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MODAL VERBS Modality refers to notions like possibility, impossibility, necessity, which are derived from the fact

that human beings often think or behave as though things might be or might have been other than they actually are or were. i.e. we experience certain states of affairs in the real world, but then we imagine that things are different and in this way we talk about possible worlds. Talking about possible worlds is the same as talking about ways in which we could conceive the real world to be different. There are 3 general systems of principles that can be invoked when we talk about modality - the rational laws of deduction, in other words, the laws of human reason by means of which we interpret the world. They are known as epistemic modality ! episteme is the "reek word for knowledge#$ the basis for modality in this case is actually the lack of knowledge$ i.e. if you know x, then x is x, but to be certain !an epistemic modality# of x doesn%t mean that x is x. - the social or institutional laws are either related to the idea of some legal authority&institution or to one's social status !these being less formal laws# according to which you have or you don%t have authority over somebody else#$ these modalities refer to duty, compulsion, order, command, appropriateness etc. - the natural laws of physics, chemistry, biology, anatomy etc. referring to modalities that define the notion of physical and intellectual ability&capacity. Modality can be expressed by means of different syntactic expressions nouns !hypothesis, proposal, command, assumption, certainty, doubt#, ad(ectives !sure, certain, possible, necessary#, adverbs !likely, apparently, perhaps, probably#, verbs !assume, believe, hope, think, imagine#, modal verbs. )ll these are modal expression in virtue of the fact that they express the same type of meaning reali*ing the conceptual sphere of the 3 systems of laws mentioned above. Modal verbs are a syntactically defined subset of auxiliary verbs with specific properties - inversion with the sub(ect !May I borrow your car?# - negative with not !You must stop throwing plates at him!# - 3rd person defective !compare I can play the piano. vs. He can play the violin.# - no non+finite forms such as infinitives, past or present participles (*to may, *canning, *musted# - no co+occurrence !,I must can do it.# Modals are polysemous words. May in a sentence like You may go now indicates permission, whereas in He may be there already it suggests possibility. -inguists have treated the problem of polysemy in two ways. .n the one hand, there is a syntactic approach based on the idea that the distinct meanings of the same modal are reflected in their distinct distribution. .n the other hand, there is a semantic approach claiming that a modal has only one lexical definition but several contextual occurrences that influence how it is understood, in other words its lexical ambiguity is due to the variation of the context. Modal verbs evince two basic meanings deontic !root# sense ability, permission, duty epistemic sense possibility, impossibility, certainty. The difference in meaning is reflected in their different syntactic behaviors. /eontic forms do not take the progressive, do not occur with the perfect infinitive and their sub(ect is always 01 human2. 3pistemic forms co+occur with the continuous infinitive to suggest an action in progress and with the perfect infinitive for past time reference and have no -

restrictions on the sub(ect. Though it proves to be a very felicitous distinction, it will be noticed later that the rule holds true only for the most important modal verbs ! may, can and must#. The less developed modals do not observe it You should be listening to what your sister is saying !deontic should combines with the continuous infinitive to suggest an action in progress at the moment of speaking# You ought to have paid closer attention to your guests !deontic ought to combines with the perfect infinitive to suggest past time reference# CAN / COULD DEONTIC CAN /eontic can expresses physical or mental a ility, referring to potential acts, not real ones. He can speak !nglish !!l stie sa vorbeasca engle"a. + general permanent ability# #ook, I can $ *am able to swim. !%ot sa inot. + now# &an is used in parallel with a synonymous expression having a fuller range of forms + to be able to. )part from replacing can in contexts for which the modal has no forms, to be able to has a specific meaning, and in certain contexts we do distinguish between the uses of the two. 'o be able to is preferred when referring to a specific achievement, though this context does not rule out the use of can Mary has now recovered (rom her illness and is able to $ can go to school 4owever, can is commonly used with verbs of perception ! see, hear, smell, taste, (eel# and cognitive verbs of the type believe, remember, understand. 'o be able to is never used when referring to something going on at the moment of speaking !see example above#. 5hen used with verbs of physical perception can actuali*es the reference of the verb. 6n this respect, can is like an aspectual marker !often not translated# I see the swallows (lying up the sky $ I can see the swallows (lying up in the sky )o you hear the wind blowing? $ &an you hear the wind blowing? 3ach pair of sentences has the same translation ! *ad randunelele "burand sus pe cer and +u"i cum su(la vantul?#. /eontic can has two past forms could and was $ were able to. 7imilarly, could is used to express a habitual or recurrent event in the past, describing generic ability. ,as$were able to refers to the actual performance of a single successful achievement. 8ompare He could play the piano very well when he was a child !generic# ,hen he moved closer to the painting, he was able to $ *he could see that it was a (ake !particular# .n the other hand, couldn-t will always imply that the event didn%t take place. There is no difference between could and to be able to in interrogative and negative sentences. &an is also often used to express sporadic ability or an irregular pattern of behavior .he can be /uite catty $ He can be nasty $ 0renchmen can be arrogant . )bility in the future is expressed by means of either can or the periphrastic shall$will be able to with a difference in meaning. 'o be able to refers to some event that will be possible in the future. 6n contrast, when making a decision at the moment of speaking about some event in the future, we use can

