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Nietzsches Will to Power

Outline prepared and written by:

Dr. Jason J. Campbell: http://jasonjcampbell.org/home.php


Youtube Playlist Link:
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?p=PL3CDF82E2AE698702 : Videos 1-199 http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8E989A9B314BC770&feature=viewall : Videos 200+

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nietzsche, Friedrich. 1967. The Will to Power. Translated by Walter. Kaufmann. and. R. J. Hollingdale. Edited by W. Kaufmann. New York: Vintage Books. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.0 Book I: Part I: (Nihilism): European Nihilism Note (n.) 1-7 -------------Nihilism: that the highest values devaluate themselves (n.2). Nihilism is NOT caused by: 1. physiological degeneration 2. social distress 3. corruption For Nietzsche, nihilism is rooted in Christian-morality. Nihilism IS caused by: the end of moral interpretation (n.1.3: pg. 7). o so much energy has been placed on the Christian mode of moral interpretation that it awakens the suspicions that all interpretations of the world are false (n.1.3: pg. 7). Nietzsche is attempting to locate: 1. A critique of Christian morality, (emphasis in original), (n.1.4: pg. 7) 2. The position of art and the lack of originality. 1 Nietzsche recognizes that: 1. We lack the least right to posit a beyond or in-itself, (n.3, pg. 9). [din-an-sich] [explain Kants noumena]
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We will return to the concept later in the analysis. This will prove to be a very important point.

4 Advantages of Christian Moral Hypothesis: 1. It granted man an absolute value (n.4) a. [introductory account of Being, becoming]. b. [intro, complicate later]: Morality could be grounded in absolutes 2. Important: It served advocates of God insofar as it conceded to the world, in spite of suffering and evil, the character of perfectionincluding freedom: evil appeared full of meaning. [read slow, explain] (problem of evil videos 1-2-3) 3. Absolute knowledge was adequate a. Created a sense of complacency 4. The Christian Moral Hypothesis was a means of preservation, (emphasis in original). [explain] a. Christian morality became the cure for practical and theoretical nihilism. Morality created and cultivated the notion of truthfulness: Truthfulness is an absolute Truthfulness is the perfection of morality Insofar as we believe in morality, we believe in the absolute perfection of truth [KEY Point: many would agree with this claim] o Not just Christian morality, e.g., Kantian deontology insofar as we believe in morality we pass sentence on existence (n.6: pg, 10) o Existence necessarily becomes subordinated to the absolute perfection of truthful morality. The Transitional Stage of Meaning: 1. There was a meaningful world where God established the laws and social values of morality. 2. As these values have been challenged over time [i.e., the cosmogonical value of a divine command theory collapses] the world seem meaningless [EXPLAIN Nietzsches meaning] but that is only the transitional stage (n.7: pg. 10-11). a. Divine Command Theory (DCT) i. Weaknesses in the DCT collapses the efficacy of Gods commandments, i.e., his morality, i.e., his values. Thus, the cosmogonical origins become meaningless.
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2.0 Book I: Part I: (Nihilism): European Nihilism Note (n.) 8-12b -------------3 Consequence of Nihilism: 1. Moral valuation leads us to believe in valuelessness. [debasement] 2. Our existence is defined by egoism yet everything egoistic has come to disgust us [emphasis in original] (n.8: pg. 11) a. Self denial 3. We recognize the impossibility of attaining the highest moral values, and instead of embracing our existence, we reject it. On the Concept of Pessimism: 1. Pessimism is a preliminary form of nihilism (n.9) 2. Pessimism is comprised of: a. Valuelessness b. Meaninglessness 3. Conclusion: Moral value judgments are ways of passing sentence, negations; morality is a way of turning ones back on the will to exist (emphasis in the original), [n.11] Problem: But what is morality? 4 Steps in the Unfolding of Nihilism: 1. Those on a quest [my phrase] for the highest moral values eventually become discouraged. [Absolute truthfulness as e.g.] 2. The ought-deception [my phrase] forces the individual to cast oneself in front of oneself for critical judgment. It is rooted in the sense of: a. Fulfillment b. Achievement c. An obligation to reach the pinnacle of the highest moral values d. Becoming leads to nothingness [if it is directed towards universals] 3. The desire [and more dangerously] the moral imperative for (1) complete consistency2 (2) supreme administration, (3) monism, unity and oneness is the source of humanitys nihilism

The problem in the Matrix II between Neo and the Architects attempt to balance the equation.

[Steps 1-4] so the seeker eventually becomes discouraged[because] of the long waste of strength, the agony of the in vain, insecurity, the lack of any opportunity to recover and regain composurebeing ashamed in front of oneself, as if one had deceived oneself all too long [emphasis in the original], (n.12a: pg. 12) a. [Steps 5-6], [Read 12a: top of pg. 13] (refer to pic).

4. Three categories are the conditions for the possibility of attaining the highest values they are (1) aim, (2) unity, and being [AUB]: a. [AUB]highest values / i.e., prior to the onset of discouragement, insecurity and a sense of deception. b. [AUB] serves to motivate our directedness toward the highest values. c. Once we recognize that the highest values devaluate themselves (n.2: pg: 9), the world becomes utterly valueless. the categories aim, unity, being which we used to project some value into the worldwe pull out again; so the world looks valueless. (n. 12a: pg 13), [emphasis in the original] Recognition of the Failure of the Categories: 1. Again: the three categories are (1) aim, (2) unity and (3) being. 2. After recognizing that [AUB] devalues the world, we become universally [N]ihilistic (big [N]. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The faith in the categories of reason is the cause of nihilism. We have measured the value of the world according to the categories that refer to a purely fictitious world. (n.12b: pg. 13), [emphasis in the original] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Read (12b.) Final conclusion. [explain in detail] pg. 13-14. 3.0 Book I: Part I: (Nihilism): European Nihilism Note (n.)12b-15 Perspectives of Utility:
Final Conclusion: All of the values by means of which we have tried so far to render the world estimable for ourselves and which then proved inapplicable and therefore devaluated the world all these values are, psychologically considered, the result of certain perspectives of utility, designed to maintain and increase human constructs of dominationand they have been falsely projected into the essence of things. What we find here is still the hyperbolic naivet of man: positing himself as the meaning and measure of the value of things. (n.12b)

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all these values are, psychologically considered, the result of certain perspectives of utility, designed to maintain and increase human constructs of domination [control]and they have been falsely projected into the essence of things. (12.b pg: 13-14). [explain in detail]

The Hidden Duality of Moral Imperatives: 1. Value: Surface, superficial, 2. Domination: Hidden (real motivation)/control Values and their changes are related to the increases in the power of those positing the values (n.14: pg:14). [important, explain] Powers Relation to Belief: 1. As ones power increases, one increases his abilities as a valuepositer (n.14) Values and their changes. [above] 2. Value-positers have the ability to control/dominate (n.12b) 3. As ones power increases, ones ability to control also increases. 4. As the value-positers ability to control increases, his ability to control your beliefs increases. (n.14+n.12b)+ the {set of control}.

5. Thus, as a value-positers power increases his ability to control your beliefs increase. [Ghetto Philosophy: I believe what hes saying because hes such a powerful man]. The Nature of Belief [Introductory]: Every belief is considered-something-true (n.15), [emphasis added] Ultimate-Nihilism: (n.12a +n.15) o the last form of nihilism comes into being: it includes disbelief in any metaphysical world and forbids itself any belief in a true world (n.12a) + The most extreme [emphasis added] form of nihilism would be the view that every belief, every considered-something-true, is necessarily false because there simply is no true world.

To this extent, nihilism, as THE [emphasis] denial of a truthful world, of being [ontological denial], might be a divine way of thinking. [Explain in detail][ramifications] Logical Progression of Nietzsches thought: 1. Value-positers with great power can control others [above] (n.14+n.12b) 2. Nihilism progress through phases/forms (12.a) the last form 3. The ultimate form of nihilism is a rejection of the world (n.15) 4. This rejection evokes divine thought (n.15) divine way of thinking
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5. Thus, if the value-positers assert that they are in communication with the divine (1+4 of this argument) they will be able to control the level of rejection of the world from those they dominate (3 of this argument) 6. Thus: the handlers attain complete control of those they dominate because the ultimate act of rejecting the world is a divine act motivated by the hidden control and domination buried with the value system of the moral imperative. 4.0 Book I: Part I: (Nihilism): European Nihilism Note (n.)16-34 Disappointment and the Denial of Apotheosis: The highest desiderata, the highest value were conceived as God at the apex as a given truth (n.17) To become as God, to be absorbed into Godfor thousands of years these were the most nave and convincing desiderata (n.17) The influence of too much coddling is stronger that the wrath of the disappointment. [the disappointment of not being absorbed into God], (n.15). This disappointment has led to atheism. one has become atheistic. (n.17) man has lost dignity in his own eyes (n.18) Failure to Renounce the Highest Values: Despite their disappointment, metaphysicians are still seeking true reality and the thing-in-itself compared to which everything else is merely apparent (n.17) Metaphysicians make this conceptual move because it is an attempt to deal with the problem of evil. Schopenhauer conceptualized evil, blind will, Kant, intelligible freedom (n.17) There is a renouncement of the Christian God, but not Christian morality. [important] one still follows the old habit and seeks another authority that can speak unconditionally and command goals and tasks (n. 20). [complicity in being handled]

Two Forms of Nihilism: 1. Active Nihilism: increase power of the spirit (n.22) 2. Passive Nihilism: decline and recession in the power of the spirit (n.22). a. Suggests that Buddhism is a form of passive nihilism (n.23) Causes of Nihilism: 1. The Higher Species: a. Characterized by fertility and power to keep up the faith in man (n.27) 2. The Lower Species: [herd, masses] a. Insofar as the mass is dominant it bullies the exceptions (n.27) 4.1 Book I: Part I: (Nihilism): European Nihilism Note (n.)16-34 On Emptiness: Intoxication helps to fill the void of emptiness. Results of Intoxication: 1. Weakness of the will (n. 29) 2. Extreme pride and the humiliation of petty weakness felt (n.29) On Happiness and Pessimism [eudaimonia]: Characteristic of Aristotelian virtue ethics The belief that happiness was the goal or telos Pessimism is a response to eudaemonistic consideration (n.32) Pessimism is a growing gloom i. The world is initially worthless ii. Which causes us to seek new values (n.32) iii. To recognize that, we may not even have given our human existence a moderately fair value. (n.32). 4 Causes of Pessimism: (n.33) 1. The most powerful desires have been slandered 2. Deceit, mistrust slander, are inseparable from life, and one therefore turns against life (n.33.2) 3. Mediocrity is rewarded [Bart Simpson, Peter Griffin] 4. Submission and obedience

(n.34) Modern pessimism is an expression of the uselessness of the modern worldnot the world of existence. 5.0 Book I: Part I: (Nihilism): European Nihilism Note (n.) 35-53 Hedonism and Suffering: Both hedonism and suffering are pathways to nihilism. hedonism: posits pleasure as the ultimate meaning (n.35) masochism: posits suffering as the ultimate meaning (n.35) However, it is easy to see that pleasure and displeasure can only be means in the course of events (emphasis in original), (n.35). [Read: (n.36)], [Read: (n.37)] The Tragic Age, Strength and Weakness: 1. The weak perish of it; 2. Those who are stronger destroy what does not perish; 3. Those who are strongest overcome the values that pass judgment. [explain the role of judgment passing] On the Notion of Decadence: [read: (n.40)] / detailed explanation Implications. Thus, the whole moral struggle against vice, luxury, crime, even disease, appears a naivet and superfluous: there is no improvement [emphasis added], (n.41) Cant fight decadence, it is an inextricable part of life. o one confuses cause and effect: one fails to understand decadence as a physiological condition and mistakes its consequences for the real cause of the indisposition; example: all of religious morality (n.44). [explain] Weakness is a type of decadence (n.45) The traditional notion of a weakness-of-will is misleading. Two Forms of Will: 1. Weak will: the lack of any systematic order among [our impulses] results in a weakness of will (n.46). the oscillation and lack of gravity. 2. Strong will: The coordination of impulses under a single predominant impulseprecision and clarity of direction. (n.46).
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5.1 Book I: Part I: (Nihilism): European Nihilism Note (n.) 35-53 4 Characteristics of Weakness: 1. Meekness, faith, shame of that which is natural 2. Weakness is a negation of life 3. Weakness is renouncing revenge, resistance, enmity, wrath 4. Weakness as a form of pacification On Exhaustion: 1. Exhaustion can either be acquired or inherited (n.48). a. It changes the values of things. 2. [Read, (n.48)]

