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IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981

(Reaffirmed 2001)

Edition 3.1 (1994-03)

Indian Standard
SPECIFICATION FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS
PART III INSULATION LEVELS AND DIELECTRIC TESTS

( Second Revision )
(Incorporating Amendment No. 1)

UDC

621.314.222.6 : 621.317.333

BIS 2003 BUREAU


MANAK BHAVAN , 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002

OF

INDIAN

STANDARDS

Price Group 9

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981

Indian Standard
SPECIFICATION FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS
PART III INSULATION LEVELS AND DIELECTRIC TESTS

( Second Revision )
Transformers Sectional Committee, ETDC 16
Chairman SHRI D. V. NARKE Members SHRI PREM CHAND SHRI D. P. GUPTA ( Alternates to Shri D. V. Narke ) Directorate General of Supplies & Disposals (Inspection Wing), New Delhi Gujarat Electricity Board, Vadodara Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation Ltd, Calcutta Bombay Electric Supply Undertaking, Bombay and Transport Representing Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Bhopal

SHRI R. S. ARORA SHRI D. R. CHANDRAN ( Alternate ) SHRI A. V. BHEEMARAO SHRI S. H. MAKHIJANI ( Alternate ) SHRI A. CHATTERJEE SHRI T. K. GHOSE ( Alternate ) SHRI S. D. CHOTRANEY SHRI Y. K. PALVANKAR ( Alternate )

The General Electric Co of India Ltd, SHRI D. DHAR SHRI B. A. SUBRAMANYAM ( Alternate ) Allahabad DIRECTOR (SUBSTATIONS) DEPUTY DIRECTOR (SUBSTATIONS) ( Alternate ) JOINT DIRECTOR TI (SUBSTATION) DEPUTY DIRECTOR STANDARDS (ELEC) ( Alternate ) DR M. V. JOSHI SHRI P. K. JOSHI ( Alternate ) SHRI D. B. MEHTA SHRI R. CHANDRAMOULI ( Alternate ) Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi

Research, Designs and Organization, Lucknow Electrical Research and Association, Bombay

Standards

Development

Tata Hydro-Electric Power Supply Co Ltd, Bombay ( Continued on page 2 )

BIS 2003 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS This publication is protected under the Indian Copyright Act (XIV of 1957) and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981


( Continued from page 1 ) Members SHRI V. R. NARASIMHAN SHRI C. S. SARMA ( Alternate ) SHRI T. OMKUMAR SHRI P. S. RAMAN ( Alternate ) SHRI I. S. PATEL SHRI U. K. PATWARDHAN DR G. M. PHADKE SHRI P. K. PHILIP ( Alternate ) SHRI V. N. PRAHLAD SHRI T. B. SEN ( Alternate ) SHRI CHANDRA K. ROHATGI SHRI P. S. SAWHNEY SHRI B. B. DASS ( Alternate ) SHRI P. K. SAXENA SHRI G. L. DUA ( Alternate ) SHRI R. K. SEHGAL SHRI H. S. NATARAJAN ( Alternate ) SHRI V. T. DSILVA SHRI R. G. PARDHANANI ( Alternate ) SUPERINTENDING ENGINEER (TECHNICAL PROJECTS) SUPERINTENDING ENGINEER (GRID OPERATION) ( Alternate ) DR VAKIL AHMED SHRI S. K. PALHAN ( Alternate ) SHRI C. R. VARIER SHRI S. V. MANERIKAR ( Alternate ) SHRI T. V. VIDYARATNA RAJ SHRI M. D. KALLIANPUR ( Alternate ) SHRI S. P. SACHDEV, Director (Elec tech) Representing Central Power Research Institute, Bangalore NGEF Ltd, Bangalore Hindustan Brown Boveri Ltd, Bombay Prayog Electricals Pvt Ltd, Bombay Indian Electrical Manufacturers Association, Bombay Voltas Ltd (Motor and Transformer Plant), Bombay Pradip Lamp Works, Patna Delhi Electricity Supply Undertaking, New Delhi Rural Electrification Corporation Ltd, New Delhi Bombay Suburban Electric Supply Ltd, Bombay Siemens India Ltd, Bombay Andhra Pradesh State Electricity Department (Electricity Projects and Board), Hyderabad Directorate General of Development, New Delhi Crompton Greaves Ltd, Bombay Technical

Kirloskar Electric Co Ltd, Bangalore Director General, BIS ( Ex-officio Member )

Secretary SHRI K. M. BHATIA Deputy Director (Elec tech), BIS

Panel for Insulation Levels and Dielectric Tests for Power Transformers, ETDC 16/P9
Convener SHRI D. V. NARKE Members SHRI S. C. NANDANKAR SHRI PREM CHAND ( Alternates to Shri D. V. Narke ) Punjab State Electricity Board, Patiala ( Continued on page 42 ) Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, Bhopal

SHRI A. K. CHOPRA SHRI K. L. BHATIA ( Alternate )

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981

Indian Standard
SPECIFICATION FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS
PART III INSULATION LEVELS AND DIELECTRIC TESTS

( Second Revision )
0. F O R E W O R D 0.1 This Indian Standard (Part III) was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 26 May 1981, after the draft finalized by the Transformers Sectional Committee had been approved by the Electrotechnical Division Council. 0.2 This standard was first issued in 1962 and was revised in 1977 with a view to align it with the revision of IEC Publication 76 Power transformers issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission and issued in the following four parts: Part I General Part II Temperature-rise Part III Insulation levels and dielectric tests Part IV Terminal marking, tappings and connections 0.3 The second revision of this standard (Part III) has been undertaken with a view to bring it in line with the latest thinking at the IEC level. The most significant modification in this revision is that the line of demarcation to have lightning impulse test as a routine test, has been shifted from 145 kV to 300 kV. 0.4 This second revision also clarifies some anomalies noticed in the first revision with regard to induced overvoltages and impulse withstand tests. 0.5 This standard (Part III) is to be read in conjunction with IS : 2026 (Part I)-1977*, IS : 2026 (Part II)-1977 and IS : 2026 (Part IV)-1977. 0.6 This standard (Part III) is based on IEC Pub 76-3 (1980) Power transformers: Part III Insulation levels and dielectric tests and IEC Document 14 (Central Office) 51 Draft Amendment No. 1 to Pub 76-3, issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission.
*Specification for power transformers: Part I General ( first revision ). Specification for power transformers: Part II Temperature-rise ( first revision ). Specification for power transformers: Part IV Terminal marking, tappings and connections ( first revision ).

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 0.7 This edition 3.1 incorporates Amendment No. 1 (March 1994). Side bar indicates modification of the text as the result of incorporation of the amendment. 0.8 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value, observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test, shall be rounded off in accordance with IS : 2-1960*. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard. 1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard (Part III) specifies the requirements relating to insulation levels and dielectric tests for power transformers. 2. GENERAL 2.1 The dielectric tests ( see Table 1 ) shall generally be carried out at the manufacturers works with the transformer approximately at ambient temperature. 2.2 The transformers shall be completely assembled as in service, except that for liquid-filled transformers the fitting of external cooling and supervisory equipment shall not be necessary. 2.3 Transformers for cable box connections or direct connections to metal enclosed SF 6 installations shall be so designed that the temporary connections can be made for dielectric tests, using temporary bushings, if necessary. 2.4 When the manufacturer proposes to use non-linear elements or surge divertors (built into the transformer or fitted externally) for the limitation of transferred overvoltage transients, this shall be brought to the attention of the user.
NOTE The insulating requirements for power transformers and the corresponding insulation tests are given with reference to specific windings and their terminals. For liquid-filled transformers the requirements apply to the internal insulation only, and are not related to the properties of external bushing insulation under different weather conditions or contamination. Any additional requirement or tests regarding external insulation which are deemed necessary shall be subject to agreement between the purchaser and the supplier. When an oil-filled transformer is specified for operation at an altitude higher than 1 000 m, it may then be necessary to select bushings designed for higher insulation levels than those specified for the internal insulation of the transformer windings. Bushings are subjected to separate type and routine tests in accordance with IS : 2099-1973 which also verify their phase-to-earth insulation, external as well as internal. It is presupposed that bushings and tap-changers are specified, designed and tested in accordance with *Rules for rounding off numerical values ( revised ). Specification for bushings for alternating voltages above 1 000 volts ( first revision ).

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981


IS : 2099-1973* and IS : 8468-1977. The insulation tests on the complete transformer, however, check the correct application and installation of these components.

