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SAVAGEAI\[DROMANTICWAR"

sPArN1833-1840

ParlII: TheCrtsttnoForces

byConradCainu.ColourplatesbyRalphWeaver

(ln thisa icleI amdelighedto supplementmy owndiagrams artilleryreadyto serve,butin factduringtheconflictfarfewer

with colour platesof the €ombatants,preparedby Ralph Wea!er.theSecretaryof theConlinenlalWarsSociety.fhis societyexiststo further r€searchinto Europeanwarfare (includingwarsconductedin other continentsby European forces)in thenineteenthcentury,andpublishesa newsletter, TheForciqnCone.spondent.Newmembersarealwayswelcome andshouldcontactMr Weaverat32PerwellAvenue.Rayners Lane,Harrow,MiddlesexHA2 9LS.)

INTRODUCTTON

wereavailable,andallseemto haveservedasinfantry(theonly

artillerypieceswere16gunsoftheMadr'dmilitia,whoparaded

themaroundbehindthemulesnormallyemployedto pull the

municiDaldust-carts). Naturally,the Militia wasunableto performaswell asthe regulars,for la€kof training,but it neverthelessemergedwith creditfromth€war,oftenhavingshowngreatspirit,particularly in the defenceof suchstrongplacesasBilbao,andin 183,{, Eibar.Whensummonedto surrenderthelattertown.itsMilitia commanderwrotebackto 'the theattackinggeneraladdressinghirn

as

previoudymentioned.relationsbetweenthe Militia and rhe Carlistswereparticularlybad, Fiveothersourcesof troopswerethe Carabin€ros,volun- teers,andthe Portuguese,FrenchandBritishlegions,which will becoveredin separatesections.Finally,theQueenhadth€ useof the navy,andthisincludedthreebattalionsof Marine lnfantry,whosometimessewedonland.

litle leaderof Biscayantraitorsand cowardJ'.As

Oneofthemostimpo antreasons\{,hytheCarlistsintheNorth wereableto oryanisethemselvesbeforebeingputdownbythe forcesof thecentralgovemmentwasthatin 1833theSpanish regulararmywasnot very large,and.in somebranches,not very goodeither. Over the next sevenyearsit grewfairly moderatelyin size;but therewasnothingmoderateaboutits improvementinquality. ThisarticlewilldescribetheQueen'sforcearmbyarm,butas 'armies'at a preliminarynote it is well to set out the severaldifferent her disposal.The regulararmy was raisedby conscription,andconsistedofinfantryregimentswithlongand glorioustraditions ratherasin Britain,althoughsomeof the rcgimen$wereolderthananyBritishequivalent aswell as morerecentlyraisedbodies.Sometimes;tishardtokeeptrack of regimentsoverthedecades,however,becausenol onlydid they changetheir names,but the politicaluncertaintyand mistrustof the 1820'shad meantthat the Spanishmaniafor re organisationwasgivenfull rein.Thesituationwaswont in

thecavalry;be€auseFerdinandVIII "Liberal", sawthisarmasparticularly combar,r) rheywe'eeasie'ro mdnoeuvrein mountainous

he had dissolvedmanyancientbodiesandsetup entirelynewregiments. It wasasa resultof theKing'slossof controlof hisarmyfor threeyeanthatin 1824,whenheregainedabsolutepower,he createda RoyalGuardthatwasdesignedto betotallyloyalto

the thrcne.It was,no doubt, partlyinspiredby Napoleon's Prussiansquare,withneedl€-guns,wasbrok€nbytheHanove-

6lite,but moredirectlybasedon therevivedRoyalGuardof LouisXVIII notonlybecausel-ouiswasafellowBourbonand absolutist,but becauseSpain,evenmore than the rest of Europe,tookto imitatingFrenchmililaryfashionin theyears

afterWaterloo.TheGuardwasdiv'dedintopalacebodyguards battleof Herraraon24thAugust1837,alltbatremainedofthe

- who will not be describedhere

Ert?dof,a miniaturearmy,completein all arms.andmanned by chosenpersonnel.Apart from a tendencyto playpolitics, alwaysariskin suchacorps,theRoyalGuardwasagreatasset tothegovemment,beingafi$t-ratefightingforce. A secondrecently-rahedcorpswastheNationalMilitia,or Urranar,re-titledNationalGuardfrom 1835.TheMilitiahad beena short-lived,highlypoliticalbodyduringRiego'srule, andwasrevivedbya decreeof 16thFebruary1834to fightthe Carlists.Theoreticallyall men betweenl8 and 50 who had certainlevelsof wealihwereliableto serve.butin oncticethe numberofmilitia whocouldbedeployedwaslimitedbya lack

o{armsandtheneedto makesureall membersheldDoliticallv wouldhavebeenimpossiblefor all colonelsto havereceiveda

correcropinion\.Onewflter(Duncan.JJ7)esrimar;dthari;

