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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924030446102

READINGS IN

POLITICAL SCIENCE

SELECTED AND EDITED

BY

RAYMOND GARFIELD GETTELL

AUTHOR OF "INTRODUCTION TO POLITICAL SCIENCE"

GINN AND COMPANY

BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO LONDON

,^ A

COPYRIGHT, 191 1, BY

RAYMOND GARFIELD GETTELL

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

911.

gftt gttenanm 39te««

,OINN AND COMPANY PRO-"

PR'lfeTOHS BOST6S U.S.A.

PREFACE

This collection of " Readings in Political Science " is designed to accom-

pany the editor's " Introduction to Political Science," and the choice and arrangement of material have been influenced by the plan of that volume.

At the same time it may be used to accompany other manuals that cover

the general field of political science, or it may be read with profit by all

vfho desire an introduction to the body of literature that deals with the

origin, development, organization, and activities of the state.

All teachers realize the necessity of having their students read more than is contained in the textbook, and valuable selections of material to

direct such reading have recently appeared for the students of history,

economics, sociology, and American government. As yet, however, no

book of readings for the general subject of political science has been

attempted, and the editor claims the indulgence due to one who ventures

into an untried field.

In a number of cases contemporary accounts or official documents

have been quoted, but no effort has been made to secure material from

obscure or out-of-the-way sources. On the contrary, extracts have been

taken, whenever possible, from recognized modern authorities from

books the majority of which will be found in every well-appointed college

library. In this way it is hoped that students will be led to read further,

using this volume as a framework around which their reading may be

organized. Besides, the selections in this book may serve as a basis for

classroom discussion, the case system of instruction being particularly

applicable to political science.

The editor wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to the authors

whose works have been drawn upon for material in this volume, and to

extend his thanks to the various publishers for their gracious permission to reprint this material. Invaluable assistance in the preparation of the

manuscript has been given by the editor's wife.

Trinity College Hartford, Connecticut

RAYMOND GARFIELD GETTELL

CHAPTER

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

I. NATURE AND SCOPE OF POLITICAL SCIENCE

I. Scope of Political Science

.

.

PAGE

.

i

i

1 The Work of the American Political Science Association.

2.

3.

F. J. Goodnow, in Proceedings of the American Polit-

ical Science Association (1904), Vol. I, pp. 37-43

Divisions of Political Science. J. K. Bluntschli, The The- ory of the State, pp. 2-4. (Oxford University Press,

1901)

Outline of Political Science. Sir F. Pollock, History of

the Science of Politics, pp. 94-95. (The Macmillan

Company, 1890)

II. Relation to Allied Sciences

J. H. W. Stucken-

4. Political Science and Sociology.

h&cg, Introduction to the Study of Sociology, pp. 80-

82. (George H. Doran Company, 1902)

5. Political Science and Sociology. F. H. Giddings, The

Principles of Sociology, pp. 35-37. (The Macmillan

Company, 1896)

6. Political Science and History. James Bryce, in The

American Political Science Review, February, 1909, Vol. Ill, No. I, pp. 3-4, 8-9 Political Science and History. Sir J. R. Seeley, Intro- duction to Political Science, pp. 3-4, 13, 25-26. (The

7.

Macmillan Company, 1896)

8. Political Science and Economics. E. R. A. Seligman,

Principles of Economics, pp. 30-32. (Longmans,

Green & Co,, 1905)

i

4

5

7

7

8

9

lo

11

9. Political Science and Ethics. John Dewey and J. H.

Tufts, Ethics, pp. 434-436. (Henry Holt and Com-

vi READINGS IN POLITICAL SCIENCE

CHAPTER

PAGE

PART I. THE NATURE OF THE STATE

n. PRELIMINARY DEFINITIONS AND DISTINCTIONS

.

15

10.

Necessity for Definitions and Distinctions. Sheldon

 
 

Amos, The Science of Politics, pp. 56-59. (D. Apple-

ton and Company, 1 883)

IS

I.

Nation: Nationality

11.

The Essentials of Nationality. W. W. Willoughby, ^^

Nature of the State,

Company, 1896)

12. The

Idea of

the

Nation.

pp.

9-12.

J. W.

(The Macmillan

Burgess, Political

Science and Constitutional Law, Vol. I, pp. 1-4.