2.5 If a transformer fails to meet its test requirements due to a fault in a bushing, to facilitate continuation and completion of the test without delay, the replacement of the faulty bushings shall be permissible. A particular case arises for tests with partial discharge measurements, where certain types of commonly used high voltage bushings create difficulty because of their relatively high level of partial discharge in the dielectric. When such bushings are mounted on the transformer it shall be permissible to exchange them for bushings of a partial discharge free type during the testing of the transformer ( see Appendix A ). 3. HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT AND INSULATION LEVEL 3.1 Highest Voltage for Equipment Each winding of a transformer shall be assigned a value of highest voltage for equipment denoted by Um which is the maximum value of the highest voltage of a system to which the winding may be connected in respect of its insulation. The rules for coordination of transformers insulation with respect to transient overvoltages are formulated differently depending on the value of Um. When rules about specific tests for different windings in a transformer are in conflict, the rule for winding with the highest Um value shall apply. Rules for a number of special cases are given in 4. 3.1.1 The standard values of Um are listed in Tables 2 to 4. The value to be assigned to a transformer winding shall be the one equal to or nearest above the rated voltage of the winding.
NOTE 1 Single-phase transformers intended for connection in star to form a three-phase bank are designated by phase-to-earth rated voltage, for example, 400 kV. The phase-to-phase value determines the choice of --------Um (in this case, 3 consequently, Um = 420 kV). NOTE 2 It may happen, particularly for tapped windings, that for some reason the rated voltage of a winding is chosen slightly higher than a standard value of Um but that the system to which the winding will be connected has a system highest voltage which stays within the standard value. The insulation requirements are to be coordinated with actual system conditions, and therefore the standard value shall be accepted as Um for the transformer, and not the nearest higher value.

3.1.2 The value Um assigned to each winding in the transformer is part of the information to be supplied with an enquiry and order.
*Specification for bushings for alternating voltages above 1 000 volts ( first revision ). Specification for on-load tap-changers.

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981

TABLE 1 SL NO . CATEGORY OF WINDINGS

REQUIREMENTS AND TESTS FOR DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF WINDINGS ( Clauses 2.1, 3.2.1, 3.2.2 and 5.1 ) WITHSTAND VOLTAGES CONSTITUTING INSULATION LEVEL, RELEVANT CLAUSES AND TABLES a) Power frequency (5.2 and Table 2) b) Lightning impulse (5.2 and Table 2) (optional for dry type transformers) c) Lightning impulse for neutral, if specified (5.5.3) a) Power frequency for line terminal (5.3 and Table 2) b) Lightning impulse for line terminals (5.3 and Table 2) c) Power frequency for neutral (5.5) d) Lightning impulse for neutral, if specified (5.5.3) TESTS AND TEST CLAUSES

1. Um < 300 kV uniform insulation

a) Separate source AC (routine) (10) b) Lightning impulse (type) (12) on line terminals c) Modified impulse test on neutral (special) (12.3.2) d) Induced overvoltage (routine) (11.2) a) Separate source AC (routine) (10) (corresponding to insulation level of neutral) b) Lightning impulse on line terminals (type) (12) c) Modified impulse test on neutral (special) (12.3.2) d) Induced overvoltage (routine) (11.3) a) Separate source AC (routine) (10) (corresponding to insulation level of neutral) b) Lightning impulse on line terminals (routine) (12) c) Modified impulse test on neutral (special) (12.3.2) d) Induced overvoltage (routine) (11.3) a) Separate source AC (routine) (10) (corresponding to insulation level of neutral) b) Lightning impulse on line terminals (routine) (12) c) Modified impulse test on neutral (special) (12.3.2) d) Switching impulse on line terminals (routine) (14) e) Induced overvoltage (routine) (11.4) (with partial discharge indication)

2. Um < 300 kV non-uniform insulation

3. Um 300 kV a) Power frequency for line terminals (5.4.1 and Table 3) non-uniform insulation specified b) Lightning impulse for line terminals (5.4.1 and Table 3) according to Method c) Power frequency for neutral (5.5) 1 (5.4.1) d) Lightning impulse for neutral, if specified (5.5.3) 4. Um 300 kV a) Lightning impulse for line terminals (5.4.2 and Table 4) non-uniform insulation specified b) Switching impulse for line terminals (5.4.2 and Table 4) according to Method c) Power frequency for neutral (5.5) 2 (5.4.2) d) Lightning impulse for neutral, if specified (5.5.3)

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 3.2 Insulation Level The rated withstand voltages for the winding which constitute its insulation level shall be verified by a set of dielectric tests, and the set of tests is different depending on the value of Um ( see 5 ). 3.2.1 Two alternative definitions are used to describe rated insulation level: a) The rated lightning impulse and short duration power frequency withstand voltages.
NOTE Definition (a) applies for all windings with highest voltage Um lower than 300 kV, and for windings with Um equal to or greater than 300 kV that are specified according to Method 1 ( see 5 and Table 1 ).

b) The rated lightning and switching impulse withstand voltages (phase-to-earth).


NOTE Definition (b) applies for windings with Um equal to or greater than 300 kV that are specified according to Method 2 ( see 5 and Table 1).

3.2.2 If there is a winding with non-uniform insulation, the insulation level of the neutral terminal shall also be specified by the purchaser ( see also 5.5.3 ). If there is a winding with non-uniform insulation and Um 300 kV, it shall be tested according to Method 1 or Method 2 ( see 5, Table 1 ), and in the case of Method 2 further information shall be given about the choice of certain alternative procedures in the induced overvoltage withstand test ( see 11.4 ). 3.2.3 The insulation level assigned to each winding of a transformer is part of the information to be supplied with an enquiry and order. 3.2.4 Abbreviated Notation for Insulation Levels The rated withstand voltages for all windings rated 3.6 kV and above shall appear on the rating plate. The principles of the standard abbreviated notation are shown by the following examples. The values of rated lightning impulse (LI) switching impulse (SI) and power frequency withstand voltage (AC) shall be taken from Tables 2, 3 or 4. Example 1 : A transformer having windings with Um = 72.5 and 12 kV, both uniformly insulated. Insulation Levels : LI 325 AC 140/LI 60 AC 28 Data for different windings are separated by a stroke, and the impulse level is put first. 7

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 Example 2 : A transformer having a non-uniformly insulated star-connected high voltage winding with Um = 245 kV and neutral to be non-directly earthed. The next winding is also star-connected with uniform insulation and Um = 72.5 kV, and further a tertiary, delta-connected winding with Um = 24 kV. Insulation Levels : LI 850 AC 360-LI 250 AC 95/ LI 325 AC 140/LI 125 AC 50 For a non-uniformly insulated winding, line terminal data are given first, and then, after a separating dash, neutral terminal data. Example 3 : An autotransformer with Um = 420 and 145 kV specified according to Method 2 ( see 5.4 ) and with neutral for direct connection to earth, and a tertiary with Um = 24 kV. Insulation Levels : SI 1050 LI 1300 AC 38/ LI 550 AC 38/ LI 125 AC 50 In this example the specification of Method 2 determines the testing of the 145 kV winding as well, and this means that there is no separately specified power frequency withstand voltage for the line terminals of this winding. The induced overvoltage withstand test in accordance with 11.4 applies to both autoconnected windings. 4. RULES FOR SOME SPECIAL CLASSES OF TRANSFORMERS 4.1 In transformers where uniformly insulated windings having different Um values are connected together within the transformer (usually autotransformers), the test voltage for separate-source power-frequency withstand test shall be determined by the winding with the highest Um value. 4.2 For transformers with a high voltage winding having Um 300 kV, lightning impulse tests are routine tests for all windings. 4.3 In transformers which have one or more non-uniformly insulated windings the test voltage for the induced overvoltage withstand test, and for the switching impulse test, if used, are determined by the winding with the highest Um value, and the windings with lower Um values may not receive their appropriate test voltages. This discrepancy should normally be accepted. If the ratio between the 8

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 windings is variably by tappings, this should be used to bring the test voltage for the winding with lower Um voltage as close as possible to the appropriate value. 4.4 During switching impulse tests, the voltages developed across different windings are approximately proportional to the turns ratios. If rated switching impulse withstand voltages are assigned to several windings, the problem shall be solved as specified in 4.3. A tapped winding of lower Um without assigned switching impulse withstand voltage shall be connected on its principal tapping during the switching impulse test. 4.5 Series windings in booster regulating transformers, phase shifting transformers, etc, where the rated voltage of the winding is only a small fraction of the voltage of the system, shall have a value of Um corresponding to the system voltage.
NOTE It is often impracticable to test such transformers in formal compliance with this specification and it should be agreed between manufacturer and the user which tests have to be omitted or modified.

5. INSULATION REQUIREMENTS AND DIELECTRIC WITHSTAND TESTS 5.1 The requirements and tests for different categories of windings shall be as given in Table 1.
NOTE The extension of the lightning impulse test to include impulses chopped on the tail is sometimes specified, particularly for cases where the transformer is not protected by surge arresters. This modification is dealt with in 13.

