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ELSEVIER The Scienceof the Total Environment 206(1997) l-15 A contribution to the study of the
ELSEVIER The Scienceof the Total Environment 206(1997) l-15 A contribution to the study of the

ELSEVIER

The Scienceof the Total Environment 206(1997) l-15

ELSEVIER The Scienceof the Total Environment 206(1997) l-15 A contribution to the study of the heavy-metal

A contribution

to the study of the heavy-metal and

nutritional

element status of some lakes in the southern

Andes of Patagonia (Argentina)

B. Markert aT*,F. Pedrozob, W. Geller”,

K. Friese”, S. Korhammer”,

G. Bafficob, M. Diazb, S. W61fl”

 

‘International

Graduate

School

Zittau

(IHI),

Markt

23,

02763

Zittay

Germany

 

bCentro

Regional

Universitario

Bariloche,

Universidad

National

de1 Comahue,

Quintrall250,8400

Bariloche,

Argentina

‘UFZ

Centre

for

Environmental

Research

Leipzig/

Halle,

Department

for

Inland

Water

Research

Magdeburg,

 

Am

Biedetitzer

Busch

12,39114

Magdeburg,

Germany

 

Received17March 1997;accepted20June 1997

Germany   Received17March 1997;accepted20June 1997 Abstract Various nutrients and chemical elements, as well as
Germany   Received17March 1997;accepted20June 1997 Abstract Various nutrients and chemical elements, as well as

Abstract

Various

nutrients

and chemical elements, as well as other

parameters, were to be measured by different methods

and

Lake Mascardi. The quality of the instrumental measurements was controlled by independent methods (TXRF and

ICP/MS) and by using reference materials (NIST 1643~ and BCR/CRM 414). All the chemical concentrations were very low, which means that all the lakes can be classified as oligotrophic to ultra-oligotrophic. Slightly increased concentrations within the lakes investigated may be attributed to anthropogenic influences from the town of

in water and plankton samples from three Argentinian lakes in the Andes: Lake Nahuel Huapi, Lake Gutierrez

Bariloche in the case of Lake Nahuel Huapi

or to the glacial influence of the Upper

Manso River, which

carries

considerable

amounts

of dissolved salts and suspended particles

from the Tronador

glacier. The waters

are very

dilute solutions dominated by calcium, bicarbonates and dissolved silica. The ionic composition is largely below the world average given by Livingstone (1963, in: Home AJ, Goldman CR. Limnology, 2nd ed. USA: McGraw Hill, 1994576). The Andean-Patagonian lake waters showed concentrations of Cr, Sr, Zn, Cu, Co and Pb that were of the same order as the freshwater world average. The remaining elements (P, S, Si, Fe, Mn, Ni, Na, K, Mg, Ca, As, Cl and

Cd) fall below or around the limit for the freshwater world average. With the exception of calcium, which is twice as high as in reference freshwater (Markert B. Inorganic chemical fingerprinting of the environment; reference freshwater, a useful tool for comparison and harmonization of analytical data in freshwater chemistry. Fresenius’ Z Anal Chem 1994;349:697-702), the element concentrations (S, Fe, Mg, Na, K and Sr) are lower than in reference freshwater. The phytoplankton biomass was mainly dominated by Dinophyceae in Mascardi and Gutierrez lakes and by Bacillariophyceae in Lake Nahuel Huapi. The phytoplankton shows greater accumulation of the minerals K and

Ca, and the essential trace elements (Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn) than the zooplankton.

Sulphur

occurs

in greater

* Corresponding author.

0048-9697/97/$17.00

0 1997Elsevier ScienceB.V. Ail rights reserved.

PZZ

SOO48-9697(97)00218-O

2

B. Markert

et

al.