(Ginn and Company, 1890)

16

16

17

II.

State .

.

19

13. Definitions of the State. T. E. Holland, The Elements

 
 

of funsprudence, p. 44 (loth ed.); J. K. Bluntschli,

The Theory of the State, p. 23 ; J. W. Burgess, Polit-

ical Science and Constitutional Law, Vol. I, p. 51 ;

W. W. Willoughby, The Nature of the State, p. 3

T.

D. Woolsey, Political Science, Vol. I, p. 140

United States Supreme Court, in Chisholm v. Georgia,

2 Dallas, 456

 

.

.

19

 

14. The Nature of the State. H. Sidgwick, The Develop-

 
 

ment of European Polity, pp. 25-27. (The Mac-

millan Company, 1903)

.

.

ig

 

15. Essentials of the State. W. W. Willoughby, The Nature of the State, p. 4

 

21

16. Characteristics of the State. J. W. Burgess, Political

 

Science and Constitutional Law, Vol. I, p. 52 .

 

.

.

21

 

17. The Idea and the Concept of the State.

W. W. ^N'A-

 
 

\o\xg\\hy. The Nature of the State, ^^. H-i^ .

 

.

22

III. Sovereignty

23

18. Definition of Sovereignty. J. W. Burgess, Political Sci-

ence and Constitutional Law, Vol. I, pp. 52-53

.

.

19. The Nature of Sovereignty.

T. E. Holland, The Ele-

23

ments of Jurisprudence, pp. 47-48. (Oxford University

Press, 1906)

.

23

CHAPTER

IV. Government

CONTENTS

vii

PAGE

23

20. Distinction between State and Government. W. W.

Willoughby, The Nature of the State, p. 8 .

.

.

23

21. Definition of Government. J. Q. Dealey, The Develop-

ment of the State, p. 119.

pany, 1909)

(Silver, Burdett & Com-

III. PHYSICAL BASIS OF THE STATE

22. Physical Causes that act in History.

B. A. Hinsdale,

24

25

How to Study and Teach History, chap. x. (D. Apple-

ton and Company, 1893) .^

25

23. The Natural Environment. E. R. A. Seligman, Prin-

ciples of Economics, pp. 36-42 .

33

24. Lines of Social Movement. A. Fairbanks,' Introduction to Sociology, pp. 74-75. (Charles Scribner's Sons,

190S)

38

25. Fertility of the Soil. J. K. Bluntschli, The Theory of the

State, pp. 232-235

38

^26. Effects of Dryness and Moisture. H. Spencer, Principles

/ of Sociology, Vol. I, pp. 20-23. (P- Appleton and

Company, 1890)

27. The General Aspects of Nature.

H. T. Buckle, His-

40

tory of Civilization in England, Vol. I, pp. 85-87.

(D. Appleton and Company, 1873)

IV.

POPULATION OF THE STATE

I.

Importance of the Population

28. Human Causes that act in History.

B. A. Hinsdale,

How to Study and Teach History, pp. 127-134

.

42

45

45

45

29. The Agents of Civilization. L. F. Vfai A, Applied Soci-

II. Race

ology, pp. 132-134. (Ginn and Company, 1906) .

,

.

.

30. Causes of the Fixation of Ethnic Traits. D. G. Brinton, Paces and Peoples, pp. 40-44. (David McKay, 1901)

31. Race Elements of the United States. A. 'B.):iaxt, Actual

Government, pp. 9-1 1.

i9°5)

(Longmans, Green & Co.,

49

Si

51

S3

vui

CHAPTER

READINGS IN POLITICAL SCIENCE

32.

Races in Austria-Hungary. A. L. Lowell, Governments and Parties in Continental Europe, Vol. II, pp. 72-73,

124-127. (Houghton Mifflin Company, 1896)

33.

The Race Problem in Modern Colonial Empires. A. C.

Coolidge, The United States as a World Power,

pp. 61-63. (The Macmillan Company, 1908) .

34. The

Destiny of Races.

Peoples, pp. 293-299

D. G.

Brinton, Races and

,

ni. Nationality

35.

36.

Nationality and the Formation of States.

