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ME 308 Machine Design II
ME 308 Machine Design II

Rolling Contact Bearings

(Chapter 11)

Dr Samir Mekid

Mechanical Engineering Department KFUPM

Rolling Contact Bearings

Rolling Contact Bearings 1. Introduction 2. Bearing Types 3. Ball Bearing Nomenclature 4. Bearing
Rolling Contact Bearings 1. Introduction 2. Bearing Types 3. Ball Bearing Nomenclature 4. Bearing

1.

Introduction

2.

Bearing Types

3.

Ball Bearing Nomenclature

4.

Bearing Life

5.

Bearing Loads

6.

Load-Life trade-off

7.

Bearing Survival, Reliability and Goal

8.

Equivalent Load

9.

Ball and Roller Bearing Selection

10.

Selection of Tapered Roller Bearings

11.

Lubrication Mounting and Enclosure

Various types

Various types S.Mekid 3
Objectives 1- Types of rolling bearings 2- How to choose them? (No design of RCB!)
Objectives 1- Types of rolling bearings 2- How to choose them? (No design of RCB!)

Objectives

1- Types of rolling bearings

2- How to choose them? (No design of RCB!)

We will learn the following: 1. Types of bearings 2. How do we select them
We will learn the following: 1. Types of bearings 2. How do we select them

We will learn the following:

1.

Types of bearings

2.

How do we select them depending on application

3.

Calculate forces applied to bearings in all directions

4.

Estimate life time of bearings

5.

Understand failure mechanisms in bearings

Rolling Bearings

Rolling Bearings  History: 1 . As far back as 1100 BC the Assyrians and Babylonians
Rolling Bearings  History: 1 . As far back as 1100 BC the Assyrians and Babylonians

History:

Rolling Bearings  History: 1 . As far back as 1100 BC the Assyrians and Babylonians
Rolling Bearings  History: 1 . As far back as 1100 BC the Assyrians and Babylonians
Rolling Bearings  History: 1 . As far back as 1100 BC the Assyrians and Babylonians

1. As far back as 1100 BC the Assyrians and Babylonians used rollers inserted between

enormous stones and ground to reduce

friction. The wheel based on sliding later.

motion came

2.

3. The bicycle introduced the need for rolling

elements.

The wheel based on sliding later. motion came 2. 3. The bicycle introduced the need for
The wheel based on sliding later. motion came 2. 3. The bicycle introduced the need for
The wheel based on sliding later. motion came 2. 3. The bicycle introduced the need for
S.Mekid 7
S.Mekid 7
S.Mekid 7

Bearings

Bearings Journal (Sleeve) Bearings Load is transferred through a lubricant in sliding contact S.Mekid 8
Bearings Journal (Sleeve) Bearings Load is transferred through a lubricant in sliding contact S.Mekid 8

Journal (Sleeve) Bearings

Load is transferred through a lubricant in sliding contact

Bearings Journal (Sleeve) Bearings Load is transferred through a lubricant in sliding contact S.Mekid 8
Bearings Journal (Sleeve) Bearings Load is transferred through a lubricant in sliding contact S.Mekid 8
Bearings Journal (Sleeve) Bearings Load is transferred through a lubricant in sliding contact S.Mekid 8

Bearing Types

Bearing Types In general  Sliding (Journal) Bearings Pure radial Pure Thrust Combination  Rolling Element
Bearing Types In general  Sliding (Journal) Bearings Pure radial Pure Thrust Combination  Rolling Element

In general

Sliding (Journal)

Bearings

Pure radial

Pure Thrust Combination

(Journal) Bearings Pure radial Pure Thrust Combination  Rolling Element Pure radial load (Cylindrical roller

Rolling

Element

Pure radial load

(Cylindrical roller bearings)

Pure Thrust load

(Cylindrical and Ball)

Combination load

(Deep groove ball, Tapered roller, Angular contact

bearings)

Bearings

Bearings RCB SCB S.Mekid 10
Bearings RCB SCB S.Mekid 10

RCB

Bearings RCB SCB S.Mekid 10

SCB

Bearings RCB SCB S.Mekid 10
Bearings RCB SCB S.Mekid 10
Bearings RCB SCB S.Mekid 10
Bearings RCB SCB S.Mekid 10

Journal Bearings

Journal Bearings (Plain Bearings, sleeves) Radial S.Mekid 11
Journal Bearings (Plain Bearings, sleeves) Radial S.Mekid 11

