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Red-Baiting in the Philippines

- Civil Society under general suspicion ________________________

December 2012

Outline The State of Exception and La Mano Dura Legal Aspects The Modus Operandi of ed !aiting egional #erspecti$es &onclusion and &ounter'easures 4 5 6 " % ()

ditor *+#+O+,+ *nternational #eace O-ser$ers ,et.or/ #ro0ect Office1 , 23 33"65 4a'-urg 5er'an6 ...+ipon7philippines+org ...+ipon7philippines+info info8ett9ipon7philippines+org contact8ett9ipon7philippines+org face-oo/+co':*#O, t.itter+co':ipon;de

published in December 2012

________________________ <hen no distinction is dra.n -et.een terrorists and hu'an rights acti$ists= state actors put the .hole ci$il societ6 under general suspicion+ ed7!aiting is the practice to pu-licl6 and detracti$el6 classif6 go$ern'ent7critical indi$iduals and organi>ations as state ene'ies= co''unist terrorists or 'e'-ers of co''unist front organi>ations has a long tradition in the #hilippine politics+ The securit6 forces still fail to differentiate -et.een organi>ations that -ear ar's to fight the state and legiti'ate unar'ed organi>ations that oppose the go$ern'ent .ithin the fra'e.or/ of their guaranteed rights and freedo's+ This report pro$ides a co'prehensi$e o$er$ie. on ed7!aiting in the #hilippines and its i'pact for 4u'an ights Defenders and critical $oices in the countr6+ After rea's of inter$ie.s and tal/s .ith $icti's and state representati$es on all le$els= t.o ed7!aiting conferences in Manila and a regional <or/shop in Da$ao= *#O, e'phasi>es the significance of ed7!aiting for the #hilippine 4u'an ights discourse+ As an external part6 .or/ing in the #hilippine conflict setting .e present our perspecti$e -ased on the outco'e of inter$ie.s= tal/s and i'ple'ented acti$ities in 3)(( and 3)(3+ ________________________

!nternational Peace "bservers #et$or% &!P"#'

The *nternational #eace O-ser$ers ,et.or/ ?*#O,@ is a 5er'an independent= non7inter$ening non7profit organi>ation= .hich acco'panies hu'an rights defenders and 'onitors the hu'an rights situation in the #hilippines+ *#O, ai's at a situation= .here hu'an rights are respected and the acco'panied 4u'an ights Defenders ?4 D@ are a-le to underta/e their .or/ free fro' threats= $iolence and repression and insecurit6 of their en$iron'ent+ The *nstru'ent of hu'an rights o-ser$ation is -ased on the idea that= if a countr6 has ratified international hu'an rights treaties= it is therefore responsi-le to enhance= respect= and i'ple'ent hu'an rights+ *f state actors do not fulfil their responsi-ilities= independent international o-ser$ers docu'ent these $iolations of hu'an rights and -ring the' to pu-lic attention+ Aurther'ore *#O, is in contact .ith rele$ant sta/eholders and re'ind the' of their responsi-ilit6 to protect hu'an rights and to pro$ide infor'ation and data for national and international ad$ocac6 and lo--6ing .or/+ *#O, follo.s this legalistic approach to hu'an rights+ Since 3))6 *#O, acco'panies organi>ations of hu'an rights defenders in the #hilippines= starting .ith the reBuest of the far'ersC organi>ation DM!# ?Dilusang Mag-u-u/id ng !ondoc #eninsula@ in !ondoc #eninsula= Eue>on #ro$ince+ Since 3))% *#O, o-ser$ers are present in ,egros Occidental and Oriental acco'pan6ing defenders of TAM ?Tas/ Aorce Mapalad@+ Since 3)(( *#O, hu'an rights o-ser$ers ha$e -een .or/ing in Mindanao= cooperating .ith #ADATA= an organisation that ad$ocates for the rights of indigenous people+ The hu'an rights o-ser$ers are international $olunteers fro' &olu'-ia=>erland= Austria= Fganda and 5er'an6 .hich .ere trained -6 *#O, in 5er'an6+ Aor further infor'ation a-out our principles= our hu'an rights approach and the specific instru'ents used in conflict areas please $isit1 ...+ipon7philippines+info 3