The Theory of the State, Yp. (jT-roo

Nationality in Modern Politics. A. C. Coolidge, The

J. K. Bluntschli,

United States as a JVorld Power, 'p^. /^i-^'^

37.

Nationalism in Recent Politics. P. S. Reinsch, World

Politics, pp. 3-7. (The Macmillan Company, 1900) .

IV. Political Genius of Various Nations

38.

Influences that affect the Natural Ability of Nations.

Galton, Hereditary Genius, chap. xxi.

Francis

(D. Appleton and Company, 1881)

39.

40.

National Psychology. A. C. Coolidge, The United States

as a World Power, pp. S7-88

Types of Statesmen. James Bryce, The American Com-

monwealth, Vol. II, pp. 195-196. (The Macmillan

Company, 1889)

V. ORIGIN OF THE STATE

I

I.

General Process of State Formation

41. The Origin of the State. ].'W.'Bnr%ess, Political Science and Constitutional Law, Vol. I, pp. 64-67

42. The Origin of the State. 'W.W.Wi\\o\ighhy, The Nature

of the State, pp. 25-27

II.

Forces in State Building

PAGK

54

SS

57

59

59

61

63

64

64

66

67

68

68

68

70

72

43. Prominent Forces in State Building. F. W. Blackmar,

. The Elements of Sociology, pp. no, 1 14-115. (The

I

Macmillan Company, 1905)

72

44. Primitive Social Organization. E. Jenks, A History of Politics, pp. 8-14. (The Macmillan Company, 1905) 73

CHAPTER

CONTENTS

45. Kinship and State Origin. Woodrow Wilson, The State, pp. 2-3, 13-15. (D. C. Heath & Co., 1909) .

46. The Family and the State. Sir J. R. Seeley, Introduc-

tion to Political Science, -^t^. ^^-^d

ix

PAGE

76

77

47. Religion and the City State. Fustel de Coulanges, The

Ancient City, trans, by Willard Small, pp. 51-52, 167,

220-221, 257-258, 298, 520. (Lothrop, Lee & Shep-

ard Company, 1901)

48. The Struggle of Races.

L. F. Ward, Pure Sociology,

pp. 205-208. (The Macmillan Company, 1903) .

.

78

80

49. War and State Origin. E. Jenks, A History of Politics,

PP- 73-77

III. Stagnation and Progress

81

82

50. The Beginnings of Progress. Walter Bagehot, Physics and Politics, pp. 212-222. (D. Appleton and Com-

pany, 1873)

82

51. Social Progress. L. F. Ward, Pure Sociology, pp. 549-

S5I :

8S

VI. EVOLUTION OF THE STATE

87

I.

The Ancient State

87

52.

Transition from Tribal to Political Organization. F. H. Giddings, The Principles of Sociology, pp. 320-323

87

53.

Summary of Greek Political Development. H. Sidgwick,

The Development of European Polity, pp. 1 31-134

89

54.

Formation of the Roman Empire. W. M. West, Ancient

History, pp. 340-341. (AUyn and Bacon, 1902) .

.

91

II. The Medieval State

55.

56.

57.

58.

Similarities among Greek, Roman, and Teutonic Institu-

tions. H. Sidgwick, The Development of European

Polity, pp. 29-30

The Feudal State. G. B. Adams, Civilization during

the Middle Ages, pp. 216-217, 222-224. (Charles

Scribner's Sons, 1903)

Essential Principles of the Medieval Empire. James

Bryce, The Holy Roman Empire, pp. 380-381. (The

Macmillan Company, 1875)

Individualism in the Feudal State. Woodrow Wilson,

The State, pp. 583-585

92

92

93

94

95

X READINGS IN POLITICAL SCIENCE

EHAPTER

III. The Modern State

PAGE

97

59. Rise of Monarchic States. W. M. West, Modern His-

tory, pp. 132-133. (Allyn and Bacon, 1903)

.

