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# 2O12

## Junior Mathematics Competition

Questions
TIME ALLOWED: ONE HOUR Only Year 9 candidates may attempt QUESTION ONE ALL candidates may attempt QUESTIONS TWO to FIVE These questions are designed to test ability to analyse a problem and to express a solution clearly and accurately. Please read the following instructions carefully before you begin: (1) Do as much as you can. You are not expected to complete the entire paper. In the past, full answers to three questions have represented an excellent effort. (2) You must explain your reasoning as clearly as possible, with a careful statement of the main points in the argument or the main steps in the calculation. Generally, even a correct answer without any explanation will not receive more than half credit. Likewise, clear and complete solutions to two problems will generally gain more credit than sketchy work on four. (3) Credit will be given for partial solutions and evidence of a serious attempt to tackle a problem. (4) Textbooks are NOT allowed. Calculators may be used and students who do not have one may be disadvantaged. Otherwise normal examination conditions apply. (5) Diagrams are a guide only and are not necessarily drawn to scale.

## DO NOT TURN THIS OVER UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD.

Question 1 (Year 9 and Below Only) Binary (base 2) numbers are very useful for computers. The only digits that are used are 0 and 1. The rst few numbers in binary (starting at 1) are 1, 10, 11, 100, 101 . . . . A larger example is 100011 (35 in decimal), which could also be described in word form as one, followed by three zeros, followed by two ones. (a) What decimal (base 10) number does the binary number 110 represent? The addition and multiplication tables for binary are + 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 10 x 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1

(b) Perform the binary operation 1001 + 111, giving your nal answer in binary. The bitwise operator AND takes two binary numbers and compares corresponding digits to produce another binary number. AND returns a 1 as a digit if and only if both input digits are 1, and 0 otherwise. For example, 101 AND 110 would produce 100. (c) Perform this bitwise binary operation, giving your nal answers in binary: 1011011 AND 1001000 Another bitwise operator is XOR. (d) If 1011011 XOR 1001000 equals 0010011, what does 11001100 XOR 10101010 equal? (e) What effect does attaching a zero to the end of a binary number have to the value of that number? (f) Find the value of the binary power problem 10001000, giving your nal answer in binary form (you may describe it in word form if you wish). Question 2 (All Years) Leo is a strange man. He has recently set up his own Mathematical rule combining two positive (including zero) integers. Here are some examples of combining two numbers in Leos world: 2 3 = 10, (a) 5 6 = 55, 7 2 = 63, 8 4 = 96 Here represents Leos rule and we still denote ordinary addition and subtraction by + and -. Briey verify by showing necessary working that Leos rule of combining numbers could be equivalent to a b = a(a + b) for the given numbers above. Assume that this is Leos rule for the rest of the question. Then calculate 9 6. (b) (c) (i) Consider the equation a b = 0. What can be said about a and b? (ii) Consider the equation a b = a where a 0. Find the exact values for a and b. Evaluate (compute) the expression (a b) (b a) when: (i) a = 9, b = 2 (ii) a = 3, b = 3 (iii) a = 6, b = 0 (d) As briey as necessary, explain algebraically in the simplest form possible what (a b) (b a) equals, using as many of the ordinary four arithmetic operations as you need. TURN OVER

Question 3 (All Years) A group is a Mathematical system containing n elements {a1, a2, a3, . . . , an} and an operation and it must obey four rules: (i) Closure: If aj and ak are members of the group, then am = aj ak must also be a member of the group. (aj ak) am = aj (ak am) (iii) Identity: there exists one member, ai, of the group which is called the identity and has the property that, for all members ax in the group then ax ai = ai ax = ax (iv) Inverses: Every member ax of the group has an inverse member ay of the group such that ax ay = ay ax = ai (a) The following is the table for a group of order 4 (this means there are four elements) under the operation . Use the table to answer the two questions which follow. 1 3 5 7 (i) (ii) What is the inverse of 5? An ordinary clock is an example of a group having twelve elements (being the hours {1, 2, 3, . . .,12} and an operation f (followed by) so that, for example, 9f5=2 (b) For an ordinary clock, what is the identity? Imagine now that on a distant planet there are only four hours on their clock, {1, 2, 3, 4} (i.e. it is order 4) and the operation f (as shown before part (b)). (c) Draw up on your answer sheet (do not do it on this question sheet) the table for the distant planet clock showing the results of all the hours under the operation f. Note: the table is not necessarily equivalent to the table shown in (a). (d) A member of a group is called a generator if it can be combined using the group operator with itself any number of times to create the other members of the group. Find the two members of the distant planet clock which act as generators. 1 1 3 5 7 3 3 1 7 5 5 5 7 1 3 7 7 5 3 1

(ii) Associativity: If aj, ak, and am are all members of the group then

## What is the value of (3 5) 7 ?

TURN OVER

Question 4 (All Years) In this question, you may assume that all orbits are circular and that there is no interaction between any planets caused by gravity or other physical phenomenon. In a far off star system, two planets Arcon (with an orbital period T1) and Barcon (with an orbital period T2) orbit the local star, with Arcon being closer to the star than Barcon. (a) If the area within Arcons orbit is 3 units2 around the star and the area within Barcons orbit is 10 units2 around the star, how far further from the star is Barcon (as a ratio) than Arcon? Give your answer as a decimal number to three decimal places. (b) If instead Arcon takes one year to orbit the star (i.e. T1 = 1), and Barcon takes four years to orbit the star (i.e. T2 = 4), show that if they are at their closest approaches to each other currently, then in 4/3 years they will again be at their closest approach. Note: if you can develop the general formula in (c), then it would be sufcient to substitute T1 = 1 and T2 = 4 into your formula (with working) for full marks (in other words you may wish to attempt part (c) rst). (c) In the general case, where Arcon takes time T1 to circle the star, and Barcon takes time T2 to circle the star, what time elapses between their closest approaches to each other? (Give your answer in terms of T1 and T2, in their simplest possible form.) Question 5 (All Years) A block is placed on a rectangular grid of arbitrary size. This block can either be moved one square vertically or horizontally, or it can be slid vertically or horizontally. In the latter case, the block only stops sliding when it reaches the edge of the grid. The possible actions on the block are: 1. Move the block one square to the right (MOVE-R) 2. Move the block one square to the left (MOVE-L) 3. Move the block one square upwards (MOVE-U) 4. Move the block one square downwards (MOVE-D) 5. Slide the block right until it reaches the right edge (SLIDE-R) 6. Slide the block left until it reaches the left edge (SLIDE-L) 7. Slide the block upwards until it reaches the top edge (SLIDE-U) 8. Slide the block downwards until it reaches the bottom edge (SLIDE-D) An operation is dened as a nite sequence of actions, where each action taken leaves the block on a different square than any other action taken in the operation. The length of an operation is the number of actions in the operation. (a) Describe a possible operation of length 2 that can be used to move the block in the diagram to the bottom right corner (the square labelled X). (b) The block in the diagram can be moved to the square labelled Y in an operation of length 4. Describe one possible way in which this can happen. Let n be the number such that the shortest length an operation can have to move the block between any two squares on the grid is at most n. (c) Find n, with a brief explanation, if the grid: (i) is the same dimensions as the grid in the diagram (10 by 10). (ii) has dimensions a by b, where a and b are both even numbers. (d) How many distinct operations of length 3 or less are there for moving the block in the diagram to the square labelled X? END OF COMPETITION