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Blumstein 1 Theo Blumstein Logan Bearden ENC1145 18 23 October 2013 Voldemort: The Fascist Minister According to Brett Boyanowski,

, Fascism is the attitude of giving full interest in economic, social, and military power to a dominant race or state lead by a single dominant leader, (Fascism). Fascism is a form of government where the population has a strong feeling of nationality while blindly following a ruler who is out to change the society on a fundamental level. Fascism branches out into many different types of fascism. The one I will be focusing on is called the Third Position or the Third Alternative. The Third Position takes Fascism, Capitalism and Marxism and rolls it all together. Putting all of this together creates a strong central government that has control over the socially defining modes of production and decides how the products of production are distributed. This is too much power for one person in charge of a government to have. Several governments have tried this form of government. The two famous ones are Germany and Italy from the 1920s to the 1940s. These governments are economically strong but have horrible social structures. These governments unite the citizens against a common enemy, usually being a particular social group as both a distraction and a focus (i.e. the Nazis targeting Jewish people). Many of these elements appear within the Harry Potter novels. They are found particularly when Voldemort takes over the Ministry of Magic, the government of the wizarding world. In this essay I argue that Voldemort creates a Third Position government in the Ministry of Magic in the seventh Harry Potter book. These elements can be seen in the Harry Potter books in these examples: Voldemort targeting mudbloods, the Muggle Registration

Blumstein 2 Committee he starts, and the killing of muggle/mudblood sympathizers. Third Position governments single out a particular group of people as the enemy, they enforce strict media control, monitor all citizens, and treat each social class differently from the others. This is not a good form of government and should not be implemented in any society. Tori Morrison states that Third Position is based on there being a final solution, to a governments problems (usually being economic problems) (Morrison 384). That solution however does not occur just overnight. It takes one step, then another, then another, (Morrison 384). The first step is to Construct an internal enemy, as both focus and diversion, (Morrison 384). That is just the first of ten steps. The steps are as follows: (1) Construct and internal enemy, as both focus and diversion. (2) Isolate and demonize that enemy by unleashing and protecting the utterance of overt and coded name-calling and verbal abuse. Employ ad hominem attacks as legitimate charges against that enemy. (3) Enlist and create sources and distributors on information who are willing to reinforce the demonizing process because it is profitable, because it grants power and because it works. (4) Palisade all art forms; monitor, discredit or expel those that challenge or destabilize processes of demonization and deification. (5) Subvert and malign all representatives of and sympathizers with this constructed enemy. (6) Solicit, from among the enemy, collaborators who agree with and can sanitize the dispossession process.

Blumstein 3 (7) Pathologize the enemy in scholarly and popular mediums; recycle, for example, scientific racism and the myths of racial superiority in order to neutralize the pathology. (8) Criminalize the enemy. Then prepare, budget for and rationalize the building of holding arenas for the enemy especially its males and absolutely its children. (9) Reward mindlessness and apathy with monumentalized entertainments and with little pleasures, tiny seductions, a few minutes on television, a few lines in the press, a little pseudo-success, the illusion of power and influence, a little fun, a little style, a little consequence. (10) Maintain, at all costs, silence. (Morrison 384). The silence mentioned within the last step is to keep the entire population silent. Keep the enemy under control and keep the general populous from rising against the ruler. This process also describes how someone already in control of the government makes it truly fascist. This is a process is utilized by Voldemort to take over the Ministry of Magic in the Harry Potter series. I will be taking you through how Voldemort fits this outline without necessarily going in the same order. I will be delivering the steps in the order that Voldemort employs them. Arthur Rosenberg argues that Third Position is a mass movement that must start in small (very small) scale. He says Germany began with Hitler and his six disciples, and eventually grew into the whole German population, (Rosenberg). This is how Voldemort comes to be the ruler of the Ministry of Magic in book seven. It starts with his small group of death eaters until their numbers eventually grow to the point where they take over the Ministry.

