Sunteți pe pagina 1din 19

CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 1

Further the equation can be re-written as


MOMENTUM INTEGRAL EQUATION
( )
0
0 0
h h
d dU dU
u u U dy udy h U
dx dx dx
( (
=
( (


( ) ( )
0
0 0
h h
d dU
u U u dy U u dy
dx dx
( (
+ =
( (


or
( ) ( )
2 *
0
d dU
U U
dx dx
+ =
For a flat plate at zero incidence (i.e. no imposed
pressure, dp/dx = 0, then
Hence,
( ) ( )
2 * 0
d dU
U U
dx dx

+ =

MOMENTUM INTEGRAL EQUATION


MOMENTUM INTEGRAL EQUATION of
the boundary layer which forms the
basis for approximate methods of
solving boundary layer problems
0 =
dx
dU
U
0
2
d
U dx

=
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 2
In order to use this equation to estimate the boundary
layer thickness as a function of x, we must first:
Obtain a first approximation to the freestream velocity
distribution, U(x). This is determined from inviscid flow theory
(the velocity that would exist in the absence of boundary
layer) and depends on body shape.
Assume a reasonable velocity-profile shape inside the
boundary layer
Derive an expression for
0
using the result obtained from the
previous item.
Reviewing the assumptions made in the derivation, it can be seen that
the equation is:
Restricted to steady, incompressible, two-dimensional flow with no
body forces parallel to the surface.
Valid for either a laminar or turbulent boundary layer flow.
Step 1. Assume a suitable velocity profile for u(y)
inside the BL
For example, assume a linear velocity
distribution inside a BL
Determine constants A and B with the boundary
conditions as
u(0) = 0 B = 0
u() = U A = U/
VON KARMANS MOMENTUM INTEGRAL APPROACH
B Ay y u + = ) (

y
U
u
=
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 3
Thus


U
y
u
y
=
|
|

\
|

=
=0
0
VON KARMANS MOMENTUM INTEGRAL APPROACH
*
0 0
1 1
2
u y
dy dy
U

| | | |
= = =
| |

\ \

0 0
1 1
6
u u y y
dy dy
U U

| | | |
= = =
| |

\ \

dx
d
U

=
2
0
1
6
d
dx U U

= =

2
( ) 12 d
dx U

=
Integrating
Local drag coefficient
Skin friction drag
VON KARMANS MOMENTUM INTEGRAL APPROACH
2
12 x
C
U

= +
At x=0, = 0, hence C = 0
2
12 x
U

=
2
2
12 12
Re
x
x Ux

= =
12 3.464
Re Re
x x
x

= =
0
2
2 0.5774
Re
2
f
x
c
U U

= = =

3 2 1 2 1 2
0
0
0.5774
L
D
F Bdx U L B = =

CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 4


VON KARMANS MOMENTUM INTEGRAL APPROACH
Average drag coeffcient
Displacement thickness
Momentum thickness
2
1.1548
2 Re
D
f
L
F BL
C
U
= =

where

UL
L
= Re
*
1.732
2 Re
x
x
= =
0.5774
6 Re
x
x
= =
This problem dealt with linear velocity profile as an approximate solution. The results
obtained are rough. However the exercise illustrates the use of the momentum
integral method. Practice this method with other types of approximated velocity
profile, such as parabolic, sinusoidal, etc.
One key point to remember
Be careful not to confuse the calculation for c
f
and C
f
.
c
f
is a local calculation at a particular x location
(including x=L) and can only be used to calculate local
shear stress, NOT drag force. C
f
is an integrated
average over a specified length (including any x L)
and can only be used to calculate average shear
stress and the integrated force over the length
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 5
EXAMPLE PROBLEM
Water at 15C flows over a flat plate at a speed of 1 m/s. The
plate is 0.4 m long and 1 m wide. The boundary layer on each
surface of the plate is laminar. Assume that the velocity profile
may be approximated as linear. Determine the drag force on the
plate.
Given
Working fluid is water at T = 15 C = 999 kg/m
3
& = 1.14 10
-3
Ns/m
2
U = 1 m/s
L = 0.4 m
W = 1 m
The boundary layer on each surface of the plate is laminar
Velocity profile is linear (assuming approximately)
Assumptions
Steady state condition
Incompressible fluid flow
Laminar boundary layer
System diagram
U = 1 m/s
L = 0.4 m
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 6
Governing Equations
Skin friction coefficient definition:
Reynolds number definition for a flat plate:
2
2
1
U
C
w
f

