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Yokoliaina, Japan.




JiDOiA^AMx^f h^













770 Broad^A^ay.



Entered according to Act of Congress, in tlie year 1873, by


In the OflSce of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C.



90 N. WILLIAM ST., N. Y.



,4 beekman street, n. ».


In order to render the Dictionary more portable and convenient

in size, the Author has thought it best to abridge the larger work

and bring it out in its present form.

In so doing, he has omitted

the Chinese and Japanese characters, the synonyms, and the ex-

amples showing the use of the words, excepting such as contained

a peculiar idiom, and which could not be included in a definition.

All the native Japanese words, with the exception of those which

were rarely used or obsolete, have been retained ; as, also, all the

words derived from the Chinese which are in current use.

In most cases, the arrangement of the compound words, espe-

cially of the verbs and Chinese words, has been

altered ; and,

instead of making each an independent word, they have been

arranged under the first member of the compound, as may be seen

in the case of Abura, Fumi, or Rai.

The Second, or English and Japanese, Part, has not been

abridged or altered from the original, except in the correction

of such typographical errors as were met with.

In order that the Dictionary may be more easily understood, it

may be well to explain that, in the Japanese and English Part, the

root of the verb only is printed in small capitals, that which follows

in italics, separated by a dash, are the adjective form, and the preter-

ite tense, as, Abaki,-/^?^,-//^, should be read Abaki, abakii, abaita ;

KQY.,-ru,-ta^ should be read. Age, ageru, ageta, and M.\,-ru,-ta,

should be read, Mi, iniru, mita.

Also, in the case of the adjec-

tives, when printed OMOi,-ki,-ku,-shz, it should be read, 0}not\

omoki, omoku, omoshi, the first and second being the attributive,

the third the adverbial, and the fourth the predicative forms of the


The hyphen is used alvi^ays to connect the different members of

a compound word.

J. C. H.



has the sound of a in father, arm.


has the sound of ey in they, prey.



has the

sound of / in 7nachme, pique, or hke the sound of e in


has the

sound of o in no, so.

The horizontal mark over b and

u, indicates merely that the sound of o and u is prolonged.


has the long sound of u in rule, tune, or oo in 7noon, excepting in the syllables tsu, dzu, and su, when it has a close sound,

resembling, as near as possible, the sound of u pronounced

with the vocal organs fixed in the position they are in just

after pronouncing the letter s.

at has the sound of ai in aisle, or like eye.

an has the sound of ow in cow, how. ch is pronounced like ch in cheek, cheap, sh is pronounced like sh in shall, ship, shop.




has a close resemblance to the sound of the English/, but differs

from it, in that the lower Hp does not touch the upper teeth ; the sound is made by blowing fu softly through the lips

nearly closed, resembling the sound of wh in who : fu is an

aspirate, and might, for the sake of uniformity, be written hu.

in the Yedo dialect, has the soft sound of 7ig ; but in Kiyoto,

Nagasaki, and the Southern provinces it has the hard sound

of g in go, gaifi.

in ra, re, ro, ru, has the sound of the English r ; but in ri it is

pronounced more like d ; but this is not invariable, as many

natives give it the common r sound. se in Kiyoto, Nagasaki, and the Southern Provinces, is pronounced


she, and ze like Je.

The final n, when at the end of a word, has always the sound

of ng ; as, nio)i = inong, san = sang, nin = ni7ig ; but in the

body of a word, when followed by a syllable beginning with b, 771

or p, it is pronounced like 7n, as, ba7i-7ni7i = ba7)i77iin^ ; 7/i07i-ba?i,


= inombang ; shin-pai = shiTn-pai. Before the other consonants

it has the sound of n ; as, an-iiai, ban-dai, han-jb. The sounds of the other consonants, viz., b, d, h, j, k, m, n, p,

s, t, w, y and z, do not differ from their common English sounds.






Ah! alas! oh!


do in that way. z«, that way, that

adv. In that way, so, that.


or screen

from danger, to protect, defend. ABAiCE,-r«,-/«, i.v. To be broken open ; to be divulged, made public.

To break or dig

ABAKi,-,4-Z(!,-z^rt, t.v.

ABAi^-mt, -aita., t.v. To shield

open that wliich confines or covers some-

thing else ; to expose or divulge ; as, a

Abara, n. The side of the chest.