THEINFANTRY

Due partly to the terrainover whichmuchof the war was fought,the infantrywasthe predominantarm of the Liberal army,althoughnotto thesameextentaswiththeCarlistforces. ItwasorganisedandtrainedafterFrenchmodels;thestandard

drill'bookwasthe1791R6glement,thesameashadbeenused

byNapoleon'sarmy,andsobattalionscouldformline,column andsquarein thenormalEuropeanway.Lineswereeithertwo or threemen deep.Naturally,colunns werernuchusedin

countrysidethanwerelinesiafterZumalaoirreguihadinflicted severaldeleatson the Cristinos.aheytook to formingthick columnsinbattlewhichthecarlistswerereluctanttoaDoroach. Squareswererheclassicmeansof \eerngott ca\alry.bul drd not,contraryto popularbelief,alwayswork- asIateas1866a

rians - andin Spain,theformation€ouldfail bothsides.For example,at Maellain 1838,two baltalionsof the C6rdoba regiment,an old-establishedregularunit, wererolled over b€causetheycouldnotformsquarein time.At theendo{ the

govemment'sforceson the fieldwerea coupleof baltalions. Carlisthorsemenchargedthe squaresseveraltimes,andthe lancersfinallybrokethemafterthecavalryhadriddenround them,inflictingcasualtieswithpistolsandcarbines.(Verylikely theLiberaleshadrunoutof ammunitionbythisstage). Themostimportanlskillthatthearmyof 1833hadto leam wasthatofskirmishing.whichwasessentialforall troops,not justthoseofficiallydesignatedlightregimentsor companies.In connectionwith this, I will summarisethe 1837Trutado de lictica, writtenbyaGuardcaptainandpublishedofficially.It is apracticalwork,showinghowtroopsshouldb€trainedto fight theCarlistseffe€tively,althoughgiventhenatureofthewar, it

copyby 1840,andathoroughoverhaulofdrill hadto awaitthe 1840's.Manv resiments - like the Frenchrevoluiionaries -

and the GuardiaReal

1841therewereover195,000infantry,6,000cavalryand7,000

wouldhavehadto learnonahe job.

Theaimofthe l/aradowasto trainthesoldierincloseorder drilltrjr, andlhenin skirmishing,sothatthefinishedproduct would be able ro act in formed massesor en zuerri d. as circumstancesdrcrared.The Crisrinoswere trying. as had Zumalaceregui,to producea'lmiversalinfantryman",butby verydifferentmerhods.Theyhadlearntby bitterexperience notonlythedangersofhavingaforcethatwasunabletofightor movefastin brokenterlain,but alsothoseof usingunrrained troops - secondlineones,admittedly - that werenot solid enoughto standupto Cabrera'sarmyontheplainsofAragon. The lratudofirst showshowtheindividualisro bedriled. thenthe company,thenthe bartalion.Linesweretwo-deep, and,foracorpsoflightinfanlry.whichisthebodyforwhichthe tr€athewaswritten,all mo\ementwasdoneatpasorcdoblado to bugle-calh.Thereweresquaresof l company,3companies, anda wholebattalion,somewith facesfour deep.Linesand columnswere trainedto advanceand fall back. and Dass expediriou.l)lhroughdefrle Afrerclo,eorderdnllhadbeen €ompleled,themenweredividedinto groupsof 16or 20for skirmishingpractice.Eachfile fomed a pair. The two men wouldoperateat variousdistan€esfrom eachother,but not morethan8 pa€esapart,andnotmorethan24pacesfromthe nextpair.Theskirmishline("laguerrilla")couldbesrraighr,or asemicircle,assuitedthesituation.Soldienshouldmakeuseof anynaluralcover:whenoneofapairwa.loading.lheoLherwas lo leep qalch wirhaloadedmusker.Alsoraughlsererheskitls of advancingto the front and side, and (most difficult)

retreating,shootinga1lthewhile.

Oncethesesmallgroupswere trained.two groupswere taughthowtooperatetogether.thencompanyskirmishingwas

introduced -

whiletheotherhalfremainedin therearasa support.Finally, the wholebattalionexerchedtogether,sopart couldform a skirmishline;eversooftenmenwerefedfrom thesupports, and others retired. so the guenilla was kept fresh, and strengthenedor w€akenedasrequired-Onebattalionwasable to coverthewholeof a mulli-batralioncolumnonall sides.the outpostsbeingstrongeston thesidewilh themostdemanding tefain.

normallyhalf a companywasto be er gre'r7la

ORGANISATIONOFTHEINFANTRY

In 1833the armyand guardnumberehabout 116,000in all (excludingvolunteersandmilitia),thegreatmajorityfoot.All battalionshad eightcompanies,exceptin the Militia, where battalionsvariedbetweensixandtencompanies.Guardsand Marinebattalionslackedflankcompani€s,butin thelinethere wer€sixcentrecompanies(f&rr/eror,or cazadolesin thelight infantry) and t\|o companiasde prclerencia ({anadercs ^nd cazadorcsin rhe line, carubinercsand d/alorer in the light units).Grenadiercompaniescouldbegroupedtogethertofonn

There$'ere24lineregiments,eachof threebattalions,and TableA (from Clonard)showsthe 17rgimentshe listsasin SDainin 1829.However.confusionisboundto ariseduto the re-namingandre-numberingof regimentsbeforeandafterthe

war. andit maynot list all the unitsthat foughtin the war.

Cenainlyat leastone extraregiment. 'La

There\ere also42singlebal'alionpro!incialregiment some

Princesa',served.

ofwhichlaterbecameregulars.andwhichcouldthemselvesbe

veryancient -

regularafter the war. In peacetime.only a cadreof each provincialunil wasnobilised;in war theya€ted,look€d,and behavedasregulars.

