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JEE (main) Syllabus for Chemistry

SECTION: A PHYSICA CHE!IST"Y

#NIT $: SO!E %ASIC CONCEPTS IN CHE!IST"Y Matter and its nature, Daltons atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound; Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis; a!s of chemical com"ination; #tomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry. #NIT &: STATES O' !ATTE" Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states. (aseous State: Measura"le properties of gases; $as la!s % &oyles la!, Charles la!, $rahams la! of diffusion, #'ogadros la!, Daltons la! of partial pressure; Concept of #"solute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation; (inetic theory of gases )only postulates*; Concept of a'erage, root mean square and most pro"a"le 'elocities; +eal gases, de'iation from Ideal "eha'iour, compressi"ility factor and 'an der ,aals equation. i)ui* State: Properties of liquids % 'apour pressure, 'iscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them )qualitati'e treatment only*. Soli* State: Classification of solids- molecular, ionic, co'alent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids )elementary idea*; &raggs a! and its applications; Unit cell and lattices, pac.ing in solids )fcc, "cc and hcp lattices*, 'oids, calculations in'ol'ing unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; /lectrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.

#NIT +: ATO!IC ST"#CT#"E 0homson and +utherford atomic models and their limitations; 1ature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, &ohr model of hydrogen atom % its postulates, deri'ation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different or"its, limitations of &ohrs model; Dual nature of matter, de%&roglies relationship, 2eisen"erg uncertainty principle. /lementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features, concept of atomic or"itals as one electron !a'e functions; 3ariation of and 2 , !ith r for 4s and 5s or"itals; 'arious quantum num"ers )principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum num"ers* and their significance; shapes of s, p and d % or"itals, electron spin and spin quantum num"er; +ules for filling electrons in or"itals 6 auf"au principle, Paulis e7clusion principle and 2unds rule, electronic configuration of elements, e7tra sta"ility of half%filled and completely filled or"itals. #NIT ,: CHE!ICA %ON-IN( AN- !O EC# A" ST"#C#"E (ossel % e!is approach to chemical "ond formation, concept of ionic and co'alent "onds. Ionic &onding- 8ormation of ionic "onds, factors affecting the formation of ionic "onds; calculation of lattice enthalpy. Co.alent %on*in/: Concept of electronegati'ity, 8a9ans rule, dipole moment; 3alence Shell /lectron Pair +epulsion )3S/P+* theory and shapes of simple molecules. 0uantum me1hani1al a22roa1h to 1o.alent bon*in/: 3alen1e bon* theory 4 Its important features, concept of hy"ridi:ation in'ol'ing s, p and d or"itals; +esonance. !ole1ular Orbital Theory 4 Its important features, C#;s, types of molecular or"itals )"onding, anti"onding*, sigma and pi%"onds, molecular or"ital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of "ond order, "ond length and "ond energy. /lementary idea of metallic "onding. 2ydrogen "onding and its applications. #NIT 5: CHE!ICA THE"!O-YNA!ICS 8undamentals of thermodynamics- System and surroundings, e7tensi'e and intensi'e properties, state functions, types of processes. 'irst la6 of thermo*ynami1s % Concept of !or., heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity; 2esss la! of constant heat summation; /nthalpies of "ond dissociation, com"ustion, formation, atomi:ation, su"limation, phase transition, hydration, ioni:ation and solution.

Se1on* la6 of thermo*ynami1s7 Spontaneity of processes; S of the uni'erse and $ of the system as criteria for spontaneity, $< )Standard $i""s energy change* and equili"rium constant.