/

The Science

of

the

Total

Environment

206 (1997)

l-15

concentrations

non-essential elements that are toxic at higher concentrations (As and Pb) it is noticeable that the levels are similar

for phyto- and zooplankton. This indicates that these substances are taken up passively from the water and deposited in the organism. In general it can be said that the organisms accumulate all the elements by lOO- to lOOO-fold in relation of the surrounding environment. 0 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

in zooplankton

than in phytoplankton,

this could be due to higher protein contents. In the case 01

this could be due to higher protein contents. In the case 01 Keywords: Lakes; Multi-element analysis;
this could be due to higher protein contents. In the case 01 Keywords: Lakes; Multi-element analysis;

Keywords:

Lakes; Multi-element

analysis; Heavy metals; Water;

Plankton

1. Introduction

When evaluating the productivity

and trophic

status of lakes it is essential to know

of

any

factors

that

may limit

the growth

of phytoplank-

ton and zooplankton.

The notion

that most

lakes

may indeed

be regarded as a paradigm of limnology (Zaucke

et

tual

in the temperate

zones are P-limited

applies

initially

al.,

1992). This

at the concep-

that

is

level

of a classic ecosystem approach

based on the abstract

stage of the primary

pro-

ducers. But in reality

phytoplankton

communities

are

a complex

mixture

of

species

with

highly

individual

life

histories;

this also applies

to their

nutritional

requirements.

In

view of their

biologi-

cal diversity

it

is most

unlikely

that

all

phyto-

plankton

populations

in a community

of

organ-

isms are limited 1992; Markert

by a single factor (Zaucke

et

al.,

and Geller,

1994). This

is already

evident

from

the biochemical

and metabolic

fact

that plant

organisms

require

a considerable

num-

ber of other

macronutrients

(C, H,

0,

N,

P, S, K,

Ca and Mg) and micronutrients

(Cl,

Si, Mn,

Na,

The following

sections are devoted to the initial

results

of a sampling

campaign

carried

out

on

Argentinean

lakes

in

the

Andes;

this

campaign

was intended

as a pilot

project

for further

investi-

gations.

As part

of

the

work

described,

samples

were taken

rough

from

idea of:

three

different

lakes

to

give

a

1.

The nutrient

and heavy-metal

content

of the

water; and

2.

The

composition

of

the

phytoplankton

and

zooplankton.

The

objective

of this and subsequent

series of

tests

is

to

use such unpolluted

lake

systems as

‘reference’

or ‘baseline’

systems for comparative

analyses of more polluted

northern

hemisphere.

2. Study area

The

lakes

are located

lakes, especially

in

at 41”s

71”W

(Fig.

the

1).

Fe, Zn,

B,

Cu, Cr,

MO and Co)

in order

to exist.

The morphometric

characteristics

are given

in

Tropical

water

systems

seem

to

differ

from

Table

1. Although

most

of the

lakes

are

set in

a

those of the temperate

greater

zones in that limiting

they

have a

of

variety

of factors

the growth

mountainous

phology

landscape

predominates,

glacial

surrounded by well-devel-

geomor-

where

algae (Zaucke

et al., 1992). For example,

evidence

oped forests, some, including

Nahuel

Huapi,

may

of P-limitation

emerges

from

bioassays of black-

reach

the

fringe

of

the

Patagonian

Steppe

on

water

systems in the Amazon

region

(Zaret

et al.,

their

eastern edges. The climate

has been charac-

1981) and various

man-made

lakes in Zimbabwe

terized

as moderately

continental

(INTA,

1982),

(Robarts

and Southall,

1977). On the other

hand,

ranging

from

cold

temperate

near

the

Andes

similar experiments

conducted

on tropical

lakes

Mountains

to arid

and warmer

(desertic)

on the

tend to indicate

N-limitation;

such water

bodies

Patagonian

Plateau

(41% 68”W).

The prevaiIing

include

various

man-made

lakes in Brazil

(Henry

westerlies

lose most

of their

moisture

over the

and Tundisi,

19821, Lake Titicaca

(Wurtsbauch

et

Andes,

resulting

in a strong west-to-east precipi-

al., 1985) and whitewater

systems of the Amazon

tation

gradient.

At

stations

on

the

Argentine-

region (Zaret

et al., 1981; Grobelaar,

1983).