I hope they will be able to book seats (or the concert tomorrow You can go home when you have (inished writing your essay Maybe we can go (ishing ne1t week The second meaning of deontic can is that of permission! &an is more widely employed than 'permission' may in collo9uial 3nglish. 6n formal and polite 3nglish, be it written or spoken, we encounter the opposite phenomenon. May replaces can in all contexts, being perceived as the more respectable form. 4owever, unlike may which is employed when an authority gives you permission, the use of can suggests that 'you have permission' rather than '6 give you permission'. 6n other words, there is no rule or law that prevents you from performing a certain action. 8ompare .ld man You can park here as (ar as I know :oliceman You may park here. :ermission can has an additional pragmatic interpretation in sentences like You can (orget about your holiday. !strong recommendation# or You can 2ump in the lake i( you (eel like it. !sarcastic suggestion#. 6n interrogations the use of can to re9uest permission is simply a matter of courtesy$ the hearer is not usually in a position to deny permission &an I leave now? $ &an I have the salt? ;egative sentences use either cannot or may not to refuse permission You may not leave yet !6 do not permit you to leave<# You mustn3t talk loudly in this auditorium !6 oblige you no to talk loudly in this auditorium# Though both sentences represent prohibitions, the second seems to be more forceful because it is interpreted as positively forbidding an action instead of negatively refusing permission. There is no past time for permission can with the exception of could used as a past tense form in reported speech He said I could leave the ne1t day $ .he said that, i( he wanted, he could 2oin us E"ISTEMIC CAN 3pistemic can expresses the possi ility/impossi ility of an action to take place. 6t is more fre9uent in negations and interrogations, whereas in affirmative sentences may is preferred He may be reading in the library &an he be reading in the library? He can3t be reading in the library =oughly speaking, we can establish a distinction between can and may in affirmative sentences if we conceive of them in terms of the opposition (actual vs. theoretical possibility. 8ompare 'he dollar can be devalued. !6t is possible to devalue the dollar. + theoretical possibility#

'he dollar may be devalued. !6t is possible that the dollar is devalued. + factual possibility# 5hen uttered, the second sentence should be taken more seriously because it does not refer to a mere possibility that has occurred to the speaker, but to a real contingency, such as a time of financial crisis. >nfortunately, in formal 3nglish may seems to be used to express both factual and theoretical possibility, so the distinction persists only in collo9uial 3nglish. 6n collo9uial speech possibility can may also suggest a future action ,e can see about it tomorrow. 5hile cannot expresses the impossibility of some action to occur !appearing in cases of external negation#, may not suggests the possibility of something not happening !illustrating cases of internal negation# I( he saw a light it can-t have been the light o( the car !external negation# !it is not possible that he saw the light of the car# He may not arrive in time !internal negation# !it is possible that he does not arrive in time# ?or past time reference epistemic can combines with the perfect infinitive like any other epistemic modal He can3t have had time to hide the evidence &ould he have spread that vicious rumor about the twins? 6n collo9uial language can becomes a familiar though tactful #emocratic imperati$e when used with @nd and the 3rd person sub(ects, creating the impression of e9uality. Therefore, it may be considered the counterpart of coercive shall which suggests the very opposite an authority imposing something on somebody. This type of can would be used by the captain of a team when addressing his team+mates or by a theatrical producer talking to the actors Mike and ,ill, you can be standing over there and 4anet can enter (rom behind MA% / MI&'T DEONTIC MA% /eontic may is used to grant or give permission when the speaker has the authority to do so !see comparison to permission can above#. :ermission may is also present in rules and regulations in formal 3nglish + local health authority may, with the approval o( the Minister, receive (rom persons to which advice is given under this section5 such charges, (i( any6 as the authority consider reasonable 7ince the example above refers specifically to the powers a certain official is endowed with, its semantic content accounts for the presence of permission may. 6n 9uestions, may signals the hearer's authority, not the speaker's, being similar to must. 5hen permission is denied, the speaker uses either may not or must not if the authority prohibits some action ! You may not visit that (amily $ You must not speak to her again!#. ?or past time reference may is replaced by to be allowed to, whereas in reported speech might is used