Nine regimentsof light infantryservedin the war. three, includingReinaGobemadora'.beingraisedduringitscourse. Allhad twobattalions.exceptReinsGobernadora',whichhad

'Guadalaiara' wasfoundedin 1667andbecane

37

DIAGRAMST.3

(Afl re-dmwn ftom Tmtado de TAdica. This work showsa six-companybattalion,but the movementswouldhavebeen justthesameforthestandardeight-companyunit. )

The battalionin line sendshalf its companiesforward. Thesein tum putouta skirmishline.

1.

2.

A line formsinto a columnof march(4 wide)to crossa bridge,andre-deploysintoacolumnofattack.

3-

A lineformsinlo a columnof marchto passa defile,then formsanotherline.

/---

-

"

TherewerefourregimentsofGranaderosin lheGuards,two ofprovincialGrenadi€rs.andtwoof ProvincialCazadores - all hadthreebattalions.The Drovincialunitshadbeenraisedin 1824ftomflankcompaniesof provincialregimentsandby1833 weretull-timesoldiers. Therewerenotruecorpsin theNapoleonicsense - th€war wasontoosmalla scale-andnostandardisedorganisationfor divisionorbrigades.All thebattalionsofa regimentmightfight together.or bein differenttheatresat thesametime.Guards wercsometimesmassed,but alsocouldbebrigadedwith the lineandprovincialunits,althoughit wasnotregardedasagood ideatoincludeNationalMilitiainfieldarmies.unlesstherewas no option. lnfantry sometimesco'operatedadmitablywith

38

cavalry - for example,atChivain 1837 - andboth armscouldbe includedin thesamedivision.For example,the armythat lostat "El

pickedones),conposedof all tkee battalionsof

Maella was an excellent division called

Ramilete" (the

'C6rdoba',

two of'Africa', two squadronsof the lst Line Cavalryand one ofthe 6thLight Cavalry.

INIANTRY T,'}IIFORMSANDEQIJIPMENT

The fu[ dressfor theline is shownin PlateI; the cut isbasedon that of contemporaryFrance,althoughthepredominantcolour of Spanishunifoms, turqru,seemsto havebeena ratherlighter or brighter shade than the indigo of the French soldier. (Natunlly, therewasno standardisationof the actualcolour of garmedts,especiallyin the field.) On the shalo - which was

sometimesmore cylindrical than illustmted here - wasthe red cockadeof Spain,wom on aI shakosin the army, aoda plume and band in companycolours. (Red for granaderos,geen for cazadores.yellow for fusileros.)The flank companieswore coloured epaulettes,and, usually, yellow barc on the cuffs knownasrardinetdr.Trousen wercwhite or palegrey.NCO'S, drunmels and flank companieswore a hanger, either in a doubl€ftog with abayonet,or by itself onthe left hip, withe the bayoneton the other shoulder,belt,forward of the cartridge- box, in Fr€ncystyle. The pack wasof brown leather; aboveit was the geatcoat, rolled into a blue-and-whitestriped bag. Drunlnels hadredandgoldlaceand,probably, whitechewons on their sleeves.Rank badgeswill be covercdat the end of the article, It isverylikely that evenparadedressdid not conJormalways to regulations,and certainly it wasftequently muchmodified for campaigning(Plates2,3,4). The shakocould be coveredin oilskin, or rcplacedby a turqui forage-cap,tasselledandpiped in companycolouls. nbarSdrar (rope-soledsandals)replaced boots. The knee-lengthgreatcoatsawmuch service,as did a sLightlyshoaer rurqui trock-coai.with collar in company colours. Where appropriate, epauleitesand sardinatascould appearon thesegaments. Soldien might leavetheir hangers, andone 6oss-belt,in store,andthey took up a white waistbelt to keepequipmentin place. Eight of the light regimentslooked muchthe same,exc€pt thehcoareesandtrousersweregreen.rhetormerwithyellow collars,piping, and cuff-flaps.The buttonswerewhite. Except thal the caTadores(i.e. the cenlre companies)had yelow epaulettesand the tiradorcs none, Companydisrinctions*ere 'Reina

as in lhe Line. Plate 5 shows the

cobemadora"s

distinctivefield dress,with black belts; its full dr€sscoateewas green,facedlight blue, anddouble-breasted. The cut of the Marine Infantry rmifom wasmuchlike that of the line, but in rather differcnt colours. Facings,piping, and epauletteswerercd, andall wore yellow sardinetas_The shako hadarcdbandandbluepop-pom;equipmentwasblack.

The Royal Guard infaotry's unifoms are too complex to

describein tu detail here. The fu

muchthesamefor all regiments,theProvincialregimentsusing yellow lace, and the catadoreswearing a shako aod yellow epaulettes.Thiswasmodified by the removalof the chestlac, rcplacementof thebearskinby acylindricalshako,the addition of a waistbelt,andof rcd trousers.Plat€7 showsonevariant of

field dress;coveredshakoes,sandals,white linen cartridge,box

covers,

the line) werealsoused.All ranksshouldhavecarriedhanqers. Theredoesnolseemb havebeena setdressfor lhe Miiiria; eachregionor townpmbablyhadits own.However,thegeneral appeamnce*as probably much like that of the Line, with shakoesor turqui foragecaps,coateesandfrock-coats. S$ords are coveredin the captions.The standardmuskets werethe 1815and 1828models,both Frenchin aDDearance.of

dressof 1$3 fPhte 6) was

q/hite

linen packs,andgreatcoats(a darkergreythan in

18.3mn bore

("de a t7" in contemporaryparlance - l7 balls

weighedone (Spanish)pound). In 1835it was decidedto

standardiseontheBritishboreof 19.3mm("dea 15")because

of the largeDumbenof B.itish weaponsthen in circulation,and

a 1836modelwasproducedin 'Reina thiscalibre still Fr€nchin style.