Chilean

border

(1020 m.a.s.1.) precipitation

is 2700

B. Marker? et nl. /The

Science of the Total Environment 206 (1997) l-15

3

-.e!?::::. 2%: ARGENTINA ::c .:. -aI+% .--:):/::/,: ?- ril GutierrezLakeA y 0 20 Km
-.e!?::::. 2%:
ARGENTINA
::c .:.
-aI+%
.--:):/::/,:
?-
ril
GutierrezLakeA y
0 20 Km

Fig. 1. Location

of the sampling sites in the Patagonian

lakes.

Table 1 Morphometric characteristics of Andean-Patagonian lakes given by Quiros and Drago (1985)

Lake

Area

Volume

Z mean

Z max

(kn?)

(hm3)

(m)

(m)

Nahuel Huapi

557

87 449

157

464

Gutierrez

16.4

1307

80

111

Mascardi

39.2

4213

111

218

Mascardi (Tronador

arm>

118

Mascardi (Catedral arm)

 

218

mm year-’

; 50

km further

east, at the extreme

eastern point

where the Patagonian

tion

the dominant stand in the area is a mixed forest of Nothophagus sp., Fitzroya cupressoides and Austrocedms chilensk, whereas undergrowth cover

of Lake Nahuel

mm

year-l.

Huapi

(800 m.a.s.l.1,

Plateau begins, precipita-

In

respect of vegetation,

is 500

by bamboo-like

sp.) and some shrubs (Berbeti

is dominated

canes

(Chusquea

sp.1. The region

is

dominated

by

a mixture

of crystalline

igneous,

volcanic and plutonic

rocks. Pyroclastic

rocks are

of secondary importance, while metamorphic and sedimentary rocks occur in minor quantities. Val-

leys are dominated by glacial drift and alluvial outwash deposits. During the Pleistocene epoch

this area was glaciated

extensively and repeatedly

(Flint and Fidalgo,

1964).

The

lakes

are very

dilute and tend to be silica-dominated

(Pedrozo

et al., 1993); most of them are of ultra-oligotrophic

or oligotrophic

status. Andean

lakes

have been

classified by Quiros

and Drago

(1985)

as warm

monomictic,

bearing

a period

of summer

stratiti-

cation.

3. Materials

&d

methods

Three

Patagonian

lakes around

Bariloche

City

were sampled for water and plankton analysis on

25 and 26 November 1993 (Fig. 1). Lake Mascardi

3

B. Markert

et al.

/The

Science

of

was sampled at two sites: the Tronador

dral arms. Lake Guterriez was sampled

extreme northern

was sampled

iloche

while Lake Nahuel

and Cate-

at

its

Huapi

off Bar-

point,

off Puerto

Paiiuelo

and

City,

an area of low pollution

on the coast

the

Total

Environment

206

(1997)

I-15

Water

for nutrient

analyses was collected using

at depths

Samples for heavy-metal analyses were collected using a Hydro-Bios collector (MERCOS 436 252 model). The samples were immediately trans-

a Van

Dorn

bottle

of

5 m

and

40 m.

(only samples for heavy-metal

analysis were col-

ferred

to pre-cleaned

polypropylene

flasks steril-

lected at this site). The

Upper Manso River, the

ized with

1 ml

of ultra-pure

nitric

acid.

Phyto-

main

tributary

of Lake

Mascardi,

was also sam-

plankton

samples were collected

at depths

of

5,

pled.

The sampling

of these lakes was done dur-

10,

20 and

40

m,

then

integrated

to

form

one

ing

the snow melt

period

and it is representative

sample

and preserved

with

acetic Lug01 solution.

 

of the end of water column

mixing

period

(Fig. 2).

Chlorophyll

concentration

was measured

in sub-

Spring is a season with increase of light and water

surface

samples

(N 0.50

m)

extracted

with

90%

temperature,

and accumulation

of nutrients.

Un-

acetone (APHA,

1985). Eight

hundred

litres

were

der these high availability

of resources an algal

pumped

from a depth

of 3-5

m with a peristaltic

 

maximum biomass is expected.

pump

and passed through

a 63-pm

sieve

and

a

The temperature profile was established using

25-pm

plankton

net.

