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2012

CIE

AS & A LEVEL PHYSICS

VII Gathering and communicating information

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28. Direct sensing Characteristics of an ideal operational amplifier: infinite (voltage) gain infinite input impedance zero output impedance infinite bandwidth infinite slew rate Explain what is meant by virtual earth. 1. op-amp has very large / infinite gain M1 2. non-inverting input is at earth (potential) / earthed / at 0 V M1 3. if amplifier is not to saturate, inverting input must be (almost) 4. at earth potential / 0 (V) same potential as inverting input State the effects of negative feedback. 1. 2. 3. 4. reduces gain increases bandwidth less distortion greater stability

Suggest a use for the following circuit.

1. digital-to-analogue converter (allow DAC) 2. adding / mixing signals with weighting

29. Remote sensing

Explain the main principles behind the generation of ultrasound to obtain information about internal body structures. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. either quartz or piezo-electric crystal B1 opposite faces /two sides coated (with silver) to act as electrodes B1 either molecular structure indicated or centres of (+) and () charge not coincident B1 potential difference across crystal causes crystal to change shape B1 alternating voltage (in US frequency range) applied across crystal B1 causes crystal to oscillate / vibrate B1 (crystal cut) so that it vibrates at resonant frequency B1

Explain the principles behind the use of ultrasound to obtain diagnostic information about the structures within the body. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. pulse of ultrasound (directed into body) reflected at boundary (between tissues) (reflected pulse is) detected and processed time for return of echo gives (information on) depth amount of reflection gives information on tissue structures

Explain the main principles behind the use of ultrasound to obtain diagnostic information about the internal body structures. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. pulse of ultrasound (1) reflected at boundaries / boundary (1) received / detected (at surface) by transducer (1) signal processed and displayed (1) time between transmission and receipt of pulse gives (information about) depth of boundary (1) reflected intensity gives information as to nature of boundary (1)

State what is meant by acoustic impedance. product of density (of medium) and speed of sound (in medium)

Explain why acoustic impedance is important when considering reflection of ultrasound at the boundary between two media. 1. difference in acoustic impedance 2. determines fraction of incident intensity 3. that is reflected/amount of reflection It is the change in the acoustic impedance at a boundary that governs the fraction of incident wave intensity that is reflected.

Explain the principles of CT scanning.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

X-ray taken of slice / plane / section B1 repeated at different angles B1 images / data is processed B1 combined / added to give (2-D) image of slice B1 repeated for successive slices B1 to build up a 3-D image B1 image can be viewed from different angles / rotated

By reference to the principles of CT scanning, suggest why CT scanning couldnt be developed before powerful computers were available. 1. X-ray image of slice taken from many different angles (1) 2. these images are combined (and processed) (1) 3. repeated for many different slices (1) 4. to build up a 3-D image (1) 5. 3-D image can be rotated (1) 6. computer required to store and process huge quantity of data (1)

Typical spectrum of the X-ray beam:

Continuous spectrum of wavelengths is produced. 1. e.m. radiation / photons is produced whenever a charged particle is decelerated..M1 2. wavelength depends on magnitude of deceleration ............................................. A1 3. electrons have a distribution of decelerations ..................................................... A1 4. so continuous spectrum ...................................................................................... A0 X-ray radiation is produced when the electrons are decelerated at the metal target. Since the electrons have a distribution of decelerations, there will be a continuous spectrum of wavelengths produced because the wavelength is dependent upon the magnitude of the deceleration.

The spectrum has a sharp cut-off at short wavelengths 1. either when electron loses all its energy in one collision 2. or when energy of electron produces a single photon It corresponds to an electron that is stopped in one collision in the target so that all of its kinetic energy is given up as one photon.

It has sharp peaks.

These sharp peaks correspond to the emission line spectrum of the target metal and are, therefore, a characteristic of the target. The electrons that bombard the target excite orbital electrons in the lower energy levels and the subsequent de-excitation of electrons gives rise to the line spectrum. Explain what is meant by linear absorption coefficient. 1. parallel beam (in matter) ..................................................................................... B1 2. I = I0 exp(-x) ....................................................................................................M1 3. I, I0, () and x explained ..................................................................................... A1 When a parallel beam having incident intensity, I0 , passes through a medium of thickness x, the transmitted intensity, I, is given by the expression I = I0e-x where is the linear absorption coefficient. Why is it advantageous to filter out the low-energy photons from the X-ray beam (using aluminium filters)? 1. either low-energy photons absorbed (much) more readily or low-energy photons (far) less penetrating ............................................... B1 2. low-energy photons do not contribute to X-ray image ........................................ B1 3. low energy photons could cause tissue damage ................................................ B1 They are far less penetrating and hence would not contribute towards the X-ray image. Such longwavelength photons would add to the radiation dose received by the person, causing tissue damage, without serving any useful purpose. Hence its better to filter them out. Explain the principles behind the use of X-rays for imaging internal body structures. 1. 2. 3. 4. X-ray beam directed through body onto detector (plate) B1 different tissues absorb/attenuate beam by different amounts B1 giving shadow image of structures B1 any other detail e.g. comment re sharpness or contrast B1

Describe how the image produced during CT scanning differs from that produced by X-ray imaging. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. X-ray image is flat OR 2-dimensional (1) CT scan takes many images of a slice at different angles (1) these build up an image of a slice through the body (1) series of images of slices is made (1) so that 3D image can be built up (1) image can then be rotated (1)