The

Bakerrifles.

Gobemadora' regiment seemsto have carried

A nonregulation officer's su)ordu)iththelegend "viva IsabelII"

Bladelength30' (76cnts).Like a Ctistino infantry swottu, it

would havebeencaried in a bla.k lEathetscabbardwith brass

By

rcgul^tions,cente conpany olficercshouldhavecofied a staight-blided sttord. (AU u'eapotlsappearbypemission of a

mounts,suspended from a waist-or shouldrr-bebin a

frog.

The

FrcnchForcignLegionmat havebeenequippedn)iththeModel

1831pseudo-Roman "coupe-chout" , but il not theyA'ouldhave stillbeencarryingtheod"sabrc-biquet" (thespecimenshownis the Model 1816). The side arm of Spanish flank conpany

rank-and-file wat a copy of the lancr

officetshadaslightlr longerhangetv)itha thrce-batgund.

TtatoFrcnch st+'otdsthat may haveseenaction in the war.

y)eapon-

sergeanrand

TI{E CAVALRY

OftheI16,000meninthearmyin 1833,only8,500werecavalry, andof thesenot all wouldhavehadhorses.The total numberof regimentsroseftom sixteento €ighteenby 1840(seeTableC); the difficultiesof providingenoughhones andthenatureof the theatres of war precluded greater expansion.The cavalry - exceptfor the Royal Guard wasnot paticularly good at the beginningof thewar, fearsof policital unreliability andexpense of maintenancehaving harmed it more than the infantry. However,the horsedarm leamt its trade,andbythetime of the Royal Expedition it wasa highly proficient force, limited only by a lack of opportunity to show its full potential on many

The nature of the war meantthat the squadron,rather than the regiment, was the normal tactical unit, and the various squadronsof a regiment might se e separatelyfor yearson end. In tfteory both Line and Guard cavalrywasdivided into heavy("line")andlightunits,butin Factic alltroopeEhadto undertake all the duties of cavalry, acting asconvoy escorts, scouts,etc. aswell asa striking force in battle. The exploitsin theopenfieldnaturallyhaveattractedthemostattention,butit couldbearguedthat thesizeof Spanishhorses(smaller,slower and weaker, but better on broken ground, and - like Spanish

soldiers - morehardyandfrugalthantheir British counteryarts) made them more suited to scouting than fomal charges. Various gen€rals,notably Espart€ro and hon, did keep concentmtedbodiesof horsewhich could be v€ryeffectivein battle, but thes€werenomally countedin the hundredsrather thanthe thousands. Excellent resultscould be obtained in batde wherc cavalry and infantry supported one another, and the fact that the Cristino Hors€wassmal in numbersperhapsmadeit easierfor th€ generalsto use it in a sensiblemanner,and to prevent a senseof exclusivityandarrogancethat wasa featue of cavalry in some armies. For one instance of how usefi even one reginent - in this case an 6lite one - could be, there is

Espartero'svictory over Guergu6on22June1838at Pefrac€rra- turqui coate€,with red cufis, collar, and piping. There was

mysef to describingwhat seemsto havebeenthe situation by the middl€of the war, when all four regimentswore muchthe sameuniform. This consistedof a single-breasted,short-tailed

da.T\e Carnst'H'i:arcs de.4rkbnr' tkew backsomeCristino light infantry, and were endangeriDgunits of Guard infadry, when they wer€chargedby the'Hrtsarcs de Ia Pi cesa'.The Liberal hussarswenton to defeata squadronof Carlistlancers, take3m prisoners,4 guns,andrcut the enemyarmy. More examplesof distinguishedwork can be found among the deedsof Leon's force, which at Los Arcos the sameyear

and

1838 by red lancer coateesfaced white (ex-British?) and

czapskas,and in 1839by sky-blue jackets, faced white,

wide-toppedshaloes. Cavalrymenappear to hav€been issu€dshel-jackets - in yellow for the Hussa$ - and foragecaps.Trumpeterswore red

in the Line and Light units; in the Hussarstheir lacewasof this colour, and the coloun of dolmanand pelissewerein rcveised colours.Their shakoesweresky-blue.

As with the infanty,

the Guad cavalry uniforms are too

complex a subject for me to cover fully here, so I wi[ linit

white laceon th€collar, andon thecuffsof theheaq rcgiments. The booted overallsweregrarci (Frcnch: garanc€),a deepish red. Coracerosappearto havegive[ up their cuirassestowards theendofthe war, althoughtheywerestill usingthematHuesca in 1837 - they looked like French cuirasses,with brasscenbal Dlates. Their headg€ardistinguishedthe regimentsfrom eachother. The Coraceroshad a h€lmet like that of the Dre-1835Line cavalry.butwitbaforward{urlingbearskincresailhetiradores of the regimenthad a shakolike the 1812Russiankiwer. The Granaderosa Caballohad a tall bearskincap,with a red patch onthe backbearingawhite genade, a white tasslin ftont, and white cap-lines.Their tiradoreshad alower busby,red{opped, with awhite plumeandlines.l-ancershadanelabomteczapska, with awhite plumeandlines.Lancershadanelaborateczapska,