97

60. Science and the Spirit of Reform. J. H. Robinson and

C. H. Beard, The Development of Modem Europe,

Vol. I, pp. 157-158, 167. (Ginn and Company, 1907)

61. The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. J.H.Rob-

inson and C. A. Beard, The Development of Mod- em Europe, Vol. II, pp. 373-376

62. The Modern National State. J. W. Burgess, Political Science and Constitutional Law, Vol. I, pp. 38-39

63; The Future of the National State. W. W. Willoughby,

The Nature of the State, ^^. i^-\\

98

99

loi

102

64. The Newer Democracy. J. Q. Dealey, The Development

of the State, pp. 308-309

65. Political Evolution of the Future. M. Monod, in Revue

Historique. Quoted in G. B. Adams, Civilization

during the Middle Ages, p. 224, note

IV, Summary of Political Evolution

103

104

104

66. Aspects of the State. J. Q. Dealey, The Development

of the State, pp. 45-47 .

104

67. Contributions of Nations to Political Civilization. Ibid.

pp. 231-233

VII. THEORIES OF THE STATE

I. Political Theory

68. The Value of Political Theory. W. W. Willoughby,

Political Theories of the Ancient World, Preface,

pp. v-x. (Longmans, Green & Co., 1903)

II. Ancient Political Theory

.69.

70.

Political Ideas of the Hebrews, i Samuel viii, 4-6; x,

24; Deuteronomy xvii, 8-10 ; Exodus xxxii, 15-16;

2 Kings xxiii, 1-3

The Republic of Plato. Plato, Republic, trans, by J.

L. Davies and D. J. Vaughan, pp. 60, 127, 136, 144,

1 51) 3051 3°6. (The Macmillan Company, 1897)

.

71. The Politics oi Aristotle. Aristotle, Politics, trans, by

B. Jowett, pp. 28, 29, 129, 130, 168, 169, 208-215, 260, 267, 268, 276. (Oxford University Press, 1905)

105

107

107

107

108

108

109

no

CONTENTS

XI

CHAPTER

72. The Commonwealth of Cicero. Cicero, De Republica,

trans, by C. D. Yonge, pp. 303-309, 355, 360, 375. (Bohn's Libraiy, 1 884)

III. Medieval Political Theory

73.

Political Theory of the Early Church. Matthew xxii,

21; John xviii, 36; Romans xiii, 1-7

74.

Political Theory of the Popes. O. J. Thatcher and E.

H. McNeal, A Source Book for Mediaval History,

pp. 136-138, 155-156. (Charles Scribner's Sons,

PAGE

112

113

113

1905) J. H. Robinson, Readings in European His-

75.

tory, Vol. I, pp. 72-73, 347.

1904)

(Ginn and Company,

Dante's Conception of the Imperial Power. Dante

113

Alighieri, De Monorchia, trans, by Aurelia Henry,

pp. 137-206 passim. (Houghton Mifflin Company,

76.

i9°4)

The Prince of Machiavelli. Nicolo Machiavelli, The

114

Prince, trans, by W. K. Marriott, pp. 1 21-123, 133.

134, 141-143. (Everyman's Library)

77.

Puritan Principles of Government. John Calvin, Insti- tutes of the Christian Religion, trans, by John Allen,

Vol. Ill, pp. S15-551 passim

IV. The Divine-Right Theory

78.

Speech of James I of England. Works of fames I,

p. 556.

Cited in G. C. Lee, Source Book of English

116

117

118

History, pp. 336-337. (Henry Holt and Company,

79.

1901)

The Theory of Louis XIV. Bossuet, Politique tirie

des propres paroles de V^criture Sainte, trans, in

J. H. Robinson and C. H. Beard, Readings in. Mod-

em European History, Vol. I, ^^. $-7

V. The Social-Contract Theory

118

119

120

80. The Leviathan of Hobbes. T. Hobbes, Leviathan, ed.

by Sir. W. Molesworth, Vol. Ill, pp. 153-154, 159,

161

120

81. The Two Treatises of Government of Locke. John

Locke, Works (London, 1824), Vol. IV, pp. 339-340>

389-390, 415

120

xii READINGS IN POLITICAL SCIENCE

CHAPTER

PAGE

82. The Social Contract of Rousseau. J. Rousseau, The

Social Contract, trans, by H. J. Tozer.

Penn. Trans, and Rps.,\o\.Nl,-^^.\\-\b

Cited in

VI. The Organic Theory

83.

84.

Society as an Organism. H. Spencer, Principles of

Sociology, Vol. I, pp. 436-453. 53S-536. (D. Apple-

ton and Company, 1890)

The Organic Nature of the State. J. K. Bluntschli, The

Theory of the State, ^^. 18-22

VII. Present Political Theory

85.