(Plain Bearings, sleeves)

Journal Bearings (Plain Bearings, sleeves) Radial S.Mekid 11

Radial

Thrust Journal Bearing

Thrust Journal Bearing Thrust S.Mekid Ch 11. Notes 12
Thrust Journal Bearing Thrust S.Mekid Ch 11. Notes 12
Thrust Journal Bearing Thrust S.Mekid Ch 11. Notes 12

Thrust

Other Types

Other Types  Magnetic bearings  Air bearings Flat Pad air bearings  Micro/Nano bearings S.Mekid
Other Types  Magnetic bearings  Air bearings Flat Pad air bearings  Micro/Nano bearings S.Mekid

Magnetic

bearings

Other Types  Magnetic bearings  Air bearings Flat Pad air bearings  Micro/Nano bearings S.Mekid
Other Types  Magnetic bearings  Air bearings Flat Pad air bearings  Micro/Nano bearings S.Mekid

Air bearings

Flat Pad air bearings
Flat Pad air bearings

Micro/Nano

bearings

Other Types  Magnetic bearings  Air bearings Flat Pad air bearings  Micro/Nano bearings S.Mekid

Why Rolling-Contact Bearings?

Why Rolling-Contact Bearings? RCB are used to describe bearings in which the main load is transferred
Why Rolling-Contact Bearings? RCB are used to describe bearings in which the main load is transferred

RCB are used to describe bearings in which the main load is transferred through rolling elements.

RCB are used to minimize the friction resulting from relative motion performed under load.

Typical applications include supporting shafts

resulting from relative motion performed under load. Typical applications include supporting shafts S.Mekid 14
resulting from relative motion performed under load. Typical applications include supporting shafts S.Mekid 14

Design Considerations

Design Considerations Bearings are selected from catalogs, before referring to catalogs you should know the followings:
Design Considerations Bearings are selected from catalogs, before referring to catalogs you should know the followings:

Bearings are selected from catalogs, before referring to catalogs

you should know the followings:

Bearing load radial, thrust (axial) or both

Thrust load Radial load Radial load
Thrust load
Radial load
Radial load

Bearing life and reliability

Bearing speed (rpm)

Space limitation

Accuracy

Bearing Nomenclature

Ball
Ball

Inner and outer races are typically pressed onto shafts or hubs with slight

interference fit to make them move with shafts (inner race) or remain stationary (outer race)

Ball Bearings

Ball Bearings  How are the balls introduced between the races? Expecting answers from you in
Ball Bearings  How are the balls introduced between the races? Expecting answers from you in

How are the balls introduced

between the races?

Expecting answers from you in the next lecture !

Bearings  How are the balls introduced between the races? Expecting answers from you in the

Assembly of single-row deep groove ball bearings

Assembly of single-row deep groove ball bearings In the assembly of this type of bearing, the
Assembly of single-row deep groove ball bearings In the assembly of this type of bearing, the

In the assembly of this type of bearing, the inner race is placed eccentric with the outer race, and then the balls are inserted in the crescent shaped space.

The balls are then evenly spaced as the races are brought into concentric relation.

The halves of the retainers are then assembled so that the balls will remain evenly spaced but can rotate freely.

Even spacing of the balls is desirable from the standpoints of:

Distribution of the load and

Balance of the bearings.

Distribution of the load and  Balance of the bearings. S.Mekid The four steps in the
S.Mekid
S.Mekid

The four steps in the assembly of the deep groove type ball bearing

18

S.Mekid 19

Rolling Contact Bearings

Rolling Contact Bearings 1. Ball bearings  Deep groove (Conrad) bearing  Filling notch ball bearing
Rolling Contact Bearings 1. Ball bearings  Deep groove (Conrad) bearing  Filling notch ball bearing

1.

Ball bearings

Deep groove (Conrad) bearing

Filling notch ball bearing or maximum capacity bearing

Angular contact bearings (AC)

2.

Roller bearings

Cylindrical bearings

Needle bearings

Tapered bearings

Spherical bearings

3.

4.