The Influence of Decadence and Exhaustion in Scientific and Sociological Thought: (n. 53) [important]

1-2. Even the ideals of science can be deeply, yet completely unconsciously influenced by decadence (n.53) 3. in these norms the life that is decliningformulates its social ideals (n.53)
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4. and inevitably it takes its own instincts [declining social ideals] of decay for the norms of sociological judgment(n.53). 5. but this judgment is antibiological, is itself a fruit of the decadence of life (n.53), [Hypothetical Syllogism, 1-4] 5.2 Book I: Part I: (Nihilism): European Nihilism Note (n.) 54-56 On the Judgments and Values of the Exhausted: [Key Question] to what extent the judgments of the exhausted has penetrated the world of values? (n.54), pg. 34, [explain the importance]

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[Response]:I found that all of the supreme value judgmentsall that have come to dominate mankind, at least that part that has become tamecan be derived from the judgments of the exhausted. (n.54), pg. 34. [Implications] (1). Judgments of the exhausted are a source of human domination (n.54) (2) Since perspectives of utility are designed to maintain and increase human constructs of domination (n.12b) AND (3) Judgments of the exhausted are a perspective of utility designed to maintain and increase human constructs of domination (n.12b + n.54) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 Preliminary Relationships between Values and Judgments: 1. Values are only meaningful insofar as there are corresponding judgments. [Method of Enforcement] 2. Judgments are only meaningful insofar as there are corresponding values. [Method of Justification] 3. A system of values necessitates a system of judgments. [Enforcement and Justification are inseparable]

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--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Under the holiest names I pulled up destructive tendencies; one has called God what weakens, teaches weakness, infects with weakness.I found that a good man is one of the forms in which decadence affirms itselfvirtue is our greatest misunderstanding (n.54), pg:34. [emphasis added]. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------one has come to mistrust any meaning in suffering, indeed in existence [implication: existence IS suffering]One interpretation has collapsed; but because it was considered the interpretation it now seems as if there were no meaning at all in existence, as if everything were in vain. (n.55), pg: 35. [emphasis in original] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[Expanding Concept] Ultimate-Nihilism: (n.12a +n.15+n.55) o the last form of nihilism comes into being: it includes disbelief in any metaphysical world and forbids itself any belief in a true world (n.12a) o The most extreme [emphasis added] form of nihilism would be the view that every belief, every considered-somethingtrue, is necessarily false because there simply is no true world. (n.15) o Let us think this thought in its most terrible form: existence as it is, without meaning or aim, yet recurring inevitably without any finale of nothingness: the eternal recurrence This is the most extreme form of nihilism: the nothing (the meaninglessness), eternally! (n.55*2) [E.g., the neverending story] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[Read: n.55*5). On the Concept of the Will to Power [Introductory]: 1. It is the experience of being powerless against men, not against nature, 2. that generates the most desperate embitterment against existence (n.55*5). 3. The men or masters exhibited a character trait of a will to power.
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4. Thus, morality taught men to hate and despise this will to power.

Four Periods of European Nihilism: (n.56) 1. The Period of Unclarity: Blind conversation of the old [nostalgia] 2. The Period of Clarity: a. Two Forms of Values: i. Old Values: Declining and hostile to life (born of decadence) ii. New Values: Ascending and amicable to life (born of a recognition of the world of existence / [the real world]) 3. The Period of Three Great Affects: i. Contempt ii. Pity iii. Destruction 4. The Period of Catastrophe: the advent of a doctrine that sifts mendriving the weak to decisions, and the strong as well. (n.56).
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------END OF BOOK I: PART I -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------START OF BOOK I: PART II: HISTORY OF EURPOEAN NIHILISM -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[Co-facilitator Invite] (n.57-61)
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[Co-Facilitator Invite Lecture] SecularNumanist and Love83Forever --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6.0 Book I: Part II: History of European Nihilism Note (n.) 57-61: You can watch SecularNumanists video lecture here. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6.0 Book I: Part II: History of European Nihilism Note (n.) 57-61: Beginning of Love83Forever notes:
The History of European Nihilism 57. The cycle of life and the inevitability of decline (summary) [1884] When analysing this text, it is important to note that at the time of writing this text, that Nietzsches pessimism could have been inflicted by his own declining health and inability to communicate his philosophy to his peers and fellow men. His views were not readily accepted at that time due to his stance on religion, piety and enlightenment. Here, Nietzsche makes a comparison between the free spirited, hot blooded youth and the old, aged, weak man. He being the old man reflecting on his own youth retrospectively, is in fact saying that both young and old are suffering from a sickness these illnesses may differ in type. The young man is dying the death of his moral ideals, which will be brought down by the certainty of uncertainty; that with all his strength and courage that he has no control of the inevitability of life and death. His play on words where he says that, all of us feel the warm, uncanny breath of the thawing wind; further illustrates the heat of life and youth and the chill of death. 58. The inevitability of decline (no hope for science to improve on what is already declining) [sum] Let us analyse the statement; If this is not an age of decay and declining vitality, it is at least one of headlong and arbitrary experimentation. By using the statement, If this not an age of decay.. He falsely gives the reader an illusion that a higher ideal will be presented, to the contrary an equally glum notion of arbitrary experimentation is given in its place. Here, Nietzsche is reducing the methodology, rules and predictability of scientific experiments to that of the illogical and unpredictable existence of man. This irony is not so ironic when you take into account that life has some predictability, as science would do. Life has to come to an end as scientific experiments are construed to give a quantifiable result. Yet, Nietzsche could have considered the fact that in life we may be able to outline a hypothesis and weave our path to our own expected end in the same way that a chemist or biologist would hypothesise a particular result and make steps to bring about the desired result. Hence, the experiment must come to an end as life itself, yet as humans we may not have as much control of our end as we would over a scientific experiment. Towards a History of the Modern Eclipse 59. Change in Nietzsches society (the demise of social structures) It seems as if Nietzsche is somewhat opposed to change; changing tastes and social constructs. There is seemingly some undercurrent and implication of the biblical deadly 7 15

deadly sins. Words such as; Lasciviousness, hunger, over abundance, alchololica implies that the erosion of society through music, family and the over indulgence of pleasures or necessities. This extreme is counteracted by the other extreme, that the decline of society could also be brought about by its opposite, through the lack of pleasure and lack of necessities. He is inferring that this decline as that of the human body is inevitable and that the good man is a man that is exhausted and implies that he will not strive in the decaying world as the darkness and extremities will almost be suffocating to him. 60. The evolution of the lower classes causing the destruction of the middle and higher classes
Nietzsche believes that the evolution of the lower classes has in some way polluted the morality or lack thereof, of the higher man of his own power to will. He labels the lower class masses, the herd and the upper classes the Shepherds, and plainly describes the so called lower classes as having a lower kind of spirit and body. This reminds me of the concepts of Social Nationalism, Nazism and Racial Supremacy. He goes on to list the 3 consequences of the herd infiltrating the shepherds. He makes a comparison between the way of the Nobel, elite man and that of the ordinary man. Furthermore, the warning is that this infiltration will lead to a decline of all. 1. The eclipse of spirit; Which, could be described as a lack of emotional restraint and control He critiques that the frivolous appearance of happiness and open suffering to be devolution of the higher mans ability to suffer pain in secret and keep his emotions hidden. 2. Moral Hypocrisy This is the contrast of herd virtues versus the virtues of the Superman; the Superman analogy is better described in Nietzsches, beyond good and evil. The superman is not subject to values and rules that govern the sheep. Thus, pity, consideration, moderation, which are not recognized and honored outside the herd ability. Thus, only individuals who want to be the elite of the lower class need to apply these morals. These morals do not supersede his class and does not grant him access to the higher ranks; as higher ranked individuals do not seek the acceptance of others be it in their own reference group or others. As the higher man is not bound by these rules, he can however use them to his advantage to deceive the lower masses to his advantage, picture the analogy of the sheep being led to slaughter and the common depicture of wolves in sheep clothing, this sufficiently explains his case. 3. Shared suffering Shared suffering is debased as being emotions common to animals that herd together. Community spirit and Patriotism is critiqued as detracting from individuality and personal freedom. What Nietzsche fails to mention here is that without the so called congregation of the masses, to pay things such as taxes and protection of the country through warfare, that the upper classes and the individuals would not be free to self rule and govern their own micro lives. Maybe here Nietzsche accepts the role of the masses in this capacity as allows himself and the other individuals to use their ignorance and suffering against: Thus, sending them to fight to protect the rich, the individuals and the upper class. 61. Foresight and preventability of distress [summary] Here Nietzsche speaks of the modern era he was living in and the advancement of knowledge and foresight. He speaks about preventing accidental distress and preventing disagreeable possibilities.

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This foresight and preventability may be in line with the current advancement of his times. Thus, Industrialisation and medical developments were introduced to prevent the decaying of the body for some and increase the finances of others. Thus, these preventative actions could only be used by those who have money. Medicine could only be purchased by those with money and factories would bring great wealth to its owners by decreasing the possibility of human errors. However, Nietzsche still concludes that even with money, foresight and preventative actions, decline is still inevitable. He states, It is a time of the poor... and Our "rich"--are poorest of all. The true purpose of all riches is forgotten. Here Nietzsche makes a contrast between the poor masses and the wealthy poor. The poor masses are now able to access much more than they could do in previous times. With the introduction of free education and social subsidisation means that the poverty threshold has decreased; thus, increasing their status and competing with the higher classes. Thus, by emphasising Our rich Nietzsche associates himself with the rich classes and almost formulates a unity among them similar to one that he criticises in the herd masses. In classical Nietzsche philosophy the purpose of all things including money of the rich is to be able to do as they please. Yet, the rich poor have to tend with increasing legislation and regulation on how they trade and how they treat employees and other citizens thus their freedom is now bound by the virtues of the masses.

End of Love83Forever Notes: (n.57-61) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6.1 Book I: Part II: History of European Nihilism Note (n.) 62-68: On the Quantum of Humaneness: The Quantum of Humaneness Modern Man "That this is not felt generally is "the good man" "Corrupted and seduced by bad itself a proof" (n.63) institutions" (n.62) [explain the importance of the term Self deprecating generally in above quote] "Siding with the oppressed and 1. "A certain over irritation even of underprivileged" (n. 62) the moral feelings" (n. 63) "The General Will": Rousseau 2. Recognition "that our morality is "All this is 18th Century" (n.62) in a bad way" (n.63) Modern man is a product of 3. "The emancipation of science Rousseau's notion of the general from moral and religious purposes" will (n.63) Generality is attained "because we have become so sensitive concerning small states of distress that we unjustly ignore what has been attained" (n.63) Q: [What has unjustly been ignored?] A: The Quantum of Humaneness

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Homogeneity and Histrionics: Instinct and the Will of Tradition: a. The modern spirit/man opposes instinct and the will of tradition. Histrionics: unfolds because modern man lacks the sure instinct (n.68). As fabricated history, as performative history, as His-story i.e., the story of the systematic eradication of instinct. [Read 3rd paragraph of n.68], [explain in detail] Instinct: as natural, is suppressed and controlled by morality and moral judgments, which according to Nietzsche is antibiological (n.53). i. The valuation that is today applied to the different forms of societyis antibiological (n.53). ii. Tradition: At bottom, nothing is thought and done without the purpose of eradicating this sense for tradition (n.65)

iii.

iv.