I was eventually allowed to go abroad to visit my relatives 'he nurse said we might speak to the patient. E"ISTEMIC MA% )s already mentioned above, epistemic may is used to express possi ility, focusing primarily on specific situations. ?or instance, a sentence like + (riend may betray you is interpreted more like a warning about a particular friend. 6n this case the truth of the sentence or its falsity can be verified. .n the other hand, can basically focuses on general situations. 6n a sentence like + (riend can betray you it is suggested that friends sometimes do that. 5hen combined with the perfect infinitive, may $ might refer to events in the past He may have already discovered the secret o( that tomb . !NB He can3t have already discovered the secret o( that tomb .# ;otice that in written form a sentence such as .he may go home tomorrow is ambiguous between a 'permission' and a 'possibility' reading. 6n conversations this does not happen because 'possibility' may is stressed, whereas 'permission' may is usually unstressed. )t the same time, there are ways of distinguishing 'permission' from 'possibility' if we remember that only 'possibility' may occurs with the perfect or the progressive aspect or that only 'permission' may occurs in interrogative sentences. May with the sense of 'possibility' also appears in concessive clauses in collo9uial 3nglish as an alternative to an although clause You may be in charge, but this doesn3t give you the right to be rude +lthough you are in charge, this doesn3t give you the right to be rude )lso, there is an idiomatic expression with try, using may for present reference and might for past reference 'ry as I might, I couldn3t push the door open 'ry as he may, he can never remember people3s names 6n )merican 3nglish there is a preference for might when expressing present possibility !hypothetical might# 'he door might be locked already. )t the same time, unlike epistemic may, epistemic might can occur in 9uestions Might I have le(t it at the bus station? May $ might combines with several adverbs that emphasi*e the modal expression with both present and past time reference. I might well decide to come I might 2ust start to trust you May $ might as well expresses the idea that there is no alternative left to a bad situation ,e might as well give up now because we don3t stand a chance i( we (ight against them )s already suggested, epistemic may does not occur in interrogative sentences, where can is preferred, and hence, the theoretical + factual possibility opposition disappears. MUST( 'AVE )&OT* TO DEONTIC MUST / 'AVE )&OT* TO

The relationship between must and have to parallels that between may and can in both their deontic and epistemic meanings. 5hen employed with its deontic meaning, must expresses o li+ation or comp,lsion. Must has either neutral reference when, for instance, the speaker says what somebody else re9uires or it can point to the speaker who is in some position of authority and imposes a duty. 6n this respect, it resembles 'permission' may. 'he university says7 'hese people must be e1pelled i( they disrupt lectures !neutral# You must return all the books to the library by 0riday !the speaker is in authority# 5hen we consider the first person singular or plural ! I must $ we must#, we notice that the idea of compulsion is not lost, it is simply directed towards the speaker himself, so that we talk about self+compulsion$ the speaker imposes something on himself through a sense of duty or self+discipline. This contrasts with the use of have to (I have to $ we have to6 which suggests that some external authority imposes the duty I must (inish writing the essay by tonight !internal obligation + 6 have my own program and 6 want to stick to it# I have to (inish writing the essay by tonight !external obligation + the teacher wants the essays tomorrow morning# Have to $ have got to have either neutral or external orientation as to the source of obligation I-ve got to be at #ondon airport at 8 You have to make up a plan be(ore you start .tudents have to be care(ul with their grades 5hile have to is used in formal language and has non+finite forms ! will have to, having to#, have got to is characteristic of collo9uial Aritish 3nglish and is more restricted in use because of its lack of non+finite forms ! *will have got to, *having got to#. Have got to is rarer in the past and does not imply that the event referred to took place, unlike have to ,e-d got to make a trip to York anyway so it didn-t matter too much !it was necessary<# ,e had to make a trip to York to collect the bloody thing !the event took place# )s already seen, have to is used for past time reference replacing must. 7ub(ect+ oriented must needs no past tense !must is different from have to only in the present#. Must appears as such with past time reference only in reported speech .he said she must$had to go. -ike the other modals must is used for future events ,e must do something about it tomorrow. .hall$will have to is used if there is a suggestion that the necessity is future or conditioned I shall have to keep silent (or an hour $ ,e-ll have to go out i( you-re going to do it 5hen must is used in interrogative as well as in conditional clauses, it is the hearer%s authority that is involved, not the speaker%s Must I sweep the (loor and wash the dishes mysel(? !B +re these your orders?6 There is an even more restricted use of must in interrogatives with 3you3 as sub(ect that conveys a note of sarcasm Must you really smoke those horrible cigars? 6n a sentence like I( you must smoke, go to the window , which is again extremely ironical, the speaker pretends to interpret the hearer's need to smoke as something he cannot control rather than as a nasty habit he en(oys practicing. .therwise, necessity is 9uestioned in Have you got to do it? $ )o you have to do it? $ 9eed I say more? There seems to be a difference between do you have to and have you got to in the sense that the former has a habitual or iterative meaning, while the latter refers to a specific occasion. 8onsider

