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Job Analysis: Job analysis involves the collection of job related information to prepare job description and job specification. Job description is the detail information about what a person has to do being in that specific job. Job specification is the qualification, training, work experience and other requirements necessary to perform a particular job described in the job description. The information collected from the job analysis is used for formulating manpower planning, recruitment and selection and other decisions. 2. Human Resource Planning: It involves estimation of demand for and supply of manpower to fulfil current and future HR requirements of the organisation. While making HR planning, HR department has to review organisations goals and strategies and try to link HR planning with them. It is also necessary to get information from the line managers about their future manpower requirements. Human resource information system also helps to prepare HR planning by providing facts on the number and type of manpower currently available at different positions. 3. Recruitment and Selection: Recruitment is the process of finding qualified candidates and encouraging them to apply for the jobs in that organisation. The main purpose of recruitment is to develop a pool of qualified candidates. Selection of employees required for the organisation is made from such pool. The recruitment functions start from the invitation of applications and ends with the development of list of qualified candidates for the selection. Selection involves the process of reviewing applications, conduction of written tests and interview, group discussion and informing candidates. Information from job analysis and HR planning is normally used for selecting right candidates and rejecting wrong candidates. 4. Training and Development: Training and development is conducted to develop knowledge, skills and abilities of employees and motivate them to work. HR department has responsibility of assessing training needs and deciding the type of training and development programme. Depending on the training needs, HR department makes decision on whether the training to be provided is on-the-job training or off-the-job training. On-the job training is conducted using organisational premises and facilities while off-the-job training is provided outside the organisational premises in some other training and educational institutions. HR department is fully responsible to decide the type of training provided to develop employees skills.

5. Performance Appraisal: The process of evaluating employees performance related strengths and weakness Helps to assess how well employees are doing in their jobs. Performance appraisal process provides techniques of assessing employees performance against agreed targets It is measured against the criteria set previously. The result of appraisal can be used for determining training needs and making decisions on providing promotions and other form of rewards. 6. Compensation and Benefits: Pay and incentives are the factors that compensate employees against their tasks performed for the organisation. Benefits are the non-wage compensations provided to the employees in addition to normal wages or salaries. Housing, health insurance, free education to the family members and other facilities are examples of employee benefits. Every organisation must develop and refine their compensation and benefit packages in a way that they are acceptable to the employees. Compensation and benefits are the source of motivation that enhances the productivity of the employees.

7. Health and Safety: Healthy working environment is one of the basic functions of HRM. Every organisation need to take care of employees health and safety. Increasing use of chemicals and other harmful substances makes workplace rise the health related issues to the employees. Employees must be made aware of such situations through awareness programmes so that work related deceases and accidents are minimised.

8. Employee/Labour Relations: The most important function of HRM is to maintain harmonious relationship between management and employees in the organisation. There must be the clear mechanism in place to understand and address the HR related issues that arise in the organisation. These issues arise due to the work related conflicts and poor working conditions and miscommunication. Work related issues must be managed in shop floor by handling grievances, labour-management consultative meetings, involving employee representation in HR decisions. Collective bargaining may be applied by including union representatives regarding the issues of salary and benefits.

Motivation Job design Performance evaluation Rewards Job evaluation Compensations/benefits discipline