5.2 Insulation requirements and dielectric withstand tests for windings with Um < 300 kV, uniform insulation. 5.2.1 The rated withstand voltages of the winding shall be as follows: a) A rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage in accordance with Table 2. b) A rated lightning impulse withstand voltage for the line terminals in accordance with Table 2. c) If specified, a rated impulse withstand voltage for the neutral terminal, with the same peak value as for the line materials. 5.2.1.1 For values of Um lower than 52 kV there are two lists of alternatives impulse withstand voltages in Table 2. For Um = 123, 145, 170, and 245 kV there are different alternatives of power frequency and impulse withstand voltages in Table 2. 9

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981


TABLE 2 RATED WITHSTAND VOLTAGES FOR TRANSFORMER WINDINGS WITH HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT Um < 300 kV ( Clauses 3.1.1, 5.2.1, 5.2.1.1, 5.3.1, 5.5.3.1, 7.1 and 11.2 ) HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT Um (1) kV rms RATED SHORT DURATION POWER FREQUENCY WITHSTAND VOLTAGE (2) kV rms List 1 1.1 3.6 7.2 12 17.5 24 36 52 72.5 123 145

RATED LIGHTNING IMPULSE WITHSTAND VOLTAGE (3) kV peak

3 10 20 28 38 50 70 95 140 185 230 230 275

170

230 275 325 325 360 395

245

NOTE The underlined values are preferred in IS : 585-1962 Specification for voltages and frequency for ac transmission and distribution systems ( revised ).

The choice between List 1 and List 2 for Um < 52 kV and the choice between alternative rated withstand voltages for Um = 123, 145, 170 and 245 kV depends on the severity of overvoltage conditions to be expected in the system and on the importance of particular installation. Guidance may be obtained from IS : 2165-1977*. The values chosen should be clearly stated in the enquiry.
*Specification for insulation coordination ( second revision ).

10


List 2 40 60 75 95 125 170 250 325 450 550 550 650 550 650 750 750 850 950 20 40 60 75 95 145

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 5.2.2 The rated withstand voltages shall be verified by the following dielectric tests: a) A separate-source power frequency voltage withstand test ( see 10 ) (routine test). This test is intended to verify the power-frequency withstand strength of the winding under test to earth and other windings. b) An inducedo vervoltage withstand test ( see 11.2 ) (routine test). This test is intended to verify the power frequency withstand strength along the winding under test, between its phases, and to earth and other windings. c) A full-wave lightning impulse test for the line terminals ( see 12 ) (type test). This test is intended to verify the impulse withstand strength of each line terminal to earth and other windings, and along the winding under test.
NOTE This test becomes a routine test when the winding considered forms part of a transformer of which at least one winding has the highest voltage for equipment Um 300 kV.

d) An impulse test for the neutral terminal ( see 12.3.2 ) (special test), if a rated impulse withstand voltage for the neutral terminal has been specified. This test is intended to verify the impulse withstand strength of the neutral terminal to earth and other windings.
NOTE Distribution transformers for suburban or rural installations are in some cases severely exposed to overvoltages. In such cases, higher test voltages or additional tests, which are not mentioned here, may be agreed to between the manufacturer and the user.

5.3 Insulation Requirements and Dielectric Withstand Tests for Windings with Um < 300 kV, Non-uniform Insulation 5.3.1 The rated withstand voltages of the winding shall be as follows: a) A rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage for the line terminals in accordance with Table 2, b) A rated lightning impulse withstand voltage for the line terminals in accordance with Table 2, c) A rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage for the neutral terminal in accordance with 5.5, and d) If specified, a rated impulse withstand voltage for the neutral terminal in accordance with 5.5.3.
NOTE Concerning List 1 and List 2 in Table 2, and alternative values for Um 123 kV in Table 2, see 5.2.

11

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 5.3.2 The rated withstand voltages shall be verified by the following dielectric tests: a) An induced overvoltage withstand test ( see 11 ) (routine test). This test is intended to verify the power frequency voltage withstand strength of the line terminals to earth and other windings and the withstand strength between the phases and along the winding under test. The test is carried at according to 11.3. b) A full-wave lightning impulse test for the line terminals ( see 12 ) (type test). The purpose of the test is as specified under 5.2.2 (c).
NOTE This test becomes a routine test when the winding considered forms part of a transformer of which at least one winding has the highest voltage for equipment Um 300 kV.

c) A separate-source power-frequency voltage withstand test for the neutral terminal ( see 10 ) (routine test). This test is intended to verify the power-frequency voltage withstand strength of the neutral terminal to earth. d) An impulse test for the neutral terminal ( see 12.3.2 ) (special test), if a rated impulse withstand voltage for the neutral terminal has been specified. The purpose of the test is as specified under 5.2.2 (d). 5.4 Insulation Requirements and Dielectric Withstand Tests for Windings with Um 300 kV, Non-uniform Insulation There are two alternative methods, Method 1 ( see 5.4.1 ) and Method 2 ( see 5.4.2 ) for the specification and testing of transformers which have winding belonging to this category. Which method has been selected is part of the information to be supplied with an enquiry and with an order, and if Method 2 has been selected it is also necessary to indicate the choice between alternative procedures in the induced overvoltage withstand test ( see 11.4 ). Method 1 For specifying and testing this method makes use of rated lightning impulse withstand voltage and a rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage. The latter is also intended to represent a sufficient withstand strength against switching impulse voltages ( see 5.4.1 ). Method 2 For specifying and testing this method makes use of a rated switching impulse withstand voltage and a rated lightning impulse withstand voltage. The induced power-frequency overvoltage test is related only to stresses under normal operating conditions and temporary overvoltages. The induced voltage test procedure specified differs from that of Method 1 in that the duration is longer, the test voltage phase-to-earth is lower, and the test criterion is based on the measurement of partial discharges in the transformer ( see 5.4.2 ). 12

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 5.4.1 Method 1 5.4.1.1 The rated withstand voltages of the winding shall be as follows: a) A rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage for line terminals in accordance with Table 3; b) A rated lightning impulse withstand voltage for line terminals, in accordance with Table 3; c) A rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage for neutral terminal, in accordance with 5.5; and d) If specified, a rated lightning impulse withstand voltage for neutral terminal, in accordance with 5.5.3. 5.4.1.2 The withstand voltages shall be verified by the following dielectric tests: a) An induced overvoltage withstand test ( see 11 ) (routine test). The test is carried out in accordance with 11.3. The purpose of this test is as specified under 5.3.2 (a). b) A full-wave lightning impulse test for the line terminals ( see 12 ) (routine test). The purpose of this test is as specified under 5.2.2(c).
TABLE 3 TEST VOLTAGES FOR LINE TERMINALS OF WINDINGS WITH Um 300 kV, SPECIFIED IN ACCORDANCE WITH METHOD 1 ( Clauses 3.1.1, 3.2.4, and 5.4.1.1 ) HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT Um (1) kV rms 300 362 420

RATED SHORT DURATION POWER-FREQUENCY WITHSTAND VOLTAGE (2) kV rms 395 460 460 510 570 630

RATED LIGHTNING IMPULSE WITHSTAND VOLTAGE (3) kV peak 950 1 050 1 050 1 175 1 300 1 425

NOTE The underlined values are preferred value in IS : 585-1962 Specification for voltages and frequency for ac transmission and distribution systems ( revised ). NOTE 2 Guidance for the choice between alternative rated withstand voltage combinations may be obtained from IS : 2165-1977 Specification for insulation co-ordination ( second revision ).