For

the

purposes

of

this

YSI equipment. Conductivity and pH, adjusted to

article

the

63-pm

fraction

will

be termed

the

25°C were measured

with

potentiometric

equip-

‘zooplankton

fraction’

and the 25-pm

fraction

the

ment. Dissolved

oxygen

was

measured

by

‘phytoplankton

fraction’.

Both fractions

were con-

Winkler’s

method,

in Lake Nahuel

Huapi

only.

centrated

on

a 0.45~pm

membrane

filter

for

centrated on a 0.45~pm membrane filter for -30 -35 -40 .- 5 -- .- -- Temperature

-30

-35

-40

.-

5

--

.-

--

Temperature

(“C)

6

7

6

9

IO

11

12

13

14

 

r

 

-+a

tb

-c

-cl

1

Fig. 2. Temperature td) Nahuel Huapi.

profiles of the Patagonian lakes: (a) Mascardi (Tronador

arm); (b) Mascardi

(Catedral arm); (c) Gutierrez;

and

B. Markert et al. / The Science of the Total Environment 206 (1997) l-15

5

heavy-metal

analysis.

A

second

aliquot

of

the

The

quality

of

the

heavy-metal

analysis

was

63-pm

fraction

was fixed with sugar-formalin

(fi-

controlled by independent

methods

(TXRF

and

nal

concentration

4%

volume)

for

zooplankton

ICP/MS)

rials (NIST

and by using standard

reference

mate-

analyses

including

analyses

of

large

ciliates.

1643~ and BCR/CRM

414).

Nutrients

and major

ions were determined

in the

The

phytoplankton

 

was counted

using

an

in-

chemical

laboratory

of the Centro

versitario Bariloche

Regional

Uni-

verted Hydro-Bios

microscope.

The

diversity

in-

as follows:

soluble

reactive

dex

was

calculated

 

by

the

Shannon-Weaver

phosphorus

(SRP)

by molybdate

blue,

ascorbic

method.

Crustaceans,

rotifers

and

ciliates

were

acid reduction;

total phosphorus (TP) by persul-

counted

in Bogorov-chambers

with

an inverted

phate

oxidation

and SRP

analysis;

nitrates

plus

microscope

at a 40 X and 100 X magnification,

re-

nitrites by cadmium column reduction and diazoic

spectively. The abundance

of the large,

coloured

complexion. Ammonia was determined by

the

in-

ciliates

of

the

genus

Stentor

was determined

in

dophenol-blue method, calcium and magnesium

parallel

with

the

rotifers.

Furthermore,

Stentor

by microtitration (EDTA), sodium and potassium

was counted

on the filters

accord-

by flame photometry,

sulphates

by turbidimetry

 

ing

to

WSlfl

(1995).

The

(5 m and 40 m) determination

of

the

and alkalinity

analytical methods were performed

the recommendations of Standard Methods (API-IA, 1985). Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) was considered to be the sum of nitrates + ammonia + nitrites.

by titration.

All

the above standard

according

to

Heavy-metal

analyses were performed

at UFZ

total reflection X-ray fluores-

with a commercial

cence

spectrometer

(TRFX,

EXTRA

II

A,

Atomika

Instruments

Ltd.,

OberschleilJheim/

Munich,

F.R.G.)

including

Si(Li) detector (resolu-

tion

168 eV

at

5.9 keV),

electronics

and

a data

processing

system. Both

MO-tube

and W-tube

ex-

citation

of 50 kV uniformly W-excitation,

were used for analysis, with tube settings

and lo-38

mA. The measuring

time was

1000 s for MO-excitation

are given

Details

and 2000 s for

al.

in

Reus

et

(1993) and Friese

et al. (1997).

In

addition,

sam-

ples were

measured

with

an

Elan

5000

device

from the Perkin

Elmer/Sciex

company.