)o you have to be at school at : o3clock? !6s this what you have to do every dayC# Have you got to be at school at : o3clock? !6s this what you have to do tomorrow morningC# 6n negative sentences must not negates the event indicating the obligation not to perform some action !internal negation#, whereas needn3t or don3t have to negate the necessity !external negation# You mustn-t reveal what I-ve said !6 oblige you not to reveal what 6've said# You needn-t answer that /uestion !Dou are not obliged to answer that 9uestion.# E"ISTEMIC MUST / 'AVE )&OT* TO 3pistemic must expresses lo+ical necessity( you get to knowledge by inference or reasoning$ the evidence is such as to imply the truth of the sentence. Most examples indicate states or processes in the present because a future time reference would be open to a deontic interpretation He must come tomorrow. 3pistemic must is paralleled by the non+modal expression to be bound to It-s bound to come out, though $ I guess it3s bound to happen There are differences between must and be bound to 4ohn-s bound to be in his o((ice !more certain$ the speaker thinks it is the only possibility# 4ohn must be in his o((ice !this is simply the speaker%s conclusion# ;e bound to but not must can be modified by almost7 It-s almost bound to happen $ *It almost must happen 5hen be bound to occurs with future time reference the suggestion is that some situation is inevitable. Have to also expresses lo+ical necessity'here has to be someone who knows the truth about his disappearance You have to have made some mistake here )gain the difference between epistemic must and epistemic have to is that between factual necessity and theoretical necessity, paralleling the may < can situation .omeone must be hiding the truth !6t is impossible that everyone is telling the truth.# .omeone has to be hiding the truth !6t is impossible for everyone to be telling the truth.# Thus, have to is stronger than must in the sense that it does not refer to a mere assumption or deduction, it suggests that the possibility of the opposite state of affairs cannot be conceived of. The must example above is interpreted as a simple suspicion, whereas the have to example expresses a downright accusation. 6n )merican 3nglish have got to has ac9uired an epistemic interpretation )3 You-ve got to be 2oking A3 You must be 2oking ?or past time reference must combines with the perfect infinitive like all the other epistemic modals He must have been (lying too low =therwise, I don3t see any e1planation (or the crash

The negative counterpart of epistemic must is can-t . the natural expression of impossibility .he must be over 8> =h, she can-t &an and not may might be used to assert possibility if it denies a previous can-t It can-t be there =h, yes, it can /ILL / /OULD DEONTIC /ILL / /OULD VOLITION /ILL *olition will relates to either 0illin+ness !weak volition# or insistence !strong volition# or intention !intermediate volition#. The idea of willingness is commonly related to second + person re9uests of the type ,ill you bring me a glass o( water? ,ho will tell me what I3ve done wrong? 6n such 9uestions will, which is unstressed and thus can be abbreviated to 3ll, is a polite variant of the imperative for the @nd and the 3rd persons. ,ould in such 9uestions is even more polite ,ould you kindly tell me 5 $ ,ould you be good enough5 $ ,ould you like to 5? This type of volition will is also present in conditional clauses in the second and third persons !see previous chapter on the sub(unctive# I( you will say so, I shall have a cake I shan-t be happy unless she will come .trong volitional will shows one's determination or intention to do something I will see him today i( that3s what I want! 3I won3t do it!3 $ 3Yes, you will 3 .andy, honey, why will you keep asking stupid /uestions? I( you will ask her out every time you see her, don3t complain that she3s avoiding you The last two examples that employ second and third persons clearly imply that the speaker is exasperated at the interlocutors' stubbornness. 7ince it has such an emphatic meaning, strong volitional will is never contracted to 3ll and always stressed in speech. The third type of intermediate will occurs mainly with the first person expressing a promise or a threat and is usually contracted I will pay him back (or what he3s done to me! ,e3ll cut your allowance i( you re(use to listen to us! ,e3ll see about that when he returns 5hen volitional will is negated, it expresses a strong refusal 'hey won-t give me a key, so I can-t work ;ut she loves him and she won-t leave him I won-t have my name on the title page ?or past time reference with sub(ect+oriented will the form would is ;.T used if there is an accomplished interpretation for the event, but wouldn-t is normal. 6nstead, volitional be willing to is more likely