Ux
x
= Re
LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER ON A FLAT PLATE:
APPROXIMATE SOLUTION USING PARABOLIC
VELOCITY PROFILE
Consider two-dimensional laminar boundary
layer flow along a flat plate. Assume the
boundary layer as parabolic.
Find expressions for:
The rate of growth of as a function of x.
The displacement thickness, *, as a function of x.
The total friction force on a plate of length L and width b.
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 7
In 1908 Blasius, a student of Prandtl, obtained an exact solution of the
following BL equations for a flat plate and demonstrated the shape of
the boundary layer profile.
With the following boundary conditions
u(y = 0) = 0
v(y = 0) = 0
u U as y
Blasius exact solution is valid only for laminar BL flow with no pressure
gradient.
LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER (BLASIUS EQN.)
Parallel flow along a
plate with zero
pressure gradient
LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER
Inside the boundary layer since the viscous forces
are predominant
Reasonable to assume: inertial and viscous forces are of
the same order of magnitude in a laminar boundary layer
Inertial forces/unit volume
x
U
x
u
u
2

For a flat plate


Viscous forces/unit volume
2 2
2


U
y
u
y
u
y y

=
|
|

\
|

If these forces are proportional to each other, then


x
k
Ux
k
x Re
2
2


2
2

U
k
x
U
=
x
U
k

=
A non-dimensional
parameter
Re
x
k
k
x Ux

= =
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 8
RESULTS OF BLASIUSEXACT SOLUTION
u approaches to 99 % of U at k = 5.
In other words when k becomes 5, y becomes 5.
Therefore using the definition of k, BL thickness at
any x becomes
Using local Reynolds number definition in the
above equation we get
U
x
5 =
grows with

Ux
x
= Re
x
x
Re
5
=
Shear stress
Since in the boundary layer
Replacing in the above equation
RESULTS OF BLASIUSEXACT SOLUTION

U
y
u U
y
u
y y

|
|

\
|

=
|
|

\
|

= = 0
0
0
;
x
U

3
0
constant =
x x
f
Ux
c
U Re
0.664
Re
constant constant
2
2
0
= = = =

Blasiusexact analytical solution


c
f
= local drag coefficient
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 9
Total horizontal force (or skin friction drag)
Average drag coeffcient
Displacement thickness
Momentum thickness
RESULTS OF BLASIUSEXACT SOLUTION
B L U Bdx F
L
D
2 1
0
2 1 2 3
0
664 . 0

= =
L
D
f
U
BL F
C
Re
328 . 1
2
2
= =

where

UL
L
= Re
x
x
Re
729 . 1
*
=
x
x
Re
664 . 0
=
VON KARMANS MOMENTUM INTEGRAL APPROACH
Blasiusexact solution
laminar BL
over a flat plate
With zero pressure gradient (dp/dx=0)
Momentum Integral Approach (MIA)
both laminar and turbulent BLs
over flat and curved surfaces
for any known U(x) and p
outside
(x) distributions
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 10
COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT SOLUTIONS
Source: Munson, Yong, Okiishi, Fundamentals of Fluid
Mechanics, 3rd ed. Willey, 1998
PROBLEM
Air flows over a sharp edged flat plate 1 m long,
3 m width with a velocity of 2 m/s. For one side
of the plate, determine at the end of the plate,

0
at the middle of the plate, F
D
. [ = 1.23 kg/m
3
;
=1.46 10
-5
m
2
/s]
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 11
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER
Turbulent Boundary layers are usually thicker
than laminar ones.
Velocity distribution in a turbulent boundary
layer is much more uniform than that in a
laminar boundary layer
Large velocity change occur in a relatively small
vertical distance
Velocity gradient (dv/dy) is steeper in a turbulent
boundary layer than in laminar boundary layer
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 12
From experiments,
Velocity distribution in a turbulent boundary profile
follows 1/7
th
power law i.e.
Satisfactorily describes velocity distribution for most
of the region of turbulent boundary layer but gives
infinite slope at the wall,
Therefore it can not be used to predict
0
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER
1
7
u y
U
| |
=
|
\
( )
6 1
7 7
u
1 7 U at y = 0 y
y

= =

Instead experimentally obtained measurements of the


shear profile are used such as
Putting the expression for the 1/7 power law into the
equations for displacement and momentum thickness
1
4
2
0
0.0225 U
U
| |
=
|

\
*
7
,
8 72

= =
=99%

m
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 13
Using momentum thickness obtained and the above
0
relation in the integral momentum equation we can
obtain
Equating this to the experimental value of shear stress:
2
0
7
72
d
U
dx

=
1
4
7
0.0225
72
d
dx U
| |
=
|

\
Integrating gives:
The turbulent boundary grows as x
4/5
, faster than the laminar
boundary layer where increases as x
1/2
.
2
0
d
U
dx