Thrust bearings

Linear bearings

 Needle bearings  Tapered bearings  Spherical bearings 3. 4. Thrust bearings Linear bearings S.Mekid

Ball Bearings

Ball Bearings 2. Filling notch or maximum capacity ball bearings Bearings have the same basic radial
Ball Bearings 2. Filling notch or maximum capacity ball bearings Bearings have the same basic radial

2. Filling notch or maximum capacity ball bearings

Bearings have the same basic radial construction as Conrad type. However, a filling notch (loading groove) permits more balls to

be used.

notch (loading groove) permits more balls to be used. Notch • Radial load capacity is 20

Notch

Radial load capacity is 20 40% higher than Conrad type

Thrust load capacity drops to 20% (2 directions) of radial load capacity.

Ball Bearings

Ball Bearings 3. Angular contact bearings (AC) The centerline of contact between the balls and the
Ball Bearings 3. Angular contact bearings (AC) The centerline of contact between the balls and the

3. Angular contact bearings (AC)

The centerline of contact between the balls and the raceway is at an angle to the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation.

Direction of thrust
Direction
of thrust

Extra support

in the back

Used for high radial and thrust load applications

Roller Bearings

Roller Bearings Roller bearings have higher load capacity than ball bearings, load is transmitted through line
Roller Bearings Roller bearings have higher load capacity than ball bearings, load is transmitted through line

Roller bearings have higher load capacity than ball bearings, load is transmitted through line contact instead of point contact.

Straight cylindrical roller

through line contact instead of point contact. Straight cylindrical roller N e e d l e

Needle type

through line contact instead of point contact. Straight cylindrical roller N e e d l e
through line contact instead of point contact. Straight cylindrical roller N e e d l e

Roller Bearings

Tapered bearings

Roller Bearings Tapered bearings Designed to withstand high radial loads, high thrust loads, and combined loads
Roller Bearings Tapered bearings Designed to withstand high radial loads, high thrust loads, and combined loads

Designed to withstand high radial loads, high thrust loads, and combined loads at moderate to high speeds. They can also withstand repeated shock loads.

thrust loads, and combined loads at moderate to high speeds. They can also withstand repeated shock
thrust loads, and combined loads at moderate to high speeds. They can also withstand repeated shock

Ball Bearing Types

Ball Bearing Types S.Mekid 25 25
Ball Bearing Types S.Mekid 25 25
Ball Bearing Types S.Mekid 25 25

Notes on Bearings

Notes on Bearings  Bearings maybe obtained with shields on one or both sides. Shields provide
Notes on Bearings  Bearings maybe obtained with shields on one or both sides. Shields provide

Bearings maybe obtained with shields on one or both sides. Shields provide a degree of protection against dirt.

Some bearings are manufactured with seals in one or both sides. If sealed on both sides, bearings are lubricated at the factory.

Starting friction is almost twice the running

friction.

Bearings are manufactured to take either pure radial load, pure thrust load or a combination of

both.

Ball Bearings Forces

Ball Bearings Forces Angular ball bearings have higher thrust load capacity in one direction than Radial
Ball Bearings Forces Angular ball bearings have higher thrust load capacity in one direction than Radial
Ball Bearings Forces Angular ball bearings have higher thrust load capacity in one direction than Radial
Ball Bearings Forces Angular ball bearings have higher thrust load capacity in one direction than Radial

Angular ball bearings have higher thrust load capacity in

one direction than Radial ball bearings.

Ball bearing self aligning

Ball bearing self aligning S.Mekid 28 28
Ball bearing self aligning S.Mekid 28 28
Ball bearing self aligning S.Mekid 28 28

Mounting and Enclosure of Bearings

Mounting and Enclosure of Bearings Duplex Mounting of angular contact bearings: Bearings manufactured for this purpose
Mounting and Enclosure of Bearings Duplex Mounting of angular contact bearings: Bearings manufactured for this purpose
Mounting and Enclosure of Bearings Duplex Mounting of angular contact bearings: Bearings manufactured for this purpose

Duplex Mounting of angular contact bearings: Bearings manufactured for this purpose

have their rings ground with an offset so that they are tightly clamped together and

a preload is automatically established (as you have seen on the animation).

a)

Face to face mounting (DF) for heavy F r and F a from either direction

b)

Back to back mounting (DB)= a)+ aligning stiffness

c)

Tandem arrangement (DT) for thrust which is always in the same direction. Preload

required.