I asked him and he was willing to come *I asked him and he would come I asked him but he wouldn-t come *olitional would is also used in adverbial clauses of condition and after wish, being more conditional than will !see chapter on the sub(unctive#. "O/ER /ILL %ower will expresses properties of certain ob(ects, how they characteristically behave. >nlike volition will whose sub(ect is always a person or at least an animal endowed with willpower, power will employs inanimate sub(ects and is sub(ect+oriented !the source of power is intrinsic to the sub(ect of will# 'he hall will seat (ive hundred You know that certain drugs will improve your condition 'he door won-t open ?or past time reference we use power would, which parallels volition would but retains an inanimate sub(ect !.he asked i( the table would bear.# 'ABITUAL /ILL Habitual will refers to a situation that takes place regularly or fre9uently as a conse9uence of a natural tendency of a person or an ob(ect + (alling drop will hollow a stone ;oys will be boys + cat will o(ten play with a mouse be(ore killing it ?or past time reference we employ either would or used to with the difference that used to does not have the sense of an iterated situation$ that is why used to can combine with both state and activity verbs, unlike would whose usage is restricted to activity verbs only He used to live in that house in those days He would live in that house in those days $ whenever she came E"ISTEMIC /ILL / /OULD !pistemic will is related to the idea of pre#icta ility, the inference concerning the present time as it involves a present situation. 6f there is reference to a past situation, then we use will in combination with the perfect infinitive 'his will be the 9ational ?allery 'hat will be 4ohn at the door .he-ll be sleeping now 4ohn will have received the book by this time 3pistemic will is like epistemic must in the sense that the conclusion is reached on the basis of the evidence available. "enerally speaking must could replace will in all the examples above with only a slight difference in meaning as to the degree of certainty of the respective prediction 4ohn must be in his o((ice !6 can see the lights on#.

4ohn will be in his o((ice. !from previous knowledge why the lights were on, we infer that Eohn is in his office#. !pistemic will is used in scientific or 9uasi+scientific language$ however, such sentences could be interpreted as both a prediction and a habit, what we might call 'habitual predictability' I( you put steel into water, it will sink +ccidents will happen He3ll go all day without eating S'ALL / S'OULD DEONTIC S'ALL / S'OULD The deontic meaning of shall is that of o li+ation1 however( it is the will of the speaker who imposes an obligation, not the will of the sub(ect of the sentence. 6n modern 3nglish we use must or can !democratic imperative#$ shall is an archaic form of order still present in legal statements or rules He shall be punished i( he does not obey You shall never hear (rom me again You shall receive a reward i( you (ollow my advice This imperious kind of shall, used with second and third person sub(ects, can suggest either a promise or a threat from the part of the speaker. /eontic should is a weaker e9uivalent of deontic shall, the sense of obligation being rendered in the form of a hypothesis !which sometimes has the condition openly asserted#. .hould has present and future reference, for past reference combining with the perfect infinitive and ac9uiring a contrary+to+fact interpretation You should pay more attention to what I3m telling you right now I( I could have my way, you should be sent to .iberia (or what you3ve done You should have told me that you were hungry !Aut, in fact, you didn't# E"ISTEMIC S'ALL / S'OULD !pistemic shall expresses pre#iction when used with a first person sub(ect as in I shall be met by my parents at the airport or I shan-t know when you return. The same epistemic interpretation also occurs with second and third person sub(ects as in .ay a (oolish thing but o(ten enough, the same thing shall pass at last (or absolutely wise . 6n interrogations that employ the first person the speaker in9uires about the wish or will of the addressee. .hall I go? represents an offer to go !)o you want me to go?# >sed with the second person shall describes a situation which is independent of the will of the person addressed$ therefore, it is distinct from will you? which in9uires about the other person%s will or willingness. .hall you see 4ohn today? ,hen shall you do it? This construction, which is now old+fashioned, has been replaced by the future continuous tense. .hall you see 4ohn today? is similar to ,ill you be seeing 4ohn today?

3pistemic should is considered the conditional e9uivalent of epistemic shall. 6t is used for ass,mptions about present or past situations !if combined with the perfect infinitive# 'he plane should be landing now 'he parcel should have arrived by now )ssumptions with epistemic should are less confident than assumptions with epistemic will. He should have (inished by now means that '6 expect he has finished by now', whereas He will have (inished by now suggests that '6 am sure he has finished'.

OU&'T TO Fery close in interpretation to should, ought to represents a tentative counterpart of must and shall DEONTIC OU&'T TO /eontic ought to is similar in meaning to must, denoting o li+ation or #,ty, with a single difference while must suggests that the speaker is confident the interlocutor will do as told, the use of ought to implies that the speaker is not very certain the addressee will perform his duty. 8ompare You must give some money to your sister !6 am sure you will.# You ought to give some money to your sister !Aut 6 don't know whether you will or not# 4ence, ought to gives the possibility of non+action, unlike must. 5e may say He ought to go but he won-t but an utterance like He must go but *he won-t is impossible. Moreover, when used with a first person sub(ect, the implication is that the obligation will not be fulfilled. 6f a driver says I ought to go slowly here, he implies that he isn't going to go slowly, but if he says I must go slowly here, he really intends to go slowly. ?or past time reference ought to selects the perfect infinitive You ought to have been more care(ul with the children. 5hen employed with future reference, ought to can be paraphrased by e inc,m ent !incumbent B necessary as part of somebody%s duty# It will be incumbent on you to provide (or those children. E"ISTEMIC OU&'T TO 3pistemic ought to expresses potential pro a ility$ again its meaning is related to that of epistemic must .usan ought to be at her o((ice now .usan must be at her o((ice now