Blumstein 4 The first step is to find and internal enemy to create both a focus and diversion for the government. Voldemort makes an enemy out of both muggles and wizards born to muggle parents. He chooses this group because he believes that their blood is not pure and they ruin the wizard race by mating with pure blood wizards. He says he will cut away the canker that infects us until only those of the true blood remain, (Rowling The Dark Lord Ascending). The second step was to isolate the enemy and begin demonizing them through namecalling. Voldemort and his followers demonize magical muggle born by calling them mudbloods. Voldemort employs this step when he is the head of the Ministry. Especially when he replaces the statue in the ministry to depict a witch and wizard sitting on ornately carved thrones looking down at the Ministry, and a closer look at the thrones reveals that they were actually mounds of carved humans: hundreds and hundreds of naked bodies, men, women, and children, all with rather stupid, ugly faces, twisted and pressed together to support the weight of the handsomely robed wizard, (Rowling Magic is Might). This stature represents MugglesIn their rightful place, (Rowling Magic is Might). The third step is to employ those who are willing to aid in the demonization. Voldemort as the head of the ministry employs this through his Death Eaters. Loyal servants sent out to demonize, and hopefully convince others to demonize, the muggles and mudbloods. This is where some of the Marxism comes in to the Third Position. Now that Voldemort has reached this point, there is a hegemonic relationship established at a governmental level. A hegemonic relationship is defined by John Storey as a condition in process in which a dominant class (in alliance with other classes or class fractions) does not merely rule a society but leads it through the exercise of intellectual and moral leadership, (Storey 79-80). So the pureblood Death

Blumstein 5 Eaters establish dominance over the demonized mudbloods. Since Voldemort and his followers rule the government the mudbloods have to accept this. Voldemort then takes a large leap to step seven. Step seven is pathologizing the enemy through popular mediums and scientific racism. At the same time he also utilizes step four, which is to monitor all art forms and remove those that go against the government. At this point he has followed the previous steps by making the mudbloods and muggles the new enemies. Voldemort tells his followers and the populous that mudbloods and muggles are inferior to pure bloods because they do not have full magical blood in them. This is shown when he has captured Charity Burbage, the Muggle Studies professor at Hogwarts. Voldemort condescends how Burbage taught wizards that muggles are not so different from us, (Rowling The Dark Lord Ascending). He continues to say she is Not content with corrupting and polluting the minds of our children, and The dwindling of the purebloods is, says Professor Burbage, a most desirable circumstance. She would have us all mate with Muggles, (Rowling The Dark Lord Ascending). Here Voldemort makes Muggles and Mudbloods seem like a disease that is killing of the purebloods. Then he begins to create art that dehumanizes muggles. He erects a stature that shows a well-dressed wizard sitting atop a throne of naked, ugly and stupid muggles. In order to put up this statue, he had to take down the previous one that showed wizards and muggles living together in harmony. He also has Umbridge publish a paper titled MUDBLOODS and the Dangers They Pose to a Peaceful Pure-Blood Society (Rowling The Muggle-Born Registration Commission). Voldemort monitors art by putting up the beware mudbloods and mudbloods are dangerous flyers up everywhere so that no anti-Voldemort propaganda can make is way out. Since he is now the ruler of the Ministry, he was able to control the Daily Prophet, the most read news paper of the wizarding world. He would have

Blumstein 6 paper print out stories of how the mudbloods would attack people, or they would commit crimes against the state. This aided in turning people against the enemy. The books never really discuss Voldemort removing enemy art other than when he removed the old statue in the Ministry of Magic. Voldemort then combines step five and eight together. Step five was to subvert and malign sympathizers of the enemy (Morrison 384). This means to make the people helping the enemy seem powerless. This can stop others from trying to rise up against the ruler. Step eight is to criminalize the enemy. These are employed at the same time. Voldemort makes it illegal to be a mudblood and illegal to be anyone hiding/aiding a mudblood. He creates the Muggle-Born Registration Commission to find all the mudbloods and put them on trial for any and all crimes (Rowling The Muggle-Born Registration Commission). He also creates a group of bounty hunters called Snatchers that go around and round up the criminals that are on the run. In addition to this any sympathizers to the Mudblood enemy are to be punished as well. When Harry, Ron, and Hermione sneak into the Ministry in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Harry runs into Arthur Weasley and warns him by saying you know you are being tracked dont you? (Rowling The Muggle-Born Registration Commission). Later Harry happens across a Mudblood trial. A half-blood wizard is being accused of being a Mudblood and he is refuting it. He claims that his father is a wizard and a well-known broomstick designer, which would mean he has proof to show for his half-blood. He is denied and told, This is your final warning, If you struggle you will be subject to the Dementors Kiss, (Rowling The Muggle-Born Registration Commission). This is criminalization of Mudbloods, sympathizers, and suspects as well.