Characteristics of ball Bearings
Characteristics of ball Bearings
Characteristics of ball Bearings Type Approximate range of Relative capacity Limiting Tolerance bore
Characteristics of ball Bearings Type Approximate range of Relative capacity Limiting Tolerance bore

Type

Approximate range of

Relative capacity

Limiting

Tolerance

bore sizes, mm

speed

to mis-

 

factor

alignment

Minimum

Maximum

Radial

Thrust

a 0.7

Conrad or deep

3

1060

1.00

groove

Maximum capacity

10

130

1.2-1.4

a 0.2

groove Maximum capacity 10 130 1.2-1.4 a 0.2 1.0 ±0°15’ 1.0 ±0°3’ or filling notch
groove Maximum capacity 10 130 1.2-1.4 a 0.2 1.0 ±0°15’ 1.0 ±0°3’ or filling notch

1.0

±0°15’

1.0

±0°3’

or filling notch

±0°15’ 1.0 ±0°3’ or filling notch Self-aligning 5 120 0.7 internal
±0°15’ 1.0 ±0°3’ or filling notch Self-aligning 5 120 0.7 internal
Self-aligning 5 120 0.7 internal Self-aligning - - 1.0 external

Self-aligning

5

120

0.7

internal

Self-aligning

-

-

1.0

external

internal Self-aligning - - 1.0 external b 0.2 a 0.7 1.0 2°30’ 1.0 High a 0.2
internal Self-aligning - - 1.0 external b 0.2 a 0.7 1.0 2°30’ 1.0 High a 0.2

b 0.2

a 0.7

1.0

2°30’

1.0

High

external b 0.2 a 0.7 1.0 2°30’ 1.0 High a 0.2 a 1.4 1.0 ±0.3° 1.0
external b 0.2 a 0.7 1.0 2°30’ 1.0 High a 0.2 a 1.4 1.0 ±0.3° 1.0
a 0.2 a 1.4 1.0 ±0.3° 1.0 0° Double row, 6 110 1.5 maximum Double

a 0.2

a 1.4

1.0

±0.3°

1.0

Double row,

6

110

1.5

maximum

Double row, deep

6

110

1.5

groove

a Two directions

b One direction

Characteristics of Angular Contact Ball Bearings

Characteristics of Angular Contact Ball Bearings Type One-directional thrust Duplex, back to back Duplex, face
Characteristics of Angular Contact Ball Bearings Type One-directional thrust Duplex, back to back Duplex, face
Characteristics of Angular Contact Ball Bearings Type One-directional thrust Duplex, back to back Duplex, face
Type One-directional thrust Duplex, back to back Duplex, face to face Duplex, tandem Two directional

Type

One-directional

thrust

Duplex, back to

back

Duplex, face to

face

Duplex, tandem

Two directional or

split ring

Double row

Approximate

 

Relative capacity

Limiting

Tolerance

maximum

 

speed factor

to mis-

size, mm

alignment

 

Radial

Thrust

   

320

b

1.00-1.15

a,b 1.5-2.3

b1.1-3.0

±0°2

320

1.85

c

1.5

3.0

320

1.85

c

1.5

3.0

320

1.85

a

2.4

3.0

110

1.15

c

1.5

3.0

±0°2

140

1.5

c

1.85

0.8

1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85
1.85 a 2.4 3.0 0° 110 1.15 c 1.5 3.0 ±0°2 ’ 140 1.5 c 1.85

a One direction

b Depends on contact angle

c Two directions

d In other direction

Roller Bearings

Roller Bearings • Roller bearings have higher load capacity than ball bearings. • Roller bearings require
Roller Bearings • Roller bearings have higher load capacity than ball bearings. • Roller bearings require
Roller Bearings • Roller bearings have higher load capacity than ball bearings. • Roller bearings require
Roller Bearings • Roller bearings have higher load capacity than ball bearings. • Roller bearings require
Roller Bearings • Roller bearings have higher load capacity than ball bearings. • Roller bearings require

Roller bearings have higher load capacity than ball bearings.

Roller bearings require prefect geometry.

Straight roller bearing (radial cylindrical) cannot take thrust loads.

Tapered roller bearings combine the advantage of ball and straight

roller bearings, they take radial and thrust loadings.