The must variant reflects the speaker's certainty that his deduction is correct, since there is evidence that leads him to the respective conclusion. The ought to variant reflects the speaker's cautiousness in asserting that as he also takes into account that there is a slight possibility that something unexpected might have happened to re9uire her presence somewhere else. The negative form of ought to represents a weakened, more tentative version of epistemic can used to express impossibility You oughtn3t to have any di((iculty in ac/uiring that new program !theoretically impossible# You can3t have any di((iculty in ac/uiring that new program !absolutely impossible# NEED / NEED TO )lthough they are close in meaning, need (a (i necesar6 and need to (a avea nevoie6 differ in point of grammatical behavior since the former is a modal verb and the latter a full lexical verb !which, conse9uently, forms 9uestions and negative forms with do#. Modal need is mainly used in negative and interrogative sentences as a correlative of must !for differences between need and must in the negative and interrogative, see also chapter on deontic must#. Modal need doesn%t occur in affirmative sentences, except in fairly formal 3nglish with hardly, scarcely or only I need hardly mention how grate(ul I am (or this opportunity You need only touch one o( the doors (or the alarm to start ringing 9eed not expresses a sence o2 o li+ation similarly to the negative forms of have to or need to. 7ometimes there is a difference in meaning between them as need not tends to reflect rather the speaker's advice or authority, while the other two express external authority Teacher You needn3t type your essays, but you must write legibly 7tudent ,e don3t have to type our essays, but we must write legibly 5hen we refer to a past situation, the difference mentioned above disappears and the choice remains between didn3t have to and didn3t need to !the lexical verb#. 6n reported speech need is retained (ust like must .he believed she need not (ear any persecution )t the same time, needn3t also occurs with the perfect infinitive to refer to a past situation. Det, in this case it expresses an unnecessary action which was nevertheless performed, thus resembling shouldn3t have and oughtn3t have in as far as in all three cases the event does take place You needn3t have carried all this luggage by yoursel( !lack of necessity# You shouldn3t have carried all this luggage by yoursel( !criticism# 5hat needn3t have done and didn3t have $ need to do have in common is the absence of obligation. They differ in that the former implies that the action does take place, while the latter implies that as a conse9uence of this lack of necessity, the action is no longer performed. I didn3t have $ need to pick up Mary (rom school because she phoned me saying she would walk home I needn3t have driven to school to pick up Mary but I had (orgotten she3d told me she had other plans

-exical need occurs with a !passive# infinitive or a noun & pronoun ob(ect or a gerund I need to know what time you3ll get home I 2ust need some money 'he gas tank needs to be re(illed $ re(illing )s far as its meaning is concerned, need to differs from both must and ought to in that it expresses a rather internal than external compulsion. 6n You must $ ought to get a haircut, the speaker imposes or attempts to impose this on the interlocutor, whereas in You need to get a haircut, he merely shows the interlocutor that it is for his own sake that he should follow his advice.

DARE )are resembles need to a great extent in that it has both modal and lexical variants and it also occurs in interrogative and negative sentences, and only rarely in statements. 7tudents must pay attention to the distinct grammatical properties of dare as modal and lexical verb 4ohn daren-t come $ )are 4ohn come? 4ohn doesn-t dare to come $ )oes 4ohn dare to come? 6n the affirmative dare is used in the expression I daresay $ I dare say, which means '6 suppose' I daresay the plane will be delayed 6n How dare(d6 you? $ How dare(d6 he $ they? , the speaker expresses indignation at the actions of the interlocutor How dare you shout at me? )t the same time, lexical dare has an additional meaning ! 3to challenge3# if used transitively and followed by ob(ect 1 full infinitive .omebody dared me to 2ump o(( the bridge into the river. ACTIVITIES 3! E4plain the am i+,ities in the 2ollo0in+ sentencesEohn ought to be here. 4e may leave tomorrow. 7he must be very clever to write such an essay. 7he can go wherever she likes. 5! E4plain the #i22erences et0een the 2ollo0in+ pairsG.They might not reach agreement tomorrow. & They could not reach agreement tomorrow. @.6 must be there at GH tomorrow. & 6 have to be there at GH tomorrow. & 5e are to be there by GH o%clock. 3.Dou may park here. & Dou can park here. I. 6f he sees you he will stop. & 6f he sees you he may stop. J.5hen 6 was young, 6 could climb any tree in the forest. & )lthough the pilot was badly hurt, he was able to explain what had happened. K.Dou could have told me. & Dou should have told me. L.5e must have a party to celebrate your engagement. & 5e should have a party to celebrate your engagement. M.Dou needn%t go on a diet but you must eat sensibly and you mustn%t overeat. N.6 needn%t have written such a long essay. & 6 didn%t have to write such a long essay. GH.7he shouldn%t have stood in a 9ueue. & 7he needn%t have stood in a 9ueue. GG.7he can%t come on Monday. & 7he can%t be coming on Monday. 6! I#enti2y the meanin+s o2 the mo#al $er s in the sentences elo0-