Rhodium

biomass

lows the methodology

(1995).

of ciliates,

rotifers

given

4. Results and discussion

4.1. Water temperature

and crustaceans fol-

in

detail

by Wijlfl

On

the

sampling

days

the

lakes

showed

a

water-temperature

profile

typical

of the beginning

of the stratification

period

(Fig. 2). Lakes Gutier-

rez and Nahuel Huapi showed the smallest dif-

ference between surface and deeper waters, while the Catedral arm of Lake Mascardi exhibited

stratification with the thermocline

and 28 m. Other physical characteristics (pH,

conductivity,

composition) are given in Tables 2 and 3.

between

12

transparency,

depth,

geochemical

was used as a response

element

so that

matrix

 

influences

could

be taken

into

account

in

the

4.2.

Quality control

measurements.

The

samples

were

measured

in

diluted

(1:lO)

and undiluted

form.

Further

details

are given in Markert

(1996).

To decompose

the plankton

samples, 100 mg of

sample were measured

into quartz ves-

the dried sels (30 ml)

and mixed

with

2 ml

nitric

acid. The

samples

were then

enclosed

in

a high-pressure

asher

(HPA)

after

KNAPP

in

Markert

(1996).

Tri-distilled

tion

(Marker&

water was added

to make

1996).

a final

solutions

to the decomposi-

volume

of

50

ml

4.2.1. By use of standard reference materials

A comparison

of measured

and certified

values

for the standard

reference

materials

investigated

is given in Table

4.

4.2.2. By comparison of different analytical methods

Figure

K,

3 shows the relationship

methods

stan-

to the analysis

is low,

between

dard and TXRF

of

applied

Ca and S. Although

the replication

h

B. Markert et al. / The Science of the Total EnvironrPtent 206 (1997) l-15

Table 2 Physical and chemical characteristics

of the surface water of Andean-Patagonian

lakes

Lake

Date

Time

Nahuel Huapi

26 November 1993

10.00 h

Gutierrez

25 November 1993

19.30 h

Mascardi (Catedral arm)

25 November 1993

10.00 h

Mascardi (Tronador

arm)

25 November 1993

13.30 h

a At 5-m depth.

PH

7.01a

7.48

7.37

7.39

Conductivity

Transparency

Depth (m) in

($4

cm-‘)

Cm)

sampling site

30

15

307

47

13

100

43

15

300

42

4

90

the

fit is good

for Ca and S, while

poor

4.3. Comparison

of the element concentrations

in

for

K.

The

microtitration

method

it is rather used to

esti-

relation

to water depth

mate

calcium

seems to be very effective

at

the

low levels typically

found

in Andean-Patagonian

Table

5 summarizes

the results of the chemical

waters.

with

mately

waters is close

to the detection

therefore

the figure shows a very slight gradient, suggesting that flame photometry is unsuitable for the very low concentrations characteristic of Andean-

the

of

sulphates

For

sulphates

chloride

SOi-

the

turbidimetry

method

barium

1

mg

is reliable

1-i.

The

up to approxi-

concentration

TXRF

was

in Andean-Patagonian

limit;

lower than

the fit against

for calcium.

For potassium

apparent

TXRF method increases the sensitivity criminating power of the analysis.

Patagonian

lakes.

It

is quite

that

and dis-

measurements

(API-IA,

composition

obtained

by

6

standard

methods

multielemental and ICP. of the methods

1985) and Table

ascertained

Nahuel

Huapi,

the

by TXRF

In

Lake

neither

revealed differences

only exception

by TXRF,

The sample

significantly higher concentration

than those from unpolluted sites. This may be

due to the input of contaminants City.

site showed a

between the two depths. The

content

determined

at 40 m than

at 5 m.

of

Fe

and Zn

from Bariloche

was the iron

which was higher

taken

from

a polluted

Table 3 Main elementary composition

(%) of rocks from Nahuel Huapi, Mascardi

Lakes

Rocks

Gutierrez

Plutonic

Grandodioritic

+ Mascardi + Nahuel Huapia Metamorphic

Amphibolites

SiO, 67.57-70.48

TiO, 0.43-0.89

%03

FeA

Fe0

MnO

NO

CaO

Naz

W

pzos

a Data from Dalla Salda et al. (1991).

b Data from Spaletti et al. (1982).