=
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER
5
1
376 . 0

\
|
=

Ux
x
( )
5
1
Re
059 . 0
x
f
c =
Momentum thickness
To find the total force, integrate over the plate
length
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER
1
5
7
0.036
72
Ux
x

| |
= =
|

\
2 2
0
0 0
L L
D
d
F dx U dx U
dx

= = =

For a plate of length, L, and width B,
1
5
2
0.036
D
UL
F U LB

| |
=
|

\
1
5
C 0.074Re
f L

=
5 7
(5 10 Re 10 )
L
< <
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 14
For , H. Schlichting assumed a
logarithmic velocity distribution for the boundary layer
flow and obtained a semi-empirical relation as follows
The previously obtained relations of average drag
coefficient (C
f
) including the above, (for laminar as well
as turbulent flows) is applicable for the entire length of
the plate.
However, when the plate is of such length as both
laminar and turbulent boundary layer exist then,
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER
7 9
(10 Re 10 )
L
< <
( )
2.58
10
0.455
C
log Re
f
L
=
1
5
0.074
C
Re
Re
f
L
L
A
=
( )
58 . 2
Re log
370 . 0
x
f
c =
6
1
Re
22 . 0
x
x
=

Critical Re Critical Re Critical Re Critical Re


x xx x
3 33 3 10 10 10 10
5 55 5
5 55 5 10 10 10 10
5 55 5
10 10 10 10
6 66 6
3 33 3 10 10 10 10
6 66 6
Constant A 1050 1700 3300 8700
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER
1
5
0.074 1700
C
Re
Re
f
L
L
=
Turbulent spots and the transition from laminar to
turbulent boundary layer flow on a flat plate. Flow
fromleft to right.
(Photograph courtesy of B. Cantwell, Stanford
University.)
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 15
PRESSURE GRADIENT INSIDE A BOUNDARY
LAYER
dp/dx=0: Fluid particles inside the BL slow down due to shear stress
only.
No flow separation can occur.
dp/dx<0: Pressure decreases in the flow direction (favorable pressure
gradient).
Pressure force is in the flow direction. It helps the flow to attach to the
surface even stronger.
No flow separation can occur.
dp/dx>0: Pressure increases in the flow direction (adverse pressure
gradient).
Pressure force is in opposite direction of the flow.
Fluid particles close to the wall with low momentum may come to a stop or
even move in opposite direction of the main flow, called backflow.
Therefore, adverse pressure gradient is the necessary, but not
sufficient, condition for separation.
Boundary layer theory is no longer applicable after the separation
point.
PRESSURE GRADIENT INSIDE A BOUNDARY
LAYER
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 16
FLOW SEPARATION
Flow separation is generally undesired. It reduces lift
force on an airfoil or increases drag force on a blunt
body.
Turbulent BLs are more resistive to separation
because, compared to a laminar one, in a turbulent
BL velocities close to the wall are higher.
Separation over an airfoil
Separation over a tennis ball
SOLVED IN CLASS
Air enters a square duct through a 1-ft opening as is shown in
Fig. Because the boundary layer displacement thickness
increases in the direction of flow, it is necessary to increase the
cross-sectional size of the duct if a constant velocity (U=2 ft/s)
is to be maintained outside the boundary layer. Plot a graph of
the duct size, d, as a function of x for 0 x10 ft if U is to
remain constant. Assume laminar flow. [= 1.57 10
-4
ft
2
/s]
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 17
Assuming a velocity distribution defined by u/U =
sin (y/2 ) determine the general expressions
for growth of the laminar boundary layer and for
the surface shear stress for a smooth flat plate.
PROBLEM 1
A flat plate is drawn submerged through still
water at a velocity of 9 m s
1
. If the plate is 3 m
wide and 20 m long determine the position of
the laminar to turbulent transition and the total
drag force acting on the plate. Take water
temperature as 20 C. [Ans: 0.01 m, 9.5 kN]
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 18
Estimate the skin friction drag on an airship 92 m
long, average diameter 18 m, being propelled at
130 km h
1
through air at 90 kN m
2
absolute
pressure and 27 C. [Ans:6.7 kN]
PROBLEM 2
Air at 20 C and 760 mm Hg absolute pressure flows past a
smooth wind tunnel wall, with a free stream velocity of 160 km
h
1
. Determine the position along the wall, in the flow
direction, at which the boundary layer becomes turbulent and
the distance to a boundary layer thickness of 25 mm. All wall
measurements may be assumed to be taken from the working
section entrance and edge corner effects may be ignored.
[Ans: 33.6 mm, 1.4 m]
PROBLEM 3
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 19
Show that, if a flat plate, sides a, b in length, is towed
through a fluid so that the boundary layer is entirely
laminar, the ratio of towing speeds so that the drag force
remains constant regardless of whether a or b is in the
flow direction is given by
where U
a
is the free stream velocity if side a is in the flow
direction and U
b
is the corresponding fluid velocity if b is
in the flow direction.
Repeat Problem above if the boundary layer is considered
fully turbulent.
3
/ b a U U
b a
=
9
/ b a U U
b a
=
PROBLEM 4