G. 6 can resist everything except temptation. @. 6 ran and 6 was able to catch the bus. 3. 8igarettes can seriously damage your health. I. 4e said 6 could leave the next day. J. Dou can forget about your holiday. K. Dou can say that again. L. Dou cannot leave now. M. May 6 have a 9uick word with youC N. This may be the last cigarette 6 smoke. GH. Dou may lose your way if you don%t take a map. GG. Dou must find it 9uite a change. G@. Dou must come round and see it. G3. 6 think 6 must make a confession here. GI. 7he must be in her middle thirties by now. GJ. The hall will seat five hundred. GK. :eople will talk O there%s no preventing it. GL. The ?rench will be on holiday today. GM. 6 will go so far as to call it an interesting book. GN. 5ill the ice bearC @H. 4e shall be rewarded if he is patient. @G. 6 shall be met by Mrs. Martin at the station. @@. Dou should be careful not to irritate her. @3. Ay heaven, this should be my book. @I. The money lender said he would not renew the bill. @J. Aefore the new bus started he would catch the M o%clock train. 7! 8ill in the 2ollo0in+ sentences 0ith a s,ita le mo#al $er ( state 0hether it is #eontic/epistemic an# +i$e the ne+ati$e co,nterpart( i2 possi leG. 6 < go to the hospital and visit my aunt. @. 4is parents died and he < to earn his living now. 3. 4ow < 6 tell her that unpleasant storyC I. Dou < know that you < keep off the grass. J. 4er parents told her that she < go to the exhibition that afternoon. K. )fter lunch my grandfather < sit in his armchair smoking his pipe. L. Dou < have been more attentive to the explanations of the guide. M. 4ow < you treat me that wayC N. The drawer < not open$ what < 6 doC GH. Dou < read 7alinger's PThe 8atcher in the =yeP. !a. my opinion$ b. the situation asks for it# GG. Dou < go to 3ngland this summer if you pass all your exams. G@. 6f 6 say 6'll come in time, 6 < . G3. < she have gone there without letting me know itC GI. 6 was told 6 < enter the room. GJ. < you help me with the translation of this textC GK. 6t < snow tonight. GL. < 6 have been so absent+minded and give you the wrong telephone numberC GM. < he have dropped his wallet somewhere in the parkC GN. 6 < have left my glasses at home because 6 < find them now. @H. PDou say your hair is goneCP he said. PDou < look for it.P 9! Re0rite each sentence so that it contains the 0or# in capitals( an# so that the meanin+ stays the sameG. 6t would be all the same if you decided to leave right away. !M6"4T# @. 4ow about giving him a call to see how he's feelingC !8.>-/# 3. 6'm sure he did it on purpose. !M>7T# I. /o you want me to sign it for you or notC !74.>-/# J. 6 expect the station will be crowded at this hour. !74.>-/# K. )lthough 6 tried hard, 6 couldn't talk her into (oining our group. T=D L. /o we have to go thereC !;33/# M. 6'm sure 7ue will arrive here on time. !67# N. )lthough you are older than me, it doesn't mean you are right. !M)D# GH. 6 can't close the windowQ !;.T# :! Translate into En+lishA! 7tau deseori pe un scaun in carciuma mea preferata sa beau un pahar de bere si sa citesc *iarul de seara. )bia da cu ochii de mine, cand Tom isi si trage scaunul langa al meu si incepe P:oate am dreptate, sau poate gresescP, spune el, Pdar e un lucru pe care trebuie sa+l admit, 3lena este sigur cea mai draguta fata din lumeQP =areori ma iarta de povara de a+l asculta. 8ateodata imi vine sa+i *ic P4ei, batrane, mai curand mi+as citi *iarul decat sa te ascultP, dar de obicei nu ma lasa inima sa+i spun. 6mi *ic doar mie P8hiar trebuie sa vorbeasca atat de mult despre eaC /e ce uita ca exista o limita a drepturilor prieteniei si ca prietenii nu ar trebui sa devina groa*nic de plicticosiC )r trebui sa existe o lege impotriva acestui lucruQP 8at despre mine, daca stau sa+l ascult de fiecare data cand ma duc la carciuma, nu+mi ramane decat un lucru de facut, sa+mi schimb carciuma. 7i apoi nici nu ma interesea*a frumusetea 3lenei. 7igur, nu indra*nesc sa+i spun toate astea lui Tom. 7untem prieteni si nu+ mi permit sa fac nimic care 6+ar rani sentimentele. 6n orice ca*, n+as dori. /ar de ce n+ar fi si el mai atentC 7i+ar putea pierde toti prietenii altfel. 3i nu suporta asta, mai curand ar renunta la prietenia lui. 8el mai bine e sa+i spun, asa, ca intre prieteni, sa+si pastre*e emotiile pentru el.