14.85-16.22

3.62-4.99

0.28-0.95

3.01-4.03

0.03-0.086

1.06-1.49

4.21-5.5

1.98-2.76

0.11-0.19

52.67-59.86

0.46-0.87

17.05-18.85

7.34-9.81

4.03-5.25

0.13-0.20

3.53-5.22

7.21-9.79

2.78-3.84

0.31-0.76

0.10-0.19

and Gutierrez

lakes

Nahuel Huapib

Nahuel Huapib

Pyroclastic tuffs

Volcanic basalts,

andesites, dacites

62.66-74.96

49.86-69.43

0.17-0.90

0.41-1.17

12.21-17.57

14.49-18.06

0.67-3.02

1.80-5.73

0.07-2.04

0.71-3.90

0.02-0.22

0.12-0.19

0.34-1.17

0.52-5.36

0.45-2.60

1.19-7.99

1.90-5.45

3.14-3.91

0.45-4.75

0.84-3.88

0.02-0.10

0.05-0.25

 

B. Markert

et al.

/ The Science

of

the

Total

Environment

206

(1997)

I-15

7

Table 4 Comparison of measured and certified values of the standard reference materials analyzed

 

450

KWV’)

 

.

 

'400

--

.

.

 

NET

ICP/MS

TXRF

BCR/CRM

 

ICP/MS

350

--

1643~

414a

300

--

l

.

l

.

.

 

250

--

As

82.1

81.6

86.7

6.82

6.88

.

200

--

Ca

-

-

(65000)

 

68420

150

Cd

12.2

12.8

 

0.383

0.347

 

100

50

 

320.35

co

23.5

24.1

26.4

(1.43)

1.48

y = 0.0842x+ R'=

0.0112

Cr

19

17.8

17.2

23.8

2.5

0

/

CU

22.3

22.8

23.2

29.5

28.8

0

100

200

TXRF

300

400

500

Fe

106.9

-

105.6

 

1850

1853

Mn

35.1

33.8

36.3

299

272

W

 

Ni

60.6

62.8

60.7

18.8

19.7

 

Ca (pg.f’)

 

Pb

35.3

35.9

36.5

3.97

3.3

9000

T

6000J,

   

Sr

-

261

 

250

   

.

-

-

 

Zn

73.9

79.5

82.5

112

105

a Was not measured

by TXRF.

 

Values

are given in

pg

g-’

(ppm) for BCR/CRM

414 on a

 

dry wt. basis and in

pg 1-i

(ppb) for NIST 1643~.

 

Figures in brackets give indicative values (not certified).

 
 

0

2000

4000

6000

6000

10000

The TXRF

analysis

of Lake

Gutierrez

(Table

TXRF

6) showed differences between

5 m and

40 m for

sbK3.1”)

 

sulphur only (10% higher at

5

m).

This

result

 

coincides

with

the difference

ascertained

by tur-

bidimetry (Table 5). The TXRF analysis produced

 

similar values at both depths for potassium,

but

flame photometry

revealed

a difference

of 67%.

This

is probably

an error

of

the

flame

method

resulting

from

the

low

K

content

of

the

lake

water.

For

magnesium,

the

titration

method

0

500

1000

1500

2000

showed a difference

of 30% between

the

two

S(TXRF)

depths. However, since the concentration

elements

of most

is similar

at both depths,

the difference

Fig. 3. Comparison

standard methods (APHA,

of the results

for

S, Ca and

1985) and TXRF.

K between

in magnesium content is more likely to be artifi- cial.

method

seems to bring

an improvement

in

the

In

the

Catedral

arm

of Lake

Mascardi

the

detection

level and supports the results obtained

differences

in ion content

in terms of percentages

by

standard methods.

The different

concentration

 

were

greater

at

40

m

than

at

5

m,

with

the

at

the two depths may be explained

by the

dilu-

exception

of Si and K. The differences

are: HCO,,

tion of surface waters caused by the input

of rain

8%; Ca, 15%;

SO,,

22%;

Na,

44% and Mg, 240%.

and melted

snow. The beginning

of the stratifica-

were also detected

by TXRF:

S,

tion period

prevents

mixing

with epilimnetic

wa-

Such differences 88%; K, 114%;

the reason for the different

Ca, 101%

and Sr, 98%,

although

ters.