Roller bearings: Needle Bearings

Roller bearings: Needle Bearings • Needle bearings have very high load ratings and require less space.
Roller bearings: Needle Bearings • Needle bearings have very high load ratings and require less space.
Roller bearings: Needle Bearings • Needle bearings have very high load ratings and require less space.
Roller bearings: Needle Bearings • Needle bearings have very high load ratings and require less space.
Roller bearings: Needle Bearings • Needle bearings have very high load ratings and require less space.
Roller bearings: Needle Bearings • Needle bearings have very high load ratings and require less space.
Roller bearings: Needle Bearings • Needle bearings have very high load ratings and require less space.

Needle bearings have very high load ratings and require less space.

Needle bearings can be used with and without races.

S.Mekid

33

33

Characteristics of Cylindrical Roller Bearings

Characteristics of Cylindrical Roller Bearings Type Seperable outer ring, nonlocating (N) Seperable inner ring,
Characteristics of Cylindrical Roller Bearings Type Seperable outer ring, nonlocating (N) Seperable inner ring,
Characteristics of Cylindrical Roller Bearings Type Seperable outer ring, nonlocating (N) Seperable inner ring,
Characteristics of Cylindrical Roller Bearings Type Seperable outer ring, nonlocating (N) Seperable inner ring,
Type Seperable outer ring, nonlocating (N) Seperable inner ring, nonlocating (NU) Seperable inner ring,

Type

Seperable outer

ring, nonlocating

(N)

Seperable inner

ring, nonlocating

(NU)

Seperable inner

ring, one direction

locating (NJ)

Seperable inner

ring, two-direction

locating (NUP)

Approximate range of

Relative capacity

bore sizes, mm

Minimum

Maximum

Radial

Thrust

10

320

1.55

0

12

500

1.55

0

12

320

1.55

a

Locating

20

320

1.55

b

Locating

1.55 a Locating 20 320 1.55 b Locating Limiting Tolerance speed to mis- factor

Limiting

Tolerance

speed

to mis-

factor

alignment

1.20

±0°5

1.20

±0°5

1.15

±0°5

1.15

±0°5

mis- factor alignment 1.20 ±0°5 ’ 1.20 ±0°5 ’ 1.15 ±0°5 ’ 1.15 ±0°5 ’
mis- factor alignment 1.20 ±0°5 ’ 1.20 ±0°5 ’ 1.15 ±0°5 ’ 1.15 ±0°5 ’
mis- factor alignment 1.20 ±0°5 ’ 1.20 ±0°5 ’ 1.15 ±0°5 ’ 1.15 ±0°5 ’
mis- factor alignment 1.20 ±0°5 ’ 1.20 ±0°5 ’ 1.15 ±0°5 ’ 1.15 ±0°5 ’
mis- factor alignment 1.20 ±0°5 ’ 1.20 ±0°5 ’ 1.15 ±0°5 ’ 1.15 ±0°5 ’
mis- factor alignment 1.20 ±0°5 ’ 1.20 ±0°5 ’ 1.15 ±0°5 ’ 1.15 ±0°5 ’
mis- factor alignment 1.20 ±0°5 ’ 1.20 ±0°5 ’ 1.15 ±0°5 ’ 1.15 ±0°5 ’

a One direction

b Two directions

Characteristics of Spherical Roller Bearings

Characteristics of Spherical Roller Bearings Type Single row, barrel or convex Double row, barrel or convex
Characteristics of Spherical Roller Bearings Type Single row, barrel or convex Double row, barrel or convex
Characteristics of Spherical Roller Bearings Type Single row, barrel or convex Double row, barrel or convex
Type Single row, barrel or convex Double row, barrel or convex Thrust Double row, concave

Type

Single row, barrel

or convex

Double row, barrel

or convex

Thrust

Double row,

concave

Approximate range of

Relative capacity

Limiting

bore sizes, mm

speed

factor

Minimum

Maximum

Radial

Thrust

20

320

 