86.

English and Continental Political Theory. Sir. F. Pol-

lock, History of the Science of Politics, pp. 1 1 o-i 1 8

Changes in Political Theory in the United States.

C. E. Merriam, American Political Theories, pp. 304,

332-333. (The Macmillan Company, 1903) .

.

.

VIII. SOVEREIGNTY

I. Nature of Sovereignty

87. Meaning of the Term " Sovereignty." C. E. Merriam,

History of the Theory of Sovereignty since Rous-

seau, pp. 224-225. Columbia University Studies in

History, Economics and Public Law, Vol. XII, No. 4

88. Sovereignty as Unlimited Power. J. W. Burgess, Political Science and Constitutional Law, Vol. I,

PP- S3-5S

121

122

122

123

124

1 24

125

127

127

127

128

89. Characteristics of Sovereignty. J. K. Bluntschli, The

Theory of the State, pp. 493-495

129

90. Sovereignty as Supreme Will. W. W. Willoughby,

The Nature of the State, pp. 194-196

91. Sovereignty from a Sociological Standpoint. F. H. Giddings, Descriptive and Historical Sociology,

PP- 357-359- (The Macmillan Company, 1906) .

92. The Limits of Sovereignty.

A. L. Lowell, Essays on

Government, pp. 215-216. (Houghton Mifflin Com-

pany, 1889)

II. Location of Sovereignty

130

130

132

133

93. Sovereignty of the People. A. B. Hart, Actual Gov-

ernment, pp. 357-359 .

133

rTER

94.

CONTENTS

Political Sovereignty. H. Sidgwick, The Elements of

Politics, pp. 604-605, 611. (The Macmillan Com-

pany, 1897)

95. Ultimate Political Sovereignty.

D.

G. Ritchie,

in

96.

Annals of the American Academy of Political

and Social Science, Vol. I, p. 407

The Legal Sovereign. J. Q. Dealey, The Development

97.

98.

of the State, yp. 209-212

Sovereignty as Total Lawmaking Power. W. W.

Willoughby, The Nature of the State, pp. 302-307

Divisibility of Sovereignty. United States Supreme Court, in Chisholm v. Georgia, 2 Dallas, 435;

United States Supreme Court, in Ware v. Hylton,

3 Dallas, 232 ; James Madison, Works, Vol. IV, p. 394 ; N. Chipman, Principles of Government,

P- 273

99.

Delegation of Sovereignty. Sir W. Markby, Elements

of Law, TpTp. 26-27. (Oxford University Press, 1899)

III. Modern Concepts of Sovereignty

100. Present Theory of Sovereignty. C. E. Merriam, His-

tory of the Theory of Sovereignty since Rousseau,

pp. 222-224. Columbia University Studies in His-

tory, Economics and Public Law, Vol. XII, No. 4

loi. Criticism of the Theory of Sovereignty. S. Leacock,

Elements of Politics, pp. 59-62. (Houghton Mifflin

Company, 1906)

xiii

PAGE

134

135

135

137

138

139

140

140

141

102. International Law and Sovereignty. C. E. Merriam,

History of the Theory of Sovereignty since Rous-

seau, pp. 2 1 4-2 1 6. Columbia University Studies in Histoiy, Economics and Public Law, Vol. XII,

No. 4

142

103. Sovereignty in Constitutional and International Law.

R. T. Crane, The State in Constitutional and Inter-

national Law, pp. 7-1 1, 73-74. fohns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political

Science, Series XXV, Nos. 6-7

IV. Revolution

143

146

104. Moral Right of Revolution. H. Sidgwick, The Ele-

xiv READINGS IN POLITICAL SCIENCE

CHAPTER

105.

106.

107.

Types of Revolutions. S. Amos, The Science of Pol-

itics, pp. 430-431

The Right of Revolution. Extracts from the American

Declaration of Independence

An Ordinance of Secession. War of the Rebellion,

Official Records, Series I, Vol. I, p. 1 10

108.