Outline briefly the main principles of the use of magnetic resonance to obtain information about internal body structures. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. large / strong (constant) magnetic field B1 nuclei rotate about direction of field / precess (1) radio frequency / r.f. pulse B1 causes resonance in nuclei , nuclei absorb energy (1) (pulse) is at the Larmor frequency (1)

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

on relaxation / nuclei de-excite emit (pulse of) r.f. B1 detected and processed B1 non-uniform field (superimposed) B1 allows for position of nuclei to be determined B1 and for location of detection to be changed (1) large / 1 T magnetic field applied along body (allow across) (1) r.f. pulse applied ............................................................................................................... (1) causes hydrogen nuclei / protons ..................................................................................... (1) to resonate ....................................................................................................................... (1) (nuclei) return to equilibrium state / after relaxation time ................................................. (1) r.f. (pulse) emitted ............................................................................................................ (1) pulses detected, processed and displayed ...................................................................... (1) resonant frequency depends on magnetic field strength .................................................. (1) calibrated non-uniform field enables nuclei to be located ................................................ (1)

A large magnetic field is applied along the body which in turn causes the nuclei to rotate about the direction of the field as they spin. A pulse of radio waves of frequency equal to the Larmor frequency is then applied, which causes the nuclei to resonate, absorbing energy. After relaxation time, the nuclei return to the equilibrium state and the r.f. pulse is emitted by the nuclei. These pulses are detected, processed and displayed. In order to locate a particular position of the hydrogen nuclei within the person, a non-uniform magnetic field is superimposed on uniform field, and is calibrated so that theres a unique value of magnetic field strength at each point in the person, thereby allowing for position of nuclei to be determined and for location of detection to be changed.

30. Communicating information

State what is meant by the attenuation of a signal. loss / reduction in power / energy / voltage/ amplitude (of the signal) Explain what is meant by frequency modulation. frequency of carrier wave varies (in synchrony) with signal (in synchrony) with displacement of signal Advantages of FM e.g. less noise / less interference greater bandwidth / better quality Disadvantages of FM e.g. short range / more transmitters / line of sight more complex circuitry greater expense State why the cost of FM broadcasting to a particular area is greater than that of AM broadcasting. 1. more radio stations required / shorter range 2. more complex electronics 3. larger bandwidth required How can the reproduction of the analogue signal be improved? 1. sample more frequently 2. greater number of bits State and explain two advantages of the transmission of information in digital, rather than analogue, form. 1. e.g. signal can be regenerated .................................................................................M1 so that there is minimal noise .................................................................................... A1 2. e.g. extra data can be added ....................................................................................M1 so that signal can be checked for errors .................................................................... A1 Analogue to Digital conversion: Note that when sampling, the number representing the sample would be the whole number below the actual value of the sampled voltage. For example, if 11.4V was to be converted, then the 4-bit number would be 1011. And if it was 11.8V, itd also be 1011. Explain what is meant by cross-talk. 1. picking up of signal in one cable 2. from a second (nearby) cable

Explain what is meant by noise. 1. random (unwanted) signal / power 2. that masks / added to / interferes with / distorts transmitted signal Suggest why infra-red radiation rather than visible light is usually used with optic fibres. 1. IR has less attenuation (per unit length) B1 2. fewer (repeater) amplifiers / longer uninterrupted length B1 Suggest why for satellite communication, frequencies of the order of GHz are used, with the uplink having a different frequency to the downlink. 1. large bandwidth / large information carrying capacity B1 2. different so that uplink signal not swamped by downlink B1 Suggest and explain why the country is divided into a number of cells. 1. carrier frequencies can be re-used (simultaneously without interference) ...................B1 2. so that number of handsets possible is increased .......................................................B1 OR 1. anything sensible e.g. UHF used (B1) 2. so line of sight (B1) It is divided into a number of cells so that the same carrier frequency can be used by many mobile phones at the same time without interference. Suggest why the base stations in mobile phone networks operate on UHF. 1. either limited range B1 2. (so) cells do not overlap (appreciably) B1 [2] or 1. short wavelength (B1) 2. so convenient length aerial (on mobile phone) (B1) Outline what happens at the base station and the cellular exchange when a mobile handset is switched on, before a call is made. 1. handset sends out an (identifying) signal 2. signal received by (several) base stations 3. communicated by base stations to (computer at) exchange 4. computer selects base station with strongest signal 5. and allocates a (carrier) frequency The handset transmits a signal to identify itself. This signal is received by a number of base stations, from where it is transferred to the cellular exchange. A computer at the cellular exchange selects the base station with the strongest signal from the handset and allocates a carrier frequency for communication between the base station and handset. Explain how reception of signals to and from the mobile phone is maintained. 1. computer at cellular exchange B1 2. monitors signal strength B1

3. switches call from one base station to another B1 4. to maintain maximum signal strength B1

Explain the role of the bases stations and the cellular exchange during the call. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. base station / X sends / receives signal to / from handset ...................... .................. B1 call relayed to cellular exchange / Y (and on to PSTN) ............................................. B1 computer at cellular exchange monitors signal from base stations ........................... B1 selects base station with strongest signal ................................................................. B1 allocates a (carrier) frequency / time slot for the call ................................................ B1