whichcouldbecoveredin oilskin. The Cazadoreshadatall iron helnet with brassfittings and a high brasscomb carrying a horsehairtail; in 1835theychangedto a cylindricalshalo \r'ith a white top band and plume, and yellow cordsaswell as$h;te cap-nnes. Shabraqueswere turqui, edged white; valiseswere in the samecolours,squarefor the hea\y regimentsandroundfor the light. Sheepskinswereblackfor LancerosandCoraceros,white for the rest, alwaysedgedred. Cloaks werc turqul, double, caped,and lined red with a red collar. (Thos€of other cavalry weremediumgrey, exceptfor the Hussars,whoworewhite.) The swordsare describedin captionsto the plates.Lances were, it appears,of no standardpattem, and measured2.5 ro 2.9m. The bladeswere flat, rather than triangular as in the Bdtish army;sometimestheywereheldto the shaftsby langets. Penonswer€red over white for the cuard, red-yellow-redfor the Hussars,and red over yellow for all otheN. (Or perhaps

sky-blueoveryellow for the Line. variousmodels,of 18.3mmcalibre.

consistedentirely of cavalry - Gmnad€ms a Caballo

and

Lancerosof the Royal Guard, British lancers,and the lst

and

3rd Line. It charged and beat a Carlist cavalry force in a face-to-facebaltle in which,it issaid,onlyoneshotwasfired. At Allo the next year kon (now l€ading1 squadroneachof the CazadoresandComcerosof the Guard, theBritish lanc€rs,and line and light horse) was buming Carlist crops, when the Cazadoresfound themselvesat risk fiom a flank chargeby Carlist hoNe. Leon had placedthe Comcerosand Bitish in a position to take careof suchan eventuality,which they did by routing the Carlists. In 1828each regiment should have had 480 men and 384 horses,in foul squadronseachof two companies,exceptfor the Guards,whosefour rcgimentseachhad648menandtl4 hors€s (atrd fm too many officers many of thesewould havebeen s€rviDgfor socialrather than military reasons).Until 1835all regirnentsexc€ptthe Cuards equippedtheir menwith swords and carbin€s,but in that year all troopersin the line and light regim€ntswereconvertedinto lancers,exceptfor onecompany 'lltirares oftiradores per regiment,who retainedcarbines.The dela Princesa'took trpthelancein 1835.It appearsthat oolythe Lanceros of the Royal Guard carried lances; all of the Cazadoreshadcarbines,asdid onetiradorecompanyin eachof the other threeresiments.

CAVALRYI]NITORMSANDEQUIPMENT

Somefeaturesllerc similarfor all cavalry.The metalcolourwas white (exceptfor the Hussars),anda[ unitssavethe Coracsfor (cuirassiers)hada pouch-b€lt,doubl€dfor rhosewith carbines. Troopersof Guardregimentshadwhite epauleties,of all others (exceptthe Hussa6) brassshoulder-scales. Plates8 and9 showthe Light and Line cavalryin their 1824 uniforms,replac€dby thoseshownin Plates10and 11in 1835. The line cavalry's horse-fumiture was like that of a French

)

Carbinesandpistolswereof

Napoteonic cuirassier -

turqui edged whit€ with a white

sheepskinunti 1835,whenit changedto sky-blue,edgedyelow. Th€ light cavalry had a pointed shabraqueand round valise, sky-blueedgedred, and a black sheepskin,edgedred; in 1835 the colour ofthe cloth changedto green,edgedyellow. When they were raisedin 1833the'Hrisares de la Princesa' had a mostelabomtecostume - white shako,sky-bludolman facedwhite, white pelissewith black fur, yellow lace,a red and yellow banel-sash,and sky-blueovenlls with a yellow stripe. Theyweretheonly troops to usea sabretache,of blacklearher. The pointed shabraqueand round valiseweresky-blue,edged yellow. There wasno sheepskin.This uniform wasrcplacedin

Thestaight swordis the 1815model for heavJand linc cawlrt,

caftied bt a

modeb, and the verysimilat 1825model i'ould haveabo been wom in thewar.A thirulmodel\)a: inboducedin 1832,trith the samehilt but the1796modelblade, Iesssuitable for theth st but

nnk"e. It b a copy of the Frenchheavycavalry

'Ihe sabrcis the 1815model, fot lvt

cavalry, and b again

basedon Ftench Napoleonicori?inal:. 1822and 1825modeh

lookeclevenmoreFrench.

40

TIIE ARTILLERY

theory) the MacheteModelo 1834(a copy of the French "coupe-choux"), or an equallyridiculous1836-pattemshort sword.Nodoubtthesewereoftenl€ftinstoreorreplacedbythe muchsuperiorinfantryhanger.Therewasan 1836musketoon

lookedlikeashortinfantrvmusket.