13

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 c) A separate-source power-frequency voltage withstand test for the neutral terminal ( see 10 ) (routine test). The purpose of this test is as specified under 5.3.2(c). d) An impulse test for the neutral terminal ( see 12.3.2 ) (special test) if a rated impulse withstand voltage for the neutral terminal has been specified. The test is carried out on all units of lot. The purpose of the test is as specified under 5.2.2(d). 5.4.2 Method 2 5.4.2.1 The rated withstand voltages of the winding shall be as follows: a) A rated switching impulse withstand voltage for line terminals, in accordance with Table 4. b) A rated lightning impulse withstand voltage for line terminals, in accordance with Table 4. c) A rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage for neutral terminal, in accordance with 5.5. d) If specified a rated lightning impulse withstand voltage for neutral terminal, in accordance with 5.5.3. 5.4.2.2 The rated withstand voltages shall be verified by the following dielectric tests: a) A switching impulse test for the line terminals ( see 14 ) (routine test). This test is intended to verify the switching impulse withstand strength of the line terminals to earth, and between line terminals on three-phase transformers. b) A full wave lightning impulse voltage withstand test for line terminals ( see 12 ) (routine test). The purpose of this test is as specified under 5.2.2(c). c) A separate-source power-frequency voltage withstand test for the neutral terminal ( see 10 ) (routine test). The purpose of this test is as specified under 5.3.2(c). d) A lightning impulse test for the neutral terminal ( see 12.3.2 ) (special test) if a rated impulse withstand voltage for the neutral terminal has been specified. The test is carried out on all units of the lot. The purpose of the test is as specified under 5.2.2(d). e) An induced power frequency overvoltage test with partial discharge measurement in accordance with 11.4 (routine test). There are alternative procedures specified in this clause, and the choice between these should be decided at the time of the order. 14

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 The test procedure applies to all windings of the transformer having non-uniform insulation. This test shall be carried out after completion of the other dielectric tests. This test is carried out from the point of view of stresses under normal operating conditions and temporary overvoltages.
TABLE 4 TEST VOLTAGES FOR LINE TERMINALS OF WINDINGS WITH Um 300 kV SPECIFIED IN ACCORDANCE WITH METHOD 2 ( Clauses 3.1.1, 3.2.4 and 5.4.2.1 ) HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT Um (1) kV rms 300 362 420 525 765 RATED SWITCHING IMPULSE WITHSTAND VOLTAGE (PHASE-TO-NEUTRAL) (2) kV peak

RATED LIGHTNING IMPULSE WITHSTAND VOLTAGE (3) kV peak 850 and 950 950 and 1 050 950 and 1 050 1 050 and 1 175 1 050 and 1 175 1 175, 1 300 and 1 425 1 175, 1 300 and 1 425 1 425 and 1 550 1 550 and 1 800 1 800 and 1 950

750 850 850 950 950 1 050 1 050 1 175 1 425 1 550

NOTE 1 During the switching impulse withstand test on a three-phase transformer the line-to-line test voltage shall be approximately 1.5 times the phase-to-neutral voltage ( see 14.3 ). NOTE 2 The underlined value is the preferred value in IS : 585-1962 Specification for voltages and frequency for ac transmission and distribution systems ( revised ). NOTE 3 Guidance for the choice between alternative rated withstand voltage combinations may be obtained from IS : 2165-1977 Specification for insulation coordination ( second revision ).

5.5 Insulation Requirements and Tests for the Neutral Terminal of a Winding with Non-uniform Insulation 5.5.1 General The necessary insulation level depends on whether the neutral terminal is intended to be directly earthed or not. In the latter case an overvoltage protective device should be installed on the 15

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 neutral terminal in order to limit transient over voltages otherwise non-uniform insulation of the winding is not recommended.
NOTE 5.5.2 and 5.5.3 deal with determination of the necessary minimum withstand voltage for the neutral terminal. An increase of the value may sometimes easily be arranged and can improve the interchangeability of the transformer in the system. It may also be necessary to design the winding with higher neutral insulation level because of the test connection to be used for the induced power-frequency test of the transformer ( see 11.3 ).

5.5.2 Neutral Terminal Intended to be Directly Earthed This is neutral terminal which is permanently connected to earth directly or through a current transformer but without any intentionally added impedance in the connection. 5.5.2.1 In this case the short-time power-frequency withstand voltage shall be at least 38 kV. 5.5.2.2 No impulse test on the neutral terminal is recommended. During impulse tests on a line terminal the neutral terminal shall be connected directly to earth. 5.5.3 Neutral Terminal not Intended to be Directly Earthed This is neutral terminal which is not permanently in direct connection to earth. This may be connected to earth through a considerable impedance (for example, arc-suppression coil earthing). Separate phase-winding neutral terminal may be connected to a regulating transformer. The rated voltage of the surge arrester which is to be installed for neutral protection shall be selected at least equal to the maximum power-frequency voltage under such conditions of system faults as are considered. 5.5.3.1 It is the responsibility of the user to select the overvoltage protective device, to determine its impulse protection level, and to specify the corresponding impulse withstand voltage for the neutral terminal of the transformer. A suitable standard value should preferably be selected from Table 2. The corresponding rated power-frequency withstand voltage from the table shall also apply. It should be checked that the power-frequency withstand voltage is greater than the above mentioned system-fault voltage. 5.5.3.2 The rated impulse withstand voltage of the neutral terminal is verified by either of the two tests described under 12.3.2. A chopped-wave impulse test on the neutral is not recommended. 6. TESTS ON A TRANSFORMER WITH A TAPPED WINDING 6.1 If the tapping range is 5 percent or less, the dielectric test shall be done with the transformer connected on the principal tapping. 16

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 6.2 If the tapping range is larger than 5 percent, the choice of tapping cannot be prescribed universally. Testing conditions determine the choice of tapping required for induced power-frequency test and for switching impulse test ( see 4 ). 6.3 Under lightning impulse test the dielectric stresses are distributed differently depending on the tapping connection and general design of the transformer. Unless impulse testing on a particular tapping has been agreed, the two extreme tappings and the principal tapping shall be used, one tapping for each of the three individual phases of a three-phase transformer or the three single-phase transformers designed to form a three-phase bank. 7. INSULATION REQUIREMENTS AND TEST CONDITIONS FOR DRY TYPE TRANSFORMERS 7.0 Pending preparation of a separate standard for dry type transformers the provisions of 7.1 shall apply. 7.1 Dry type transformers are not a uniform category with respect to insulation requirements and tests. The clauses of this standard are applicable when dry type transformers are intended for general power distribution in public or industrial systems. They are then designed in accordance with 5.2 and Table 2 (List 1 or 2). However, for application in particular systems where the insulation requirements are lower than in general, and where this has been proven by experience, dry type transformers not designed for impulse type tests and with even lower power frequency test voltage may be applied. No definite figures are recommended here. 8. REPEATED DIELECTRIC TESTS 8.1 If a transformer has already withstood complete dielectric acceptance tests according to this standard, in accordance with 5.2, 5.3 or 5.4.1, and subsequently acceptance tests are to be repeated, the test voltage levels shall be reduced to 75 percent of the original values, unless otherwise agreed, and provided that the internal insulation has not been modified in the meantime.
NOTE The rule does not apply to the induced power frequency overvoltage test ( see 11.4 ) on transformers specified in accordance with 5.4.2.

9. INSULATION OF AUXILIARY WIRING 9.1 Unless otherwise specified, the wiring for auxiliary power and control circuitry shall be subjected to a one-minute power-frequency withstand test with 2.0 kV rms to earth. Motors and other apparatus for auxiliary equipment shall fulfil insulation requirements according to the relevant Indian Standards (which are generally lower than the 17

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 value specified for the wiring alone and which may sometimes make it necessary to disconnect them in order to test the circuits).
NOTE Auxiliary equipment for large transformers is usually dismantled for shipment. After completion of erection on site a 1 000 V megohm meter test is recommended.

10. SEPARATE-SOURCE VOLTAGE WITHSTAND TEST 10.1 The separate-source voltage test shall be made with single-phase alternating voltage as nearly as possible to the sine-wave form and of any convenient frequency not less than 80 percent of the rated frequency. 10.2 The peak value of voltage shall be measured. The peak value divided by 2 shall be equal to the test value. 10.3 The test shall be commenced at a voltage not greater than one-third of the specified test value and shall be increased to this value as rapidly as is consistent with measurements. At the end of the test, the voltage shall be reduced rapidly to less than one-third of the test value before switching off. 10.4 The full test voltage shall be applied for 60s between the winding under test and all terminals of the remaining windings, core, frame and tank or casing of the transformer, connected together to earth. 10.5 The test shall be successful if no collapse of the test voltage occurs.
NOTE On windings with non-uniform insulation the test shall be carried out with only the test voltage specified for the neutral terminal. The line terminals therefore receive a modified induced overvoltage test in accordance with 11.3 or 11.4.