Contradiction: Be natural! But how if one happens to be unnatural (emphasis added), (n.66). 1. [Me: Morality supports an antibiological / unnatural state of affairs, so we have to learn how to be natural, which is the ultimate paradox.] Consequence: the recognition of an antiboiological / unnatural state of moral judgments, requires an oppositional force from instinct, tradition, biology.
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Homogeneity: Modern man lacks the sure instinct (consequence of a long homogeneous form of activity of one kind of man)[i.e., the idealized man prescribed by moral imperatives]the inability to achieve anything perfect[as telos]is merely a consequence of this (n.68). [Brief Tangent]: Possible Application [Gasset + Nietzsche]

For Gasset Man (singular) as mass (plural) is the physical embodiment of social failures. [Encourage viewers to combine concepts from different videos] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7.0 Book I: Part II: History of European Nihilism Note (n.) 69-86 Nihilistic Traits throughout Europe: 1. Nietzsche locates the nihilistic trait in various "institutions" a. Natural Sciences: "meaninglessness", causalism, mechanism (n.69). [Nietzsche obviously supports the notion of human freedom]. b. Politics: lack of faith in one's right
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c. Economics: "the abolition of slavery. The lack of a redeeming class" (n.69). This claim could be problematic for some. [Invite interpretations], possible tie-in to (n.75, 80), [abolition as the representation of suffering]. d. History: fatalism, Darwinism, defense of "facts". i. "There are no facts" (n.70). ii. ??? Origins of Social Constructionism??? e. Art: "Pure 'artists' (indifferent toward content)" (n.69) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------On Superficialities and the Representation of Suffering: "one instinctively resists taking in anything, taking anything deeply, to digest anything." (n.71), superficiality, plasticity vs. spontaneity. [Read (n.75)], detailed explanation. In your kitchen there is fat meat; in your stables there are fat horses. But your people

have the look of hunger, and on the wilds there are those who have died of famine. This is leading on beasts to devour men. 3

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Legge, James. trans. 1900, (Mencius, Book I, Chap. IV, 1-4).

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[Note 77 and 78]: Jewish references? [context?], Sister? (out off context), contrast n.75 "today in our time when the state has an absurdly fat stomach" --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7.0.1 The Banner of Suffering: 1. "One is deceived every time one expects "progress" from an ideal; every time so far the victory of the ideal has meant a retrograde movement." (n.80). 2. What are examples of the movements?: a. "Christianity, the revolution, the abolition of slavery, equal rights, philanthropy, love of peace, justice, truth" (n.80) 3. Why might the movements be considered "retrograde"? a. they are "showy words"[superficialities]. They are banners [to represent suffering] rather than realities. (n.75+80). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Three Stages of the Will to Power: (n.86) 1. "On the first stage one demands justice from those who are in power." 2. "On the second, one speaks of "freedom" --that is, one wants to get away from those in power." 3. "On the third, one speaks of "equal rights" --that is, as long as one has not yet gained superiority one wants to prevent one's competitors from growing in power" **Note 86**

4. [Hidden Stage]: if one is successful in gaining superiority then one will use that newly acquired power to dominate one's former oppressor.
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Freire + Nietzsche:

[Read Freire] pg. 46, on freedom (notes). + [Nietzsche]: that is, one wants to get away from those in power (n.86). [Read Freire] pg. 56. on role reversal. + [Nietzsche]: " that is, as long as one has not yet gained superiority one wants to prevent one's competitors from growing in power" (n.86). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7.1 Book I: Part II: History of European Nihilism Note (n.) 87-116 Progress as Regress and the Deification of Suffering: 1. Let us not be deceived! Time marches forward; (n.90) a. The assumption: Since time moves forward, mankind advances with the passage of time, which Nietzsche denies. 2. The ascent of Christianity is a movement of decadence. (n.90) a. It is helped by: Kants moral fanaticism (n.95) the movement back to Kant in our century is a movement back to the 18th century. (n.95) b. It is helped by: Rousseau [read n.94] i. the deification of suffering. th 3. 17 Century is aristocratic (n.95) 4. 18th Century is dominated by women (n.95) 5. 19th Century [read] (n.95). For Nietzsche, the 19th century is a regression (poorer in spirit and taste)[but]progress (darker, more realistic, stronger). (n.102).
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Rousseau and Kant as Saboteurs of Progress: 1. Against Rousseau: Not the corruption of man but the extent to which he has become tender and moralized is his curse (n.98). 2. Suggests that for Rousseau, the domineering will is lacking [explain] (n.98)docility

3. Nietzsche argues that Rousseauneeded God in order to be able to cast a curse upon society and civilization; everything had to be good in itself because God had created it; only man has corrupted it (n.100). a. Allusion to the Fall of Man 4. Against Kant: [read n.101] a. Moral fanatic (n.95, 101) b. Argues that Kants values system is infected by, subterranean Christianity [explain this phrase], (n.101) i. Golden Rule / Inverse Golden Rule ii. Moral Obligation iii. Maxim c. Kant is a scarecrow, some day! (n.127). 5. Today, under the high pressure of fatherlandism and selfadmiration, it [i.e., the German Spirit] is visibly thickening and becoming coarser (n.107) One shrinks from extremes; a certain confidence in the right road no enthusing; temporary acclimatization to narrower values (like fatherland, like scholarship) (n.113a). The Problems of the 19th Century Modern World: 1. Principle: There is an element of decay in everything that characterizes modern man (n.109). a. The ambiguous character of our modern worldthe very same symptoms could point to decline and to strength i. [Explain] Nihilism as Bad, obvious ii. [Explain] Nihilism as Good, not so obvious
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iii. Dissatisfaction, nihilism could be a good sign 2. [read Note 112] / balance 3. [KEY] For Nietzsche, the notion of progress is relative. it appears as ascending life (for lower spheres of intelligence)but as self deception (in higher spheres) (n.113b).

4. Read [note, 116] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7.1.1 Book I: Part II: History of European Nihilism Note (n.) 117-134 Detachment from suffering: 1. [read] n.119. 2. [KEY] Responsibility (for helping those who suffer) has been diverted the representatives. (tie in to n.75). Reinterpreting the Natural: 1. Not return to naturefor there has never yet been a natural humanity. The scholasticism of un- and anti natural values is the rule, is the beginning; man reaches nature only after a long strugglehe never returnsNature: i.e., daring to be immoral like nature (n.120) 2. we consider all being-great as a placing-oneself-outside as far as morality is concerned (n.120) 3. It does note aspire to virtue, and for that we respect nature. 4. [Read 120.pg.74: In summa]. 5. Man becomes more profound, mistrustful, immoral, stronger, more confident in himselfand to this extent more natural: this is progress (n.123).
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Socialism as a Great Weakness: One followsbut one no longer see what follows (n.125). 1. Socialism is on the whole a hopeless and sour affair (n.125). 2. In the doctrine of socialism there is hidden, rather badly, a will to negate life (n.125) [explain] 3. Read (n.125, p.77-78). 4. Stupidity and herd mentality as a means to weakness (n.130) 4 Aspects of Progress: [read n.134]. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------END OF BOOK I: PART II -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------START OF BOOK II: PART I: CRITIQUE OF THE HIGHEST VALUES HITHERTO ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[Co-Facilitator Invite Lecture] Notes 135-139 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ComplacencyAmongUs Contribution: 1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ub3zIx9XhJA&feature=channel_video_title 2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ub3zIx9XhJA&feature=channel_video_title 3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E8QeVCP4AmA&feature=relmfu 4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L01DOid_gEI&feature=relmfu 5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tnF9iPGE6qM&feature=relmfu 6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hlPNiHm_3k&feature=relmfu 7. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iB5JPTBnDuw&feature=relmfu Ianmathwiz7 Contribution: 1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=04FLi5nyscE&feature=channel_video_title --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8.0 BOOK II: PART I: CRITIQUE OF THE HIGHEST VALUES HITHERTO Note (n.) 140-141 The philosopher has inherited his method from the priest The Condition for the Existence of The Philosopher-Priest: 1. People believe in the superiority of their God (n. 140) 2. They [the priests] are the only means of accessing God.
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Philosopher-Priests and the Origin of Good and Evil: 1. Like the priest assumes the right to lie, i.e., the authority to lie, so to does the philosopher. (n.141) a. Plato's Nobel Lie: The philosopher has also lied about the notion of Good and Evil. 2. The philosopher-priest must have "power, authority and credibility". He attains the power, authority and credibility from the creation of the moral system and highest moral imperative. (n.141) 3. Everything affecting the individual must be determined by their Law. (n.141) a. The system of morality has to cast judgment on the totality of human action. Those actions conforming to the imperative are good, those not are evil. 4. They can "prescribe a large number of things--only they must not point to experience or empiricism. (n.141) The moral prescriptions "ought" and "must" point to the system that governs action. 5. It is from these similarities that the notion of Good and Evil arise. (n.141) unempirical

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The determination of an act as good or evil is dependent on the "intention or the conformity of this intention to the law." (n.141). [Explain] 5 Consequences of the Holy-Lie: 1. "A god who punishes and rewards" (n.141) 2. An afterlife 3. A conscience in man [KEY] a. Q: Is the contemporary scientific pursuit to understand human consciousness the last remnant of Christian influence of the sciences? 4. "Morality as the denial of all natural processes" 5. Truth. as "Revealed Truth"

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The Danger for Nietzsche: [Key] "conformity with the law becomes a purpose in itself, it is the highest purpose; Life no longer contains any problems. The whole conception of the world is polluted by the notion of punishment." (n.141). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8.1 BOOK II: PART I: CRITIQUE OF THE HIGHEST VALUES HITHERTO Note (n.) 142-144 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[Note]: I will be skipping over concepts already addressed in previous notes, unless it directly pertains to understanding the "will to power", e.g., Christianity as anti-biological, anti sensual, moral imposition etc... --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------On the Structures of Religious Oppression: 1. "we find the species of man, the priestly, which feels itself to be the norm, the high point and the supreme expression of the type man: this species derives the concept "improvement" from itself. It believes its own superiority, it wills itself to be superior in fact: the origin of the holy lie is the will to power." (n.142) 2. There is power in the lie a. The lie becomes a supplement, i.e., a means to power. b. The Platonic "Noble Lie": class structure. 3. The system of oppression was intentionally designed: a. "It is a mistake to suppose an unconscious and nave development here, a kind of self-deception fanatics do not invent such carefully thought-out systems of oppression." (n. 142). 4. Ultimate Designers of the System of Oppression: a. " We may therefore hold the best endowed most reflective species of man responsible for the most fundamental lie that has ever been told that lie has been copied almost everywhere: Aryan influence has corrupted all the world." ." (n. 142). 5. "Morality's religions of the principal means by which one can make whatever one wishes out of man, provided one possesses the superfluity of creative forces can assert one's will over long periods of time in the form of legislation, religions, and customs." (n.144).

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4 Step Approach to Constructing a System of Oppression: [Me] 1. The system must fundamentally be based on a lie 4 a. Orchestrators of the system must willfully construct the lie b. The more creative5 the lie the better chance of control6 . 2. System designers must use their influence 7 to legitimize the system 3. The system must be directed toward attaining an unachievable norm8 a. Orchestrators must construct a hierarchical system. b. The norm is posited as a means of legitimizing "improvement" c. Those on bottom rungs must seek to "improve" 9 themselves 4. System designers cannot abandon the system and must have the resilience10 to legitimize and justify the system of oppression.

4 5

(n.142: lie) (n.144: creative forces) 6 (n. 144: can make whatever one wishes out of a man). 7 (n. 142: influence) 8 (n. 142: norm) 9 (n. 142: improvement) 10 (n. 144: assert one's will over long periods of time)

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8.2 BOOK II: PART I: CRITIQUE OF THE HIGHEST VALUES HITHERTO Note (n.) 145-170 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[Note]: I will be skipping over concepts already addressed in previous notes, unless it directly pertains to understanding the "will to power", e.g., Christianity as anti-biological, anti sensual, moral imposition etc... --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Action and Religion: 1. "in itself, religion has nothing to do with morality" (n.146) 2. "religions are destroyed by belief in morality. The Christian moral God is not tenable: hence "atheism" as if there could be no other kind of God." (n.151). 3. "For action has no meaning, action binds one to existence: but all existence has no meaning." 4. "The only way to refute priests and religions is this: to show that their errors have ceased to be beneficial that they rather do harm; in short, that their own "proof of power" no longer holds good ." (n.157). Contradictions and Dangers within Christian Dogma: Nietzsche holds Paul responsible for the dangers and within Christianity. 1. (n.159)-(n.161), (n.166) 2. Seems that Nietzsche is suggesting that Christians aren't actually conforming to Christ's tenets. a." The church is precisely that against which Jesus preached and against which he taught his disciples to fight " (n.168). 3. Inflation of the personal ego: "The attempt to destroy the exaggerated inflation of the "person" culminated in faith in the "eternal person" (in concern for "eternal salvation" ), in the most paradoxical excess of personal egoism." 4. Six points of symbolic transformation. [Read all of (n.170)], [explain] The Drive to Punish within Christian Dogma: 1. (n.163)-(n.164). 2. Reference to Sodom and Gomorrha (n.164) 3. "Continually judging and condemning; order of rank" (n.169).