ed !aiting has -een one of the 'ost serious hu'an rights issues in the #hilippines in the past decade+ 4o.e$er an exact nu'-er of $icti's is difficult to esta-lish= firstl6 -ecause statistics -roadl6 $ar6 a'ong different organisations and secondl6 -ecause the pheno'enon is elusi$e and all7enco'passing= 'a/ing it difficult to define and to categorise+ Although se$eral reports .ere drafted a-out extra0udicial /illings and enforced disappearances -6 #hilippine state institutions such as Tas/ Aorce FS*5 and the Melo &o''ission= -6 #hilippine ci$il societ6 organisations li/e Darapatan= international organisations li/e the F, 4u'an ights &ouncil and international ,5Os= such as 4u'an ights ,o. and A'nest6 *nternational= there is onl6 a s'all a'ount of research a-out the co'plex interrelation of extra0udicial /illings and enforced disappearances and the strategies that lead to the'+ Thus= it is not the intention of this report to present its o.n statistical data a-out the pheno'enon or to pro$ide an exhausti$e account a-out all /no.n cases= -ut rather to explain it in its theoretical= social= historical= legal and political context+ *n the recent 6ears *#O, has percei$ed a structural pro-le' that especiall6 4 D in the #hilippines ha$e to cope .ith+ Due to their peaceful engage'ent for hu'an rights= 4 D are often lu'ped together .ith those= .ho decided to use $iolence as a 'eans of effecting political change+ *n 'an6 cases the6 therefore -eco'e $icti's of -oth ph6sical and legal harass'ents+ O$er the past decade= extra0udicial /illings ?EHD@ and enforced disappearances ?ED@ ha$e -een reported -6 different national and international institutions and organisations+ 4o.e$er= *#O, has assessed that 'an6 reports lac/ a co'prehensi$e anal6sis of the o$erall strateg6 that has contri-uted to these hu'an rights $iolations+ This strateg6 is co'prised under the ter' ed7 !aiting+ *t is a pheno'enon that is co''onl6 /no.n throughout the countr6= -ut there ha$enCt -een serious efforts to tac/le the pro-le'= 6et+

(hat is Red Baiting)

ed7!aiting descri-es the practice of ?'ostl6@ state actors to pu-licl6 and detracti$el6 classif6 go$ern'ent7critical indi$iduals and organisations as state ene'ies= co''unist terrorists or 'e'-ers of co''unist front organisations .ith the purpose of o$ the de'ocraticall6 legiti'i>ed state authorit6+ Aurther'ore= state actors create an at'osphere of insecurit6 to indoctrinate the -elief in an internal or external threat to national securit6 in order to recei$e societal legiti'ac6 for the i'ple'entation of a legal fra'e.or/ that esta-lishes a state of exception+ Ainall6= state actors ta/e concealed actions against these go$ern'ent7critical indi$iduals and organisations+ The ter' ed7!aiting ste's fro' the Mc&arth6 era in the FSA during the (G5)s+ The political ca'paign against co''unist ele'ents in the A'erican societ6= identified .ith the na'e of Senator Hoe Mc&arth6= reaches into toda6Cs politics and has experienced a renaissance during the past decades in the #hilippines+