 

concentration

at these

 

In

the

Tronador

arm

of Lake

Mascardi

the

depths

is

not

clear.

The

possibility

 

of

sample

concentrations

ascertained

at

method

contamination

can

be rejected,

since

we used

were higher

5 m than

at

by the TXRF 40 m (Table

6) for

S,

different

glassware for each method.

The TXRF

33%;

Fe, 33%;

Zn,

33%;

K, 38%;

Ca, 36%

and

8

Table 5

B. Markert

et al.

/

The Science

of the

Total

Environment

206

(1997)

l-15

Major

ion concentration

(PM)

of Andean-Patagonian

lakes analyzed by standard methods (APHA,

1985)

Lake

Depth

SiO,

Na+

K+

Mg2+

Ca2+

HCO,-

CI-

SO,2--

Sum Z+

Sum A-

(m)

Nahuel Huapi

5

169.17

69.60

7.67

28.80

72.36

93.44

14.10

12.50

279.58

132.55

40

158.67

69.60

7.67

28.80

74.85

90.16

12.50

284.57

115.16

Difference % (40 m/S

m)

-6

0

0

0

3

-4

0

Gutierrez

5

186.00

69.60

7.67

41.14

182.14

250.82

27.08

523.83

304.99

40

184.30

82.65

12.79

53.49

194.61

236.07

30.21

591.63

296.48

Difference % (40

m/5

m)

-1

19

67

30

7

-6

10

Mascardi (Catedral arm)

5

159.83

39.15

7.67

20.57

117.27

157.38

20.03

21.88

322.50

221.15

40

160.33

56.55

7.67

69.94

134.73

170.49

28.13

473.57

226.74

Difference % (40 m/5 m)

0

44

0

240

15

8

22

Mascardi (Tronador

arm)

5

164.27

60.90

10.23

32.92

137.23

150.82

14.02

30.21

411.41

225.25

40

169.10

60.90

10.23

28.80

144.71

155.74

30.21

418.15

216.15

Difference % (40 m/5 m)

3

0

0

-13

5

3

0

Patagonian

lake (average)

168.96

63.62

8.95

38.06

132.24

163.11

16.05

24.09

Freshwater world averagea

200.00

273.91

58.83

168.69

374.25

960.66

220.01

116.67

1419

1414

374.25 960.66 220.01 116.67 1419 1414 a From Livingstone (1963) in Home and Goldman (1994). Sr,

a From Livingstone

(1963) in Home

and Goldman

(1994).

Sr, 38%.

(Table 5) only showed differences in Mg concen-

tration

River

iron

River

and calcium

arm, as is apparent

On

the other

at

hand,

5 m).

standard

The Upper

methods

Manso

(12% higher

influences

the upper

layer of the Tronador

sulphur,

Manso

from the higher

The

Upper

contents.

conveys a considerable

and

glacier.

amount

from

suspended

particles

of dissolved salts

the

Tronador

4.4. Transparency, chlorophyll and nutrients

Water

transparency

was high

(13-15

m);

this

was to be expected in view of the low chlorophyll

content,

which ranged

from

0.10 to 0.24 mg

rne3.

Only

in the Tronador

arm of Lake Mascardi

was

the transparency

relatively

low

(4

m)

due

to

the

influence

of

suspended

solids

from

the

Upper

Manso

River.

All

forms

of

measured

nutrient

concentrations

were very low too (Table

 

71, and

within

the

range

for

oligotrophic

or

ultra-

oligotrophic

lakes

of

the

northern

hemisphere

 

according

to the OECD

(1982).

The

DIN/TP

ratio

was higher

(Table

8)

in

Lake

Nahuel

Huapi

(6.8-9.9)

than

in

Lake

Gutierrez

(1.2-5.0)

and

in

the

two arms

of Lake

Mascardi

(0.6-1.9).