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8.3 BOOK II: PART I: CRITIQUE OF THE HIGHEST VALUES HITHERTO Note (n.) 171-191 The Nature of Power within Religious "Truths": 1. There is an assumption that, "An idea is proved true by its effect" (n.171). [An idea is true because it is so effective, i.e., the effectiveness of an idea is a demonstration of its truth] 2. "It was imagined by some power: if that power were not real, it could not be effective" (n. 171). 3. Since it is effective, i.e., the idea, the truth of that power must be real. 3. "That it does not matter whether a thing is true, but only what effect it produces absolute lack of intellectual integrity. Everything is justified, lies, slander, the most shameless forgery, if it servers to raise the temperature until one "believes" 4. Examples of such ideas: i. an after life (n.170). ii. personal immortality (n.170). iii. transubstantiation (n.170). iv. resurrection as historically situated within time (n.170). v. "the second person of divinity" (n.170). vi. Salvation through Christ's deeds, rather than one's own: (n.170). 5. "Love gives the greatest feeling of power" (n.176). i. We attain divinity through love. ii. "no...activity produces that feeling of power that love produces..." (n.176) 6. The will to religious power is a will to love. For Nietzsche, attaining the love of God serves as the ultimate justification because, "this means: no morality, obedience, our activity produces that feeling of power that love produces; one does nothing bad from love, one does much more than one would do from obedience and virtue." (n.176). 7. "Religion as Sin": [read: n.181.3] "men shall not judge acts done against men, nor demanding a reckoning, except that the name of God." (n.181.3). Power in the indiscriminate judgment of fellow men. 8. The association of value with an "appropriate", i.e., conforming to the moral imperative, disposition rather than the association of value through one actions. [(n.182, last sentence of first paragraph] connect with n.192. n.192+n.182.
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9. The attainment of happiness for the oppressed becomes the standard of happiness for all. "attempt to make the virtue for which happiness is possible for the lowliest into the standard ideal of all" (n.1850. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[read n.188]. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"The lying interpretation of the words, gestures and conditions of the dying: fear of death, for example, is systematically confused with fear of the "after death" (n.189).

[Discuss the errors (ontological, epistemological) in positing a Fear of the After-death]. Bill Maher: "Jesus, as a philosopher is wonderful. There's no greater role model, in my view, than Jesus Christ. It's just a shame that most of the people who follow him and call themselves Christians act nothing like him."11 Nietzsche: "Christians have never put into practice the acts Jesus prescribed for them...The Buddhist acts differently from the nonBuddhist; the Christian acts as all the world does and possesses a Christianity of ceremonies and moods." --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8.4 BOOK II: PART I: CRITIQUE OF THE HIGHEST VALUES HITHERTO Note (n.) 192-209 According to Nietzsche, we must identify one by his deeds, his ability, his work. "One must practice deeds, not the strengthening of one's value-feelings; one must first have some ability...[within] Christian works...the value of existence resides in single highly tensed conditions of inactivity." (n.192).
11

Interviewed on The O'Reilly Factor (26 September 2006).

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Disposition Value: (incorrect), i.e., value is attributed through disposition, i.e., without work or through inactivity. [inactive attribution of value] (Potential problem of "free-riding") Work Value: (correct), i.e., value is attributed through work. [active attribution of value].

Values and their changes are related to the increases in the power of those positing the values (n.14) [Example]: Praying for money, rather than working for money. Note, Nietzsche defines prayer and effusion as conditions of inactivity. (n.192) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[Note: 199-200, 202] Directs his anger against the Christian Church toward the entire Jewish population. Clear hyperbole and generalizations. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The Drive Toward the Unnatural: "one drives nature out of morality when one says "love your enemies" : for then the natural "thou shalt love thy neighbor and hate enemy" in the law (in instinct) has become meaningless; then this love of one's neighbor must also find a new basis (as a kind of love of God). Everywhere, God is inserted and utility withdrawn; everywhere the real origin of morality is denied: the veneration of nature, which lies
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precisely in the recognition of any natural morality, is destroyed at its roots " (n.204)[emphasis added]. Christianity as Socialist Doctrine: 1. "The gospel: the news that a gateway to happiness stands open for the poor and lonely that all one has to do is free oneself from the institutions, traditions, guardianship of the upper classes: to this extent the rise of Christianity is nothing more than the typical Socialist doctrine." (n.209). a. Condemnation of fatherland (n.209). b. [Aside: Nietzsche positions himself against both Jews or the Jewish influence on Christianity and Fatherlandism. He views both as forms of "typical socialist doctrine" (n.209). 2. Nietzsche asks, "was it necessary for God to come in order to say to these publicans etc. " (n.206). Nietzsche fails to see the requirement for divine intervention. All he sees are social constructions and various forces vying for power. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8.5 BOOK II: PART I: CRITIQUE OF THE HIGHEST VALUES HITHERTO Note (n.) 210-215 A Doctrine of Service for those Served: [begin with discourse on restaurant culture] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. Nietzsche claims that "the New Testament is a book of seduction" (n.210). 2. The process of public seduction begins with "captur[ing] public opinion" (n.210) 3. The narrative is framed within the discourse of "service". "A kind of inner detachment that outwardly leaves everything as it was (servitude slavery; to know how to turn everything into a means of serving God in virtue)." (n.210), [emphasis in original] 4. This discourse on service is then translated into a "way of life". Nietzsche notes, "Christianity is a way of life, not a system of beliefs. It tells us how to act, not what we ought to believe." (n.212). 5. Thus, anything can be transformed into a discourse on service. The public has been conditioned to serve. They have been seduced by an appeal to their opinion, which solidifies their herd mentality. And then, service becomes a way of life. [But who is being served?]
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How the Oppressed Attain Power: (n.215) 1. "The oppressed, the lowly, the great masses of slaves and semi-slaves desire power." Combination n. 86 & n. 215 [redundancies] To attain this power they follow these four steps: 1. n.215: "They make themselves free they ransom themselves, in imagination at first, they recognize one another, they prevail." n. 86: "one speaks of "freedom" that is, one wants to get away from those in power." 2. n. 215: "They enter into battle, they demand recognition, equal rights, "justice". n. 86: "one demands justice from those who are in power." n. 86: "one speaks of "equal rights" Exclusive to n.215 3. "They demand privileges ( they draw the representatives of power over on their side)." 4. "They demand exclusive power, and they get it " --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8.5.1: Note (n.) 216-218 The Three Elements Needed in the Acquisition of Exclusive Power: 1. The oppressed of all kinds 2. The mediocre of all kinds 3. The discontented and sick of all kinds Three Repositories of Power: [Note]: Nietzsche suggests that the oppressed desire to acquire exclusive power. The following three repositories of power are necessary and collectively are the sufficient condition for attaining exclusive power. 1. Political Nobility 2. The exceptional and privileged 3. The natural instinct of the healthy and happy.

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8.5 BOOK II: PART I: CRITIQUE OF THE HIGHEST VALUES HITHERTO Note (n.) 216-229 Competing Instincts: 1. The instinct of the community a. Attributes value to, "obedience, reciprocity, consideration, moderation, sympathy" (n.216), as conditions for its survival. b. Survival is understood in terms of collective survival. It is a herd survival, which requires consideration for the collective over and above the individual. 2. The instinct of the ruler a. Rulers "patronize and applaud the virtues that make their subjects useful and submissive" (n.216)
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"Christianity is a herd religion, that it teaches obedience: in short, that Christians are easier to rule than non-Christians."(n.216) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Conclusion: Christianity is conducive to the instincts of a ruler, insofar as the religion encourages subservience. The notion of subservience and submission is reinforced by religious iconography. "Christ on the cross is the most sublime symbol even today." 218. On Illness and Misfortune: "The higher man is distinguished from the lower by his fearlessness and his readiness to challenge misfortune: it is a sign of degradation when eudaemonistic valuations begin to prevail." (n.222) [Explain] "all ideals are dangerous: because they debase brand the actual; all are poisonous" (n.223) "from the time of Adam until now, man has been in an abnormal state The natural character of life is a curse; [the Fall] Christ gives back the state of normality to him who believes in him: he makes them happy, [introduction of eudaemonistic valuations] idle and innocent. That the earth has not begun to be fruitful without work; [The curse of Adam, man] women do not bear children without pain; [The curse of Eve, woman] sickness has not ceased; the most devout believers have just as hard a time of it here as the least devout unbelievers [seemingly undermining the system of Christian belief, i.e., there is no advantage in believing]." (n.234) "the systematic reduction of all bodily feelings to moral values; illness itself conceived as morally conditioned, perhaps as punishment or as testing [The book of Job] or also as a state of salvation in which man becomes more perfect than he could be if he were healthy Under certain circumstances, making oneself sick deliberately." (n.227) a. Suffering and sickness as a means to transcendence and enlightenment. b. [Logic]: the more one suffers, the sicker one is, the greater the possibility for divine intervention, such that health and recovery is
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explicitly attributed to the act of divine intervention. Intervention is itself then, a consequence of prayer and faith. 12 [Read n.229] Thus, illness and misfortune are means of demonstrating one's dedication to the Christian faith. The more suffering and misfortunes one is capable of enduring the greater display of one's devotion and belief. 8.6 BOOK II: PART I: CRITIQUE OF THE HIGHEST VALUES HITHERTO Note (n.) 230 Psychosomatic Illness and Psychological Exhaustion: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Note 230 Formally one considered these conditions and consequences of psychological exhaustion (1) more important than the conditions of health and their consequences, because they are rich in the sudden, the fearful, the inexplicable and the incalculable. (2) One was afraid: one postulated here a higher world. Sleep and dream, shadows, the night, natural terrors, have been held responsible for the creation of two worlds: above all, (3) the symptoms of psychological exhaustion should have been considered in this regard. The ancient religions actually disciplined the pious into a (4) condition of exhaustion in which they must experience such things when believe one had entered a higher order of things where everything ceased to be familiar. The apprentice of a higher power --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(1) More important: my considerations for my immortal soul, my sense of guilt, my sense of shame, my obsession with conforming to rules and commandments takes precedence over my actual physical health. a. Focus is shifted from physiological and psychological health to "spiritual" health, which often comes at the expense of the body. Thus, the body is sacrificed for the spirit. (2) One was afraid: the inherent epistemological inaccessibility to knowledge of the afterlife creates a structure of fear that physically affects the body.
12

"One is good in a sickly manner when one is sick" (n.233).