The ter' itself ste's fro' the Mc&arth6 era in the FSA during the (G5)s+ The paradig' of the political ca'paign against co''unist ele'ents in the A'erican societ6= identified .ith na'e of Senator Hoe Mc&arth6= reaches into toda6Cs politics and has experienced a renaissance during the past decades in the #hilippines+ *#O, defines ed7!aiting as the practice to pu-licl6 and detracti$el6 classif6 go$ern'ent7critical indi$iduals and organi>ations as co''unist terrorists= state ene'ies or su-$ersi$es+ !6 creating an at'osphere of insecurit6 the strateg6 recei$es societal legiti'ac6 for the $iolation of ci$il and political rights and the i'ple'entation of legal fra'e.or/s that legalise instru'ents to do so+ The -elief that rights 'a6 ha$e to -e sacrificed for securit6 and that ci$il and hu'an rights canCt -e respected in the context of an Ie'ergenc6C en0o6s .ide support a'ong those 'e'-ers of societ6= .ho percei$e insecurit6 as a 'a0or internal threat+ The #hilippine &ongress has passed se$eral -ills that constitute legal instru'ents to facilitate the practice of ed7!aiting+ A'ong those= the 4u'an Securit6 Act of 3))" and the Anti7Terroris' Act of 3))5 are the 'ost contro$ersial in respect of hu'an rights+ ed7!aiting in practice often -egins .ith relati$el6 har'less 'easures+ A $icti' 'a6 start recei$ing threatening text 'essages on his or her cell phone= e7'ail account or -6 'ail+ An unidentifia-le 'otor-i/e dri$er passes -6 the house of the $icti' at the sa'e da6 and ti'e e$er6 .ee/+ Jicti's are recognisa-l6 /ept under sur$eillance at ho'e and at their .or/place= either through technological 'eans li/e .iretapping of the phone lines= or -6 infor'ants= .ho per'anentl6 tail after the $icti's+ The .orst conseBuence of ed7!aiting is that $icti's can fall pre6 to torture= ED or EHD+ Although ed7!aiting does not necessaril6 end in these hu'an rights $iolations= 'an6 cases of EHD and ED in$ol$e ed7!aiting+ &oncerted actions against critical indi$iduals and groups are co''onl6 0ustified -6 la-elling the' as co''unist terrorists or su-$ersi$es+ *t therefore usuall6 acco'panies the i'punit6 of the perpetrators+

*he State o+ ,ception and -.a /ano Dura0

One 'a6 as/ ho. ed7!aiting can -e 0ustified in a li-eral de'ocratic s6ste'+ The is as si'ple as the Buestion1 *t en0o6s support and acceptance .ithin societ6+ The state of exception is a pro$ision .here-6 the state K in ti'es identified as Lcrisis 'o'entsI that threaten the $er6 continuit6 of the state itself K is e'po.ered to act outside the constraints of la.= per'itting the state to adopt extre'e 'easures ?including $iolence against its o.n citi>ens@ in its o.n defense ?5oldstein 3))"@+ 4ence= state $iolence against internal ene'ies not onl6 -eco'es a possi-le option= -ut a necessar6 'eans to guarantee and safeguard the stateCs sur$i$al+ *t is the stateCs right to respond to the internal e'ergence of extraordinar6 situations and crises+ Aurther'ore= the -elief that rights 'a6 ha$e to -e sacrificed for securit6 and that ci$il and hu'an rights cannot -e respected in the context of Ie'ergenc6C ?5oldstein 3))"1 54@ en0o6s .ide support a'ong 'e'-ers of societ6= .ho percei$e insecurit6 as a 'a0or internal threat+ Aor this reason= state actors -elonging to the executi$e en0o6 a great scope of 'easures to react to an e'ergenc6 and to safeguard national securit6+ This pheno'enon is called la 'ano dura ?i-id+1 5%@+ <hen people feel the a-sence of a relia-le authorit6= operating according to the rule of la.= to .hich 8the69 can turn to report cri'es= resol$e conflicts= or see/ redress of grie$ances ?i-id+1 5"@= it is this per$asi$e sense of insecurit6 ?i-id+@ that explains .h6 the6 5

ad$ocate an extension of discretionar6 po.ers for police personnel to control cri'e and other securit6 threats ?i-id+1 5(@+ Thus= the state deepl6 indoctrinates a state of fear in the societ6= -e it the fear of co''unis' or of radical *sla'ist funda'entalis'+ This threat to national securit6 or rather to the existence of the state= regardless .hether it is real or partl6 constructed -6 official go$ern'ental discourse= 'o$es the people to call for la 'ano dura and legiti'ises the confine'ent of ci$il li-erties and hu'an rights in order to guarantee the further existence of the state during a state of national e'ergenc6+ The creation of such an at'osphere of insecurit6 is a necessar6 pre7condition to -e a-le to i'ple'ent a legal fra'e.or/ esta-lishing a state of exception+