2.10

0.20

0.50

25

1250

2.40

0.70

0.50

85

360

a

0.10

a

1.80

0.35-0.50

 

b

0.10

b

2.40

50

130

2.40

0.70

0.50

Tolerance

to mis-

alignment

±2°

±1°30

±3°

±1°30

50 130 2.40 0.70 0.50 Tolerance to mis- alignment ±2° ±1°30 ’ ±3° ±1°30 ’
50 130 2.40 0.70 0.50 Tolerance to mis- alignment ±2° ±1°30 ’ ±3° ±1°30 ’
50 130 2.40 0.70 0.50 Tolerance to mis- alignment ±2° ±1°30 ’ ±3° ±1°30 ’
50 130 2.40 0.70 0.50 Tolerance to mis- alignment ±2° ±1°30 ’ ±3° ±1°30 ’
50 130 2.40 0.70 0.50 Tolerance to mis- alignment ±2° ±1°30 ’ ±3° ±1°30 ’
50 130 2.40 0.70 0.50 Tolerance to mis- alignment ±2° ±1°30 ’ ±3° ±1°30 ’
50 130 2.40 0.70 0.50 Tolerance to mis- alignment ±2° ±1°30 ’ ±3° ±1°30 ’
50 130 2.40 0.70 0.50 Tolerance to mis- alignment ±2° ±1°30 ’ ±3° ±1°30 ’

a Symmetric rollers

b Asymmetric rollers

Other Types of Bearings

Other Types of Bearings S.Mekid 36 36
Other Types of Bearings S.Mekid 36 36
Other Types of Bearings S.Mekid 36 36
Other Types of Bearings S.Mekid 36 36
Other Types of Bearings S.Mekid 36 36

Rolling Contact Bearing Materials

Rolling Contact Bearing Materials S.Mekid 37 37

Rolling Contact Bearings

Rolling Contact Bearings Objective: Not to design rolling bearings but to select proper bearings for the
Rolling Contact Bearings Objective: Not to design rolling bearings but to select proper bearings for the

Objective:

Not to design rolling bearings but to select proper bearings for the application

bearings but to select proper bearings for the application The designer should take into consideration the

The designer should take into consideration the following:

The available space

The load and its characteristics

The desired life

The required speed

The cost

Bearing Life

Bearing Life  Assuming lubrication and protection thus failure will occur by fatigue .  Bearings
Bearing Life  Assuming lubrication and protection thus failure will occur by fatigue .  Bearings

Assuming

lubrication and protection thus failure will occur by fatigue. Bearings are subjected to millions of repeated contact stress (Hertezian) cycles causing spalling (flaking or pitting) on ball or raceway. (Video 1& 3)

adequate

perfect

mounting,

Failure Criteria:

1. SKF:

failure

happens

when

a

pit

of

diameter 10 -4 diameter of ball or roller 2. Timken Co.: failure happens when 10 -2 in 2 of surface is spalled

S.Mekid 40
S.Mekid 40
S.Mekid 40

Simulation of progression of fatigue

failure

Simulation of progression of fatigue failure Fatigue Wear Flake pit Mc Graw Hill, Hamrock et al.:
Simulation of progression of fatigue failure Fatigue Wear Flake pit Mc Graw Hill, Hamrock et al.:

Fatigue Wear

Flake pit Mc Graw Hill, Hamrock et al.: Figure 8.22, page 346
Flake
pit
Mc Graw Hill, Hamrock et al.: Figure 8.22, page 346
pit Mc Graw Hill, Hamrock et al.: Figure 8.22, page 346 Pitting Surface Fatigue Spalling Surface

Pitting Surface Fatigue

pit Mc Graw Hill, Hamrock et al.: Figure 8.22, page 346 Pitting Surface Fatigue Spalling Surface

Spalling Surface Fatigue

Bearing Life

Bearing Life  Definitions 1. 1. Fatigue Life = Useful Life of a bearing # revolutions
Bearing Life  Definitions 1. 1. Fatigue Life = Useful Life of a bearing # revolutions

Definitions

1.

1.

Fatigue Life = Useful Life of a bearing

#

revolutions (or Hrs @ a certain speed) of ring before evidence of failure in ball or rings.

=

Rating Life (AFBMA= Anti-Friction Bearing

Manufacturers Association)=Minimum Life =

L

speed) that 90% of a group of apparently

identical (2500 bearings) will complete or exceed

= B

= # revolutions (or Hrs @ a certain

10

10

before failure develops.

1. Median

Life

Average

Life

=

=

L

#

=

50

revolutions completed or exceeded by 50% of

bearings.

L 50 = 4 to 5 times L 10

Bearing Load

Bearing Load  Load Ratings: 1. Static Load Rating , 2. Dynamic Load Rating Basic Static
Bearing Load  Load Ratings: 1. Static Load Rating , 2. Dynamic Load Rating Basic Static

Load Ratings:

1. Static Load Rating,

2. Dynamic Load Rating

Basic Static Load Rating (AFBMA)= C 0

Radial load causing a total

deformation of

10 -4 of ball or roller diameter.

