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Three-phase Four-wire Shunt Active Power Filter

Based on DSP
Lezhu CHEN
1,2
Zhoujun JIA
1
1. Key Lab of Power Electronics & Motion Control 2. State Key Laboratory of Power System
Anhui University of Technology Tsinghua University
Maanshan243002, Anhui Province, China Beijing 100084, China
e-mail:chenlezhu@163.com e-mail:jiazj03@126.com
Abstract-The configuration and principle of shunt active power
filter is introduced briefly in this paper. A digitally controlled
shunt active power filter based on double DSP is designed for the
three-phase four-wire system. The main circuit of the shunt
active power filter selects a four-leg voltage-source inverter, and
a dynamic hysteresis-band current control is used to track the
current. A control strategy based on the instantaneous reactive
power theory is given in consideration of the source voltage
becoming distorted and unbalanced. The facility can compensate
harmonic and reactive power completely for three-phase
four-wire system. The hardware configuration, flow chart of
software, derivation of compensating signal and derivation of
PWM waves are analyzed. The validity and correctness of the
filter are proved in experiment.
Keywords-Active power filter; harmonics; digital signal
processor; power quality
. INTRODUCTION
The extensive use of non-linear loads results that the
harmonic increases in the power system, and the power
quality deteriorate. Harmonic suppression and reactive power
compensation have great significance to improve the grid
stability. Using LC filters is the traditional approach to
suppress harmonics, but it can only compensate for the
fixed-frequency harmonics, and compensation properties is
affected by grid load and the operation modes, otherwise the
parallel resonance occurs easily with the system, so it is no
longer satisfied with the development of modern power
systems. Active Power Filter (APF) can suppress harmonics
dynamically, compensate reactive power and eliminate the
asymmetric loads, also can overcome the shortcomings of LC
filter
[1-3]
.
The compensation performance of APF depends largely on
the control methods, its control system consists of the
computing circuit of the command current and the controller
of compensation current. The computing circuit of command
current is to detect the harmonic current of the compensation
object, whether detection of harmonic currents is real-time
and accurate affects the compensation performance of APF
directly.
This paper analyzes the working principle, the control
method and circuit structure of shunt APF, based on the design
of hardware circuits and software parts, the realization of DSP
digital control for APF has been studied and gone through
experimental verification.
]. THE MAIN CIRCUIT AND WORKING PRINCIPLE
Three-phase four-wire shunt APF main circuit structure is
shown in Fig. 1. The load is chosen as three-phase rectifier
load which power system uses commonly. The output of
command current used in power circuit is four-leg inverter
bridges, the four-leg inverter DC side choose three
DC-capacitors in series as energy storage components of
inverter bridge. The high-pass filter is placed at the inverter
output side, the high frequency harmonics in the vicinity of
IGBT working frequency are filtered in order to reduce the
secondary pollution of the power system.
sa
i
la
i
c
i
*
c
i
s
i
l
i
a
E
c
U
Figure 1. the main circuit of the shunt APF
The underlying principle of APF is that the load current is
sampled and calculated fast, as for that the harmonic current is
caught. Through the compensation current generating circuits
the load harmonic current is rejected in the grid connection
point of power system and load, so that the supply current is
sinusoidal. APF is an arbitrary current generator in fact, which
can generate the load harmonic currents so that the input
current of required power is sinusoidal.
]. HARMONIC CURRENT DETECTION METHOD
AND CONTROL STRATEGY
The harmonic current detection is a very important part in
APF, which determines the performance of APF in a certain
extent. The detection methods of harmonic current which is
used much are: the Fast Fourier decomposition method in
948 978-1-4244-5046-6/10/$26.00 c 2010 IEEE
frequency domain; theory of instantaneous reactive power
which are p-q method, i
p
-i
q
method
[4-5]
in the time domain.
The control strategies used broadly are hysteresis current
control, triangular wave modulation, space vector control,
neural network control and so on. In our design, taking into
account computing speed and accuracy of the harmonic
current detection, we choose the i
p
-i
q
method, through the
current regulation of active current i
p
and reactive current i
q
we can control inner current and outer voltage. The control
algorithm is shown in Fig. 2. The transient current of
three-phase four-wire load, which are respectively i
a
, i
b
, i
c
, i
0
,
containing some certain harmonic current components. The
load current is transferred to be instantaneous active current i
p
and reactive current i
q
through coordinate transformation. In
the Three-phase four-wire circuit,i
a
,i
b
,i
c
contain zero-sequence
component; the zero-sequence component is equal, and it is
( )
3
a b c
o
i i i
i
+ +
= (1)
This zero sequence component is removed from every phases
currents, then that is
'
'
'
a a o
b b o
c c o
i i i
i i i
i i i
=