.egal 1spects
The #hilippine &ongress has passed se$eral -ills that constitute legal instru'ents to facilitate the practice of ed7!aiting+ The 4u'an Securit6 Act of 3))" ?4SA@2 is the 'ost co'prehensi$e la. in response to international terroris' in the #hilippines+ *t gi$es a legal definition of terroris' and defines its constituti$e ele'ents of cri'e= penalising the'= and pro$ides for 'easures to pre$ent acts of terroris'+ These 'easures include the sur$eillance of suspects and the interception and recording of their co''unications= the of organisations dee'ed terrorist -6 declaration of a egional Trial &ourt= the detention of suspects .ithout 0udicial .arrant of arrest and ?disregarding@ the rights of the detained= tra$el restrictions and house arrest for terror suspects on -ail= and the exa'ination of -an/ deposits= accounts and records as .ell as the sei>ure and seBuestration thereof+ <ith regard to the pro-le' of ed7!aiting in the #olitical $ilification i'pacts on t.o #hilippines= the 4SA has -een criticised in se$eral different for's on t.o different respects= especiall6 for -eing i'precise= illegal= $icti's+ One $icti' is the person= ineffecti$e and 'ostl6 incoherent and disorganised+ organi>ation= co''unit6 -eing $ilified !ecause of is i'precise definition of terroris'= the .hich suffers $arious for's of la. 'a6 -e null and $oid for $agueness a inti'idation= slander= pre0udice= legal doctrine in past decisions of the Supre'e exclusion fro' hu'an rights &ourt of the #hilippines ?!aldera'a 3))"73))%1 (4 protection+ The other $icti' is the and (6@+ &oncerning the illegalit6 of the 4SA= in entire ci$ilian populace .hose social practice the suspicion of -eing a 'e'-er of the consciousness is -eing conditioned to &o''unist #art6 of the #hilippines ?&##@ is accept sets of $alues and 'eanings sufficient to -eco'e a terror suspect and to -e held that are contrar6 to long esta-lished under sur$eillance ?i-id+ (5@+ Thus= political -elie$es hu'an rights la.s and international and not acts are facilitated to -eco'e punisha-le hu'anitarian la.s+ under the 4SA+ The essential -asic right of pri$ac6 in co''unications is .ithheld fro' persons under hoda Dalang= Dinteg o-ser$ation -6 state authorities ?i-id+ 2" and Dio/no 3))"a@+ Adding insult to in0ur6= the la. $iolates due process of citi>ens under sur$eillance= since the6 do not ha$e an6 legal re'ed6 against their o-ser$ation -6 state authorities as arranged -6 the la. ?i-id+@+ Terror suspects can -e placed under .arrantless arrest for three da6s .ithout pro-a-le cause to -e deter'ined -6 a 0udge ?!aldera'a 3))"73))%1 3%73G@+ Moreo$er= the la. authorises the extension of 6

.arrantless detention of terror suspects -e6ond the regular three da6s to an indefinite a'ount of ti'e .ithout trial ?i-id+1 3%73GM Dio/no 3))"aM #ereire 3))"1 2@+ Therefore= the 4SA $iolates -asic principles of the rule of la.= such as the principle of eBual protection under the la. and the right to fair trial+ Fnder the 4SA terror suspects on -ail .ho are placed under house arrest suffer harsh conditions+ Suspects are not allo.ed to co''unicate= to follo. the 'edia= to -e $isited -6 close relati$es and friends or to -e hold in group detention ?!aldera'a 3))"73))%1 2GM Dio/no 3))"a@+ Solitar6 confine'ent is prohi-ited in the #hilippines -6 Art+ *** Sec+ (3 ?3@ &onstitution of the #hilippines+ *n su''ar6= the legal fra'e.or/ esta-lished under the Arro6o ad'inistration facilitates the legal i'ple'entation of a state of exception= .hich in turn contri-utes to the de$elop'ent of a state of fear a'ong the population+ *t ena-les state authorities under the protection of the la. to pursue citi>ens .ho adhere to co''unis' as terrorists and ene'ies of the state+ Although 'e'-ership of the &## is legal in the #hilippines= the a-o$e7'entioned la.s pro$ide a -asis for the political prosecution of co''unists+