B! :loua si asta*i. :ostul s+a dat, dar nu voi putea afla asta decat pe la patru si regret, pentru daca as fi stiut mai devreme, n+ar mai fi trebuit sa fac pe la unu un drum inutil prin ploaie, pana la Aaneasa + de unde m+am intors, nu+i vorba, cam indispus + cum destul de indispus, nu+i vorba, am si plecat. C! /e+as fi putut naparliQ /e+as putea arunca in foc pantalonii acestia, schimbandu+i pe unii scurtiQ /aca in locul pantalonilor as avea niste sandaleQ D! Mahomed 3l *ice 6mparatia otomana e perfecta din punct de vedere militar, dar subreda din punct de vedere social< ca suntem un imperiu format prin anexiuni si sustinut prin sabie< /aca mi+a scapat vreo idee, ai voie sa ma corecte*i, :asa din Fidin< :asa )u fost niste simple sugestii< .ricine le putea face< M. .ricine le putea face, dar nimeni nu le+a facut< ;umai tu ai avut cura(ul sa ma critici + si ce mi pare rau e ca tocmai pe tine te+am forfecatQ :. ;u trebuie sa va neca(iti din pricina asta, -uminatia Foastra, nu face nimic< M. =epeta, te rog, care au fost punctele de acu*are, adica ce+ai va*ut tu gresit in politica mea 7oare+apuneC :. ;u+mi pot aminti, -uminatia Foastra. M. 3sti modest. =aduleQ :asa mai sustine ca noi n+am putea obtine o victorie hotaratoare asupra valahilor, pentru ca ei ar avea o tactica pe care noi ar fi trebuit sa o studiem mai mult, si care ar putea sa ne fie fatala. =. 6n ce consta, ma rog, aceasta tacticaC M. )i putea sa ne spui, :asa din FidinC :. /aca imparatul Traian ar fi lasat ceva scris despre campania lui in nordul /unarii ne+ar fi fost mai usor. )m fi avut dove*i. /ar asa, suntem siliti sa dibuim. M. )dica tu cre*i ca noi nu vom fi in stare sa facem ce a facut TraianC 8u alte cuvinte, poate n+ai inteles, dumnealui este impotriva acestei campaniiQ 7i s+ar putea sa aibe dreptate, dupa desfasurarea ultimelor evenimente. 3l mai sustine ca mult mai bine ar fi sa oprim armatele in /unare, sa facem sa infloreasca cultura musulmana in tarile gata cucerite. E! Tare+i frumos 6asul si tare+i murdarQ ?otogenic cum nu+i altul, e adorabil in carti postale ilustrate. 6nco(urat de dulci coline, cand ver*i, cand albe, cand policrome !dupa anotimpQ#, e plin de farmec pitoresc si glorioase amintiri. /ar daca nu ai prins radacini in istorica lui argila, sau daca nu esti impins de cine stie ce obligatii de la care nu te poti sustrage, sa te fereasca dumne*eu, cetatene, sa traiesti doua*eci si patru de ore intre *idurile luiQ Fei fi invatat, poate, in tinereta, cativa ani prin scolile 6asului si suvenirile pe care le+ai pastrat nu corespund cu afirmatiile meleC :oate ca vei fi citit dragalasa literatura a apologetilor acestei mandre cetati de scaunC :oate ca vei fi participat la vreo sedinta a societatii +micii Iasului, cu sediul in AucurestiC :oate ca ai legatura cu vreun intelectual !toti iesenii sunt intelectuali#, care te+a convins ca aeroplanul s+a inventat la 6asi, ca =onsard era iesan si ca Filla Aorghese e un moft pe langa marele 4otel TraianC )u te indoiesti cumva de cele ce+ti spun si cre*i ca din motive care+ti sunt necunoscute, ca netrebnic renegat, te mintC 3i, bine, daca iti simti inima tare, vino cu mineQ