11. INDUCED OVERVOLTAGE WITHSTAND TEST 11.1 General The test shall be carried out in three alternative ways in accordance with 11.2, 11.3, or 11.4 for different categories of windings. 11.1.1 An alternating voltage shall be applied to the terminals of one winding of the transformer. The voltage shall be, as nearly as possible, to the sine-wave form and of a frequency suitably increased above the rated frequency to avoid excessive excitation current during the test. 11.1.2 The peak value of the induced test voltage shall be measured. The peak value divided by 2 shall be equal to the test value. 11.1.3 The test shall be commenced at a voltage not greater than one-third of the test value and shall be increased to the test value as rapidly as is consistent with measurement. At the end of the test, the voltage shall be reduced rapidly to less than one-third of the test value before switching off. 18

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 11.1.4 Unless otherwise specified in the subsequent clauses, the duration of the test at full test voltage shall be 60s for any test frequency up to and including twice the rated frequency. When the test frequency exceeds twice the rated frequency, the duration of the test shall be 120 rated frequency ----------------------------------------------------------- seconds, test frequency but not less than 15 seconds. 11.2 Induced Overvoltage Withstand Test for Transformers with Uniformly Insulated High-Voltage Winding The test voltage across an untapped winding of the transformer shall be equal to twice the rated voltage, but the line-to-line test voltage of any three-phase winding shall not exceed the rated withstand voltage as given in Table 2, col 2. 11.2.1 A three-phase winding shall preferably be tested with symmetrical three-phase voltages induced in the three winding phases. If the winding has a neutral terminal, this may be earthed during the test. 11.2.2 The test shall be successful if no collapse of the test voltage occurs. 11.3 Induced Phase-to-Earth Overvoltage Withstand Test for Transformer with Non-uniformly Insulated High-Voltage Windings Um < 300 kV ( see 5.3 ), or Um 300 kV, specified according to Method 1 ( see 5.4.1 ). 11.3.1 The line terminals shall receive the test voltage value specified in the appropriate table. 11.3.2 On single-phase transformers the test is normally carried out with the neutral terminal earthed. If the ratio between the windings is variable by tappings, this should be used to satisfy test voltage conditions on different windings simultaneously as far as possible. In exceptional cases ( see 4 ) the voltage on the neutral terminal may be raised by connection to an auxiliary booster transformer. Another winding of the transformer under test may also be connected in series with the high voltage winding. 11.3.3 The test sequence for a three-phase transformer consists of three single-phase applications of test voltage with different points of the winding connected to earth at each time. Recommended test connections which avoid excessive overvoltage between line terminals are shown in Fig. 1. There are also other possible methods. Other separate windings shall generally be earthed at the neutral if they are star-connected and at one of the terminals if they are delta-connected. 11.3.4 The voltage per turn during the test reaches different values depending on the test connection. The choice of a suitable test connection is determined by the characteristics of the transformer and of the test plant. 19

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981


NOTE In the case of transformers with complicated windings arrangements it is recommended that the complete connection of all windings during the test should be reviewed between manufacturer and user at the contract stage so that the test represents a realistic service stress combination as far as possible.

11.3.5 The test is successful if no collapse of the test voltage occurs.

FIG. 1

CONNECTIONS FOR SINGLE-PHASE INDUCED OVERVOLTAGE WITHSTAND TESTS ON TRANSFORMERS WITH NON-UNIFORM INSULATION

NOTE 1 Connection (a) may be used when the neutral is designed to withstand at least one-third of the voltage U. Three different generator connections to the low voltage winding are shown. Only (a1) is possible, if the transformer has unwound magnetic return paths (shell form or five-limb core form). NOTE 2 Connection (b) is possible and recommended for three-phase transformers having unwound magnetic return paths for the flux in the tested limb. If there is a delta-connected winding, it has to be open during the test. NOTE 3 Connection (c) shows an auxiliary booster transformer, which gives a bias voltage Ut at the neutral terminal of an auto-transformer under test. Rated voltages of the two auto-connected windings are Un1, Un2, and the corresponding test voltages, U1, U2. This connection may also be used for a three-phase transformer without unwound magnetic return paths having the neutral insulation designed for less than one-third of the voltage U.

20

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 11.4 Induced Overvoltage Withstand Test for Transformers with Non-uniformly Insulated High-Voltage Windings, Um 300 kV, Specified According to Method 2 (5.4.2) 11.4.1 The test applies to all non-uniformly insulated windings of the transformer, regardless of whether they are auto-connected or separate. 11.4.2 The neutral terminal of the winding under test shall be earthed. For other separate windings, if they are star-connected they shall be earthed at the neutral, and if they are delta-connected they shall be earthed at one of the terminals. A three-phase transformer shall be tested either phase by phase in a single-phase connection that gives voltages on the line terminals as shown in Fig. 2, or in symmetrical three-phase connection. The choice shall be agreed between the parties at the time of placing the order.

FIG. 2 CONNECTIONS FOR INDUCED OVERVOLTAGE WITHSTAND TEST ON NON-UNIFORMLY INSULATED HIGH VOLTAGE WINDING ACCORDING TO METHOD 2 11.4.3 The time sequence for the application of test voltage shall be as shown in Fig. 3. The voltage shall be switched on at a level not higher than one-third of U2, raised to U2, held there for a duration of 5 min, raised to U1, held there for a duration of 5 seconds, immediately reduced again without interruption to U2, held there for a duration of 30 min, and reduced to a value below one-third of U2 before switching off. 11.4.3.1 The duration of the test shall be independent of the test frequency. 11.4.4 During the whole application of test voltage partial discharge shall be monitored as described below. The apparent charge shall not be higher than a specified value q. 21

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981

FIG. 3

TIME SEQUENCE FOR THE APPLICATION OF TEST VOLTAGE

11.4.4.1 The test voltages between line and neutral terminals shall be expressed in per unit (PU) of Um/ 3 as follows: U1 shall be 3 . Um/ 3 = Um U2 shall be either 1.5 Um/ 3 with q = 500 pC or 1.3 Um/ 3 with q = 300 pC 11.4.4.2 The choice shall be as agreed to between the manufacturer and the user at the time of placing the order.
NOTE The values of q are provisional and subject to review in the light of experience.

11.4.4.3 The partial discharges shall be observed and evaluated as follows. Further information may be obtained from Appendix A, which, in turn, refers to IS : 6209-1971*. a) Measurements shall be carried out at the line terminals of all non-uniformly insulated windings, which means that the higher and lower voltage line terminals of an autoconnected pair of windings will be used simultaneously. b) The measuring channel from each terminal used shall be calibrated with repetitive impulses between the terminal and earth, and this calibration is used for the evaluation of readings during the test. c) The apparent charge measured at a specific terminal of the transformer, using the appropriate calibration as described in (b) shall refer to the highest steady-state repetitive impulses. Occasional higher kicks should be disregarded. d) Before and after the application of test voltage, the background noise level shall be recorded on all measuring channels.
*Methods for partial discharge measurements.

22

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 e) The background noise level shall be lower than half the specified limit for apparent charge q. f ) During the raising of voltage up to level U2 and reduction from U2 down again, possible inception and extinction voltages shall be noted. g) A reading shall be taken and noted during the first period at voltage U2. h) Observations during the short application of voltage U1 shall not be required. j ) During the whole of the second period at voltage U2, the partial discharge level shall be continuously observed and readings at intervals noted or recorded. 11.4.4.4 The test shall be successful, if: a) No collapse of the test voltage occurs, b) The continuous level of apparent charge q during the last 29 of the 30 min application of voltage U2 stays below the specified limit in all the measuring channels, and does not show a significant, steadily rising trend near this limit. If the apparent charge reading rises above the specified limit for a significant time and then returns below this level again the test may continue without interruption until acceptable readings have been obtained for 30 min. Occasional high kicks should be disregarded.
NOTE As long as no breakdown occurs, and unless very high partial discharges are sustained for a long time the test shall be regarded as non-destructive. A failure to meet the partial discharge acceptance criterion shall, therefore, not warrant immediate rejection but lead to consultation between user and manufacturer about further investigation. Suggestions for such procedures are given in Appendix A. Difficulties concerning the bushings are mentioned in 2.

12. LIGHTNING IMPULSE TEST 12.1 General The impulse generator circuit, impulse shape measuring equipment and calibration method shall be in accordance with IS : 2071 (Part I)-1974*, IS : 2071 (Part II)-1974 and IS : 2071 (Part III)-1976. 12.1.1 For oil-immersed transformers the test voltage chosen shall normally be of negative polarity, because this reduces the risk of erratic external flashover in the test circuit.

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IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 12.3.3 Transferred Surge Method 12.3.3.1 When the low voltage winding cannot in service be subjected to lightning overvoltages from the low voltage system, this winding may by an agreement between the manufacturer and the user, be impulse-tested with surges transferred from the high voltage winding. A guidance for this purpose is provided in Appendix B. 12.3.3.2 This method is justified when the design is such that an impulse directly applied to the low voltage winding could result in unrealistic stressing of higher voltage windings, particularly when there is a large tapping winding physically adjacent to the low voltage winding. 12.3.3.3 In applying the transferred surge method, the tests on the low voltage winding are carried out simultaneously with the impulse tests on the adjacent higher voltage winding. The line terminals of the low voltage winding are connected to earth through resistances of such value that the amplitude of transferred impulse voltage between line terminal and earth or between different line terminals or across a phase winding is as high as possible but not exceeding the rated impulse withstand voltage. The resistance shall not exceed 5 000 ohms. The wave at the low voltage winding terminals may have any shape and shall be acceptable. 12.3.3.4 The details of the procedure shall be agreed before the test. 12.4 Records of Test 12.4.1 The oscillographic recordes obtained during calibrations and tests shall clearly show the applied voltage impulse shape (front time, time to half value). 12.4.2 At least one more measurement channel shall be used. In most cases an oscillogram of the current flowing to earth from the tested winding will present the best sensitivity for fault indication. The current flowing from tank to earth, or the transferred voltage in a non-tested winding are examples of alternative suitable measuring quantities. 12.5 Test Criteria The absence of significant differences between voltage and current transients recorded at reduced voltage and those recorded at full test voltage constitute evidence that the insulation has withstood the test.
NOTE 1 The detailed interpretation of the oscillographic test records and discrimination of marginal disturbances from true records of failure require a great deal of skill and experience. NOTE 2 If there is doubt about the interpretation of possible discrepancies between oscillograms, three subsequent impulses at full voltage shall be applied, or the whole impulse test on the terminal shall be repeated.