*he /odus "perandi o+ Red Baiting

ed7!aiting in practice 'a6 -egin .ith relati$el6 har'less 'easures1 A $icti' 'a6 start recei$ing threatening text 'essages on his or her cell phone= e7'ail account or -6 'ail ?Dio/no 3))"-@+ An unidentifia-le 'otor-i/e dri$er passes -6 the house of the $icti' at the sa'e da6 and ti'e e$er6 .ee/ or e$en e$er6 da6+ Jicti's are recognisa-l6 /ept under sur$eillance at ho'e and at It is clear that Red-Baiting, as their .or/place= either through technological 'eans li/e practiced by the military here in .iretapping of the phone lines= or -6 police infor'ants= the Philippines, f rms an integral .ho per'anentl6 tail after the $icti's ?i-id+@+ During part f its c !nter ins!rgency perati ns"# pu-lic e$ents on the !aranga6 le$el4 the 'ilitar6 infor's citi>ens a-out potential threats of terroris' and $ retta %nn P" R sales, threats to the existence of the state= e'anating fro' &hairpers n, & mmissi n particular !aranga6 residents= .ho are portra6ed as n '!man Rights co''unists+ *n the presentation the Ene'6 presented -6 the ar'ed forces= the na'es of .anted terrorists and leftist acti$ists suspected of terroris'= are announced pu-licl6 ?i-id+@+ Aurther= leaflets .ith si'ilar contents are distri-uted in !aranga6s ?i-id+@+ The na'es of those citi>ens considered as ene'ies of the state also appear on internal 'ilitar6 -lac/lists called Militar6 Order of !attle ?F, 3))%1 G7()@+ !lac/listed $icti's are denied due process against the 'ilitar6+ There is no opportunit6 for the' to ta/e their na'es off the lists= since these are /ept top secret in order to protect the existence of the state+ The .orst conseBuence of ed7 !aiting is that $icti's can fall pre6 to enforced disappearance or extra0udicial /illing+ *n case of enforced disappearances= $icti's are dragged into cars -6 unrecognisa-le perpetrators+ So'eti'es $icti's reappear or escape 6ears later after ha$ing -een held in capti$it6= tortured or used as unpaid .or/force= .hich is a t6pe of 'odern sla$er6 ?A'nest6 *nternational 3)((@+ 4o.e$er= in 'ost cases $icti's of enforced disappearances ne$er return+ *n the #hilippines extra0udicial /illings are t6picall6 executed -6 tea's riding 'otor-i/es= .earing ci$ilian clothing and -onnets as a disguise ?Dio/no 3))"-@+ <hile one person dri$es the 'otor-i/e= the other 7

pulls a firear' and shoots the $icti'+ The /illings are executed .ith such a high degree of professionalis' and precision that it does not see' to -e far7fetched to suspect people .ith professional training+ T6picall6= in each extra0udicial /illing incident onl6 fe. shots are -eing fired= /illing the $icti' i''ediatel6+ *n the #hilippines onl6 personnel of the 'ilitar6 and the police are professionall6 trained in the use of firear's+ Although suspects of enforced disappearances and extra0udicial /illings are rarel6 arrested= there is a'ple e$idence that point to the in$ol$e'ent of state officials .ho gi$e the orders for such acts to others .ho co''it the cri'es+ There are $irtuall6 no cases of enforced disappearances and extra0udicial /illings /no.n in .hich suspects .ere legall6 persecuted to the extent of -eing con$icted for the cri'es co''itted+ Lac/ of thorough police in$estigations and i'punit6 of perpetrators are t6pical characteristics of ed7!aiting in the #hilippines+

