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Information technology

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Jump to: navigation, search Information technology (IT) is concerned with technology to treat information. The ac uisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, te!tual and numerical information "y a microelectronics#"ased com"ination of computing and telecommunications are its main fields.$%& The term in its modern sense first appeared in a %'() article pu"lished in the Harvard Business Review, in which authors *eavitt and Whisler commented that +the new technology does not yet have a single esta"lished name. We shall call it information technology (,T).+. $-& .ome of the modern and emerging fields of ,nformation technology are ne!t generation we" technologies, "ioinformatics, cloud computing, glo"al information systems, large scale knowledge"ases, etc. /dvancements are mainly driven in the field ofcomputer science.

Contents

% ,nformation - Technology 0 Technological capacity and growth 1 .ee also ( 2eferences 3 Further reading 4 5!ternal links

[edit] Information
Main article: Information The 5nglish word was apparently derived from the *atin stem (information-) of the nominative (informatio): this noun is in its turn derived from the ver" +informare+ (to inform) in the sense of +to give form to the mind+, +to discipline+, +instruct+, +teach+. 2aw data is given structure and then is called information. 6nderstanding this information is then called knowledge, which leads to an information ladder.

[edit] Technology
Main article: Technology

,nformation and communication technology spending in -77( ,T is the area of managing technology and spans wide variety of areas that include computer software, information systems, computer hardware, programming languages "ut are not limited to things such as processes, and data constructs. ,n short, anything that renders data, information or perceived knowledge in any visual format whatsoever, via any multimedia distri"ution mechanism, is considered part of the ,T domain. ,T provides "usinesses with four sets of core services to help e!ecute the "usiness strategy: "usiness process automation, providing information, connecting with customers, and productivity tools. ,T professionals perform a variety of functions (,T 8isciplines9:ompetencies) that ranges from installing applications to designing comple! computer networks and information data"ases. / few of the duties that ,T professionals perform may include data management, networking, engineering computer hardware, data"ase and software design, as well as management and administration of entire systems. ,nformation technology is starting to spread further than the conventional personal computer and network technologies, and more into integrations of other technologies such as the use of cell phones, televisions, automo"iles, and more, which is increasing the demand for such ;o"s. ,n the recent past, the /ccreditation <oard for 5ngineering and Technology and the /ssociation for :omputing =achinery have colla"orated to form accreditation and curriculum standards $0& for degrees in ,nformation Technology as a distinct field of study as compared $1& to :omputer .cience and ,nformation .ystems today. .,>,T5 (.pecial ,nterest >roup for ,T 5ducation) $(& is the /:=

working group for defining these standards. The Worldwide ,T services revenue totaled ?430 "illion in -77'.$3&

[edit] Technological capacity and growth


@il"ert and *opeA$4& identify the e!ponential pace of technological change (a kind of =ooreBs law): machinesC application#specific capacity to compute information per capita has roughly dou"led every %1 months "etween %')3# -774D the per capita capacity of the worldCs general#purpose computers has dou"led every %) months during the same two decadesD the glo"al telecommunication capacity per capita dou"led every 01 monthsD the worldCs storage capacity per capita re uired roughly 17 months to dou"le (every 0 years)D and per capita "roadcast information has dou"led roughly every %-.0 years.$4&

[edit] See also


,nformation and communications technology (,:T) ,nformation history :omputer science

[edit] References
%. -. 0. 1. ^ *ongley, 8ennisD .hain, =ichael (%')(), Dictionary of Information Technology (ed.), =acmillan Eress, p. %31, ,.<F 7#000#04-37#0 ^ =anagement in the %')7Cs, @arold J. *eavitt and Thomas *. Whisler, @arvard <usiness 2eview, %'()#%%. ^ /<5T ^ ,s"ell, :harlesD ,mpagliaAAo, JohnD .tein, *ynnD Eroul!, GieraD 2uss, .teveD For"es, JeffreyD Thomas, 2ichardD Fraser, *inda et al. (8ecem"er -77'),(Re)Defining om!uting urricula "y (Re)Defining om!uting, /ssociation for :omputing =achinery, /:=, ,.<F '4)#%#37(()#))3#( ^ /:=#.,>,T5 ^ +>artner .ays Worldwide ,T .ervices 2evenue 8eclined (.0 Eercent in -77'+, >artner, retrieved -7 Fovem"er -7%7 H a b +The WorldCs Technological :apacity to .tore, :ommunicate, and :ompute ,nformation+, =artin @il"ert and Eriscila *IpeA (-7%%), .cience (;ournal), 00-(37-(), 37#3(D free access to the article through here: martinhil"ert.net9World,nfo:apacity.html

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3.
4.

[edit] Further reading


/delman, :. (-777). # $arallel $ost-secondary %niverse: The ertification &ystem in Information Technology. Washington, 8.:.: 6... 8epartment of 5ducation. /llen, T., and =... =orton, eds. %''1. Information Technology and the or!oration of the '(()s. Few Jork: K!ford 6niversity Eress.

.helly, >ary, :ashman, Thomas, Germaat, =isty, and Walker, Tim. (%'''). Discovering om!uters *))): once!ts for a onnected +orld. :am"ridge, =assachusetts: :ourse Technology. We"ster, Frank, and 2o"ins, Levin. (%')3). Information Technology,# -uddite #nalysis. Forwood, FJ: /"le!. The .lo"al Information Technology Re!ort *))/0*))(, World 5conomic Forum and ,F.5/8, -77', ,.<F '4)#'-#'(711#%'#4

<lais, .teven (8ecem"er -7%%). Business #nalysis: Best $ractices for &uccess. John Wiley M .ons. ,.<F %%%)74377%.