26

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981


NOTE 3 Additional observations during the test (sound effect, etc) may be used to confirm the oscillographic records, but they do not constitute evidence in themselves.

13. TEST WITH LIGHTNING IMPULSE, CHOPPED ON THE TAIL 13.1 General This test is a special test to be carried out on line terminals of a winding. When it has been agreed to carry out this test it shall be combined with the full lightning impulse test in the manner described below test as per clause 12. The peak value of the chopped impulse shall be the same as for the full impulse. Usually, the same settings of the impulse generator and measuring equipment are used, and only the chopping gap equipment is added. The standard lightning impulse shall have a time to chopping between 2 to 6 microseconds. 13.2 Chopping Gap and Characteristics of the Chopping The use of a triggered-type chopping gap with adjustable timing is recommended although a plain rod-rod gap is allowed. The chopping circuit shall be so arranged that the amount of overswing to opposite polarity of the recorded impulse will be limited to not more than 30 percent of the amplitude of the chopped impulse. 13.3 Test Sequence and Test Criteria As indicated under 13.1, this test is combined with full impulse test in a single sequence. The recommended order of the different pulse applications is: a) one reduced full impulse, b) one 100 percent full impulse, c) one or more reduced chopped impulses, d) two 100 percent chopped impulses, and e) two 100 percent full impulses. 13.3.1 The same types of measuring channels and oscillograms as for the full impulse test ( see 12 ) shall be used. 13.3.2 In principle, the detection of faults during a chopped impulse test depends essentially on a comparison of the oscillographic records of 100 percent and reduced chopped impulses. The neutral current record (or any other supplementary recording) presents a superposition of transient phenomena due to the front of the original impulse and from the chopping. Account should therefore be taken of the possible variations, even slight, of the chopping time delay. The latter part of the oscillation pattern is then modified, and this effect is difficult to separate from the record of a fault. 27

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 13.3.3 The recordings of successive 100 percent full impulse tests constitute a supplementary criterion of a fault, but they do not constitute in themselves a quality criterion for the chopped impulse test. 14. SWITCHING IMPULSE TEST 14.1 General 14.1.1 Measuring equipment and calibration methods shall be in accordance with IS : 2071 (Part I)-1974*. The test is a routine test for windings with Um 300 kV specified according to Method 2 ( see 5.4.2 ). 14.1.2 The impulses shall be applied either directly from the impulse voltage source to a line terminal of the winding under test, or to a lower voltage winding so that the test voltage is inductively transferred to the winding under test. The specified test voltage shall appear between line and neutral terminals and the neutral shall be earthed. In a three-phase transformer the voltage developed between line terminals during the test shall be approximately 1.5 times the voltage between line and neutral terminals ( see 14.3 ). 14.1.3 The test voltage should normally be of negative polarity because this reduces the risk of erratic external flashover in the test circuit. 14.1.4 The voltage developed across different windings of the transformer are approximately proportional to their effective numbers of turns, and the test voltage shall be determined by the winding with the highest Um value ( see 4 ). 14.1.5 The voltage impulse shall have a virtual front time of at least 20 microseconds, a time above 90 percent of the specified amplitude of at least 200 microseconds, and a total duration from the virtual origin to the first zero passage of at least 500 microseconds.
NOTE 1 The impulse form is purposely different from the standard waveshape of 250/2 500 microseconds. NOTE 2 The front time shall be selected by the manufacturer so that the voltage distribution along the winding under test will be essentially uniform. Its value is usually less than 250 microseconds. During the test considerable flux is developed in the magnetic circuit. The impulse voltage can be sustained up to the instant when the core reaches saturation and the magnetizing impedance of the possible impulse duration can be increased by introducing remanence of opposite polarity before each full voltage test impulse. This is accomplished by lower voltage impulses of similar shape but opposite polarity or by temporary connection to a dc voltage source. *Methods of high voltage testing: Part I General definitions and test requirements ( first revision ).

28

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 14.2 Test Sequence and Records The test sequence shall consist of one impulse (calibration impulse) of a voltage between 50 percent and 75 percent of the full test voltage and three subsequent impulses at full voltage. If the oscillographic recording should fail, that application shall be disregarded and a further application made. Oscillographic records shall be obtained of at least the impulse wave-shape on the line terminal under test. 14.3 Terminal Connections 14.3.1 During the test the transformer shall be in a no-load condition in order to present sufficient impedance. Windings not used for the test shall be suitably earthed at one point but not short-circuited. For a single-phase transformer the neutral of the tested winding shall be earthed. 14.3.2 A three-phase winding shall be tested phase by phase with the neutral terminal earthed and with the transformer so connected that a voltage of opposite polarity and about half amplitude appears on the two remaining line terminals ( see Fig. 2 ). 14.3.3 Bushing spark gaps and additional means for limitation of overvoltages shall be as specified for the lightning impulse test ( see 12.1 ). 14.4 Test Criteria The test is successful if there is no sudden collapse of voltage indicated on the oscillograms.
NOTE However, the successive oscillograms may be different because of the influence of magnetic saturation on impulse duration.

14.4.1 Additional observations during the test (abnormal sound effects, etc) may be used to confirm the oscillographic records, but they do not constitute evidence in themselves. 15. INFORMATION REQUIRED WITH ENQUIRY AND ORDER 15.1 The technical information on insulation and dielectric tests to be supplied with the enquiry and order is given in Appendix C.

29

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981

APPENDIX A
( Clauses 2.5, 11.4.4.3 and 11.4.4.4 ) APPLICATION GUIDE FOR PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENTS DURING INDUCED OVERVOLTAGE WITHSTAND TEST ON TRANSFORMERS A-1. INTRODUCTION A-1.1 A partial discharge (PD) is an electric discharge that only partially bridges the insulation between conductors. In a transformer such a partial discharge causes a transient change of voltage to earth, at every externally available winding terminal. A-1.2 Measuring impedances are connected effectively between the earthed tank and the terminals, usually through a bushing tap or through a separate coupling capacitor as described under A-2. A-1.2.1 The actual charge transferred at the site of a partial discharge cannot be measured directly. The preferred measure of the intensity of a partial discharge is the apparent charge, q, as defined in 23.1 of IS : 6209-1971*. A-1.2.2 The apparent charge, q, related to any measuring terminal is determined by a suitable calibration ( see A-2 ). A-1.2.3 A particular partial discharge gives rise to different values of apparent charge at different terminals of the transformer. The comparison of simultaneously collected indications at different terminals may give information about the location of the partial discharge source within the transformer ( see A-5 ). A-1.2.4 The acceptance test procedure specified in the standard calls for measurement of apparent charge at the winding line terminals. This is considered to give sufficiently good sensitivity to arbitrary discharge sources irrespective of location, provided that the recommendations below are observed. The specified, tentative acceptance values of apparent charge are based on practical experience from partial discharge measurements on transformers which have in addition passed traditional ac dielectric tests.
*Methods for partial discharge measurements.

30

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 A-2. CONNECTION OF MEASURING AND CALIBRATION CIRCUITS CALIBRATION PROCEDURE A-2.1 The measuring equipment is connected to the terminals by matched coaxial cables. The measuring impedance in its simplest form is the matching impedance of the cable which may, in turn, be the input impedance of the measuring instrument. A-2.2 In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the complete measuring system, it may be convenient to make use of tuned circuits, pulse transformers, and amplifiers between the test object terminals and the cable. The circuit shall represent a reasonably constant resistance, when viewed from the test object terminals, throughout the frequency range used for the partial discharge measurement. A-2.3 During the measurement of partial discharge between a line terminal of a winding and the earthed tank, the preferred arrangement is to instal the measuring impedance effectively between the condenser bushing capacitance tap and the earthed flange (Fig. 4). If a capacitance tap is not provided it is also possible to insulate the bushing flange from the tank and use it as the measuring terminal. The

FIG. 4 CIRCUIT FOR PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT WHEN CONDENSER BUSHING CAPACITANCE TAP IS AVAILABLE 31

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 use it as the measuring terminal. The equivalent capacitances between the central conductor, the measuring terminal and earth work as an attenuator for the partial discharge signal. This is, however, covered by the calibration which takes place between the top terminal of the bushing and earth. A-2.4 If measurements have to be taken at a live terminal without any available condenser bushing tap (or insulated flange), the method with a high-voltage coupling capacitor shall be used. A partial discharge-free capacitor shall be used, and its capacitance value shall be suitably large in comparison with the calibration generator capacitance Co. The measuring impedance (with a protective gap) shall be connected between the low-tension terminal of the capacitor and earth ( see Fig. 5 ).

