underlying meaning o! his words. It is very unli%ely that he should have already received news !rom her. non0factive transitive verbs and adjectives in object clauses(' intend, re!er, hate, be an(ious + eager' I re!er that they should call be!ore aying me a visit. I am most an(ious that she should get the resent I bought !or her. factive intransitive adjectives' be odd + tragic + ama0ing + sur rising' It is ama0ing that they should survive a!ter all this time. It is odd that you should have agreed to such a ro osal. factive transitive verbs in subject and object clauses(' ama0e, alarm, bother, sur rise, astonish, regret etc.' It bothers me that he should be so obtuse. It ama0es me that you could give u on us so easily. $e regretted that the little girl should be ill, but I %now that she is shamming. 0DVE!BI0L CL0USES #( 2: ?@3?2A.' Let the dog loose so that he can have a run. $e had sat between the twins so that he could court them. I called in the ho e that I might !ind you. We dared not s ea% !or !ear the enemy might hear us. We evacuated the building lest the walls should colla se.

8( "21".AA+B.' 4oolish though she may be, she is %ind o! heart. $owever little you may love her, I don't thin% you will abandon her. Whatever sins he may have, he can still be saved. %( 2: "21C+)+21' Should the dam e( lode, we would immediately evacuate the village. I could hel you i! you would agree to !ollow my advice. 9( 2: 3.A@7)' We should roceed in such a manner that the ublic may indorse our cause. She is so ill that she should be given an e(tra dose immediately. 0CTIVITIES 12 !ew#ite each sentence so that it contains the wo#d in ca(ital3 #. We won6t talk to him if he treats us unkindly. @17.AA( 8. + didnDt get the visa so + couldn6t leave the country W2@7C( %. + regret not asking him play my favorite song. 217E( 9. +f you hurry up you wonDt be late. !2+1!( &. +f they told you to take a jump off the window, would you do itF W.3.( <. +f you run into him by any chance, tell him to join us for lunch. A52@7C( =. Without you + would have given in right away. /..1( >. +f you insist on wearing those weird hats, of course people laugh at youG W+77( $. ?lease take a seat and +6ll inform Hr. Iones that you have arrived. W+77( #J. Con6t take his advice if you don6t really trust him. @17.AA( ##. +f you hadn6t insisted on my coming, + wouldn6t have accepted the invitation. /@)( #8. + regret not writing to him from the very beginning. W+A5( #%. + won6t pawn this watch, not even for a #JJJK. +:( 42 Co$(lete each sentence with a s%ita&le wo#d o# (h#ase3 #. +f it hadn6t L.. avoided the accident. 8. +f you L.., then +6d like to dictate another letter. %. )hey L.. if Iane let them downG 9. @nless you L.. fail my exam. &. +f you L... find the book, send it to me. <. + wouldn6t borrow you my car, even L.. of it. =. +f + were L.. hated you, would you stop writing to meF >. +f you have taken the pill, you LL better. $. +6ll look after your dog as L.. you promise to come back before the weekend. #J. + shall cancel the meeting L.. to preside at it. ##. )hose cakes look very tasty, but L.. + were you. #8.Eou couldn6t LL you were taught how to do it 52 !ew#ite each sentence &e*innin* as shown, so that the $eanin* stays the sa$e3 #. What would they say if they found out you6ve been cheating on themF Aupposing LL 8. +f you make the beds +6ll sweep the floor. Eou L.. %. +f Aam hadn6t promised to call me, + would have made other plans. /ut for L.. 9. +f by any chance you come across my letters, would you please refrain from reading themF +f you L.. &. Ahe managed to get the job thanks to my insistence. +f it hadn6t L.. <. +f you hadn6t refused to go to summer classes, you would have graduated now. +f it hadn6t L.. =. +f you didn6t read the book, you can6t really say you understood the film. @nlessL.. >. +f you ask me, +6d think twice about getting married to such a wimp. +f + L.. $. ?rovided this