This correlates

with the higher

percentage

of

Cyanophytes

 

in

Lake

Mascardi

(mainly in the Tronador

arm) and Lake Gutierrez

(Table

9).

Cyanophytes

are better competitors

under

conditions

of low N/P

ratios,

i.e. below 7:l

(Smith,

1983).

The

Nahuel

Fe/SRP

Huapi,

ratio

2.2-3.0

ranged between

0.6-1.8

in

in Lake

Gutierrez

and 4.2

in the Catedral

arm of Lake Mascardi

(Table

8).

In

the

Tronador

arm

of

Lake

Mascardi

the

Fe/SRP

ratio was noticeably higher (11.3-14.3).

The main

tributary

of Lake

Mascardi

is the

Up-

per Manso

River,

which discharges

into

the Tro-

nador

arm

and brings

in

a heavy load

of glacial

sediment

input

in

is apparent

rich

Fe and

S. The

in the sulphur

influence

concentration

of this

of

the Tronador

arm, which is similar

to that

of

the

Upper

Manso

River

but

about

twice that

of the

Catedral

arm. It has been suggested (Brand,

1991)

that

the

Fe/PO,

ratio

of

the

nutrient

inputs

influences

the ratio

of procaryotes

to eucaryotes

in marine

phytoplankton

communities,

with

high

Fe/PO,

ratios favouring procaryote growth. The

cyanophyte density in the Tronador arm of Lake

B. Markert et al. /The

Science of the Total Environment 206 (1997) 1-15

9

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10

B. Markert

et al.

/ The Science

of

the Total

Environment

206

(1997)

l-15

Mascardi

this coincided

low N/P

was higher

with

than

in

the

a high Fe/SRP

above.

ratio mentioned

Catedral

arm;

and

ratio

and the

HCO,

> SO;-

> Cl-

4.5. Chemical

classi@ation

of the lakes investigated

Table

2 shows that

the

lake

waters

have

a

neutral

or slightly

alkaline

pH (7.01-7.48)

as the

vast majority of Andean-Patagonian lakes around

Bariloche

main elementary composition (%) of rocks from Nahuel Huapi, Mascardi and Gutierrez lakes. The waters are very dilute solutions (conductivity

3 gives the

(Pedrozo

et al., 1993). Table

between

30 and

46.6

$S

cm-‘)

dominated

by

calcium,

bicarbonates

and

dissolved

silica.

The

ionic composition

is largely below the world aver-

age given by Livingstone

(19631, in:

Horne

and

Goldman

(1994).

The

relative

significance

( peq

1-l

) of the

major

cations

and ions

is:

Ca2+ > Mg2+

> < Naf

> K+

Major

ions

show an excess of cations

in

the

charge balance,

percentage differences were calculated according to Lesack et al. (1984) as:

ranging

from

19 to

36%.

These

This

ionic

imbalance

cannot

be explained

by

the SiO,

ized as H,SiO;

Dissolved

7). These features of Andean-Patagonian lakes

are ion-

1982).

concentration

because silicates

at high pH values (Drever,

silica is below the world average (Table

can be attributed

(Pedrozo et al., 1993).

to the dominant

igneous

rock

The

Andean-Patagonian

showed concentrations

of Cr,

lake water

(LWP,,,)

Sr, Zn,

Cu,

Co and

Table 7

Mean

element composition

( pg 1-l)

and Lake Constance

As

Patagonian lakes (avg> Reference freshwater

nd-<

1.2

(Markert,

1994)

0.5

Fresh water world

average

(Margalef,

1983)

1.7-3.0

(Livingstone,

1963)

Lake Constance

(Sigg, 1985)

Table

7 (Continued)

 

Mn

Patagonian

lakes (avgl

<l-<4

Reference freshwater

(Markert,

1994)

5

Fresh water world average

(Margalef,

1983)

(Livingstone,

1963)

35

Lake Constance

(Sigg, 1985)

of Andean-Patagonian

lakes compared with ‘reference freshwater’, world

average freshwater

Ca

Cd

Cl

5298

< 0.2

569