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(3) The symptoms of psychological exhaustion: a devotee may become so compulsive, so obsessive that fear of the unknown begins to initiate psychosomatic illnesses within the body of the devotee. a. Religious devotees can and are successfully "program" to unknowingly enter a state of psychological exhaustion. One enters a state of psychological exhaustion through the condition of exhaustion. (4) Condition of exhaustion: unlike the ancient religions, however, contemporary practitioners are unaware of the "condition of exhaustion", which is a strategically designed process or system where in the devotee reaches physiological and psychological exhaustion. Divinely Inspired Psychosomatic and Physiological Illnesses Combination of Notes: 189+230:

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8.7 BOOK II: PART I: CRITIQUE OF THE HIGHEST VALUES HITHERTO Note (n.) 231-240 The "Bite" of Conscience: Q: What is the bite of conscience in Nietzsche? A: For Nietzsche, the "bite" of conscience may result from (1) a "bad" / "evil" action or (2) a "good" action. The "Bite" of Conscience for a "Bad" Action i. The term "the bite of conscience" is typically associated with the former, i.e., "bad" actions. First, Nietzsche describes the historical creation of a conscience as follows: "In this way the famous "conscience" is at last created: an inner voice which does not measure the value of every action with regard to its
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consequences, but with regard to its intention and the degree to which this intention conforms with the "laws." (n.141). Second, one must identify the nature of the "teeth" or the "bite" itself.. ii. The "teeth" in the "bite" of conscience is the Moral Law. "Conscience...measure[s] the value of every action...with regard to its...conform[ity] with the LAWS" (n.141). iii. The conscience is affected because of a failure to conform to the Moral Law, i.e., the bite affects the conscience. iv. The recognition of this failure in conformity creates a "sickness of self-torture" (n.233), i.e., the devotee continually feels a sense of guilt and replays the "immoral" act, thereby increasing a sense of sickness. v. This feeling of sickness for having failed to conform to the Moral Law is the "bite" of conscience. The "Cure" for the "Bite" of Conscience [for a bad action]: "Previous practice held a man to be cured when he abased himself before the cross and swore to be a good man But a criminal with a certain somber seriousness cleaves to his fate and does not slander his deed after it is done has more health of soul" (n.233) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The Real Cure for the "Bite' of Conscience [for a bad action]: I do not like this kind of cowardice towards one's own deeds No deed can be undone by being regretted; no more than by being "forgiven" or "atoned for" We immoralists prefer not to believe in "guilt." (n.235). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"a man is seldom characterized by single action A rage, a reach, a knife thrust: what of personality is in that?" (n.235) We classify such a man as a murderer rather than recognizing that he committed an act of murder. "Treating our entire existence from a single point of view, as if its meaning lay in bringing forth one single deed, should not infect the doer himself: unfortunately this happens almost all the time Spiritual disturbance follows every deed with unusual consequences, whether these consequences are good or ill." (n.235) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------one should never measure an artist by the standard of his works
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(n.235) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"But a Christianity intended above all to soothe diseased nerves has really no need of that fearful solution of a "God on the cross" (n.240) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8.7 BOOK II: PART I: CRITIQUE OF THE HIGHEST VALUES HITHERTO Call for Video Response: In Defense of Christianity: Critique of Note 170: Discussion of Note 170: Here @5:40 , Here, Here Note 170: Christianity has from the outset transformed the symbolic into crudities: 1. The antithesis "real life" and "false" life: misunderstood as "this life" and "the life to come". 2. The concept "eternal life" the antithesis to transient personal life, as "personal immortality"; 3. Brotherhood on the basis of sharing food and drink together after the Hebrew Arabic custom, as the "miracle of transubstantiation"; 4. "Resurrection " understood as entry into "real life," as a state of "rebirth"; this is made into a historical eventuality which takes place sometime or other after death; 5. The teaching that the son of man is the "Son of God," the living relationship between God and man; this is made into the "second person of divinity"-- the filial relationship to God of every man, even the lowliest, is abolished; 6. Salvation through faith (namely, that there is no means of becoming a son of God except by following the way of life taught by Christ) reversed into the faith that one is to believe in some sort of miraculous subtraction of sins, accomplished not through man but through Christ's deed: with that, "Christ on the cross" had to be interpreted anew. This death in itself was not at all the main thing it had been only one more sign of how one ought to behave in relation to the authorities and the laws of this world: not to defend oneself that had been the lesson. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------NO VIDEO CONTRIBUTIONS SUBMITTED --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------41

8.8 BOOK II: PART I: CRITIQUE OF THE HIGHEST VALUES HITHERTO Notes 241-252 The Continued Influence of Christianity: 1. Nietzsche is discomforted by the continued prevalence of Christianity despite progress in "scientific education, criticism and hermeneutics" (n. 242). a. "Natural" has come to mean the same as "contemptible," "bad" (n. 245). 2. Christianity preserves the superstitious "belief in divine dispensation" and divine providence. (n. 243). 3. In fact, one needs only to see what tendencies the "God of love" inspires in his believers: they were mankind for the sake of the "good". 4. "Through Christianity, the individual was made so important, so absolute, that he could no longer be sacrificed...One encourages a way of life that leads to the ruin of the species: Christianity is the counter principle to the principle of selection" (n. 246). 5. "This universal law of man is in practice the preference for the suffering, underprivileged, degenerate: it has in fact lowered and weakened the strength, the responsibility, the lofty duty to sacrifice men...The species requires that the ill constituted, weak, degenerate, perish: but it was precisely to them that Christianity turned as a conserving force is further and danced the instinct in the weak, already so powerful, to take care of and preserve themselves and to sustain one another" (n. 246). a. Christianity is a conserving force for weakness. i. Pro interpretation: Human sacrifice [as effort] ii. Con interpretation: Human sacrifice [as calculated genocide] On Power: 1. "We seem that every high degree of power involves freedom from good and evil and from "true" and "false" and cannot take into account the demands of goodness" (n. 244). 2. "Consider the damage all human institutions sustained if the divine and transcendent higher sphere is postulated that must first sanctioned these institutions" (n. 245). a. power is limited by the "sanctioning of" 3. "Knowledge and wisdom in themselves have no value" (p. 244).
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On Christian-Altruism and the Conservation of Weakness: 1. "What is Christian altruism is not the mass egoism of the weak, which... If all care for one another each individual will be preserved as long as possible" (n. 246). 2. "Genuine charity demands sacrifice for the good of the species it is hard, is full of self-overcoming, because it needs human sacrifice. And this pseudo-humanness: Christianity wants it established that no one should be sacrificed " (n. 246). a. [Detailed explanation of "human sacrifice"]. 3. "What, on the other hand, is to be condemned in the strongest terms is the ambiguous and cowardly compromise of the religions such as Christianity: more precisely, such as the church: which, instead of encouraging death and self-destruction, protects everything ill constituted sick and makes it propagate itself" (n. 247). a. [Very difficult interpretation] b. Can we, in a post WWII environment, justify such a claim? What are possible interpretations, which do not include mass extermination. Could such an argument be adapted to disavow for the systematic extermination of the "weak"? 4. "Here error is made the duty a virtue; blundering is made into an art, the instinct for destruction sympathized as "redemption" (n. 248). 5. "The virtuous average-and-herd-man, did not only take precedence over the stronger, more evil, covetous, defiant, prodigal, and therefore a hundred times more imperiled kind of man, but provided nothing less than the ideal, the goal, the measure, the highest desideratum for mankind in general" (n. 252). 6. "What is it we combat in Christianity? That it wants to break the strong, that it wants to discourage their courage, exploit their bad hours and their occasional weariness, convert their proud assurance into an ease and distress of conscience, that it knows how to poison and sicken and the noble instincts until their strength, their will to power turns backward, against itself until the strong perish through orgies of self contempt and self abuse: that gruesome way of perishing of which Pascal provides the most famous example" (n. 252)

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9.0: BOOK II: PART II: CRITIQUE OF MORALITY 1. The Origin of Moral Valuations: Notes 253-259 Origins of Moral Valuation and the Will to Power: 1. The Hegelian way out The "spirit" itself is the "self-revealing and self-realizing ideal" "process," and "becoming" Faith is directed into the future (n. 253). a. Platonic influence in distinction between being and becoming. b. Correlation to IS/OUGHT distinction. 2. "What are our evaluations and moral tables really worth? What is the outcome of their rule? For whom? in relation to what? Answer: for life. But what is life? Here we need a new, more definite formulation of the concept "life." My formula for it is: life is will to power. (n. 254).

Actuality / Potentiality of Power

"moral evaluation is an exegesis, a way of interpreting. The exegesis itself is a symptom of certain psychological conditions, likewise of a particular spiritual level of prevalence judgments." (n. 254).
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An Assessment of Virtue and Morality: 1. "All virtues are really refined passions and enhanced states. Pity and love of mankind's development of the sexual drive. Justice is developments of the drive to revenge. Virtue is pleasure in resistance, will to power. Honor is recognition of the similar and equal in power. (n. 255). a. virtue = refined passion b. pity and love = sexual drive c. justice = the drive to revenge d. virtue = pleasure in resistance [explain] / will-to-power e. honor = recognition of equal power IMPORTANT Deconstruction: 2. "I understand by "morality" a system of evaluations that partially coincides with the conditions of a creature's life." (n. 256). "Life is will to power." (n. 254). a. Syllogism: IF morality [is] a system of evaluations that partially coincides with the conditions of a creature's life (n. 256)AND Life is will to power (n. 254), THEN morality [is] a system of evaluations that partially coincides with the conditions of a creature's will to power. 3. "My chief proposition: there are no moral phenomena, there is only a moral interpretation of these phenomena. This interpretation itself is of extra moral origin." (n. 258) 4. "...all evaluation is made from a definite perspective" (n. 259). a. Augment 1: morality [is] a system of definite perspectives that partially coincides with the conditions of a creature's will to power. (n. 256 + 259 + 254). 5. "Valuation is always from a perspective" (n. 259). "A single individual contains within him a vast confusion of contradictory valuations and consequently of contradictory drives This contradictory creature has in his nature, however, a great method of acquiring knowledge: he feels many pros and cons, he raises himself to justice The wisest man would be the one richest in contradictions." a. Augment 2: morality [is] a system of definite perspectives and contradictory valuations that partially coincides with the conditions of a creature's will to power. (n. 256 + 259 + 254)

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9.1: BOOK II: PART II: CRITIQUE OF MORALITY 1. The Origin of Moral Valuations: Notes 260-266 Sense Data and Moral Evaluations: 1. "Willing": means willing and end. "An end" includes an evaluation (n. 260). a. Analysis: Since willing means willing an end, will to power manifests as willing power as an end. Since an end includes an evaluation, a will to power is an evaluation of power as an end. 2. "The extent of moral evaluations: they play a part in almost every sense impression. Our world is colored by them" (n. 260). a. Citation: "there are no moral phenomena, there is only a moral interpretation of these phenomena. This interpretation itself is of extra moral origin" (n. 258) ... "The extent of moral evaluations: they play a part in almost every sense impression. Our world is colored by them" (n. 260). b. Analysis: phenomena/sense impressions are primary, (2) interpretations/evaluations are secondary. Moral interpretations and moral evaluations happen as a consequence of assessing phenomena and sense impressions. Without phenomenon and sense impressions there would be no morality. (combination of n. 258 + 260). 3. N. 263: "to see him to demonstrate the problem of morality that seems to me the new principal task. I deny that it has been done in previous moral philosophy." 4. Read and Explain in Detail Note 266. 9.2: BOOK II: PART II: CRITIQUE OF MORALITY 1. The Origin of Moral Valuations: Notes 267-273 Two Types of Morality: 1. Stoical Morality: a. A "morality with which the healthy instinct defends itself against incipient decadence" (n. 268) 2. Christian Morality: a. A "morality with which this very decadence defines and justifies itself and leads downwards" (n. 268). Read all of N. 269: Nietzsche's account of morality repositions the focus from the social to the individual. Stoical morality is antithetical to Christian morality.
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"Thus the man of moral idiosyncrasy Is unknown to himself Morality as the only scheme of interpretation by which man can endure himself a kind of pride? " (n. 270) a. Christian morality displaces man from himself. b. It encourages and fosters and conserves a herd mentality c. Man's accomplishments can only be understood in terms of its approximation to the divine, as a consequence of divine Providence. d. Analysis: Thus, all accomplishments are a consequence of Providence, which exacerbates a state of profound psychological egoism among a community of believers. [e.g., the belief that God speaks directly to political leaders and governs their decisions and action in office], a remnant of the divine right of kings. Assumed Moral Preconditions for the Social: 1. "Moral values reveal themselves to be conditions of the existence of society, in that they are felt to be beyond discussion. The practice, which is to say the utility, of agreement about the highest values has here acquired a kind of sanction. We observe that every means is employed to paralyze reflection and criticism in this field" (n. 271). a. Analysis: to be critical of the moral preconditions of society is to challenge the very assumption that we are obligated to concern ourselves with the plight of others, rather than concerning ourselves with ourselves. b. The social is strategically placed in opposition to the individual. Rather, than recognizing the individual as the condition for the social. [Explain the importance] 2. Read all of note 272: [Nietzsche explicitly states his intent]. 3. Read all of note 273. 9.3: BOOK II: PART II: CRITIQUE OF MORALITY 2. The Herd: Notes 274-277 On the Dominance of Moral Value: 1. Moral valuation was constructed to dominate (1) knowledge, (2) the arts, (3) political and social endeavors. 2. Moral valuation sets "improvement" as the sole duty, "everything else [is] a means to it" (n. 274). a. Analysis: improvement cannot be posited as an end because prima facie it cannot be satisfied. There is no end to improvement.
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Three Powers Hidden Behind the Will to Power: (n. 274): Similarity with note 215. There is an antithetical will to power within the Christian moral tradition. 1. The instinct of the herd against the strong and independent 2. The instinct of the suffering and underprivileged against the fortunate. 3. The instinct of the mediocre against the exceptional Remember: (n. 215): The Three Elements Needed in the Acquisition of Exclusive Power: 1. The oppressed of all kinds 2. The mediocre of all kinds 3. The discontented and sick of all kinds The Herd Instinct and Its Control of Morality: 1. "Now suppose that belief in God is finished: the question presents itself when new: "who speaks?" My answer, taken not for metaphysics it from animal physiology: the herd instinct speaks. It wants to be master: hence its "thou shalt!" That will allow value to the individual only from the point of view of the whole, for the sake of the whole, it hates those who detach themselves it turns the hatred of all individuals against them" (n. 275). a. Under the Christian valuation individual only has recognition with respect to his or her placement with in the whole. b. There is no individual independent of the whole. c. Thus, paradoxically, the whole defines answers as a condition for the possibility of the individual. 2. Read all of note 276: a. The whole of European and is based upon what is useful to the herd: the affliction of all higher, rarer men lies in this, that everything that distinguishes them enters their consciousness accompanied by a feeling of diminution and discredit" (n. 276). a. the affliction: that which empowers higher, rarer men Is a mark of individuality. 3. The nature of man: "the demand for truthfulness presupposes the knowability and stability of the person. In fact, it is the object of education to create in the herd member a definite faith concerning the
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nature of man: at first glance this faith and then demands "truthfulness". (n. 277). a. Assuming a nature of man fails to recognize contradictory valuations. b. [me]: if there is a human nature it only has meaning insofar as we recognize the contradictory valuations of man. 9.4: BOOK II: PART II: CRITIQUE OF MORALITY 2. The Herd: Notes: 278-283 The Instinct of the Herd: 1. "It is a relief to count oneself the same as others, to try to feel as they do, to adopt the current feeling: it is something passive compared with the activity that maintains and constantly practices the individual's right to value judgments (the latter allows no rest)" (n. 279). IMPORTANT NOTE: 280 "the instinct of the herd considers the middle and the mean as the highest and most valuable: the place where the majority finds itself; the mode and manner in which it finds itself. It is therefore an opponent of all orders of rank, it sees an ascent from beneath to above as a descent from the majority to the minority. The herd feels the exception, whether it be below or above it, something opposed and harmful to it. It's artifice with reference to the exception above it, the stronger, more powerful, wiser, and more fruitful, is to persuade them to assume the role of guardians, herdsmen, watchmen to become its first service: it has therewith transformed a danger into something useful. Fear ceases in the middle: here one is never alone; here there is little room for misunderstanding; here there is equality; here one's own form of being is not felt as a reproach but as the right form of being; here contentment rules. Mistrust is felt toward the exceptions; to be an exception is experienced as guilt" (n. 280). a. The herd exalts the mean, the average b. The herd is opposed to "rank" hierarchy c. Exceptions to the "norm" [the average, mediocre] are opposed d. Those of strength and intellect are relegated to servants
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The Ideologists of Mediocrity: 1. "But then the ideologists of virtue, the moralists, comes along and says: "God see into the heart"...we have no desire whatever to be better we are very content with ourselves, all we desire is not to harm on another and therefore we forbid certain actions when they are directed in a certain way, namely against us..." (n. 218) Analysis: The herd mentality is a mentality of cowardice. It is a mentality that thrives on the support of others, rather than self-reliance. There is no need to excel. To do so is to separate oneself from the herd. It is to compromise the strength of the herd. Analysis 2: The individual is only valuable (incidentally), with respect to his relation to the herd, as part of the herd, as belonging to the herd. Weakness. Analysis 3: Thus, the herd FORBIDS. It COMMANDS. It infects with GUILT. assimilation individuation mediocrity Assimilation/Individuation and the Herd