#NIT 8: SO #TIONS Different methods for e7pressing concentration of solution % molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage )"y 'olume and mass "oth*, 'apour pressure of solutions and +aoults a! 6 Ideal and non%ideal solutions, 'apour pressure % composition, plots for ideal and non% ideal solutions; Colligati'e properties of dilute solutions % relati'e lo!ering of 'apour pressure, depression of free:ing point, ele'ation of "oiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using colligati'e properties; #"normal 'alue of molar mass, 'ant 2off factor and its significance. #NIT 9: E0#I I%"I#! Meaning of equili"rium, concept of dynamic equili"rium. E)uilibria in.ol.in/ 2hysi1al 2ro1esses: Solid %liquid, liquid % gas and solid 6 gas equili"ria, 2enrys la!, general characterics of equili"rium in'ol'ing physical processes. E)uilibria in.ol.in/ 1hemi1al 2ro1esses: a! of chemical equili"rium, equili"rium constants )(p and (c* and their significance, significance of $ and $o in chemical equili"ria, factors affecting equili"rium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; e Chateliers principle. Ioni1 e)uilibrium: ,ea. and strong electrolytes, ioni:ation of electrolytes, 'arious concepts of acids and "ases )#rrhenius, &rnsted % o!ry and e!is* and their ioni:ation, acid % "ase equili"ria )including multistage ioni:ation* and ioni:ation constants, ioni:ation of !ater, p2 scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and p2 of their solutions, solu"ility of sparingly solu"le salts and solu"ility products, "uffer solutions. #NIT :: "E-O; "EACTIONS AN- E ECT"OCHE!IST"Y /lectronic concepts of o7idation and reduction, redo7 reactions, o7idation num"er, rules for assigning o7idation num"er, "alancing of redo7 reactions. /ectrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conducti'ities and their 'ariation !ith concentration- (ohlrauschs la! and its applications. /lectrochemical cells % /lectrolytic and $al'anic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half % cell and cell reactions,

emf of a $al'anic cell and its measurement; 1ernst equation and its applications; +elationship "et!een cell potential and $i""s energy change; Dry cell and lead accumulator; 8uel cells. #NIT < : CHE!ICA =INETICS +ate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions- concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and comple7 reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate la!, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of :ero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half % li'es, effect of temperature on rate of reactions 6 #rrhenius theory, acti'ation energy and its calculation, collision theory of "imolecular gaseous reactions )no deri'ation*. #NIT4$> : S#"'ACE CHE!IST"Y A*sor2tion4 Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids % 8reundlich and angmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions. Colloi*al state 4 distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids % lyophilic, lyopho"ic; multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids )micelles*, preparation and properties of colloids % 0yndall effect, &ro!nian mo'ement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; /mulsions and their characteristics.

SECTION ? % INO"(ANIC CHE!IST"Y

$$: C ASSI'ICATON O' E E!ENTS AN- PE"IO-ICITY IN P"OPE"TIES Modem periodic la! and present form of the periodic ta"le, s, p, d and f "loc. elements, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ioni:ation enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, 'alence, o7idation states and chemical reacti'ity. #NIT $&: (ENE"A P"INCIP ES AN- P"OCESSES O' ISO ATION O' !ETA S Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps in'ol'ed in the e7traction of metals % concentration, reduction )chemical and electrolytic methods* and refining !ith

special reference to the e7traction of #l, Cu, =n and 8e; 0hermodynamic and electrochemical principles in'ol'ed in the e7traction of metals. #NIT $+: HY-"O(EN Position of hydrogen in periodic ta"le, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; Physical and chemical properties of !ater and hea'y !ater; Structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen pero7ide; 2ydrogen as a fuel.

#NIT $,: S 4 % OC= E E!ENTS (A =A I AN- A =A INE EA"TH !ETA S) (rou2 4 $ an* & Elements $eneral introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships. Preparation and properties of some important compounds % sodium car"onate and sodium hydro7ide; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; &iological significance of 1a, (, Mg and Ca. #NIT $5: P 4 % OC= E E!ENTS (rou2 4 $+ to (rou2 $: Elements $eneral Introduction- /lectronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and do!n the groups; unique "eha'iour of the first element in each group. $roup!ise study of the p 6 "loc. elements (rou2 ? $+ Preparation, properties and uses of "oron and aluminium; properties of "oric acid, di"orane, "oron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums. (rou2 ? $, #llotropes of car"on, tendency for catenation; Structure > properties of silicates, and :eolites.