[edit] External lin s


Wikiversity has learning materials a"outInformation technology

The ,nformation Technology ,nfrastructure *i"rary (,T,*)


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!a"or information technology companies


*ist of the largest technology companies *ist of the largest software companies .emiconductor sales leaders "y year

/ccenture /tos <ooA /llen @amilton Consulting and outsourcing <T >lo"al .ervices :apgemini :>, >roup :ogniAant

:.: 8eloitte 8ell .ervices Fu;itsu >etronics @:* Technologies @itachi @E 5nterprise .ervices ,<= >lo"al .ervices ,ndra ,nfosys *ogica F5: Forthrop >rumman FTT 8ata Krange <usiness .ervices ./,: T:. T#.ystems 6nisys Wipro :anon Imaging @E Lodak

Lyocera *e!mark 2icoh .eiko 5pson .harp :orporation Toshi"a Nero! 8ell 5=: Fu;itsu @itachi @E Information storage ,<= Fet/pp Kracle .amsung .eagate Western 8igital !ainframes ,<= /pple !o#ile de$ices /.6. @T:

@uawei *> =otorola =o"ility F5: :asio Fokia 2,= .amsung .ony 5ricsson OT5 /lcatel#*ucent /vaya :isco 5ricsson Fu;itsu @E %etwor ing e&uipment @uawei Juniper =itsu"ishi 5lectric =otorola .olutions F5: Fokia .iemens OT5 'E!s :elestica

Fle!tronics Fo!conn Ja"il Puanta .anmina#.:, /cer (>ateway) /pple /.6. 8ell Fu;itsu (ersonal computers and ser$ers @E *enovo F5: Toshi"a ,<= Ser$ers only Kracle 6nisys /dvanced =icro 8evices <roadcom 5lpida =emory Semiconductors Freescale .emiconductor @yni! ,nfineon Technologies

,ntel =arvell Technology >roup =ediaTek =icron Technology Fvidia FNE Eanasonic Pualcomm 2enesas 5lectronics .amsung .ony .T=icroelectronics Te!as ,nstruments Toshi"a G,/ Technologies >lo"alFoundries Foundries T.=: 6nited =icroelectronics :orporation /do"e /pple :/ Software >oogle @E .oftware ,<=

,ntuit =c/fee =icrosoft Kracle ./E .ymantec /mQrica =Ivil /TMT <ell :anada <T <harti /irtel :entury*ink :hina =o"ile :hina Telecom Telecommunications ser$ices :hina 6nicom :omcast 8eutsche Telekom France TQlQcom @utchison L88, LEF LT =T.

FTT FTT 8o:o=o 2eliance :ommunications 2ogers .L Telecom .print Fe!tel .wisscom Telenor Telecom ,talia TelefInica Telia.onera GeriAon Givendi Godafone /maAon.com <aidu e<ay )e#sites Face"ook >oogle JahooR

Methodology: 12*)')3'' a!!lica"le revenues of over: grou! '-') and '* - %&45 "illion6 grou

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Technology

Kutline of technology .cience

Fields

<ioinformatics <iological engineering <iomechatronics <iomedical engineering <iotechnology *iomedical :heminformatics >enetic engineering @ealthcare science =edical research =edical technology Fanomedicine Eharmacology Tissue engineering /coustical engineering /rchitectural engineering <uilding services engineering *uildings and construction :ivil engineering :onstruction engineering :onstruction management Facade engineering Fire protection engineering

Kffshore construction .afety engineering .anitary engineering .tructural engineering /gricultural engineering / uaculture 8omestic appliances Fisheries science +omestic and food Food chemistry Food engineering Food micro"iology ,:T in agriculture Futrition 5ducational software 8igital technologies in education ,:T in education Educational ,mpact =ultimedia learning Girtual campus Girtual education 5nergy storage Fuclear engineering Energy Fuclear technology Eetroleum engineering

:lean technology 5cological design 5cological engineering 5cotechnology En$ironmental 5nvironmental engineering 5nvironmental engineering science >reen "uilding >reen nanotechnology 2enewa"le energy .ustaina"le design .ustaina"le engineering /utomation <usiness informatics 5ngineering management 5nterprise engineering Financial engineering ,ndustrial "iotechnology Industrial ,ndustrial engineering =etallurgy =ining engineering Eroductivity improving technologies Ero;ect management 2esearch and development IT and communications /rtificial intelligence <roadcast engineering

:omputer engineering :omputer science Information technology =usic technology Kntology engineering 2F engineering .oftware engineering .peech recognition Telecommunications engineering Gisual technology /rmy engineering maintenance 5lectronic warfare !ilitary =ilitary communications =ilitary engineering .tealth technology /erospace engineering /utomotive engineering Transport Faval architecture .pace technology Traffic engineering Transport engineering /rchaeology 'ther applied sciences :ryogenics 5lectronics

5ngineering geology 5ngineering physics @ydraulics =aterials science =icrotechnology Fanotechnology Earticle physics Ooography /udio <iochemical :eramic :hemical :ontrol 5lectrical 5lectronic 'ther engineering fields 5ntertainment >eotechnical @ydraulic =echanical =echatronics Kptical Erotein .ystems

/ppropriate technology :riti ue of technology 8iffusion of innovations @igh tech Earadigm Ehilosophy of technology Eosthumanism Erecautionary principle Eroactionary principle .trategy of Technology Techno#progressivism Theories and concepts Technocentrism Technocracy Technocriticism Technological determinism Technological evolution Technological innovation system Technological nationalism Technological revival Technological singularity Technology management Technology readiness level Technorealism Transhumanism

5merging technologies (*ist) Fictional technology @igh#technology "usiness districts @istory of technology (/ncient technology
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,nventions (Timeline) *ist of technologies .cience and technology "y country Technical universities and colleges Technological change Technology companies Technology and society *oo , Category , Commons , (ortal ,

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