Regional Perspectives
*n August 3)(3 *#O, conducted a regional ed7!aiting <or/shop together .ith the Alternate Aoru' for esearch in Mindanao ?AA *M@ in Da$ao &it6+ The .or/shop .as designed to gather $ie.s and reco''endations fro' $arious ci$il societ6 groups .ho are directl6 affected -6 red7 -aiting= and the Ar'ed Aorces of the #hilippines ?AA#@+ The ai' of the acti$it6 .as to share perspecti$es= to find co''on grounds and to .or/ out practical steps to tac/le the issue+ The issues and concerns .ere raised -6 the 4u'an ights Defenders during the .or/shop+ Aurther'ore the participants ca'e up .ith se$eral steps to tac/le the issue on the local and regional le$el and approached the Ar'ed Aorces of the #hilippines .ith their results+

!ssues and Concerns

oot causes of conflict are usuall6 due to political and struggle a'ong co''unit6 leaders and eldersM hence= co''unit6 'e'-ers are dragged into the issue= thus in$ol$ing the' in the process and tagging al'ost all of the' as red supporters .ithout -ases+ Militar6 ca'e in the picture and responded to local conflicts -ased on infor'ation recei$ed fro' infor'ers ?'ostl6 co''unit6 'e'-ers .ith political agenda@+ ,5Os ha$e also experienced red tagging as the6 do co''unit6 .or/ since the co''unit6 'e'-ers:-eneficiaries are also percei$ed as leftist or red supporters+ Due to lac/ of proper coordination= info

1ctions to be ta%en
&onduct proper:for'al dialogue .ith concerned groups to clarif6 and resol$e issues ?e+g+= Ti'ua6 to conduct dialogue a'ong tri-al 'e'-ers@+ Tri-al groups to -e full6 a.are and to assert their rights= and ensure the6 ha$e docu'ents to support their clai's on tri-al rights+ &o''unit6 leaders to explore the possi-ilit6 to conduct dialogue .ith the 'ilitar6 at the higher le$el including politicians ?i+e+= Local 5o$ern'ent Fnits ?L5Fs@@ regarding the status of e$ents:happenings in their co''unit6+ Do proper coordination as SO# ?li/e courtes6 calls@ and conduct info disse'ination: orientation a-out ,5O .or/ especiall6 for 'ilitar6 groups operating in the concerned

!ssues and Concerns

disse'ination and their tendenc6 not to deter'ine and ac/no.ledge first the root causes of conflict= the 'ilitar6 tend not to listen= -ut stic/ to .hat the6 -elie$ed -ased on initial infor'ation feed to the' -6 their infor'ersM hence= 'ilitar6 has the tendenc6 to stereot6pe and create their o.n profiles a-out the co''unit6 'e'-ers and ,5Os+ ed tagging is not solel6 instigated -6 state actors -ut also -6 in$estors Kli/e those into logging and 'ining -usinesses K to ensure securit6 of their -usinesses+

1ctions to be ta%en
areas= ensuring that the concerned parties ha$e full understanding a-out their .or/+ Lo--6 and encourage -usiness co'panies to /no. and learn a-out their -eneficiaries and the practices in the area ?i+e+= cultural practices and sensiti$ities= as .ell as political d6na'icsM perhaps intensif6 their co''unit6 profiling and organi>ing acti$ities 7 securing not onl6 -usiness licenses -ut also social licenses@+ *t is a dile''a for ,5Os .hether to coordinate .ith 'ilitar6 or .ith the red groups as the6 'a6 -e also tagged as supporters of either part6+ 4ence= ,5Os 'a6 follo. protocol ?i+e+= coordinate first .ith politicians and 'ilitar6 at the top le$elM and secure or -ring appropriate docu'ents especiall6 during field .or/ to ensure securit6 of the organi>ation and the staff@+ *nfor' top le$el 'ilitar6 a-out the econo'ic acti$ities of so'e 'ilitar6 personnel ?supporting their personal agenda and pri$ate in$est'ents@ .ho use their o.n clout to secure their -usinesses+ Existing co''unit6 pro-le's do not necessaril6 need 'ilitar6 solution -ut ci$il responsi-ilities of the local officials+ See/ L5FCs response to get their responses on local conflict as the L5F has the pri'ar6 'andate to /no. and find solution to the conflict+