Bearing Load

Bearing Load Dynamic Load Rating  Basic Load Rating = Specific Dynamic Capacity = Dynamic Load
Bearing Load Dynamic Load Rating  Basic Load Rating = Specific Dynamic Capacity = Dynamic Load

Dynamic Load Rating

Basic Load Rating = Specific

Dynamic Capacity = Dynamic Load Capacity = Basic Dynamic Capacity =

C = C

constant radial load resulting in L 10 = 10 6

revolutions of inner ring or 500 hrs @ 33&1/3 rpm. (Companies e.g. SKF, FAG,

NTN)

= AFBMA Catalog Load =

10

Other ratings: Companies such as Timken Co. use 90 x10 6 revolutions or (3000h @
Other ratings: Companies such as Timken Co. use 90
x10 6 revolutions or (3000h @ 500 rpm)

Life & Load Calculation

Life & Load Calculation Life a  L  D  C  10  
Life & Load Calculation Life a  L  D  C  10  

Life

a  L  D  C  10      L
a
 L 
D
 C 
10
 
 L 
10
 F 
D

Life L

Load F

    L  10  F  D Life L Load F 

C

10

a

F

L

Load Rating

C 10

FL 1 /

a

L = Life (in Millions of revolutions)

C 10 = Basic Dynamic load rating

F = Design Load

a = 3 for ball and 10/3 for roller bearings

Life & Load Calculation

Life & Load Calculation a  L  D  C  10   
Life & Load Calculation a  L  D  C  10   
a  L  D  C  10      L
a
 L 
D
 C 
10
 
 L 
10
 F 
D

Life L

or

x D = life multiplier

Load Rating When life is in Hours

Load F

1/ a  L n 60  D D C  F   10
1/ a
 L
n
60 
D
D
C
 F
10
D
 n
60 
 L
R
R
C  F   10 D   n 60   L R R

L D and L R are in Hrs and n D and n R in rpm Sub D is for design and R for rated (catalog)

Example on load-life

Example on load-life A radial ball bearing has a basic dynamic load rating of 2350 lb.
Example on load-life A radial ball bearing has a basic dynamic load rating of 2350 lb.

A radial ball bearing has a basic dynamic load rating of 2350 lb.

-What would be its life when operating at a load 1675 lb?

Given

1.

Ball bearing (a=3)

2.

C 10 = 2350 lb

3.

F D = 1675 lb

4.

L 10 = 10 6 revolutions

Required:

L D ?

Solution

1 0 = 10 6 revolutions Required : L D ? Solution Note: Load reduced by

Note:

Load reduced by 30% Life increased by 176%

Load-Life and Reliability

Load-Life and Reliability • The reliability used so far is the catalog reliability of 90% (R
Load-Life and Reliability • The reliability used so far is the catalog reliability of 90% (R

The reliability used so far is the catalog reliability of 90%

(R = 0.90)

In practice, a reliability of less than 90% is not desirable because bearings are used in large numbers in assemblies

Example if an assembly has N bearings

R

R N

2

6

N

N

N

and R

and R

0.9

0.9

R

R

2

6

(0.9)

(0.9)

2

6

0.81

0.53

Load-Life and Reliability

x D =1 R=.9
x D =1
R=.9
Load-Life and Reliability x D =1 R=.9 From Machine Design Handbook  90% R D Greater

From Machine Design Handbook

90%

R D Greater than 0.90

Load-Life and Reliability

Load-Life and Reliability To correct for reliabilities > 90%: C 10  F D  x
Load-Life and Reliability To correct for reliabilities > 90%: C 10  F D  x

To correct for reliabilities > 90%:

C

10

F

D

x

D

K

R

1/ a

life multiplier

,

x

D

L

/

L

10

  L n 60

D

D

L

R

n

R

60

The reliability correction factor K R for ball and straight

(cylindrical)

roller bearings is:

K R

0.02

4.439(1

R

D

)

1/1.483

and for tapered roller bearings:

K

R

4.48(ln(1/

R

D

))

1/1.5

In calculating F D it is important to take into account the Load application factor given in table 11.5.

account the Load application factor given in table 11.5. • Some recommended bearing life values (L

Some recommended bearing life values (L D ) are given in table 11.4