FIG. 5 CIRCUIT FOR PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT USING A HIGH-VOLTAGE COUPLING CAPACITOR A-2.5 The calibration of the complete measuring system is made by injecting known charges between the calibration terminals. A calibration generator in accordance with IS : 6209-1971* consists of a step voltage pulse generator with short rise time and a small series capacitor of known capacitance Co. The rise time should be not more than 0.1 microsecond and Co should be around 50 pF. When this
*Methods for partial discharge measurements.

32

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 generator is connected between two calibration terminals presenting a capacitance much greater than Co, the injected charge from the pulse generator will be q o = U . Co where U is the voltage step (usually 2 to 50 V). A-2.5.1 It is convenient if the calibration generator has a repetition frequency of the order of one impulse per half cycle of the power frequency used for the test on the transformer. A-2.5.2 If the calibration terminals are spaced far apart, there is a risk that stray capacitances from connecting leads may cause errors. One method for calibration between earth and another terminal is shown in Fig. 4. Capacitor Co shall then be placed at the high-voltage terminal and a coaxial cable with a matching resistor shall be used from the step voltage generator. A-2.5.3 If neither of the calibration terminals is earthed, capacitance from the pulse generator itself will also be a source of error. The generator shall preferably be battery-operated and have small physical dimensions. A-3. INSTRUMENTS AND FREQUENCY RANGE A-3.1 The instruments used shall have response characteristics in conformance with IS : 6209-1971*. A-3.2 Oscillographic monitoring of the test is generally useful, particularly because it offers possibility of discriminating between true partial discharge in the transformer and certain forms of external disturbances. This is based on rate of repetition, point on the wave, polarity differences, etc. A-3.3 The indications shall be observed continuously or at frequent intervals throughout the test period. Continuous recording by oscillograph or tape recorder is not obligatory. A-3.4 Measuring systems for partial discharges are classified as narrow-band or wide-band systems. A-3.4.1 A narrow-band system operates with a band width of about 10 kHz or less at a certain tuning frequency (for example radio noise meters). A wide-band system utilizes a relatively large ratio between upper and lower limit of the frequency band, for example, 150 to 50 kHz or even 400 to 50 kHz. A-3.4.2 By using a narrow-band system, interference from local broadcasting stations may be avoided by suitably adjusting the mid-band frequency, but a check has to be made to show that winding
*Methods for partial discharge measurements.

33

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 resonances near the measuring frequency do not greatly affect the measurement. The narrowrband instrument should be operated at a frequency not higher than 500 kHz, and preferably less than 300 kHz. There are two reasons for this first the transmission of the discharge pulse entails a high attenuation of the higher frequency components and second when applying a calibration pulse to the line terminal, the pulse is likely to excite local oscillations at and near the terminal, and this will complicate the calibration when mid-band frequencies greater than 500 kHz are used. A-3.4.3 A wide-band measuring system is less critical to attenuation and response to different pulse shapes and more receptive to disturbances in test locations without electromagnetic shielding. Band-stop filters may be used against radio transmitters. Identification of partial discharge sources by comparison of shape and polarity of individual pulses may be possible. A-4. TEST CRITERIA-PROCEDURE AFTER AN UNSUCCESSFUL TEST A-4.1 At the end of 11.4 acceptance criteria are given. The steady state partial discharge level, expressed as apparent charge measured between the prescribed measuring terminals shall not be above the specified limit, and there shall not be a significant, rising trend in the vicinity of this limit. If there has been no voltage collapse; but the test has been unsuccessful because of too high but still moderate partial discharge reading (within a few thousand PC or less) then the test is regarded as non-destructive. The test object shall not be rejected immediately upon such a result but further investigations shall be undertaken. The testing environment should first be investigated to find any obvious sign of irrelevant sources of partial discharges. This should be followed by consultations between the manufacturer and purchaser to agree to further supplementary tests or other action to show either the presence of serious partial discharge, or that the transformer is satisfactory for service operation. Below are some suggestions which may be useful during the above courses of action: a) Investigation whether the indications are truly correlated to the test sequence or just represent coincident, irrelevant sources. This is often facilitated by oscillographic monitoring of the test-disturbances may, for example, be identified by their being asynchronous with the test voltage. b) Investigation whether the partial discharge may be transmitted from the supply source. Low-pass filters on the supply leads to the transformer under test can help in such cases. 34

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 c) Investigation to determine whether the partial discharge source is within the transformer or outside (spitting from objects at floating potential in the hall, from live parts in air, or from sharp edges on earthed parts of the transformer). As the test concerns the internal insulation, provisional electrostatic shielding on the outside is permitted and recommended. d) Investigation of the probable location of the source (or sources) in terms of the electrical circuit diagram of the transformer. There are several known and published methods. One is based on correlation of readings and calibrations at different pairs of terminals (in addition to the obligatory readings between live terminal and earth). It is described in A-5. It is also possible to identify individual pulse shapes during the test with corresponding calibration wave forms, if records from wide-band circuits are used. A particular case is the identification of partial discharge in the dielectric of the condenser bushings ( see A-5 ). e) Investigation by acoustic or ultrasonic detection of the geographical location of the source or sources within the tank. f ) Determination of the probable physical nature of the source by conclusions drawn from variation with test voltage level, hysteresis effect, pulse pattern along the test voltage wave, etc. g) Partial discharge in the insulation system may be caused by insufficient drying or oil impregnation. Re-processing of the transformer, or a period of rest, and subsequent repetition of the test may, therefore, be tried. It is also well known that a limited exposure to a relatively high partial discharge may lead to local cracking of oil and temporarily reduced extinction and reinception voltages, but that the original conditions may be self-restored in a matter of hours. h) If the partial discharge indications are above the acceptance limit but are not considered as very important, it may be agreed to repeat the test, possibly with extended duration, and even with increased voltage level. Relatively limited variation of the partial discharge level with voltage increase, and absence of increase with time may be accepted as evidence that the transformer is suitable for service. j ) Traces of partial discharges, visible after untanking are usually not found unless the transformer has been exposed for a considerable duration of time to levels which are very high in comparison with the acceptance limit. Such a procedure may be the last resort if other means of improving the behaviour of the transformer or identifying the source have failed. 35

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 A-5. LOCATION OF PARTIAL DISCHARGE SOURCES BY MEANS OF MULTI-TERMINAL MEASUREMENT AND PROFILE COMPARISON A-5.1 An arbitrary partial discharge source will deliver signals at all accessible measuring terminal pairs of the transformer, and the pattern of these signals is a unique fingerprint. If calibration pulses are fed in at alternative calibration terminal pairs, these pulses also deliver characteristic combinations of signals at the measuring pairs. If there is an evident correlation between the profile of the test readings at different measuring terminal pairs and the profile obtained at the same measuring terminals for pulses fed in at particular pair of calibration terminals, then it is assumed that the actual partial discharge source is closely associated with this calibration pair. This means that it is possible to draw a conclusion as to the location of the partial discharge source in terms of the electric circuit diagram of the transformer. The physical location is different concept a partial discharge source which is electrically located in the vicinity of a particular terminal may be physically located at any place along the terminal conductors associated with this terminal or at the corresponding end of the winding structure. A-5.2 The procedure for obtaining the profile comparison is as follows: While the calibration generator is connected to a specific pair of a calibration terminals, the indications at all pairs of measuring terminals are observed. The procedure is then repeated for other pairs of calibration terminals. Calibrations are made between winding terminals and earth, but may also be applied between the live terminals of the high voltage bushings and their capacitance taps (simulating partial discharge in the bushing dielectric) between high voltage and neutral terminals, and between high-voltage and low-voltage winding terminals. All combinations of calibration and measuring pairs form a calibration matrix which gives the interpretation reference for the readings in the actual test. The example, Fig. 6, shows an extra high-voltage single-phase auto-connected transformer with a low voltage tertiary winding. Calibrations and tests are made with reference to the terminals as indicated in the informal table in Fig. 6. The line with results at 1.5 Um is compared with different calibrations and it is easy to see, in this 36

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 case, that it corresponds best to calibration 2.1 earth. This suggests that there are partial discharges with apparent charge of the order of 1 500 pC, associated with terminal 2.1, and probably from live parts to earth. The physical location may be at any place along the connecting leads between the series winding and the common winding, or at the adjacent winding ends. The method as described is successful mainly in those cases where one distinct source of partial discharge is dominant, and the background noise is low. This is certainly not always the case.