Effects1 &ontinued fear felt -6 $icti's and co''unit6 'e'-ers The feeling of insecurit6 especiall6 in the presence of 'ilitar6 Long7ter' e'otional torture #erpetuation of conflict : conflict re'ains unresol$ed

Conclusion and Countermeasures

The social pheno'enon of ed7!aiting in the #hilippines has -een descri-ed fro' theoretical= social= political and legal perspecti$es pro$iding insight into its functional logic deter'ined -6 the interconnectedness and interaction of these different fields+ *n light of the terrorist attac/s of G:(( and the glo-al .ar on terroris'= a state of exception .as esta-lished under the Arro6o ad'inistration= the FS in fighting *sla'ist funda'entalist and all other /inds of terroris'+ The #hilippine go$ern'ent and the 'edia portra6ed terroris' .ithin the #hilippines as a threat to the existence of the state itself= esta-lishing a state of fear in the societ6+ Out of fear for their li$es= large parts of the ci$ilian population de'anded stronger and 'ore effecti$e anti7terroris' 'easures fro' the go$ern'ent+ *n disregard of se$eral -asic ci$il rights and freedo's= the go$ern'ent adopted a legal fra'e.or/= including 'ost pro'inentl6 the 4SA to i'ple'ent rigorous anti7terroris' and securit6 'easures+ 4ence= the esta-lish'ent of the state of fear and the state of exception are reciprocal and 'utuall6 reinforcing processes -6 societal and state actors .hich are steered -6 the go$ern'ent+ There-6= it created a $ast arra6 of legal 'easures to intensif6 its control o$er the entire population= especiall6 targeting the so7 called ene'ies of the state ?Eui'po 3))G1 (5@+ <ith a legalised state of exception and large parts of the population terrified= supporting a strong go$ern'ent= la 'ano dura could ha$e its uni'peded .a6 against those citi>ens K 'a6 the6 -e portra6ed as co''unists= *sla'ic funda'entalists or an6 other /ind of radical -elie$ers K considered as potentiall6 har'ful to the go$erning ad'inistration+ *n this context= ed7!aiting is a strateg6 -6 state authorities to classif6 political acti$ists and ci$il societ6 organisations as co''unist .hile esta-lishing a state of exception= legiti'ising it .ith a legal fra'e.or/= and conducting co$ert operations ranging fro' si'ple harass'ent to enforced disappearances and extra0udicial /illings of acti$ists+ Although there has -een so'e i'pro$e'ent= the legal instru'ents do not suffice to pre$ent incidents of ed7!aiting= as there are still ne. cases -rought to the pu-lic and the root causes are not tac/led+ *n order to deal .ith the *tCs not si'pl6 red taggingM the i'portant aspect issue of ed7!aiting= the of it is it $iolates the freedo' of expression= right #hilippine state is reBuired to ta/e to peaceful asse'-l6 and right to self pre$entati$e 'easures to enforce police deter'ination a'ong others+ Such $iolation of in$estigation and legal prosecution to these rights gi$es an i'pression that to resist or end i'punit6 and to co'pensate the to dissent against t6rann6= fight for genuine $icti's and their fa'ilies for the refor' and to cla'or for 0ustice are .rong= da'ages the6 incurred through ed7 !aiting+ As for the pre$ention of ed7 !e$erl6 Longid= Datri-u #art67list !aiting= an o$erarching societal discourse a-out the issue should -e encouraged to raise a.areness a-out the issue a'ong citi>ens as .ell as a'ong state authorities+ Especiall6 state e'plo6ees of the executi$e -ranch li/e the police and 'ilitar6 officers should -e confronted .ith the topic= -e 'ade a.are of it and learn .a6s of peacefull6 and la.full6 addressing it+ A positi$e hu'an rights education for soldiers and police officers as protectors of the -asic rights of the citi>ens could contri-ute to this o-0ecti$e+ &oncerning the prosecution of people suspected of ha$ing co''itted ed7!aiting= the go$ern'ent needs not onl6 to enhance the -udget and forensic technolog6 of in$estigators= -ut fore'ost needs to intensif6 its political .ill to prosecute suspects+ Thus the go$ern'ent .ill need the uni'paired *+