Decree for suspending Louis XVL

F. M. Ander-

son, Constitutions and Documents Illustrative of

the History of France, lySg-jgoi, No. 24. (The

H. W. Wilson Company, 1904)

IX. INDIVIDUAL LIBERTY

I. Nature of Individual Liberty

PAGE

'47

'4°

148

149

15°

150

109. Different Meanings of Liberty. J. R. Seeley, I?ttro-

duction to Political Science, -p^. 12.6-12& no. Relation of Sovereignty to Liberty. J. W. Burgess, Political Science and Constitutional Law, Vol. I,

.

.

pp- ss-56

111. The Idea and Source of Individual Liberty.

pp. 174-176

Ibid.

.

150

ISI

152

112. The Rise of Individual Liberty. W. W. Willoughby,

The Nature of the State, -pp. -^11-2,121

113. The Evolution of Liberty. G.l

Sche:rgcr,

The Evolu-

tion of Modern Liberty, pp. 1-4. (Longmans, Green

& Co., 1904)

II. National Liberty

114.

National Independence. F. Lieber, On Civil Liberty

and Self-Government, pp. 41-42

115.

The American Declaration of Independence. W. Mac-

donald. Select Documents of U. S. History, No. i

116.

The Acknowledgment of American Independence.

Speech of George III, Annual Register, 1783,

pp. 311-312

117.

Recognition by the Powers of Greek Independence.

Protocols of conferences relative to the affairs of

Greece. Quoted in Robinson and Beard, Readings

in Modem European History, Vol. II, No. 345

118.

Bulgarian Proclamation of Independence. London

Weekly Times, October, 1908.

Ibid.

No. 351

.

'53

154

156

156

156

157

157

158

CHAPTER

CONTENTS

XV

PAGE

1 19. Recognition by the United States of the Independence

of Cuba. United States Statutes at Large, Vol.

XXX, pp. 738-739

IS9

III. Civil Liberty

160

IV.

120.

The Meaning of Civil Liberty. F. Lieber, On Civil

Liberty and Self-Government,^^, la-ii,

.

.

121. Liberty and Authority.

pp. 8-28

J.

S.

Mill,

On Liberty,

122.

123.

Civil Liberty in the United States. E. McClain, Con-

stitutional Law in the United States, pp. 292-294.

(Longmans, Green & Co., 1904)

Civil Liberty guaranteed in the Constitution of the United States. Constitution of the United States,

Amendments I-VIII

124.

125.

Civil Liberty in England.

S. Amos, The English

Constitution, pp. 131-135. (Longmans, Green &

Co., 1895)

Magna Charta. The Statutes of the Realm, Vol. I,

160

i6i

163

164

165

 

pp. 9-13

166

126

Declaration

of

the

Rights of

Man and Citizen.

 

F. M. Anderson, Constitutions and Documents,

pp. 58-60

167

127.

Civil Liberty in Russia. W. F. Dodd, Modem Con- stitutions, Vol. II, pp. 187-188. (The University

of Chicago Press, 1909)

 

168

Political Liberty

 

169

128

Political Rights. J. Q. Deal^y, The Development of the State, pp. 294-296

.

.

169

1.29, Political Liberty in Oklahoma. F. N. Thorpe, The Fed-

eral and State Constitutions, Vol. VII, pp. 4278-

4279

130. Manifesto summoning the First Russian Duma. Lon-

don Weekly Times, August 25, 1905.

Cited in

171

Robinson and Beard, Readings in Modem Euro-

pean History, Vol. II, No. 339

131. Weakness of Democracies. J. Bryce, The American Commonwealth, Vol. II, pp. 436-437

'! 172

173

xvi

READINGS IN POLITICAL SCIENCE

CHAPTER

X. LAW

I. Nature of Law

132.

133.

The Meaning of Law. J. Q. Dealey, The Development

of the State, ^'p. 237-238

The Concept of Law. G. C. Lee, Historical Juris-

PAGE

174

'74

'74

prudence, pp. 3-5. (The Macmillan Company,

134.

135.

1900)

The Nature of Law. W. Wilson, The State, p. 587

Law as Custom.

Sir H. Maine, Early History of

^7S

176

Institutions, p. 380. (Henry Holt and Company,

136.

1875)

Positive Law. W. W. Willoughby, Political Theories

of the Ancient World, pp. -^id-^i

137.

Definition of Law. T. E. Holland, The Elements of

Jurisprudence, p. 40

138. Definition of