Abara-bone, «. A rib.

Abara-ya, n. A dilapidated house, a shed.

To act in a wild,

violent, turbulent, or destructive man- ner ; to be disorderly, riotous.

Abare-mono, «. A riotous, disorderly

ABARE,-r«,-^«, i.v.


AbarIj n. A bamboo

making nets.

needle used for

Abata, n. Pock-marks. Abekobe-ni, adv. In a contrary, oppo-

site, or reversed manner ; inside out, upside down.

ABi,-r«,-i'«, t.v. To bathe by pouring

water over one's self.

Abiko, «.

A kind of lizard.

ABiSE,-r«,-^«, t.v. To pour water over

Abura, n.

Oil, grease, fat, sweat. «c»

shimi., a grease spot. Ahura-ashi^

sweaty feet. Abura-darti., an oil-tub. Abura-de., sweaty hands. Abn7-a-ga-

;«/, oil-paper. Abura-hi, an oil light.

Abura-kasii, oil-cake. Abu^-a-kaiua^

the membrane that encloses the fat.

Abura-mushi., a cockroach. Abtira-

nuki, anything that extracts grease.

Abura-sashi\ an oil-can. Abura-

skime, an oil-press. Abura-tsubo, an oil-jar. Abura-tsugi., an oil-can. A-

bura-ya, an oil-store, an oil-seller.


bura-ye, an oil-painting. Abura-zara,

a lamp-cup.

Aburage. Anything fried in oil.

ABURA-GiRi,-r«,-^a, i.v.

To become

oily on the surface, to be covered with


Aburake. Oily, fatty, greasy (in taste). Aburami, «. The fat, or fatty part of flesh.

Abura-na, n. The rapeseed plant.

ABURE,-rM,-z'«, i.v. To overflow, to in- undate, to be covered with a multitude;

to be left over.

Abure-mono, n. A ruffian, disorderly


ABURi^-ru,-tta, t.v. To hold or place near a fire in order to warm, dry, roast

or toast. Aburi-kaivakasu, to dry at

or bathe another.



Abtiri-kogasu., to char or

Abu, n.

A horse-fly.

scorch. Aburi-korosu, to roast to

Abuku, n.

Bubbles, froth, foam.

death, burn at the stake.

Abumi, «. A stirrup. A^umi-s/ti,'n-

Aburiko, «.

A gridiron.


ABUNAGARi,-rM,-/.-z, Lv. To feel timid, to

be fearful.

ABU^Al,-k^\-k?^ -s/ii, a. Dangerous, per- ilous, hazardous. ASunaz, take care. Abunasa, «. The danger, peril, hazard.

AcHi, adv. There, that place. AcHi-KOCHi, adv. Here and there, all

about, more or less.

AcHiRA, adv. There, that place, yonder.

Ada, n. An enemy, adversary, foe. Ada

szirUy to oppose.





Ada, a. Useless, vain, empty, fictitious. Ada-dama^ a ball or shot that missed

the mark. Ada-bana^ blossoms which

bear no fruit. Ada-guchi^ empty, tri-

fling or foolish talk.

Adafuda, adv.

Capricious, whimsical,

changeable, unsteady.

Ada-gataki, n. An enemy.

Adakamo, adv. Just, precisely, exactly.

ADAMEKi,-^«,-^rt, i. V.

To be idle, in-

dolent, fond of pleasure.

Ada-na, a. Lovely, charming, voluptu-


Ada-na, n.


A fictitious name, nick-

Uselessly, vainly, un-

Ada-ni, adv.


Adappoi, a. Lovely, charming, fascinat-


Adavaka, a. Beautiful. Adena, a. Beautiful, gay, genteel. Adeyaka, a. Beautiful, gay, or genteel

in appearance.

ADOKENAi,-/^i,-/^M,-jAz, a.


without judgment, simple.

Adzuchi, n. A mound or bank of earth against which a target is plaeed. ADzuKARi,-r?<,-/«, /. V. To receive, to be intrusted with, to have consigned or

AGE,-r«,-^«, /. V.

To elevate, to raise,

to give, to offer in sacrifice, to reckon,

to tell, to finish.

AGE,-r«,-/a, t. V. To fry. A tuck (in a garment).