(2)
After that i
a
, i
b
, i
c
contain the positive and negative
sequence components only, so that fundamental positive
sequence component can be obtained with i
a

, i
b

, i
c

testing,
the fundamental positive sequence component subtract from i
a
,
i
b
, i
c
, so that we can obtain harmonics, fundamental negative
sequence, zero-sequence, including the final testing results.
The diagram of harmonic current detection is shown in Fig. 2.
sin t
cos t
32
C C
b
i
i

i
q
i
C

23
C
af
i
bf
i
cf
i
ah
i
bh
i
ch
i
f
i

f
i

a
e
p
i
3

a
i

+
+
+
c
i
+
+
+

o
i
q
i
p
i
Figure 2. The illustration of harmonic current detection
'
'
'
'
'
32
'
sin cos
cos sin
1 1 2 1 2
2
3 0 3 2 3 2
p
q
a
b
c
a
b
c
i t t
i t t
i
i
i
i
C C i
i


| | (
=
| (

\ .
(
(
(
=
(
(


(

(
(

(
(

(3)
Phase A voltage e
a
imports the phase-locked loop (PLL),
PLL exports the sine and cosine signal circuit which produce
sinusoidal signals in phase with the e
a
. the i
p
, i
q
obtain their
DC component
p
i
and
q
i
by low-pass filter (LPF), which
corresponds to the fundamental positive sequence component
of i
a
,i
b
,i
c
. Our design compensate three-phase current
harmonics only, so
p
i
and
q
i
participate in anti-transformation
at the same time, if we need to compensate harmonics and
reactive power components at the same time, then you only
need to consider the inverse transform of
p
i
. We get
non-harmonic current components of the three-phase current
after inverse transform, three-phase load current is subtracted
from the current to get the reference compensated current
value i
ah
, i
bh
and i
ch
. The reference compensation current
signal is sent to the controller and PWM drive signals are
generated to drive four-leg inverter-bridge, then the inverter
exports compensation current. The voltage of DC side
capacitors should be controlled to maintain a certain value,
thus that APF could get better compensation effect.
In the control strategy, hysteresis current control is used in
the PWM modulation for the principle of current tracking
control, not only we could achieve the rapid control of the
current, but also we could control the IGBT's switching
frequency effectively. Fig. 3 shows that in one phase, in this
way,command signal
c
i

generated by command current
calculation circuits compares with the actual compensation
current signal i
c
, and the deviation . i
c
is got from
comparison, which imports the hysteresis comparator, the
hysteresis comparator generates PWM signal to control the
main circuit, this signal passes through another
complementary pulse and dead generating circuit, then
generates a pair of complementary driving pulses of control
signal within dead zone, the control signal have been sent to
the final stage driver circuit to drive the corresponding bridge
arms of IGBT, which could achieve the control of current i
c
.
c
i