Blumstein 7 By following the above steps, Voldemort effectively enacted step ten. This step is to maintain, at all costs, silence, (Morrison 384). By putting all the other steps together, you create a silence. If someone speaks up against the Ministry by this point, they are seen as an enemy and put on trial for crimes against the government. They are usually charged with sympathizing with the enemy. This creates a silence in fear of punishment from the government. At this point in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Voldemort has turned the Ministry of Magic has into a Third Position Fascist government. Any producers who arent complying with the government rules are shut down. Society now operates under the belief that Mudbloods are inferior and evil criminals and a single ruler that has all the power runs the government. The only group left that would even dare challenge Voldemort is Harry and the Order of the Phoenix, but before Harry comes back to fight Voldemort, the Order backed off of Voldemort. By taking over the Ministry, Voldemort also effectively took over Hogwarts and employed his followers as teachers and security. This made him directly involved in every aspect of life. This is too much power for any one person to have. Voldemort then employs step nine. Step Nine is the rewarding of mindlessness. I took mindlessness to mean blind loyalty, or absolute loyalty. Those who obey the government and aid in anything they ask will be given small rewards. The only times that Voldemort truly rewarded some one was in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire when he restored Wormtails hand after Wormtail had sacrificed it to resurrect Voldemort. This is then put into effect during the final battle at Hogwarts. The only other things Voldemort did as reward were allowing people to live if they complied with his demands, which knowing Voldemort would probably have been a lie. Voldemort was not known to let people live if they even once dared to cross him.

Blumstein 8 Voldemort effectively took a small group of followers and took over a government. He was then able to employ certain policies and tactics to unite many people against a common enemy. The only way he could be stopped was through an incredibly long and arduous journey, made by the storys protagonist, to destroy each little piece of Voldemorts soul. The above steps outline the degradation of a once loved government into a cruel and powerful regime that the wizarding world fears. An entire race of people is demonized and criminalized in the process. The rest turn a blind eye to save face for not trying to stand up against this regime. This is horror and fear on a national scale. Morrison sums it up like this: When our fears have all been serialized, our creativity censured, our ideas market-placed, or rights sold, our intelligence sloganized, our strength downsized, our privacy auctioned; when the theatricality, the entertainment value, the marketing of life is complete, we will find ourselves living not in a nation but in a consortium of industries, and wholly unintelligible to ourselves except for what we see as through a screen darkly (Morrison 385). This all means that, we no longer believe what we want to believe. We are told what to think, what to feel, and what to see as right or wrong. We are told what to buy and who is allowed to buy it. Our power as people in a nation is taken away and we are no longer a country but a combination of powerful industries and people running a large-scale business. I have shown you the detrimental effects this form of government had on the wizarding world. It is a horrible form of government and should never be used in the world in which we live because it relies on racism and demonization of an entire race in order to inspire nationalism and loyalty to an all-powerful ruler.

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Works Cited Boyanowski, Brett. "Fascism." Fascism. MMII by Brian A. Pavlac, 06 May 2002. Web. 30 Oct 2013. <http://departments.kings.edu/history/20c/fascism.html>. Morrison, Toni. "Racism and Fascism." The Journal of Negro Education 64.3 (1995): 384-5. Print. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. New York: Arthur A. Levine Books, 2012. eBook.

Rosenberg, Arthur. "Fascism as a Mass-Movement (1934)." Historical Materialism 20.1 (2012): 144-89. Print.

Storey, John. Cultural Theory and Popular Culture : An Introduction. 5th ed. ed. Harlow, England ; New York: Pearson Longman, 2009. Print.