A landing, wharf, jetty, a

place for unloading goods.

Age-buta, n. A trap door.

Agechi, n. Weaning a child.

Agegotatsu, «. A brazier placed on a

Ageba, n.

1, n.


Ageku-ni, adv.

At last, finally.

Age-maki, n.

The two round tufts of

hair left over the temples in shaving a young boy's head ; a boy of the age of from three to ten years ; a kind of bow- knot. AG'E-MOC\m^-yuru.,-ta, i. v. To elevate

from a low social position to service in

a prince's employ.

Age-nabe, «. A frying-pan. AGETSURAi,-o,-o^a, t. V. To discuss, to

discourse on, to reason on. Agi, n, Assafoetida.

Agi, or Agoto, n. The lower jaw.

The chin, lower

Ago, or Agota, n.

jaw. AGUMi,-;«?<,-«^a, i. v. Tired, wearied, to have one's patience exhausted.

committed to one's care, to have charge

AGUNE,-r«,-^a, i. v.

To be surfeited,

of, to partake or participate in, to be


employed in, to be the subject of, to be

the recipient of.

Agur.^, n. Sitting with the legs crossed

tailor fashion.

AT>zi!KE,-ru,-(a, t. v. To commit to the

Ahen, n. Opium.

Ahiru, «. The domestic duck.

care of another, to entrust, to give in

Aho, n.

A dunce, fool ; stupid, foolish,

charge, to deposit, consign. Adzuki, n. A small red bean.


AFURE,-r«,-^a, z. V. Same as Abure,-

Ah6rashii,-^/,-^«, a.

Foolish, silly,


stupid in manner.

Agaki,-,^k,-zV«, i. V. To paw with the

Ai, {itsukushimi)^ n.

Love, affection.

feet, to gallop, prance ;

to move the

suru, to love, as a parent or friend.

legs as a tortoise when lying on its

Ai, n.

Indigo, the Polygonum Tine-

back ; to struggle, scramble ; to exert,


strive, hasten.

Ai, {katiasMfni)., n.

Sorrow, sadness,

AGAME,-rM,-^rt, t. V. To exalt, to adore,


to glorify, to honor.

Ai, n.

Interval of time or space ; time,

Aganau,-«?<,-^«, t. V.

To atone for, to

during, between.

make satisfaction for, to compensate, to

Ai, au., atta, i. v.

To meet, to meet

redeem, to make good.

Agari .,-ru^-tia^ i. v.

To ascend, rise, go

up, to enter ; to take (as food, drink) ;

to come ; away by government ; to be done or

finished. Agari-ba.^ a platform, a raised

place for standing on. Agari-dan^ a

ladder, steps, stairs. Agari-deiiji., con-

to be confiscated or taken

fiscated land.

Agari-giichi^ the en-


trance to a flight of steps.

gari., rise and fall, up and down. Aga-

ri-ya., a gaol. Agari-yaskiki., confis- cated house.

with, encounter, suffer, to happen on,

to find.

Ai, a?<, atta^ i. v. To agree, correspond, accord, suit, fit. Ai-ai-ni, adv. At various intervals of time or space ; together.

Ai-ban, n. A fellow watchman.

Ai-Bi, n.

The plank laid from a boat to

land by. AiBiAi,-a»,-a^/a, t. v. The same as Ayu-

Ai-BiKi, «.


A mutual retreat or with-



Ai-b6, n. A fellow chairbearer or coolie.

Ai-BORE,-r?<,-/«, i. V. To be in love with each other. AiDA, n. Interval of space or time, time,

space ; between, while, during ; since,

as, because.

AiDAGARA, «. Relations, connections.

Ai-DESHi, n.

Fellow pupils, school-

AiDZU, n. A signal, sign.

Ai-DZUCHi, n. A large sledge-hammer.

Ai-DZUMI, n.

dyeing. Ai-DZURI, n. Printed with blue figures. Ai-GAi, n. Mutual injury.

Ai-GUMi, n. Belonging to the same com- pany. Ai-GUSURi, n. A medicine adapted to

A ball of indigo used in

_ Ai-jiRUSHi, n. An ensign, banner, badge,


Ai-KAGi, n.

A false key, a fellow key to

the disease, a specific.

the same lock.