c
i
c
i

+

Figure 3. Hysteresis control of PWM modulation current tracking


implementation schematic
|. HARDWIRE DESIGN OF SYSTEM
APF requires the real-time higher to get nice
compensation effect as the system demanding. The system
adopts two TMS320F2812 DSP chips to achieve digital
control
[6-7]
. One is main chip, the other is serial-ports chip,
F2812 is a powerful fixed-point DSP used in control area,
2010 5th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applicationsis 949
which runs at 150MIPS with rich peripheral.
The hardware is divided into measurement, control circuit
and main circuit. In detection circuits, the grid side connects
with Hall current sensors, then three-phase current signal will
be converted into a voltage signal that range from -4V to +4V,
at the last the signal is converted into 0V~+3.3V level signals
by the conditioning circuit, then the voltage signal matched
with DSP is sent to the A/D chips. The voltage signal of Phase
A is converted into 15V through the isolation transformer, the
signal passes through the filter circuits and zero-crossing
comparator, and then generates a square wave whose signal is
carried into the PLL circuit, the last square wave is 128
multiplier. Fig. 4 shows the main printed circuit board of the
control box.
Figure 4. The PCB of the main circuit in the control box
Four-leg inverter bridges are chosen in the part of the main
power circuit, our design selects discrete components to
reduce the cost. IGBT selects SKM100GB128D from
SEMIKRON corporation, the driving module is SKYPER
TM2 from this company, the main control circuit produces
driving signal into the driving circuit board, finally the
SKYPER TM2 on-board card generates driving signal into the
IGBT gate.
. SOFTWARE PROCESS OF SYSTEM
The software process of APF digital control is shown in
Fig. 5. Firstly, the system begins to initialize registers and
assign the value of all constant and variable. The system judge
whether the DC side voltage reach the given value, if not the
system will wait in a loop until reaching the given value, then
the system determine whether it is necessary to exchange the
phase sequence or amend it, and then break the interruption,
go into the waiting loop. The program flow of sampling
interrupt is shown in Fig. 6. External PLL multiplier signal
spring the capture of interrupt, the A/D conversion begins in
the interrupt subroutine, to determine whether the 256-point
sampling points are caught, the pointer reset if the sampling
points are enough, otherwise the pointer plus one. After the
A/D conversion is completed, the software system will read
and process the A/D data, and then complete the calculation
and export the fundamental current. As well as the protection
of the light-load, over current and overvoltage are carried out
in the program. The final adoption of D/A export the reference
value of the command current. In the restoration, the software
system return to the main program after the interrupt in
service is completed. In the interrupt, the harmonic current
calculation include matrix transformation of the addition and
multiplication operations, low-pass filter operation, PI
regulator operation of the DC side voltage, matrix inverse
transform and so on. In the program, the sampling frequency
of cosine table is saved in 256 points per power frequency
cycle, stored in successive addresses of 256 units. The address
units move backward one after every completion of sample
interrupt. When the voltage of Phase A passage zero, the
address units return back to the tables head. In order to
prevent the cosine table go to the end of the table, when
interrupts synchronous with the voltage of Phase A passage
zero have not come yet, then the cosine table maybe go to an
unknown address into the next unit, so in the design of the
program, if the cosine table go to the end, the software system
will reset cosine table to the tables head, the lookup time of
cosine table must be same with the voltage of Phase A passage
zero.
Figure 5. Flow chart of the main program
Figure 6. Flow chart of the sampling interrupt
\. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
According to Fig. 1 structural, we design a 10A shunt APF
experimental device, the phase voltage RMS of power supply
is 220V, the filter inductance is 0.6mH, the DC side capacitors
is polar screw-type aluminum electrolytic, the capacitors are
three in series, every capacitor is 6800 F , whose withstand
voltage is 400V DC voltage. The maximum frequency of the
main circuit is designed to 15 kHz, the harmonic load is a
15kW inverter. The experimental waveforms are collected
from the output of FLUKE434 tables i5s current clamp, what
shown in Fig.7 and Fig. 8 respectively are the waveforms and
950 2010 5th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applicationsis
the harmonic situation of the power grids Phase A current
before compensation. What shown in Fig. 9 and Fig. 10
respectively are the waveforms and the harmonic situation of
the power grids Phase A current after compensation. the
harmonic content of supply current can be seen significantly
reduced after compensation.
Figure 7. Current of Phase A before Compensation
Figure 8. Harmonic current of Phase A before Compensation
Figure 9. Current of Phase A after Compensation
Figure 10. Harmonic current of Phase A after Compensation
\. CONCLUSION
In this paper, DSP chip of TMS320F2812 is chosen, we
design a fast method of calculating harmonic currents and
implement a digital controlled shunt APF. This paper
introduces the hardware and software structure of the APF.
The real-time of the digital control system is verified in
experiment, which shows that the APF has nice compensation
performance.
*Fund Project: Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of
Power System Foundation of China (SKLD09KZ06); Natural
Science Foundation of Educational Department Anhui
Province (KJ2009A008Z).
klllkl\Cl
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CHEN Le-zhu(1964 -), male, professor, his research interests
include power quality management and the improvement of
harmonics;
JIA Zhou-jun(1984 -), male, master, his research interests
include the improvement of harmonics.
2010 5th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applicationsis 951