THEVOLUNTEERSANDPARA.MILITARTES

One of the reasonswhy the army expandedrelatively moderatelydu ngthewarmayhavebeenadesirenottoannoy the populace too much. The lack oI manpower forced the govemmentto rely,to a considerabledegree,on volunteeror para-militaryunits,especiallyearlyin thewar.Thesehadthe advantageofbeingsimpleto administer,andwereassuitedto dealingwiththeCarlistsasweretheregulars,at leastuntilthe enemy managed10 organiseitself into a proper army. Volunteenfrom the Carlistprovinceswereequippedin the sanewayastheCarlists,socouldmoveaseasilyasthem.They suffer€dfrom conespondingdisadvantages.Volunteenwho hadbeenneighboursoftheirfoeswerepanicularlybrutaltothe Carlists,and the para-militaryCarubinercs,whoseduties includedfightingsmugglers,couldnot haveexpectedto be

popular. The volunteerswere calledP€serelorbecauseof their dailypay,whichwasalot morethanthatof theregulars-After the Carlistarmiesbecameorganisedit wasfoundthat real soldierswere neededto fight them; one hearslessof the CarabinerosandPeseterosasthewar progressed.Although, becauseCabrera\armytookmuchlongerto achieveastateof competeDcethan that of ZumalacArregui,voluntee$ werc imponantin Aragonaftertheyhadceasedto playamajorrole in thenorth:by1838or 1839theirdayswereovereventh€re. Peseterosand Carabinerosweresaidto numberb€tween them10and12.000menin 1833-Mostof theformerseemto haveservedasinfantry,andhaveablackorrifle-greenuniform, whichledto theirnicknameof ZosNegror,laterappliedto all Cristinos.Therearescatteredreferencesto varioussquadrons ofvolunteercavalry,threeofwhichwereunitedin 1839toform

the8thLightCavalry.HoweverthemostfamousPeseterounit

was a battalionof Biscayansknown as the Chapelgorris

Ged-capt,

closelyresernbled.A fewforeignenservedin thiscorps,which

wasmorepopularthanmostCristinoswiththeBritishAuxiliary

Legion,lowhicbit wasattachedfrom1836.Plate14showsone uniform;lalerthebattaliontookuptheBritishred jacker. but keptthedistincaiveb€rets.

whohadparticularreasonto hatetheCarliststhey

Anillery wasmuchlessimportantthaninfantryor evenavalry in mostbattles,andwasrarelydeployedin greatrumbers,due

partlytothedifficultyoftransportingitoverthelandscapesover for mountedandmouniainartillery,of 18.3mmcalibre,which

whichmuchof thewarwasconducted.As Spainwasshortof draughtho$es,gunsmighthaveto bepulledbyoxen,or mules, or left behind.Therewaslittleriskof beingoutgunnedbythe enemy,for Carlistartillerywasevenweaker.Evenif onedid bringgunsup into the mountains,theremightbe little they coulddoagainstanenemywhotendedto fightinopenorderor fiom behindcoverasmuchaspossible,althoughoneweapon whichtheBdtishfoundusefulwasshrapnel-thiscouldbesetro explodeaboveor behindaCarlistbarricade,renderingit wors thanuseless. Wheregunsreallycouldmakeadifferencewasinsieges,and to illustraaethe point one can compareOniah almost disasteroussiegeof Morellain 1838with that of Esparteroin

1840.Oreahadonlyfivegunslargerthan8-poundersandhis

gunnerswerenotonlylackingquarter-sightsandtangent-sights andportfires,butinexperiencedin thetechniquesof battering walls.In contrastEspa(erodeployed800gunners,600sappers, eight24pdrs,l6pdrs,ten7'howitzersandter mortars.Histhree fieldbatterieshadatotalof two16pdrs,four12pdrs,rwo8pdrs, and4 howitzers.Mulespulledtheheavyguns,and2,000more drewthe500cartsneededto bringupammunitron. The field anillery expandedfrom three to five reginents duringthewar,eachwith two battalions.Eachbattalionhad threebatte es(or companies - thewordsappearto havebeen usedinterchangeably)plusa traincompany.Therewerealso fix€dgadson gunnersithe siegetrain seemsto havebeen formedandmannedasandwhenneeded.The horseartillery wasincreasedfromsixtotwelvebatteriesin 1835.orsanisedin3 b.Aad?t.Onebrigadewa! a.aralo. lrue hoFeaniller) \irh both gunnen and drivers mounted; the other two were /,ronrddo,withthegunnersridingonlimbers.A fourthbrigade r{asfonned in 1840. Arti e aalono , or mnle-packmountainguns,wereraisedin 1833,butitappearsto havetakensometimeto equipandtrain thebatteries.By 1838thereweresixcompanies,eachof eight howitzers,attachedto theNorthernAJmy,withothergunsin

TheGuardartilleryexpandedfromrhreeto fourbatteriesin

1835,onevolarreoracaballo.theothersmontado.Eachshould

havehadfourguns,buttheactualsizeof batteriesdependedon thenumberofeunsafldcrewathand.