(rou2 ? $5 Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; #llotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, )PCl?, PCl@*; Structures of o7ides and o7oacids of phosphorus. (rou2 ? $8 Preparation, properties, structures and uses of o:one; #llotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid )including its industrial preparation*; Structures of o7oacids of sulphur. (rou2 ? $9 Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; 0rends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and o7ides and o7oacids of halogens. (rou2 ?$: ;ccurrence and uses of no"le gases; Structures of fluorides and o7ides of 7enon. #NIT $8: * ? an* f ? % OC= E E!ENTS Transition Elements $eneral introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first ro! transition elements % physical properties, ioni:ation enthalpy, o7idation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic "eha'iour, magnetic properties, comple7 formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of (5Cr 5;A and (mn;B. Inner Transition Elements anthanoi*s 4 /lectronic configuration, o7idation states and lanthanoid contraction. A1tinoi*s 4 /lectronic configuration and o7idation states. #NIT $9: CO4O"-INATION CO!PO#N-S Introduction to co%ordination compounds, ,erners theory; ligands, co% ordination num"er, denticity, chelation; IUP#C nomenclature of mononuclear co% ordination compounds, isomerism; &onding%3alence "ond approach and "asic ideas of

Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of co%ordination compounds )in qualitati'e analysis, e7traction of metals and in "iological systems*. #NIT $:: EN3I"ON!ENTA CHE!IST"Y En.ironmental 2ollution 4 #tmospheric, !ater and soil. #tmospheric pollution % 0ropospheric and Stratospheric Tro2os2heri1 2ollutants 6 $aseous pollutants- ;7ides of car"on, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocar"ons; their sources, harmful effects and pre'ention; $reen house effect and $lo"al !arming; #cid rain; Parti1ulate 2ollutants: Smo.e, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and pre'ention. Stratos2heri1 2ollution4 8ormation and "rea.do!n of o:one, depletion of o:one layer % its mechanism and effects. @ater Pollution 4 Ma9or pollutants such as, pathogens, organic !astes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and pre'ention. Soil 2ollution 4 Ma9or pollutants such as- Pesticides )insecticides,. her"icides and fungicides*, their harmful effects and pre'ention. Strategies to control en'ironmental pollution.

SECTION4C O"(ANIC CHE!IST"Y

$<: P#"I'ICATION AN- CHA"ACTE"ISATION O' O"(ANIC CO!PO#N-S Purifi1ation 4 Crystalli:ation, su"limation, distillation, and chromatography % principles and their applications. differential e7traction

0ualitati.e analysis 4 Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens. 0uantitati.e analysis )"asic principles only* % /stimation of car"on, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus. Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; 1umerical pro"lems in organic quantitati'e analysis.

#NIT &>: SO!E %ASIC P"INCIP ES O' O"(ANIC CHE!IST"Y Tetra.alen1y of 1arbon7 Sha2es of sim2le mole1ules 4 hy"ridi:ation )s and p*; Classification of organic compounds "ased on functional groups- % C C C % , % C h C 6 and those containing halogens, o7ygen, nitrogen and sulphur; 2omologous series; Isomerism % structural and stereoisomerism. Nomen1lature (Tri.ial an* I#PAC) Co.alent bon* fission 4 2omolytic and heterolyticfree radicals, car"ocations and car"anions; sta"ility of car"ocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles. Ele1troni1 *is2la1ement in a 1o.alent bon* 4 Inducti'e effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hypercon9ugation. #NIT &$: HY-"OCA"%ONS Classification, isomerism, IUP#C preparation, properties and reactions. nomenclature, general methods of

AlAanes 4 Conformations- Sa!horse and 1e!man pro9ections )of ethane*; Mechanism of halogenation of al.anes. AlAenes 4 $eometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition- addition of hydrogen, halogens, !ater, hydrogen halides )Mar.o!ni.offs and pero7ide effect*; ;:onolysis and polymeri:ation. AlAynes 4 #cidic character; #ddition of hydrogen, halogens, !ater and hydrogen halides; Polymeri:ation. Aromati1 hy*ro1arbons 4 1omenclature, "en:ene % structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic su"stitution- halogenation, nitration, 8riedel 6 Crafts al.ylation and acylation, directi'e influence of functional group in mono%su"stituted "en:ene. #NIT &&: O"(ANIC CO!PO#N-S CONTAININ( HA O(ENS $eneral methods of preparation, properties and reactions; 1ature of C%D "ond; Mechanisms of su"stitution reactions.Uses; /n'ironmental effects of chloroform > iodoform. #NIT &+: O"(ANIC CO!PO#N-S CONTAININ( O;Y(EN $eneral methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.