Ai-KAM.\YETE, adv. Certainly, positive-

ly, by all means. Ai-KASA, «. Two persons under one um-


de aruku.

Ai-KATA, «. A mate, partner, compan- ion, fellow, playmate, comrade ; a coun-

terpart, or impression.


A signal (by words or

sounds), countersign, watch-word.

Ai-KiCHi, n. A short sword without a

hilt ; a dagger.

Ai-KUGi, n.

A nail fixed in the edge of a

board to join it with another.

Ai-MUKAi,-au,-a(ia, i. v. To be oppo-

site or facing each other.

Ai-MUKAi-Ni, adv. Opposite each other,

face to face.

Ai-MUKO, n. Persons who have married

sisters, brothers-in-law. Ai-NAKA, n. Intimacy, friendly inter- course, amicable and familiar terms. AiRASHiii-i'z, a. Lovely, darling, pretty, sweet, beautiful. AiRo, «. A blue color for painting.

AiSATSU, n. Salutation, acknowledgment


AisoMUKi,-^z<,-zVa, /. V.

back on each other. Ais6nage-ni, adv. In an uncourteous, uncivil or rude manner.

To turn the

Ais6RASHn,-/5-z,-/tzz, a. Kind, civil, cour- teous or polite in manner.

AiTA, exclam. It hurts, it pains. Aitagai-ni, adv. Mutually, together, with or amongst one another.

Ai-TAi,-/C'/,-/^?^, a.

like to see.

Wish to meet, would

AiTAi, adv. Face to face, opposite to each other ; between themselves, without the presence or intervention of another.

AiTAi-GAi, n. Trading or buying direct-

ly, without the intervention of a third person. AiTAi-Ni, adv. Privately, by themselves,

without the interposition or presence

of others.

AiTE, n. A mate, partner, companion ;

an opponent, antagonist, adversary, competitor, the other party in any af-


AiTEDORi,-rM,-2'i'^, t. V. To treat as an

enemy or opposing party (as in a law-

suit, or quarrel) ; against.

AiTSU, «. That low tellow. AiYAKE, n. The daughter-in-law's or son-in-law's father. AiY.\KU, 71. A fellow officer. AiYOME, n. The wives of two brothers ; or daughters-in-law in the same family. AizoME, n. Blue-dyed.

Aji, n.

Taste, flavor.

AjiKi.N'Ai,-^/,-/?-?^, a. Unpleasant, unhap-

py, miserable, wearily.

AjiXAi,-/^/, a. Without flavor, tasteless,

AjiRO, n.

A woven work of bamboo,

ratan, or grass.

AjiSAi, n. The Hydrangea.

AjnvAi, n.

Taste, flavor.

AjiWAi,-6,-6/a:, t. V.

examine. Aka^ n. The water placed by the Bud-

dhists before their idols, and in the hollow places cut in tomb stones; Holy water.

To taste,




Aka, u.


lute, to mediate, or interpose and set-

Aka, n.

The dirt or grease of the body,

tle a difficulty between parties at vari-


AiSATSU-NiN, n. A peace-maker, a me-

diator, intercessor.

Ai-SHi, n.

Beloved child.

Ai-So, n. Love, attachment ; civil, cour-

teous, or polite in treatment of others. 1U0 suru, to treat courteously. Als6DZUKASHi,-j?<,-z'a, i. V. Tocool in

affection or attachment to another ; to treat with rudeness or incivility.

the dirt or slime of water, dirt.

Aka, a.

Akadaikon, «. A beet.

Aka-dama, n.


A red stone. The name


of a secret medicine, made into

pills, and used for pain in the stom-

Akagane, n. Copper.

Akagayeru, «. A species of frog having

a beautifully striped skin.

Akage, n. Red hair.



Akatsuki, n.


The dawn of day, day-


Akagashi, n.

red oak.

Akagire, n.

The name of a tree ; lit.

Chaps, or cracks on the


AKE,-r«,-^a, t. V. or i. v.

hands or feet produced by cold.

open ; to

empty, to dawn. Ake, «. The opening dawn. mictsu.,

Akago, n.


An infant.

Akah.\daka, Stark naked, bare of cloth-

six o'clock


the morning.



kane^ the morning bell. no fsuki,

the next month.

no toshi.,

the fol-

Akahaji, n. Blushing for shame, shame. wo kaku^ to blush for shame.