Carabinerosweremountedandfootgendarmesandcustom-

ARTILLERYUNIFORMSANDEQUIPMENT

Thepieceswereofbronze,andbasedonthecribeauvalsystem, whichhadbeenintroducedintoSpainin 1783.Standardpieces

included24,16,12(lone and short),8 (long and short) and

4-pounderguns, a 4-poundermountain gun,9"

howitzers,lookingmorelikegunsthanthestubbyGribeauval howitzers.By 1839the normalmountainpiecewasa short re-chambered5" howitzer.A B tish-stylehorse-hamesshad beenintroducedin 1820,andby 1833batterieswerereceiving newboxedlimbersandsingle-trailgun-carriagesontheBdtish model.The governmentalso purchasedCongreverockets,

whichwereofteneasierto moveacrossmountainsthanwere guns. Plates12and 13showline gunners.The Cuard artillery startedthe war in a very fancybraidedcoatee,whichwas replacedbyonelikethatof thecuard cavalry,butwithyellow epaulettesandbnssbuttons-Overallswereasin thecavalry; theshakowasmu€hlikethatof linehorseartillerv.butwitha brar\plate.whiteplume.andyellowcap-lines. Horsegunnerscaried lightcavalrysabres,foot gunners(in

and 7"

officers,the predecessorsof the Civil cuard, who provided

th€nownhonesandequipment.Plate15showstheiruniform;

anEnghh Carlist(Henningsen,I. 115,6,147)describedthem aswearinSblackuniforns,butthatmayhavemeanttheirvery

THEFOREIGNLEGIONS

I will notbecoveringtheBrithh Legionhere.asI intedit tobe thesubjectof a separatestudy;nor is anythingbut the most basicinformationappropriatefor theFrenchForeignLegion, asAzanafldWindrowhavealreadydescribeditsdeedsandits dressingreatdetail. TheLedonaries(referedto bySpaniardsastheA/geliros-

Algerines

strongin 1835.in sixbattalions.ln March1836a batteryand threesquadronsof 'Polish' lancerswereformedoutof Legion personnel.By 1838,afterfightingwirhasmuchdetermination asthebestof theSpaniards,andhavingbeenpunishedseverely by the Carlists.the country,and the neglectof the French government,theLegionhadbeenreducedto 500.

becauseof their previousstation)arrived4,000

4l

The uniform wasusuallya tall, taperingred

cloth cap,

I

LineCoizadot,FuI Drcss.

2t

Line Grunaderch frock coat-Notethenon-regutationtinen pack. Grenadietsmight also weatepaulettesand sardinetas

3t

Line Fusilercin grcarcoat.He rctainsthegrest-coatbagon hi:

pack,toholdarc edblanket.

crimson,the fringesred mixed with silver or gold. First

corporalshadtwodiagonalredstripesoneachforearm.Second

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Thislistis far from cornprehensive;it excludsworksdealing primarilywiththeBritishLegion,buttriesto provideasmuch

aspossibleinEnglish.Piralaisaweightyclassic,butgoodshort

.accounts canbefoundIn Holt.andAlbirndSlampa.Cene'al

workson Spanishhistoryare alsoe\cluded,lor reasonsor

J. Albi & L. Stampa,Canpanat deh caba eria espanolaenel

sigloXIX , Il, Ma&id, 1986. P.F.Apalateg\ti,O anendi,SanSebastidn,1940.

P. Azan,La L'gion EstrcngercenEspagne,Pais, N.D.

coveredin oil-skin,andablue-greydouble-breastedgreatcoat, with red epaulettesfor grenadiersandyellowfor volriguers. Trouserswereredorwhite,womoverwhitegaiters.Theforage

€apwasnuch

crimsontasseland piping.Equipmeniwasasin Napoleont time, but it appearsto havebeenreplacedby a Carlist,sryle belly-box.Officershad a dark blue frock-coat.The lancers

probablywore the Legion'sshell,jacket,dark blue, piped crimson,withepauletteswhereappropriate.

I will alsospenda littlespaceonthe portuguese Legion,for

the oppositercason -

appearance.The bodythatenteredSpainin 1835consistedof

6,000footand750horse,recruitedfromthebestresularunits-

ahhoughone.lhe Cr(adalpr10 Pozo

madeup of adventuren of all nationsleft over hom PortuAal's

like that of rhe Spaniards.dark blue with a

I

have discoveredlittle about its

,

wassdidrohavebeen

recenrcivil war.The only uniformwhrchwe canbesure-was worninSpainwasthatoftheinfantry adarkbluecoatee,faced red,withwhitewoollyshoulderwings,whitecrossbettsandgrey trousers.OnecouldguessthattheCacadoresworcbrown,and

thecavalry atleastoneregimentwasofwell-equippedtancers

- blue, if regularPortugueseuniformswerefollowed.

BADGESOI'RANK

The four gradesof fieldofficerdisplayedtheirimportanceby

ringsof lacearoundthecuff;captainshadtwo full

epaulettes,

whilelieutenantsonly hadfringeson the rightshoulder,2nd lieutenantsonly on the left. All regimentalofficersalsohad theirrankindicatedbylacebandsaroundthetopofthe shako.

The lacewassilverfor cavalry(excepthussars,whohadtheir ownsystemofrank-badges)andlightinfantry,otherwisegold. First sergeantshad epauletteson both shoutders,second sergeantsonly on the righr.The slrapof the epaulerteswas

J.F.Bacon,Slrlearr t

Lt. Col. L. Badcock,Ro! Ch leaves lron a journal keptin Spain

and Portugal durine the lears 1832, 1833and 1834,Londor',

8,rca),London,1838.

1835.

F.

Barado,LavidamilitatenEspana,Barcelona,1888.

B.

Bar€eloRubi, ,4aari atoportatil etpanol, Ma&id, 1976.

W.

Bollean, The wa6 of successionin Spain and Portu7sl,

London,1870.

LM. Bteno. SoldadosdeEspana,Melaga,7978.

42

I.M. B\teio, Trcpascarlistas,1833-1810,M lala,1984.

J.M. Bueno,La infante a y a i eia denarina, 1537-1931,

M'tlaga,1985.

