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Philanthropy etymologically means "love of humanity" in the sense of caring for, nourishing, developing, and enhancing "what it is to be human"

on both the bene factors' (by identifying and exercising their values in giving and volunteering) and beneficiaries' (by benefiting) parts. The most conventional modern definiti on is "private initiatives, for public good, focusing on quality of life". This combines the social scientific aspect developed in the 20th century with the ori ginal humanistic tradition, and serves to contrast philanthropy with business (p rivate initiatives for private good, focusing on material prosperity) and govern ment (public initiatives for public good, focusing on law and order).[1] Instances of philanthropy commonly overlap with instances of charity, though not all charity is philanthropy, or vice versa. The difference commonly cited is th at charity relieves the pains of social problems, whereas philanthropy attempts to solve those problems at their root causes (the difference between giving a hu ngry man a fish, and teaching him how to fish for himself). A person who practic es philanthropy is called a philanthropist. Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Clhropy 2.2 Modern philanthropy 3 Modern philanthropy 3.1 Some large individual bequests 4 Use in popular culture 5 See also 6 References 7 External links Etymology[edit] The word was first coined as an adjective by the playwright Aeschylus in Prometh eus Bound (5th century BC), to describe Prometheus' character as "humanity lovin g" (philanthropos tropos), for having given to the earliest proto-humans who had no culture, fire (symbolizing technological civilization) and "blind hope" (opt imism). Together, they would be used to improve the human condition, to save man kind from destruction. Thus humans were distinguished from all other animals by civilization the power to complete their own creation through education (self-de velopment) and culture (civic development), expressed in good works benefiting o thers. The new word, f???????p?? philanthropos, combined two words: f???? philos , "loving" in the sense of benefitting, caring for, nourishing; and ?????p?? ant hropos, "human being" in the sense of "humanity", or "human-ness".[2] The first use of the noun form philanthrpa came shortly thereafter (ca. 390 BC) in the early Platonic dialogue Euthyphro. Socrates is reported to have said that his "pourin g out" of his thoughts freely (without charge) to his listeners was his philanth rpa.[3] The Philosophical Dictionary of the Platonic Academy defined philanthrpa as "A state of well educated habits stemming from love of humanity. A state of bein g productive of benefit to humans. A state of grace. Mindfulness together with g was thought to be the essence of civiliz ood works." Philanthropa loving humanity ation.[4] The ancient Greek word for culture as education was paideia. In the fi rst century BC, both paideia and philanthrpa were translated into Latin by the sin gle word humanitas which was also understood to be the core of liberal education studia humanitatis, the studies of humanity, or simply "the humanities". In the second century AD, Plutarch used the concept of philanthrpa to describe superior human beings. This Classically synonymous troika, of philanthropy, the humanitie s, and liberal education, declined with the Fall of Rome, during the Middle Ages philanthrpa was superseded by caritas charity, selfless love, valued for salvatio n. In the 19th-century, the word "philanthropy" and its variants tended to drift in meaning and importance, and came to be associated with "doing good". In the late 20th century, the word "philanthropy" came to be associated exclusively wit h its most conspicuous manifestations, foundations and grant-making. Professiona l fundraisers stopped using the word as it was considered as unnecessarily prete ntious and pompous.[5] However, use of the word has seen a modest revival in rec

ent years History[edit] Clhropy[edit] The Ancient Greek view of philanthropy that the "love of what it is to be human" is the essential nature and purpose of humanity, culture and civilization was i ntrinsically philosophical, containing both metaphysics and ethics. The Greeks a dopted the "love of humanity" as an educational ideal, whose