2. "In itself, there is nothing sick about the herd animal, it is even invaluable; but, incapable of feeding itself, it needs a "shepherd" the priests understand that..." (n. 282) Analysis: The herd is dependent. The individual is independent. 3. "Naturalness is evil; it is right to oppose nature." Also "reason." (The anti-natural is the higher)." (n.283). 9.5: BOOK II: PART II: CRITIQUE OF MORALITY 2. The Herd: Notes: 284-287 condition and desires that are praised "peaceable, fair, moderates, modest, reverent, considerate, brave, chased, honest, faithful, devout, straight, trusting, devoted, sympathetic,
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hopeful, conscientious, simple, mild, just, generous, indulgent, obedient, disinterested, and envious, gracious, industrious." (n. 284) 1. "the condition and desires that are praisedthey are none of them felt to be "good" [explain]13 ... "... for their own sake, but for the first according to the standards (norms) of "society," "the herd" (n. 284) 2. The condition and desires that are praised serve the end of society and the herd. Society and the Herd have exactly the same end, the same destination. a. These praiseworthy conditions are "necessary to [the] preservation and advancement" of the herd. (n 284). 3. "I teach: the herd seeks to preserve one type and defend itself on both sides, against those who have degenerated from it And those who tower above it." (n. 285):

See: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3eHCYUMvTqo&feature=channel_video_title 4. Morality is the condition of the herd. Morality becomes the means in which the herd defends itself from degeneration (below) or aspiration and thus excellence (above). Thus, both degeneration and aspiration threaten the herd. 5. "My philosophy aims at an ordering of rank: not at an individualistic morality. The ideas of the herd should rule in the herd but not reach out beyond it: the leaders of the herd require a fundamentally different valuation [they must impose moral valuation w/o being subject to such valuation]14 for their own actions as do the independent, or then" beasts of prey" (n. 287) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------NEW SECTION-13 14

good for the herd, not for the individual "in the shepherd, this antagonism becomes patent: he must possess opposite qualities to the herd." (n. 284).

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--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9.6: BOOK II: PART III: GENERAL REMARKS ON MORALITY Notes 288-295 Pride, Freedom and the "Grand Economy": 1. "Morality as an attempt to establish human pride. The theory of "free will" is anti-religious. It seeks to create the right for man to think for himself as a cause 15 of his exalted state and actions: it is a form of the growing feelings of pride." (n.288) a. Whitman's pride and contentment in himself, which is independent to social validation or recognition. Traditional Conception of Morality

************VERY IMPORTANT************
Note: 289: "all perfect acts are unconscious and no longer subject to will: consciousness is the expression of an imperfect and often morbid state in a person. Personal perfection as conditioned by will, as consciousness, as reasoning with dialectics, is a caricature, a kind of
 See Walt Witman's "Song of Myself" ""I exist as I amthat is enough; If no other in the world be aware, I sit content; And if each and all be aware, I sit content."

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self contradiction a degree of consciousness makes perfection impossible" a. Zizek's Unknown Knowns b. The "Zone" for athletes and professional chess players. c. Disembodiement etc... [READ n. 291] The question then becomes: Since "one does not know the origin, [and] one does not know the consequences does an action done process any value at all?" (n. 291)...its value is unknown. Remember: "My chief proposition: there are no moral phenomena, there is only a moral interpretation of these phenomena. This interpretation itself is of extra moral origin." (n. 258) + (n. 292) "restoration of nature: an action in itself is perfectly devoid of value: it all depends on who performs it." [+] "a man is seldom characterized by single action A rage, a reach, a knife thrust: what of personality is in that?" (n.235) Thus: we can conclude that actions are DEVOID of BOTH (1) Moral Phenomena (n.258) and Value (n.292) Nietzschian Conception

The Fact is that X has occurred. The occurrence of X, in and of itself is neither good, nor bad, it just IS. [Read n.293] 9.7: BOOK II: PART III: GENERAL REMARKS ON MORALITY Notes 296-303 The 6 Great Crimes in Psychology: 1. displeasure has been falsified as guilt. 2. that all strong feelings have been branded as suspicious. 3. that cowardice is desirable. [it's okay to be scared] 4. "depersonalization has been presented as the cause of the greatest knowledge and ability" (n.296) 5. "love has been falsified as surrender (and altruism)" (n.296)
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6. life is punishment and happiness is temptation. Morality as Ultimate Value: 1. "Art, knowledge, and morality are means" (n.298), not ends in themselves. 2. Morality-as-End: results in the permeation of morality into all existence. Systemic Control

[ME]: Implications: (1) The belief in moral phenomena leads to the belief that morality emanates from reality, rather than its imposition on reality. (2) Where two groups, cultures etc., disagree on moral issues, assuming they both ascribe to the existence of moral phenomena, their "perceptions" inform them that they are actually disagreeing on the "nature" of reality. (3) Since contradictory phenomenal experiences of reality can't be true, each party finds the error in the other, hence conflict arises. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------END OF SECTION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CALL FOR VIDEO CONTRIBUTIONS NOTES 304-314 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CALL FOR VIDEO CONTRIBUTIONS NOTES 304-314 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Ianmathwiz7 Contribution: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dNpwuN3Gh0w&src_vid=GJD4D8d ERWA&annotation_id=annotation_20425&feature=iv Piplepipo Contributions: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JVZMhwBo0qM&src_vid=GJD4D8 dERWA&annotation_id=annotation_962465&feature=iv http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=od7r4AX0T9s&feature=related Video Compellation 221: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GJD4D8dERWA&feature=channel_ video_title --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10.0: BOOK II: PART IV: HOW VIRTUE IS MADE TO DOMINATE Notes 315-329 Requirements for Communal Morality: 1. They should change their character (n. 315) 2. blot out their past 3. cease to be distinct [assimilate] 4. means that they should begin to resemble one another in their needs and demandsmore clearly: that they should perish (n.315). [Suggestion]: the implicit suggestion is that ceasing to be distinct is a means to perishing, which implies that diversity [distinction] is a flourishing. Strong qualities of a race are characterized as evils because they threaten the process of homogenizing the social order. Humanization for Nietzsche implies an equality or homogeneity, which weakens distinction and imposes sameness. Communal morality then, becomes nested in the notion of intrestedness which is a communal means of homogenizing the crowd [explain].
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"Here, therefore, a communal morality is enforced because it procures an advantage; and to make it virtuous, war and force are practiced against immorality with what "right"? With no right whatever: but in accordance with the instinct of self-preservation. These same classes make use of immorality when it serves their purpose. (n.315). [Read 316] Explain. The infiltration of morality into our civil institutions. "One is a thoroughly small type of man if one is only virtuous: do not be misled about that! Men who have been in any way notable were never such virtuous asses: their innermost instinct, that of their quantum of power, did not find satisfaction that way: while, with your minimum of power, nothing can seem wiser to use and virtue. But you have numbers on your side; and in so far as you play the tyrant, we shall make war on you " (n318). [explain]. Note: power is used to attain satisfaction. there are gradations of power, lesser and greater power. Lesser, minimum, weaker, small power requires virtue as a means of falsely amplifying one's "power". Greater, stronger, more profound power, requires no amplification at all. Thus, power is a means of acting in the world, it produces advantages (n.315). War becomes a means of enforcing virtue or retaliating against the imposition. Communal morality then, is defined by this collective weakness and inability to affect change within their environment without the manipulation and influence of virtue. Conformity as Value-Laden: 1. The virtuous man in not a person (n.319), "but acquires his value by conforming to a pattern of man that is fixed once and for all." 2. Does not stand in contrast to this conforming pattern, but is identified by it.