patient is controllable, you will soon improve his condition. ,s long as the patientL.. #J. +f you refuse to stop drinking a lot of beer, you canDt expect to lose weight. +f you L ##. Without your advice, + wouldnDt have got the promotion. +f youL.. #8. What would you do if you were attacked by thievesF Aupposing L.. 62 Co##ect the e##o# o# e##o#s in each sentence3 #. + wish + robbed that flat. 8. + had rather he wasn6t like that. %. +t6s time we work. 9. + wish + have more friends. &. + wish we are not going to school tomorrow morning. <. Aue would rather sleeping than studying for her exam. =. "ome what comes, +6ll stand by you. >. + hope he would stop talking so much. $. +6d prefer you hadn6t abandoned the shelter. #J. + wish + didnDt steal the money from the bank. 72 Co$(lete each sentence with one wo#d3 #. +t6s L.. time you decided what to do with your life. 8. + wish you L.. try following my advice just for onceG %. + L.. better not waste time if + want to get there on time. 9. L.. that as it may, + don6t think +6ll change my opinion of him. &. + wish father L.. come back for my graduation. <. Iust imagineG L.. they told you that you had been expelledG=. Eou L.. as if you have been running ten milesG >. LL you could make a trip around the worldG $. + really wish we L.. married. #J. + LL she didn6t mind that + told her the truth. ##. + am going to start yelling at you L.. you leave me alone. #8. + think it6s high time you L.. making amends. #%. +f you plan on moving, we could help you with the furniture. #9. + L.. you can copy that "C for me. #&. +f only you L.. just stop talking for a moment and try listeningG 12 T#anslate into En*lish (ayin* attention to the %se o" the synthetic s%&8%ncti)e3 #.:ie sa0ti gasesti fericireaG 8. :ie sa reusesti sa0ti scrii doctoratul in strainatateG %. :ie ce0o fi , nu o sa mai trec pe acolo niciodata. 9. Ae uita la mine de parca eram o stafie. &. ,rata atat de vesela de parca ar fi castigat la loterie. <. Ha privea de parca nu m0ar fi auzit cand l0am rugat sa iasa din birou. =. . timpul sa fii maia tent la ce spui. >. . cazul sa te decizi daca iti termini studiile sau nu. $. Ce mult trebuia sa te fi culcat. #J. ,s vrea ca visele ei sa se realizeze. ##. "hiar daca ar fi jucat bine, tot ar fi pierdut. #8.Hi0as fi dorit sa nu0i fi dat eu vestea cea proasta. #%. ,s vrea sa pot zbura spre luna. #9. Caca as fi in locul tau l0as ruga pe director sa ma primeasca. #&. 10as fi consimtit niciodata sa ma mut de la tara daca as fi stiut cat de obositor poate fi orasul. #<. +n cazul in care voi uita, te rog, reaminteste0mi de promisiunea facuta. #=. 1umai de0as putea gasi cuvintele cele mai potriviteG #>. "hiar daca i0as arata dovada tot nu m0ar crede.#$. +mi iau umbrela, in caz ca ploua mai tarziu. 8J. 2 sa imi iau umbrela daca ploua mai tarziu. 8#. ?utem sa va gazduim peste noapte in acest han cu conditia sa plecati maine la prima ora. 88. Caca l0ai vedea, nu l0ai mai recunoaste; e numai o umbra din ceea ce a fost odata. 8%. Caca n0ai fi atat de mincinos, lumea ar putea chiar sa te placa. 89. 10ar fi incercat sa0si jefuiasca propria mama daca sotiei lui i0ar fi placut mai putin luxul. 8&. Caca as avea o tigareG ,sta0i cel mai important lucru pentru mine acum. 92 T#anslate into En*lish (ayin* attention to the %se o" the analytic s%&8%ncti)e3 #. Ce vine cumva pe la noi spune0i sa revina dupa ora opt. 8. Caca cumva isi schimba parerea, telefoneaza0mi. %. 2ricat de putin ai castiga, ar trebui sa economisesti pentru concediul din vara asta. 9. 2rice ti0ar spune, nu cred ca vei reusi sa dai vina pe ea pentru acel accident. &. 2ricat de mult ar incerca sa invete, sunt materii cu care nu se