A COHO SB PHENO S AN- ETHE"S Al1ohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration. Phenols: #cidic nature, electrophilic su"stitution reactions- halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, +eimer % 0iemann reaction. Ethers: Structure. Al*ehy*e an* =etones: 1ature of car"onyl group;1ucleophilic addition to ECC; group, relati'e reacti'ities of aldehydes and .etones; Important reactions such as 6 1ucleophilic addition reactions )addition of 2C1, 12? and its deri'ati'es*, $rignard reagent; o7idation; reduction ),olff (ishner and Clemmensen*; acidity of % hydrogen, aldol condensation, Canni::aro reaction, 2aloform reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish "et!een aldehydes and (etones. CA"%O;Y IC ACI-S #cidic strength and factors affecting it. #NIT &,: O"(ANIC CO!PO#N-S CONTAININ( NIT"O(EN $eneral methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses. #mines- 1omenclature, classification, structure, "asic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their "asic character. Dia:onium Salts- Importance in synthetic organic chemistry. #NIT &5: PO Y!E"S $eneral introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymeri:ation% addition and condensation, copolymeri:ation; 1atural and synthetic ru""er and 'ulcani:ation; some important polymers !ith emphasis on their monomers and uses % polythene, nylon, polyester and "a.elite. #NIT &8: %IO!O EC# ES $eneral introduction and importance of "iomolecules. CA"%OHY-"ATES 4 Classification- aldoses and .etoses; monosaccharides )glucose and fructose* and constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides )sucrose, lactose and maltose*. P"OTEINS 4 /lementary Idea of % amino acids, peptide "ond, polypeptides; Proteinsprimary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure )qualitati'e idea only*, denaturation of proteins, en:ymes.

3ITA!INS 4 Classification and functions. N#C EIC ACI-S 4 Chemical constitution of D1# and +1#. &iological functions of nucleic acids. #NIT &9: CHE!IST"Y IN E3E"Y-AY I'E Chemi1als in me*i1ines 4 #nalgesics, tranquili:ers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicro"ials, antifertility drugs, anti"iotics, antacids, antihistamins % their meaning and common e7amples. Chemi1als in foo* 4 Preser'ati'es, artificial s!eetening agents % common e7amples. Cleansin/ a/ents 4 Soaps and detergents, cleansing action. #NIT &:: P"INCIP ES "E ATE- TO P"ACTICA CHE!IST"Y F Detection of e7tra elements )1,S, halogens* in organic compounds; Detection of the follo!ing functional groups- hydro7yl )alcoholic and phenolic*, car"onyl )aldehyde and .etone*, car"o7yl and amino groups in organic compounds. Chemistry in'ol'ed in the preparation of the follo!ing- Inorganic compoundsMohrs salt, potash alum. ;rganic compounds- #cetanilide, pnitroacetanilide, aniline yello!, iodoform. Chemistry in'ol'ed in the titrimetric e7cercises % #cids "ases and the use of indicators, o7alic%acid 's (Mn;B, Mohrs salt 's (Mn;B Chemical principles in'ol'ed in the qualitati'e salt analysisCations % P"5G , Cu5G, #I?G, 8e?G, =n5G, 1i5G, Ca5G, &a5G, Mg5G, 12BG. #nions% C;? 5%, S5%, S;B 5%, 1;5%, 1;?%, CI %, &r, I. )Insolu"le salts e7cluded*. Chemical principles in'ol'ed in the follo!ing e7periments4. /nthalpy of solution of CuS;B 5. /nthalpy of neutrali:ation of strong acid and strong "ase. ?. Preparation of lyophilic and lyopho"ic sols. B. B. (inetic study of reaction of iodide ion !ith hydrogen pero7ide at room temperature.

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