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3. the act of conforming is typically facilitated by your desire to be accepted, to fit in. 3a. The acceptance gained in conforming is pleasant. Conformity is most effective when people freely give into the herd mentality. See Piplepipo's comments [here time marker 26:10]. "hegemony is popular" 3b. "It is the pleasant feeling in us that we project out of us and bestow upon the good man as a quality, as a value." (n.319). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Unmasking Virtue as Vice: The wolf in sheep's clothing 1. "It demands too much extravagance of narrow-mindedness" (n.324) 2. For Nietzsche, virtue is now what it has never been before...a vice. 3. "Wherever one has not yet been capable of causal thinking, one has thought morally." (n. 327). See, [Ianmathwiz7's comments on note 314 and the "gut"][here time marker 40:57]. 4. "In short, it [virtue] appears as a vice There is no court of appeal left that could deny it to us: only by exhibiting virtue as a form of immorality do we again justify it is classified and compared with reference to its fundamental significance, it is part of the fundamental immorality of all existence as a form of luxury of the first order, the haughtiest, dearest and rarest form of vice."(n.328) [Explain] 4a. There is no court of appeal left that could deny it to us See Piplepipo's discussion on etiquette [here time marker 40:57]. 4b. The fundamental immorality of existence: [Interpretation: we seek to dominate and construct systems of domination, seduction, brute force, intellectual domination, irreverence]. 5. "One cannot serve a cause better than by persecuting it and hunting it down--this--is what I have done." (n.329) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10.1: BOOK II: PART V: THE MORAL IDEAL (A) Critique of Ideals Notes 330-336 Desirability and Condemnation: The act of desiring is an of looking beyond or past existence. It is, to varying degrees, the act of condemning existence. 1. "It is precisely our concept of "perfection" which is never satisfied" (n.331)
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2. That which is perfect is desired, and that which is desired encompasses all of perfection. 3. Nietzsche wishes to destroy this notion of "the all". The unity of all. "One must shatter the all; unlearn respect for the all...The all would ALWAY bring the old problem with it "How is evil possible. (n.331).[explain in detail] 4. The act of desiring of evoking what "should" what "ought" to be is for Nietzsche a "lower or lesser" state of human contemplation, which is inextricably bound to the contemplation of what is. Thus, binding epistemology and ethics. 5. "On the other hand, it is only this desire "thus it ought to be" that has called forth that other desire to know what is. For the knowledge of what is, is a consequence of that question: "How? is it possible? why precisely so?" (n.333). [explain]

6. Thus, e.g. we desire a state of peace, without properly understanding what is: war and conflict. Peace as the goal of desirability, without an understanding of a state of conflict merely serves to condemn existence. a. :"the fighter tries to transform his opponent into his antithesisin imagination naturally" (n.348). [explain] 7. Morality [prescriptions] without epistemic understanding [descriptive assessments] of what is, is a means of condemnation. It is the act of condemning existence. 8. Hence, desirability can and does serves as a means of condemning existence.

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Reconstructing the "Ideal": 1. Since that which is desirable is a condemnation of existence (n.331-333), The "ideal" cannot inhere within that which is, i.e., within existence. 2. "The "ideal" is simply a form of dream, weariness, weakness ...the ideal state of the herd animal that no longer wants to have enemies. Therein one has raises everything that debases and lowers man to an ideal" (n.335). 3. "The more our desire for a thing grows, the more value we ascribe to that thing." (n.336)...cross reference (n.170.2) "The concept "eternal life," the antithesis to transient personal life, as "personal immortality" ... (n.339) "The salvation of the immortal soul! Extremest form of personalizationFor every soul there was only one perfecting; only one ideal; only one way to redemption." [explain] 4. Our desire for personal immortality, which is not present in this life, condemns our existence and places value on the quest for immortality. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10.2: BOOK II: PART V: THE MORAL IDEAL (A) Critique of Ideals Notes: 337-350 The Counterfeiting Aspect of Morality: "What is the counterfeiting aspect of morality?It pretends to know something, namely what "good and evil" is." (n.338) cross reference (n.235). "a man is seldom characterized by single action A rage, a reach, a knife thrust: what of personality is in that?"

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Historical Progression as Counterfeit: ..."the belief in progress toward the ideal is the only form in which a goal in history is thought of today [explain]. In summa: one has transferred the arrival of the "kingdom of God" [an immortal kingdom] into the future, on earth, in human form [second coming]"(n.339). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Morality when abused can (1) condemn this life for the next (2) posit "perfection" or "immortality" as the desired goal, (3) direct the historical progression of society toward that state of perfection. (4) Since the state of perfection is a denial of existence, the (5) state of ultimate perfection is a total destruction of all existence. [eschatological end state] Thus the state of perfection is only attained through the destruction of existence. [detailed explanations] "the projection of the ideal into the antinatural, antiactual, illogical; the state of him who thus judges (--the "impoverishment" of the world as consequence of suffering: one takes, one no longer gives--): the antinatural ideal." (n.341).

[explain] ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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The counterfeiting power of the morality: 1. There is a continuous attempt to reconstruct the actual and natural as "fallen", "debase" but the allegation of "debasement" IS NOT presented as a moral prescriptive claim, but rather as a descriptive "fact", which it is not. 2. Thus morality, when abused, assumes the descriptive air of conveying facts and states of actual existence, rather than offering prescription and justifications for possible existences. 3. "My insight: all the forces and drives by virtue of which life and growth exist lie under the ban of morality: morality as the instinct to deny life. One must destroy morality is one is to liberate life." (.n343). 4. "The basic tendency of the weak and mediocre of all ages is, consequently, to weaken and pull down the stronger: chief means, the moral judgment." (n.345). 5. Since God created nature, Nature itself is good. But its corruption is a consequence of "tyrants and seducers, the ruling ordersthey must be destroyed--: 6. Whatever bizarre ideal one may follow...one should NOT demand that it be the ideal: for one therewith takes from it its "privileged character." One should have it in order to distinguish oneself, NOT in order to level oneself (n.349). [explain]. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10.3: BOOK II: PART V: THE MORAL IDEAL (B) Critique of the "Good Man" Notes 351-361 Obliterating "Evil" and the "Good Man": 1. "the demand [of the ideal state] is that man should castrate himself of those instincts with which he can be an enemy, can cause harm, can be angry, can demand revenge " (n. 351). 2. man should deliberately weaken himself by disassociating himself with anything that may inflict harm on others. 3. The duality of good and evil assumes mutually exclusive characteristics: good act are all positive and condoned, evil acts are all negative and condemned.
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4. [KEY]: "at its peak, it imagines the state in which all that is evil is a annulled and in which only good creatures actually remain. It does not even consider it settled that this antithesis of good and evil is conditional on the existence of both; on the contrary, the latter should vanish and the former remain, one has a right to exist, the other ought not to be there at all " (n.351). [explain]. 5. "The essential demand here is that mankind should do nothing evil, that it should under no circumstances do harm our desire to do harm." a. Not only is the act of "evil" "immoral" under this view, the thought, intent or idea of harm, pride, revenge etc, evil. 6. "Perhaps there has never been a more dangerous ideology than this will to good." (n.351). a. The "will to good" assumes a dimetrically opposed worldview, wherein good is in direct opposition to evil. b. The "good man" must defeat the "evil man". c. The "good man" is justified in his attempt to destroy the "evil man" because in so doing, he [the "good man"] returns the universe to its "rightful order". [Nietzsche refutes all of this]. 7. "Precisely because of his faith in a moral antithesis of good and evil the world has become for him overfull of things that must be hated and eternally combated." (n.351). a. The ideology of a "will to good" is the most destructive force. It locates "evil" in all and obliterates all. The Misappropriation of Power: 1. "The concept of POWER, whether of God or of a man, ALWAYS includes BOTH the ability to help and the ability to harm." (n.353). [this is the proper conception]:
Quote from "Apocalypse Now":
ROXANNE He would rage and he would cry, my lost soldier. And I said to him, "There are two of you, don't you see? One that kills and one that loves." And he said to me, "I don't know whether I am animal or a god." But you are BOTH... There are TWO of you, don't you see? One that kills ...and one that loves.(ref).

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2. The misappropriation of power is the belief [the ideology] that "the good" is the ONLY "proper" manifestation of power. This "will to good" denies/refutes any manifestation of POWER that results in harm. All such manifestations of power are labeled as "evil". Conceptual Example of the difficulty in passing moral judgment: Quote from "Apocalypse Now":
KURTZ I remember when I was with Special Forces. Seems a thousand centuries ago. We went into a camp to inoculate some children. We'd left the camp after we had inoculated the children for polio. And this old man came running after us, and he was crying. He couldn't say. We went back there, and they had come and hacked off every inoculated arm. They they were, in a pile. A pile of little arms. And, I remember, I cried, I wept like some grandmother. I wanted to tear my teeth out. I didn't know what I wanted to do. And I want to remember it. I never want to forget it. I never want to forget it. And then I realized, like I was shot, like I was shot with a diamond bullet through my forehead. And I thought, My God, the genius of that! The genius. The WILL to do that. Perfect, genuine, complete, crystalline, pure. And then I realized, they were stronger than we. Because they could stand it. These were not monsters. These were men, strained cadres. These men who fought with their hearts, who have families, who have children, who

are filled with LOVE...that they had the strength, the strength to do that. If I had ten divisions of those men, then our troubles here would be over very quickly. You have to have men who are moral, and at the same time, who are able to UTILIZE their primordial instincts to kill without feeling, without passion. Without judgment. Without Judgment. Because it's judgment that defeats us. (ref) 63

3. Something/someone is "evil" if one is UNJUSTIFIED in using power to inflict harm on those things/persons deemed "good". 4. Thus, the wholly arbitrary and contradictory nature of the relationship between power and (good and evil). Power is thus constrained to those who can only manifest it as just/good. 5. "The saint as the most powerful type of man" (n.359) 6. READ NOTE 361 in its entirety. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10.4: BOOK II: PART V: THE MORAL IDEAL (C) Disparagement of the So-Called Evil Qualities Notes: 362-369 [important sections] On the Truth of Egoism: For Nietzsche, Christian dogma seeks to reduce the levels of egoism, piety, humility, reverence, contempt for pride etc.. "I at first sought to prove that there could not be anything other than egoism." (n.362). Thus, ALL moral action can and should be identified and contextualized within the framework of pure egoistic motivations. The Indifferent Egoist and Notions of Pity: "man is an indifferent egoist" (n.363).

One lacks the "requisite" concern for the plight of the other unless tending to that concerns serves egoistic motivations. Otherwise, there is no "need" to assist. "pity is to be discovered as the root of ALL moral impulse hitherto" (n.366).

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"Pity is a squandering of feeling" (n.368). + "If one does good merely out of pity, it is oneself one really does good to, and NOT the other." (n.368).

[combination of above two images]

pity for the "other" is the appearance, which motivates the "moral action". The reality however, even if unbeknownst to the moral agent is an indifferent egoistic drive to satisfy one's own ego. Thus, all moral actions are egoistic. All "good" actions are egoistic. The burden of proof rests with those that disagree. They would have to demonstrate an act that is not egoistic, which is inherently impossible since we cannot access the intent governing the moral agent's act. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [Aside]: [Me]: I might allow for theoretical altruism. But epistemologically, all actions are egoistic. [Technical]: There is an epistemological inaccessibility to altruistic actions, which is not to deny the possibility, but it is to deny any epistemological accessibility to KNOWING this fact. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"NO egoism at all exists that remains within itself and does not encroach...one furthers one's ego ALWAYS at the expense of others." (n.369).

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E.g.: Time sharing: as a consequence of this lecture series. [I end up monopolizing your time], you see as fair because you get in return information and knowledge. I: encroach on your time. You: encroach on my knowledge. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10.5: BOOK II: PART V: THE MORAL IDEAL (C) Disparagement of the So-Called Evil Qualities Notes: 370-373 The Ego and the Social: "The "subject" is only a fiction: the ego of which one speaks when one censures egoism does not exist at all." (n.370). The uncensored ego is inconceivable. [Advanced]: The ego exists to be censored. It is the act of censoring the ego, via morality and moral dogma that "creates" the ego, [actually it is an ability to "discover" the ego than create it]. Without this censure we would be unaware of its existence.

"A doctrine and religion of "love," of suppression...suppresses feelings of rivalry, of resentment, of envythe all too natural feelings of the underprivileged" (n. 373). The underprivileged have a "feeling of rivalry" and "resentment" Religion seeks to pacify that feeling. To subdue that will to violence, to act in one's best interest. That anger and resentment is replaced with "love". "Love thy enemy"
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[question?] What is the status of revolution in light of love for one's enemy? What is the status of social transformation is light of love for one's enemy? What is the status of one's own "underprivilegedness" in light of "love"? Can social transformation take place through "love"? [Me] I'm disinterested in response to this question. [Read 373-3 complete] [explain] [Read 373-4 complete] [explain] Sociopolitical Implication of Nietzsche's Discourse on Egoism and Pity: personal guilt has the possibility to translate into social or collective guilt [conceptually] that guilt is located within society. [his failure, becomes a consequence of systemic failure]. This is a potential critique against Gaultung's notion of structural violence. The "cause" of this feeling of guilt, of having failed or been shamed [eastern] is the "source" of the problem, i.e., the social or the sociopolitical.

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10.6: BOOK II: PART V: THE MORAL IDEAL (C) Disparagement of the So-Called Evil Qualities Notes: 374-379 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"The Genius of the Actor"/Artist "Every society has the tendency to reduce its opponents to caricatures at least in imaginationand, as it were, to starve them." (n.374). [Read remaining 374 note]. "Man's growing inwardness. Inwardness grows as powerful drives that have been denied outward release by the establishment...by turning inward in concert with the imagination...in the artist there reappears the repressed power to dissimulate and lie..." (n.376).