poate impaca. <. 2riunde ar merge, ea intotdeauna isi face prieteni usor. =. Caca ar vrea sa ne viziteze, am fi foarte fericiti. >. Caca ma vei duce acasa, mama iti va fi recunoscatoare. $. Caca se intampla sa treci pe langa biroul lui, ai putea sa intri si sa0l saluti. #J. ,m inchis televizorul ca sa nu trezesc copilul. ##. +0am scris ,nei azi de dimineata ca sa poata primi scrisoarea pe joi. #8. 1u mai plec duminica ca sa pot merge si eu la petrecerea prietenei tale. #%. Caca ati fi amabil sa0mi spuneti cum va numiti, as putea sa0l anunt pe director ca il asteptati. #9. Caca refuza sa0si plateasca datoriile, atunci nu vad cum ar putea sa obtine un nou imprumut. #&. Caca nu vor sa accepte intelegerea, va trebui sa ne intalnim din nou. #<. Caca insisti sa bati toba toata noaptea, nu0i de mirare ca vecinii se plang. #=. Hi0ar placea ca Iack sa studieze artele si sper ca o s0o faca. #>. ,s vrea ca Iack sa studieze artele dar se pare ca refuzul acestuia este categoric. #$. )rebuie sa te grabesti ca sa nu intarzii. 8J. 7e0am cerut sa repete cuvintele de mai multe ori ca sa le poata pronunta corect. 8#. )ine usa ca sa pot intra cu scaunele astea. 88. ,r fi ceva nesabuit sa lasi usa deschisa astfel incat cineva sa patrunda in casa. 8%. ,m convins0o pe Iane sa isi publice eseurile. 8&. .ra ciudat sa primeasca o asemenea propunere chiar inainte de pensionare. 8<. . o mare dezamagire ca m0a abandonat tocmai cand aveam mai multa nevoie de el. 8=. Coctorul i0a recomandat sa tina regim. 8>. 2fiterul a ordonat soldatilor sa0i impuste pe prizonieri. 8$. Augestia este ca eu s0o determin sa renunte la fumat. %J. Afatul meu este ca studentii sa fie incurajati sa participe la conversatii. %#. 5enry se temea ca nu o sa0l mai recunoasca sotia dupa #& ani de inchisoare. %8. , fost absurd sa se enerveze ca nu i s0a aprobat proiectul. %%. "ineva a sugerat sa fie chemat un doctor. %9. . evident necesar sa faci o excursie la dentist. %&. . putin probabil ca el sa0si fi schimbat adresa. %<. . ciudat ca el sa fi spus un asemenea lucru; nu0i sta deloc in fire. %=. )atal lui a hotarat ca el sa studieze medicina. %>. "hris a insistat ca sa amanam plecarea. %$. .ste de dorit ca aceasta problema sa fie rezolvata cat mai repede. 9J. )ata dorea sa mergem pe jos dar mama a insistat sa mergem cu masina. :2 T#anslate into En*lish3 Atefan o privi nedumerit. 6. adevarat, vorbi el tarziu. Ai asta e tot atat de grav. ,sta inseamna ca dragostea si viata noastra e intemeiata pe un echivoc. 1imic nu ne0ar fi adus impreuna, daca nu era la mijloc o confuzie. ,m fi trecut unul pe langa altul, poate chiar fara sa ne fi privit. L( Lvazandu0l ca tace, +oana il cuprinse din nou in brate, inspaimantata. 6+ubitul meuG )e0as fi cautat pana la sfarsitul pamantului si tot te0as fi intalnitGL6 6Caca nu exista el, n0ai fi avut cum sa ma recunosti, vorbi insufletindu0se deodata Atefan. "a sa ma poti iubi pe mine, ai avut nevoie de un model, a carui copie, mai mult sau mai putin perfecta, eram euL Caca macar am fi fost deosebiti, continua el aproape in soapta. L( Car, asa cum suntem, ma simt necontenit vinovat fata de el; ca si cum i0as fi contrafacut semnatura si as fi incasat o mostenire care nu mi se cuvenea mie, ci luiL6