Akai,-/^z', a.

lowing year.

Akeboxo, n.

The dim dawn of the

Akahar.\, «. Dysentery. Red.


Akaji.mita, a.


soiled by


grease of the body.

Akaku, adv.


surUy to make

Ake-gata, n.

Ake-gure, n.

day break.

The dawn.

The darkness just befpre

red. naruy to become red.


AKE-HANARE,-rz<,-^a, i. V. To dawn, to

it is not red.

break, (as the day.)

Akamatsu, n. Red pine.

Ake-hanashi,-j«,-/«, /. V.

To leave

Akambo, n.

An infant.


AKAME,-r«,-/«, t. V.

To make red, to

Ake-kure, «> The rising and setting of

redden. AyiAym-Ai,-au,-atta, i. v. To confront each other with flushed face.

color or

tinge of red, the red psirt, the lean part

of flesh.

AKAMi-DACHi,-^.y«,-2'«, /. V. To tum or become red ; as the leaves or fruit. AKAMi-WATARi,-r?/,-^i?a, i. V. To become red all over, as the sky at sunset.

redness, a

Akami, n.



Akane, n.

The name of a root used for

Aka-otoshi, n.

dyeing red ; Madder, or Rubia-cordata.

thing that will


the sun, morning and evening, day and

night, constantly.

Akeni, n. A box made of bamboo, used

in traveling.

Ake-tate, n. Opening and shutting.

Aki, n. Autumn, fall.

AK.\^-kti or kirtiy aita^ i. v. satiated, to have enough ;

To be full,

to be tired

of, wearied.

Aki, n.

Satiety, fulness, enough.

ga deru^ to get tired of anything.

Aki, aku., aita^ i. v.

To be open, emp-

ty, vacant, unoccupied ; to begin.

cleanse or remove dirt from the body

Aki-bako, n. An empty box.

or clothing.

Akibito, n. A merchant, trader.

Akaragao, n. A red face.

AKARAMi,-w?«,-«</a, i. V.

To become

red, to redden, to blush, to be ripe.

Akara-Sama-ni, adv. Without conceal-

ment or disguise, explicitly, plainly, clearly.

AKARE,-ru,-ia, /ass. of Aki. To be dis-

liked, loathed.

The light, a light.

Akari-mado, n. A skj'-light.

Akari, n.

Akari-saki, n.

one's light.

Before one's light, in

Akari-tori, n. A window, or any place

letting in light. Akarui,-/^z,-/^7<!, a.

Light not dark.

Akarusa, n. The lightness, the state or

degree of light.






state or degree of red-

Akashi,-5-«,-^«, f. V. To declare or make known something concealed, to confess,

reveal ; to bring to light ; to spend the

whole night in doing anything. Akashi, n. Proof, evidence.

Aka-suji, «. Red lines, or veins.

Aka-tori, n.


A vessel


bailing a

Aki-chi, n. Vacant, land, unoccupied or

uncultivated ground.

Aki-dana, n. A vacant shop or house.

Akido, 71.

The gills of a fish.

AKi-HATE,-r«,-Z'd;, i. V.

To be com-

pletely satiated, to be tired of thing, disgusted.


Aki-ive, n. A vacant house.

Akimekura, n.

ma. Akimono, n. Merchandise, goods.

Amaurosis, or glauco-

AKiNAi,-aM,-a^/a, t. V.

traffic, to buy and sell.




Akinai, n. Trade, traffic, commerce. Akinai-bune, n. A merchant-ship.

Akinai-mono, n. Merchandise, goods,


Akindo, n. A merchant, trader, trades-


Akippoi, a. Easily tired, soon satisfied,


Akiraka, a.

Clear, plain, intelligible;

manifest, distinct, obvious, luminous.

Akiraka-ni, ad7i.

Clearly, distinctly,

plainly, evidently, intelligently.

AKiRAME,-r«,-^«, t. V, To clear, to make

plain, to understand ;

to clear, free or


relieve the mind of doubt or suspense,

to satisfy, or set the mind at rest, to be


Akirame. n. Ease or relief of mindfrom

doubt, perplexity or anxiety ; resigna-

tion, satisfaction.