The Establishment, reinforces the denial of the artist since the artist challenges the establishment, through introspection rather than assimilation. "When one has extreme clearsightedness one needs the genius of the actor and tremendous training in self-control IF one is to achieve victory" [explain both parts: 1. actor, 2. self-control]

"Thou shalt not lie": one demands truthfulness. But acknowledgement of the FACTUAL...has been greatest among liars: the have recognized that just this popular "truthfulness" is not a fact...One conceals oneself in the presence of the unfamiliar...("The powerful always lie").

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"The great nihilistic counterfeiting through artful misuse of moral values...Art as the work of the "pure free-willed subject"; misunderstanding of "objectivity" (n.379).

The work of a "pure free-willed subject" IS art. Art is a consequence of the effort/work of this "pure free-willed subject". The very nature of the subject's unbridled freedom is the source of art. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11.0: BOOK II: PART V: THE MORAL IDEAL (C) Disparagement of the So-Called Evil Qualities Notes: 380-390 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The Will as Affective: "I assess a man by the quantum of power and abundance of his will..."(n.382). [Read 382.1: three sections] [Explain]: the will is directed outward, but begins through the process of inwardness/introspection. the will abounds within the "genius"/freedom of the subject. Thus, the will is a means of influencing the external from the internal, the inward. the external then is made to conform or adapt to the internal (the transformation of the external into the internal).
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"Religious morality.Affect, great desire, the passion for power, love, revenge, possessions--: moralists want to extinguish and uproot them, to "purify" the soul of them." (n.383). [Note: it is not arbitrary that I've placed the artist on the "left-side" and the Church on the "right-side" ;-)] [Read 383.1 + 385] [Explain]

[Read 390] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12.0: BOOK II: PART V: CRITIQUE OF THE WORDS: (C) Improvement, Perfecting, Elevation Notes: 391-405 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Inconsistencies in Becoming Moral: Nietzsche identifies a "contradiction in "becoming more moral" and the elevation and strengthening of a man. (n.391). The assumption of becoming more moral serves as the condition for the slippery slope. "Has virtuousness as a goal not hitherto been in the most rigorous sense incompatible with being happy?" (n.393). [self-denial etc].
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Moral improvement is an act of deception: "one can bring a different role into the foreground and draw the "former man back"The aspect is changes, not the essence." (n.394). [epistemologically]: observers can only have access to the aspect and not the essence. The aspect is deemed either morally acceptable or reprehensible, never the essence. We don't have epistemological access to the essence. "punishment does not expiate, forgiveness does not extinguish, what is done is not undone. That someone forgets something is certainly not evidence that something has ceased to exist." (n.212) [Assessment]: here Nietzsche challenges the notions of forgiveness and punishment: Though one may forgive the act forgiveness in so sense undoes the event [that can never be undone], thus forgiveness functions as a deception, an inconsistency in becoming moral. [Read 394.4] Nietzsche challenges the notion that illness makes man more virtuous: "Nothing would be more costly than virtue: for one would have in the end turned the earth into a hospital: and ultimate wisdom would be "everyone as everyone else's nurse." (n.395) [Read section in 397] "In most cases, the taming of a beast is achieved through the harming of a beast: the moral man, too, is not a better man but only a weaker one. But he is less harmful." (n.397). [Read 399] [Read 400] The word "Dionysus" is introduced for the first time in the text at (n.401). "How was this really possible? Question: why did life...succumb? Why was there no affirmative philosophy, no affirmative religion?The historical signs of such a movement: the pagan religion. Dionysus versus the "Crucified. The Renaissance. Art." (n.401.1)

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[Read 401] [Read all of 404] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Critique of Philosophy 13.0: BOOK II: PART I: CRITIQUE OF Philosophy: General Observations Notes: 406-426 On the Role of the Philosopher: 1. "What dawns on philosophers last of all: they must no longer accept concepts as a gift, nor merely purify and polish them, but first make and create them, present them and make them convincing." (n.409) 2. "What is needed above all is an absolute skepticism toward all inherited concepts.: (n.409). 3. "I guarded against settling down with any of these dogmas" (n.410). 4. [Read all of 411]: [Explain in Detail]: (false dichotomy) 5. "Since Plato, philosophy has been dominated by morality" (n.412). 6. "The skepticrespectable but rareexcepted, an instinct for intellectual integrity is nowhere evident." (n.414). 7. "...we no longer believe in morality, as they did [Kant and Hegel], and consequently we have no need to found a philosophy with the aim of justifying morality." (n.415). 8. [KEY]: "I myself have attempted an aesthetic justification: how is the ugliness of the world possible?" (n.416). 9. [Read: 416.1] [KEY]. Reconceptualizing the Role of the Philosopher: 1. Dionysian Wisdom: [Read 417] 2. "We have to be destroyers!" (n.417) 3. "all bridges are brokenexcept the rainbow-bridges of concepts!" (n.419). 4. Philosophy cannot be a nostalgia for the past, for the Greek, for antiquity. [Explain].
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5. "I do not wish to persuade anyone to philosophy: it is inevitable, it is perhaps also desirable, that the philosopher should be a rare plant." (emphasis in original), (n.420). 6. [KEY]: [Read 421]. 7. [Read 422]. 8. [Read 423]. 9. [Read 425]. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13.1: BOOK II: PART II: CRITIQUE OF Greek Philosophy Notes: 427-430 On the Power of Hellenic Sophistry: [KEY section] 1. The Sophist is the traditional form [i.e., of philosophy]. (n.427). 2. The polis loses its faith in the uniqueness of its culture, in its right to rule over every other polisOne exchanges cultures, i.e., the godsone thereby loses faith in the sole prerogative of the dues autochthonus. 16 Good and Evil of different origin are mingled: the boundry between good and evil is blurredThis is the Sophist. (n.427). [Explain]. a. On the conceptual origins of cultural relativism b. Sophistry as a recognition of relativism c. The sophist as facilitator between different cultures, between different sets of knowledge, as indifferent intermediary. i. Protagoras: Man is the measure of all things: of things that are, that they are; of things that are not, that they are not." (On Truth). [ref] [explain in detail]. d. [Read 427.2] (Philosopher as reaction to Hellenic Sophistry)

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dues autochthonus: god native to the soil [reference]:

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3. Platos Forms as an antithetical force to Hellenic Sophistry and the flexibility inherent within its system.

a. The philosopher, unlike the Hellenic Sophist [as facilitator], became the strong-arm of the establishment. The philosopher created a system of controlling and mandating ideological conformity. [This concept would later be incorporated into the religious community, viz., Christianity]Preparation for the soil of Christianity (n.427). 4. Gradually everything genuinely Hellenic is made responsible for the state of decay (and Plato is just as ungrateful to Pericles, Homer, tragedy, rhetoric as the prophets were to David and Saul). (n.427). 5. [Read 428.1] Critical Passage ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Sophistry is the old philosophy and it has ultimately shown itself to be right: every advance in epistemological and moral knowledge has reinstated the Sophists (n.428)The Sophists are no more than realists: they formulate the values and practices common to everyone on the level of valuesthey possess the courage of all strong spirits to know their own immorality(n.429).
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. [Condemnation]: Nietzsches racist comment: (n.429): when Socrates and Plato took up the cause of virtue and justice, they were Jews or I know not what [Explain meaning].

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8. The great concepts good and just are severed from the presuppositions to which they belong and, as liberated ideas, become objects of dialectic. One looks for truth in them, one one takes them for entities or signs of entities: one invents a world where they are at home, where they originateIn summa: the mischief has already reached its climax in PlatoSocrates represents a moment of the profoundest perversity in the history of values. (n.430). [Detailed Explanation].

a. There is a fundamental incompatibility with the assumption that the Forms are eternal and perfect/prototypical, which inform this world of existence, because to attain the Form of the Good, one has to leave, relinquish, renounce the world of existence. Since the BODY, both our physical bodies and the Earth as body, exists within the world of existence, this position presupposes a physical denial of our existence, prima facie. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13.2: BOOK II: PART II: CRITIQUE OF Greek Philosophy Notes: 431-447 Socrates and the Problem of Happiness: "I try to understand from what partial and idiosyncratic states the Socratic problem derives: his equalization of reason = virtue =
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. It was with this absurdity of a doctrine of identity that he fascinated: the philosophers of antiquity never again freed themselves from this fascination...When the spirit is rich and independent it most resist any preoccupation with morality." (n.432). 1. The dialectical process made a: "tyrant of shrewdness" (n.433). [explain] 2. "What do men want? (one dared not say "Power": that would have been immoral); consequentlythere is in all the actions of men the intention of attaining happiness." (n.434). 3. "To the extent that it is willed, to the extent that it is conscious, there is no perfection in action of any kind" (n.434). 4. Nietzsche argues that Plato was, "profound, passionate in everything anti-Hellenic." [Plato as destroyer of tradition]. 5. "The real philosophers of Greece are those before Socrates" (n.437). 6. "Not the "moral corruption" of antiquity, but precisely its moralization is the prerequisite through which alone Christianity could become master of it. Moral fanaticism (in short: Plato) destroyed paganism, by revaluing its values poisoning its innocence. We ought finally to understand that what was then destroyed was higher than what became master." (n.438) [Explain] 7. "Genius resides in instinct; goodness likewise. One acts perfectly only when one acts instinctively." (n.439). 8. [Read 445]..."The typical philosopher is here an absolute dogmatist;--if he has need of skepticism, it is so as to be able to speak dogmatically about his main interest." (n.446). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14.0: BOOK II: PART III: Truth and Error of Philosophers Notes: 448-460 "Truth" and "Error": 1. [Read 448-451] 2. "The view that truth is found and that ignorance and error are at an end is one of the most potent seductions there is..."Truth" is therefore more fateful than error and ignorance because it cuts off the forces that work toward enlightenment and knowledge." [explain] (n.452)
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3.

4. 5.

6. 7.

a. "Truth" is a fixed state and thus dogmatic, inflexible. "...it is more comfortable to OBEY than to examine; it is more flattering to think "I possess the truth" than to see only darkness around one--above all: it is reassuring, it gives confidence, it alleviates life"(n.452) [Read 453] rel. to structural violence? "The methods of truth were not invented for motives of truth, but for motives of power, of wanting to be superior." (n.455)..."But how is truth proved? By the feeling of enhanced power." [Read all of 457], detailed explanation. "One must act; consequently rules of conduct are needed." (n.458). a. The system of morality was justified by an event ontology. [explain]. "Western Approach" (generalization)

b. "One must not act"said their more consistent brothers, the Buddhists, and conceived a rule of conduct liberate one from action." "Eastern Apporach" (n.458), (generalization)

to

8. [Read all of 459] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14.1: BOOK II: PART IV: Further Consideration for a Critique of Philosophy Notes: 461-465
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***Critical Importance*** Philosophers as Slanderers: 1. The treacherous and blind hostility of philosophers toward the senses (n.461). 2. Rather than trusting in ones senses, man reaches every time for nothingness and construes nothingness as God, as truth. 3. Philosophy has become, a sort of revenge on reality, a malicious destruction of the valuations by which men live. (n.461). 4. The history of philosophy is a secret raging against the preconditions of life, against the value of feelings of life, against partisanship in favor of life. (n.461). a. [Reference to Platos Hierarchy], brief explanation. Philosophers as Arists: 1. if we [the new philosophers] have abolished the real world [explain] then a new order of values must follow of its own accord.] a. The construction and analysis of these values is the obligation of the new philosopher. b. Values which inhere within the natural and affirm the natural. 2. [Objective]: The apparent world and the world invented by a liethis is the antithesis. The latter has hitherto been called the real world, truth, God. This is what we have to abolish. (n.462). 3. [Opponent]: the exhausted and disinherited who take revenge (n.462). 4. [Means]: In place of moral values, purely naturalistic values. Naturalization of morality. 5. [Necessary Transformation]: But where may I look with any kind of hope for my kind of philosopher himself, at least for my need of new philosophers? For where are there free spirits today? Show me a free spirit today! (n.464)cross reference Art as the work of the "pure free-willed subject"; END OF BOOK II --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------78

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