Channel

Calibration 1.1-earth 2 000 pC 2.1-earth 2 000 pC 2.2-earth 2 000 pC 3.1-earth 2 000 pC Test U=0 U = Um U = 1.5 Um

FIG. 6 IDENTIFICATION OF PD SOURCES


1.1 2.1 2.2 arbitrary units 20 50 10 2 < 0.5 < 0.5 40 3.1 50 5 2 3 < 0.5 < 0.5 6 5 30 350 35 < 0.5 0.5 25 10 8 4 25 < 0.5 0.5 8

37

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 A particular case of interest is to determine whether observed partial discharges may originate in the high-voltage bushing dielectric. This is investigated by a calibration between bushing line terminal and bushing capacitance tap. This calibration gives the closest correlation to the profile of partial discharges in the bushing.

APPENDIX B
( Clause 12.3.3.1 ) OVERVOLTAGE TRANSFERRED FROM THE HIGH-VOLTAGE WINDING TO A LOW-VOLTAGE WINDING B-1. GENERAL B-1.1 The problem of transferred overvoltage is treated from a system viewpoint in IS : 2165-1977*. The information given below concerns only problems associated with the transformer itself under particular conditions of service. The transferred overvoltages to be considered are either transient surges or power frequency overvoltages. B-2. TRANSFER OF SURGE VOLTAGE B-2.1 General A study of a particular transformer installation with regard to transferred surge overvoltages is in general justified only for large generator transformers which have a high turns ratio and for large high-voltage system transformers with a low voltage tertiary winding. It is convenient to distinguish between two mechanisms of surge transfer, namely, capacitive transfer and inductive transfer. B-2.2 Capacitive Transfer B-2.2.1 The capacitive transfer of overvoltage to a low voltage winding may in the first approximation be described as a capacitive voltage division. The simplest equivalent circuit as seen from the low voltage winding consists of an emf source in series with a transfer capacitance Ct ( see Fig. 7 ). B-2.2.2 The equivalent emf is a fraction of the incoming surge on the high voltage side. Ct is of the order of 109 F. Cs and Ct are not well-defined quantities but dependent on the shape of the surge front. They can be determined together by oscillographic measurements. Pre-calculation is uncertain.
*Specification for insulation coordination ( second revision ).

38

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981

FIG. 7

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT FOR CAPACITIVE TRANSFER OF OVERVOLTAGE

B-2.2.3 A loading of the secondary terminals with switchgear, short cables or added capacitors (a few nF), which act as lumped capacitance Cs directly on the terminals (even during the first microsecond), will reduce the transferred overvoltage peak. Longer cables or busbars are represented by their wave impedance. The resulting shape of secondary overvoltage will normally have the character of a short (microsecond) peak, corresponding to the front of the incoming surge. B-2.3 Inductive Transfer The inductive transfer of surge voltage depends on the flow of surge current in the high-voltage winding. If no external loading is applied to the secondary winding, the voltage transient usually has a super-imposed damped oscillation with a frequency determined by leakage inductance and winding capacitances. A reduction of the inductively transferred overvoltage component can be effected either by resistive damping through a surge diverter or by modification of the oscillation with capacitive loading. If capacitors are used, the capacitance value has usually to be of the order of tenths of microfarads. (They will therefore automatically eliminate the capacitively transferred component so long as the circuit inductance is low.) The transformer parameters which are involved in inductive surge transfer are better defined and less dependent on rate of rise (or frequency). 39

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 B-3. POWER FREQUENCY TRANSFERRED OVERVOLTAGE B-3.1 If a low voltage winding, which is physically adjacent to the high voltage winding, is left without connection to earth or with only a high-impedance connection to earth while the high voltage winding is energized, there is a risk of power frequency overvoltage by capacitance division. B-3.2 The risk is obvious for a single-phase winding, but it can also exist for a three-phase winding if the primary winding voltage becomes asymmetric, as occurs during earth faults. Under particular circumstances resonance conditions may arise. B-3.3 Tertiary winding and stabilizing windings in large transformers are also subjected to the same risk. It is the responsibility of the user to prevent a tertiary winding being accidentally left with too high an impedance to earth. A stabilizing winding should normally be arranged for permanent connection to earth (tank) either externally or internally. The overvoltage is determined by capacitances between windings and between windings and earth. These can be measured at low frequency from the terminals of the transformer in different combinations, and they can also be calculated with sufficient accuracy.

APPENDIX C
( Clause 15.1 ) INFORMATION ON TRANSFORMER INSULATION AND DIELECTRIC TESTS TO BE SUPPLIED WITH AN ENQUIRY AND WITH A TENDER C-1. For all windings: a) Value of Um. b) Rated withstand voltages constituting the insulation level for line terminals. 40

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981 c) Whether the winding is to have uniform or non-uniform insulation and in the case of non-uniform insulation, the power frequency withstand voltage of the neutral. d) Whether a rated impulse withstand level is assigned to the neutral, and, in such case, the appropriate withstand voltage. e) Whether the lightning impulse test on the line terminals shall be extended to include a chopped impulse test. C-2. For Transformers Having a High-Voltage Winding with Um 300 kV: a) Whether the transformer shall be specified and tested according to Method I or Method 2 ( see 5.4 ). b) If the transformer shall be specified according to Method 2, a choice shall be made between alternative procedures for the induced overvoltage withstand test in accordance with 11.4. C-3. It is further recommended that test connections and procedures should be discussed before the time of testing particularly with regard to the connection for induced overvoltage test on complicated transformers with non-uniformly insulated high-voltage winding ( see 11.3.4, Note ) and the method to be used for impulse tests on high-power low-voltage windings and neutral terminals ( see 12.3 ).

41

IS : 2026 (Part III) - 1981


( Continued from page 2 ) Members SHRI S. D. CHOTRANEY SHRI Y. K. PALVANKAR ( Alternate ) DIRECTOR (SUBSTATIONS) SHRI P. K. DWIVEDI SHRI A. K. GUPTA SHRI MOINUDDIN ( Alternate ) SHRI INDERJIT SINGH KALRA Representing Bombay Electric Supply and Transport Undertaking, Bombay Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd, New Delhi UP State Electricity Board, Lucknow Bhakra Beas Management Board, Chandigarh Crompton Greaves Ltd, Bombay Hindustan Brown Boveri Ltd, Howrah

SHRI S. V. MANERIKAR SHRI I. S. PATEL SHRI M. S. DHARWADKAR ( Alternate ) SHRI P. K. PHILIP Transformers & Electricals Kerala Ltd, Ernakulam Voltas Ltd (Motor and Transformer Plant), SHRI V. N. PRAHLAD SHRI J. R. MAHAJAN ( Alternate ) Bombay Kirloskar Electric Co Ltd, Bangalore SHRI S. G. RAMACHANDRA Maharashtra State Electricity Board, Bombay SHRI N. J. RONGHE SHRI A. J. KHAN ( Alternate ) Tata-Hydro Electric Power Supply Co Ltd, SHRI A. M. SAHNI SHRI R. CHANDRAMOULI ( Alternate ) Bombay Rural Electrification Corporation Ltd, New SHRI P. K. SAXENA Delhi NGEF Ltd, Bangalore SHRI K. G. SHANMUKHAPPA SHRI K. V. JAYADEV ( Alternate ) SHRI R. SRINIVASAN Research, Designs and Standards Organization, Lucknow The General Electric Co of India Ltd, SHRI B. A. SUBRAMANYAM Allahabad

42

Bureau of Indian Standards BIS is a statutory institution established under the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986 to promote harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods and attending to connected matters in the country. Copyright BIS has the copyright of all its publications. No part of these publications may be reproduced in any form without the prior permission in writing of BIS. This does not preclude the free use, in the course of implementing the standard, of necessary details, such as symbols and sizes, type or grade designations. Enquiries relating to copyright be addressed to the Director (Publications), BIS. Review of Indian Standards Amendments are issued to standards as the need arises on the basis of comments. Standards are also reviewed periodically; a standard along with amendments is reaffirmed when such review indicates that no changes are needed; if the review indicates that changes are needed, it is taken up for revision. Users of Indian Standards should ascertain that they are in possession of the latest amendments or edition by referring to the latest issue of BIS Catalogue and Standards : Monthly Additions. This Indian Standard has been developed by Technical Committee : ETDC 16 Amendments Issued Since Publication Amend No. Amd. No. 1 Date of Issue March 1994

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