cooperation of the 'ilitar6 and the police to access and trace old e$idence and case file 'aterials+ Also= an effort should -e 'ade to co'pensate the $icti's of ed7!aiting and their close relati$es financiall6 for the ph6sical and ps6chological da'ages that .ere inflicted upon the' -6 state authorities+ Therefore= all rele$ant state institutions in$ol$ed= na'el6 the &o''ission on 4u'an ights= the Depart'ent of Hustice= the Depart'ent of *nterior and Local 5o$ern'ent= the Depart'ent of ,ational Defense= the #hilippine ,ational #olice and the Ar'ed Aorces of the #hilippines should cooperate in and de$elop a concerted polic6 to achie$e these goals+

A'nest6 *nternational ?3)((@1 End enforced disappearances= torture and political /illings in the #hilippines K Ae-ruar6 (3+ http1::a'nest6+org ?last $ie.ed 2 ,o$e'-er 3)((@+ !aldera'a= 5il-erth D+ ?3))"73))%@1 DNnoue'ent of the 4u'an Securit6 Act1 Tre'ors in the Tur-ulent Od6sse6 of &i$il Li-erties K *n1 FST La. e$ie.= Jol+ 53= pp+ (743+ Dio/no= Hose Manuel ?3))"a@1 AAEs on the 4u'an Securit6 Act K Hul6 (5+ http1::opinion+inBuirer+net ?last $ie.ed (5 Ma6 3)((@+ Dio/no= Maria Socorro ?3))"-@1 Extra0udicial= Su''ar6 or Ar-itrar6 Executions in the #hilippines= 3))(73))6 K *n1 Aocus= Hune 3))"= Jol+ 4%+ Arancia= Luis 4+ ?3))2@1 Mean.hile= in ManilaO1 !ushCs <ar 4as *nternationali>ed *nternal &onflicts on the Archipelago K *n1 The ,ation= 3" Octo-er= pp+ 3(736+ Arancia= Luis 4+ ?3))"@1 The #hilippines K *n1 The ,ation= 2( Dece'-er= pp+ 3(733+ 5lass'an= Hi' ?3))5@1 The <ar On Terroris' &o'es to Southeast Asia K *n1 Hournal of &onte'porar6 Asia= Jol+ 25= ,o+ (= pp+ 273%+ 5oldstein= Daniel M+ ?3))"@1 4u'an ights As &ulprit= 4u'an ights as Jicti'1 ights and Securit6 in the State of Exception K *n1 Mar/ 5oodale and Sall6 Engle Merr6 ?ed+@1 The #ractice of 4u'an ights1 Trac/ing La. !et.een the 5lo-al and the Local= &a'-ridge= &a'-ridge Fni$ersit6 #ress= pp+ 4G7""+ L6e.= !rent 4+ ?3)()@1 An Exa'ination of the #hilippinesC Anti7Terror La. K Sua$iter in Modo= Aortiter in e K *n1 #acific i' La. P #olic6 Hournal= Jol+ (G= ,o+ (= pp+ (%"73(6+ #ereire= Denneth ?3))"@1 Anal6sis and re$ie. of the #hilippine 4u'an Securit6 Act 3))"+ http1::p$tr+org:pdf:Legisalti$eQ3) esponse:re$ised#hilippinesQ3)&TQ3) LA<3))"ne.i+pdf ?last $ie.ed (5 Ma6 3)((@+ #hilippine 4u'an ights *nfor'ation &enter ?#hil ights@ ?3))6@1 The Anti7Terroris' Act in the #hilippines1 A 4u'an ights &ritiBue K Eue>on &it6+ Eui'po= ,athan 5il-ert ?3))G@1 The #hilippines1 #redator6 egi'e= Authoritarian Aeatures K *n1 The #acific e$ie.= Jol+ 33= ,o+ 2= pp+ 2257252+