I .M. B\eno, GuaftliasrcalesdeEspana,Madnd, 1989.

I .M. Bt|J.eno.Andaluciay su:nilicias , Madnd, 1990.

J.L. CalvoPeres& L. cravalosGotuales, BonderatdeEspafia,

Madrid,1983.

Cafilogo generaldElmuseodea i e a,Madid,7909.

R. HemanChant,Spanrrh,?e/, TunbridgeWelh, 1983.

Conde de Clonard, Histotia oryanica de las annar, Madrid,

1851.

Condede Clorard, Alrrm

1861.

de la cabelleia espafiola,M^dnd,

W. Cam$^ll, Gonez at SanRoque,andthesoidisantliberclsof

Andalusia,Lnndon,7837.

Gustave d'Alaux, Arc8on vista por un Iranc* durante Ia pimerugueraca ista,ed.J.R.Cimenez,Zaragoza,1985.

F.

Dtlx.can,TheEnglishin Spd;a,London, 1877.

F.

Ferrer LUI & J. Hehet, Biblioqrafia iconoercficadel trcje

militat deEspana,Mexico,7963.

R. FoId, Theunchangeabbcharacterof a b'arin Spain,London,

1838.

A. Gil Al\aro , Gloias dela infanteriaespanola,Madid,7893.

J.W.Giles,Prints - in SanSebastidnMilitaryMuseum.

C.F. Henningsen,/

regd,Londor, 1836. Historia y Vida, spe.ial number, 1976 "Una guera salvajey

trelve month'scampaignwith Zumalacdr

E.

Holt, TheCaiist t/ ,atsin Spain,Londor., 7867.

M.

BurkeHonan,fre couftandcampofDonCa os.London,

1836.

B. Ja es, ZumalacAtegui, el caudiUo rcmAnico, Madid,

t9'72.

J.L LasaEnsaola,.li.rreguiel Bue i erc,Bilbao.1973.

F. Lichnowsky,SoayerirudEla Buete ctuileenEspaqne,Pais,

1844.

A. Pnah, Historia de la guena civil enie lospartidos libetal y

calirra,Madrid1855(andmanyothereditions).

A. Ruiz Martin, Etolucion (k los divisas en los armat del

eiercib espafiol,Madid, 1982.

Duquedela Torre, Erpaia beltcd,XIX, Madrid, 1961. Tratadodetdcticaparc Ia infanteia ligetu,Valencla,l83'l. I.vlgon, Hi:toriadelaa i eia espanola,Ma&id,1941.

M. Windrow, Unifonns of the FrenchForcign Legion,Poole,

1986.

TA3LE A _ LINE INT'AI\TRYREGIMENTS

(Thosestationedoverseasareomitted)

No,

Titl€

Founded

I

R"v

Immenorial.Porprivilegio

z

Reina

1537

3

 

Infante

Porpdvilegio

5

Saboya

1537

7

1539

8

Zamoft

1590

9

Soria

1591

10

SanFemando

Porprivilegio

11

C6rdoba

1630

14

ZaraEoza

1660

15

Mallorca

16f 2

t7

1764

l8

EstremaduIa

t'766

l9

Castila

1793

m

Borbon

t196

2I

t824

(Aft€r Clonard,1851,VI,472-3)

8provisionalregimentswereformed,butsaw,it appears,little

In aI. 1.015officersand 20.769men died of illnessand

woundsinthelineandlightinfantry;195and10,751werctaken

prisoneranddid not rejoinlater;only173officersand18,738 mendeserted,2.450othernnks werecommissioned.

TABLEB -LIGHT INFANTRYREGIMENTS

TITLE

Cazadoresdel Rey

FOI'NDED

Porprivilegio

Voluntariosde Arag.jn

1762

Gerona

1792

VoluntariosdeValencia

1794

Voluntariosde Navara

1802

VoluntadosdeBail6n

1808

Cazadoresde la ReinaGobemadora

1835

1835

CazadoresdeLuchana

1831

(AfterClonard,1851,VI, 472-3)

TABLE C - CAVAI,RY

C"baIeria

deLin€a

No

I

Rey

2

Reina

3

Principe

4

Infante

5

Borbon

Cabalcria

Ligera

I

Castilla

2

LEon

3

Extremadura

5

Albuhera

6

Catalufia

7

Navafia

8

Lusitania(founded1839)

HrisaresdelaP.incesaIsabelMariaLuisa(founded1833)

Cusrdia Real Coraceros(Cuirassiers) Granaderosacaballo(Horsecrenadiert

Cazadores

Colourpnturcs ove eaf:

4t

Lieutenant of Line Grcnadien, canpaign dress.A brust grcnade6 womovcthc oihkinshako-cover.

5t

lst Seryeant,Reina Gobemadan rcgiment, in campaign

6|

Grenaderc,Royalcuad,1833,Fu Drcss.

T

crcnaderc,RoyalGua,

field drcss.Co arsweresometimes

btue for thisunit.

8&9t

LightandLineCavalrymen,1824-1835.

l.0&lL

LineandLightCavablmen,1835onwards.Theyellow

coake vlassad b be ha epv,earingthan iti turyul

predecessot.A wakrcolow in the Mabid Amf

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Telepbone:Aa3l 445671 TSBR,42ASHFIELOSROAD SHRE\{SBURY SHROPSHIRDSY] 358

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