AKiRE,-r«,-ifa, /. V.

To be astonished,

amazed, to wonder, to be surprised.

AKiTARi,-r?,f,-j?rt, i. V.

To be satisfied, to

have enough, contented. Aki-ya, n. A vacant house.

Akkenai,-,^/,-,^?^, a.

Not enough, not

satisfied, longing for more.

AKKE-Ni-TORARE,-r2<!,-/i};, i. V. To be amazed, surprised, astonished, thunder- struck.

Akkerakan, adv. In a vacant, empty

manner ; having nothing to occupy

one's self with, listlessly.

Akki, 71. Evil spirits, a demon.

Akki, n. Noxious vapors, miasma.

Akko, n.

language. Aku, n. Lye ; also the liquor obtained by slacking lime, or steeping anything in

Aku, a.

Bad, wicked, evil, malignant,

noxious, virulent, foul. -wo snru, to

Vile, scurrilous, or blackguard

commit evil. ntc/iz, an unlucky day.

biyo, a malignant

impure blood. /«, bad customs.



^o, evil deeds.

act. giyaku., treason,

/z, an evil thing or


«/«^ a bad man.

.yo, a bad physiognomy. tat., foul


miyd., a bad name.

Akubi, «. Yawning, gaping. ivo sum., to yawn, gape. Akudoi,-^z, a. Quickly producing satie-

ty, cloying, palling, gross in taste; not delicate, refined, or proper ; florid.

Aku-ma, n.

A demon, devil.

Aku-rivo, 71.' A malicious spirit of a dead


Akuru, a. The_ dawning or opening of

the day: ensuing, following, next.

hi., the next day. toshi., the following


Akuta, n.

Ama, n.

Ama, n.

Ama, n.

Dirt, litter, filth.

A Buddhist nun. A fisherwoman.

Heaven, the sky ; used only in


Ama-agari, n. Clearing off of rain.

Amaboshi, n. Sun-dried, without being


Amacha, n.

The name of a sweet infu-

sion, used as a medicine, and for wash- ing the image of Shaka, on the anniver-

sary of his birth.


Amadari, n. The rain dropping from the


Amadari-uke, n.

The spout for con-

ducting rain-water from the trough.

Amadera, 71. A convent or nunnerjr. Amado, 7t. A rain-door, the outside sliding-doors. Amagappa, «. A rain-coat.

Amakasa, n. A rain-hat, or an umbrella.

Amagayeru, «.

A tree-frog.


Amagoi, 71. Prayers and sacrifices offered

up to procure rain.

Amagu, 71. Articles used to protect from rain ; as an umbrella, rain-coat.

Amai,-/^z', a. Sweet, pleasant to the taste,

loose, not

tight, having too much play; soft, as, metal ; foolish.

Amajiwo, 71. Slightly salted.

Amakedzuki,-/&z<,-z/'(*, i. V.

To have the

savory ; not enough salt ;

appearance of rain.

Amaku, adv.





AuA-KVD\m,-ru,-tia., z\ v. To descend from heaven. Ama-midzu, 71. Rain-water.

Ama-mori, 71. A leaking of rain through

the roof; a small court-yard in the cen- tre of a house. Ama-moyoi, 71. A gathering of the clouds

for rain. AMA.iiM,-au.,-atta., t. v. pleasure, relish.

Amaneku, adv. Every^-here, universally, all, whole.

To relish, de-

As\\n]i.,-dzuru.,-ta., i. v. light in.

Amanogavva, n. The milky way.

Ama-ochi, 71. A small court-yard in the centre of a house ; the gutter or place where the rain-drops fall from the eaves of a house. Ama-6i, 71. A covering, or screen to

To taste with

keep off the rain.

Amareru, i. V.

To be left over, to be

over and above.

AMARi,-rz<,-^Ai;, f. V.

To exceed, to be

more, or greater than, to be beyond or above, to remain over, to be left over.

Amari, 71.

That which is left over, the

remainder, excess, surplus, overplus.

Amari, adv.

Very, exceedingly, more

than, too, above.

Amari-na, or, Amari-no, a. Excessive,

more than is common or reasonable, immoderate, inordinate, extraordina-


Amasa, «. The state or degree of sweet-

AMASHi,-j?^,-^<r, t. V. To let remain, leave over.