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MECH 5304- Computational Fluid Dynamics Dr. Brian R.

McAuliffe Student # 100878010 Praveen Jose February 26, 2013

Abstract In this project numerical investigation of the flow over a given airfoil NACA 2412 is conducted with the help of computational fluid dynamics. The aim is to examine the boundary layer distribution and the separation of flow over the airfoil. This solved using commercial CFX .14. Introduction An airfoil is anybody which when set at a suitable angle to a given airflow produces aerodynamic forces. The efficiency of the airfoil depends on the geometry of the airfoil .Each airfoil is designed to obtain maximum lift with minimum drag .An efficient aircraft requires an efficient wing with minimum thickness for aerodynamic quality and adequate thickness to accommodate fuel .All these design restriction rely much on the design and selection of the airfoil. The selection of airfoil becomes complex for supersonic aircraft as the thickness should be kept minimum but it restricts the volume of fuel that can accommodate in wing. Moreover the shape of the airfoil determines the flow over the airfoil at various angle of attack. The boundary layer thicknesses and the flow separation largely depends on the chamber of the airfoil. The stall of the aircraft arises due to separation of the flow over the wing at high angle of attack where there is no more flow passing over the wing. So it necessary to consider an airfoil parameters before using it in an aircraft.

Boundary layer distribution is one of the main aspects we are considering in our project. The concept of a boundary layer is crucial to the understanding of the flow around an obstacle at large Reynolds numbers. The boundary layer thickness, , is the distance across a boundary layer from the wall to a point where the flow velocity has essentially reached the 'free stream' velocity. The boundary layer thickness is arbitrarily defined as the point at which the velocity reaches 99% of the undisturbed free stream velocity. For a smooth airfoil at low Mach number transition of the boundary layer usually occurs as a result of the development of Toll Mein Schlichting (TS) waves [1]. These linear waves breakdown into nonlinear three-dimensional instabilities and finally form turbulent spots that coalesce to form a turbulent boundary layer. This process takes a finite distance to develop from the initial growth of the TS waves to a fully developed turbulent boundary layer. The introduction of surface roughness into the preceding processes can greatly enhance certain growth regimes or bypass others altogether.

The displacement thickness, * is the distance by which a surface would have to be moved in the direction perpendicular to its normal vector away from the reference plane in an inviscid fluid stream of velocity to give the same flow rate as occurs between the surface and the reference plane in a real fluid The definition of the displacement thickness for compressible flow is based on mass flow rate:

The definition for incompressible flow can be based on volumetric flow rate, as the density is constant: