+ =
=
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 2
In order to use this equation to estimate the boundary
layer thickness as a function of x, we must first:
Obtain a first approximation to the freestream velocity
distribution, U(x). This is determined from inviscid flow theory
(the velocity that would exist in the absence of boundary
layer) and depends on body shape.
Assume a reasonable velocityprofile shape inside the
boundary layer
Derive an expression for
0
using the result obtained from the
previous item.
Reviewing the assumptions made in the derivation, it can be seen that
the equation is:
Restricted to steady, incompressible, twodimensional flow with no
body forces parallel to the surface.
Valid for either a laminar or turbulent boundary layer flow.
Step 1. Assume a suitable velocity profile for u(y)
inside the BL
For example, assume a linear velocity
distribution inside a BL
Determine constants A and B with the boundary
conditions as
u(0) = 0 B = 0
u() = U A = U/
VON KARMANS MOMENTUM INTEGRAL APPROACH
B Ay y u + = ) (
y
U
u
=
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 3
Thus
U
y
u
y
=


\

=
=0
0
VON KARMANS MOMENTUM INTEGRAL APPROACH
*
0 0
1 1
2
u y
dy dy
U
   
= = =
 
\ \
0 0
1 1
6
u u y y
dy dy
U U
   
= = =
 
\ \
dx
d
U
=
2
0
1
6
d
dx U U
= =
2
( ) 12 d
dx U
=
Integrating
Local drag coefficient
Skin friction drag
VON KARMANS MOMENTUM INTEGRAL APPROACH
2
12 x
C
U
= +
At x=0, = 0, hence C = 0
2
12 x
U
=
2
2
12 12
Re
x
x Ux
= =
12 3.464
Re Re
x x
x
= =
0
2
2 0.5774
Re
2
f
x
c
U U
= = =
3 2 1 2 1 2
0
0
0.5774
L
D
F Bdx U L B = =
where
UL
L
= Re
*
1.732
2 Re
x
x
= =
0.5774
6 Re
x
x
= =
This problem dealt with linear velocity profile as an approximate solution. The results
obtained are rough. However the exercise illustrates the use of the momentum
integral method. Practice this method with other types of approximated velocity
profile, such as parabolic, sinusoidal, etc.
One key point to remember
Be careful not to confuse the calculation for c
f
and C
f
.
c
f
is a local calculation at a particular x location
(including x=L) and can only be used to calculate local
shear stress, NOT drag force. C
f
is an integrated
average over a specified length (including any x L)
and can only be used to calculate average shear
stress and the integrated force over the length
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 5
EXAMPLE PROBLEM
Water at 15C flows over a flat plate at a speed of 1 m/s. The
plate is 0.4 m long and 1 m wide. The boundary layer on each
surface of the plate is laminar. Assume that the velocity profile
may be approximated as linear. Determine the drag force on the
plate.
Given
Working fluid is water at T = 15 C = 999 kg/m
3
& = 1.14 10
3
Ns/m
2
U = 1 m/s
L = 0.4 m
W = 1 m
The boundary layer on each surface of the plate is laminar
Velocity profile is linear (assuming approximately)
Assumptions
Steady state condition
Incompressible fluid flow
Laminar boundary layer
System diagram
U = 1 m/s
L = 0.4 m
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 6
Governing Equations
Skin friction coefficient definition:
Reynolds number definition for a flat plate:
2
2
1
U
C
w
f
Ux
x
= Re
LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER ON A FLAT PLATE:
APPROXIMATE SOLUTION USING PARABOLIC
VELOCITY PROFILE
Consider twodimensional laminar boundary
layer flow along a flat plate. Assume the
boundary layer as parabolic.
Find expressions for:
The rate of growth of as a function of x.
The displacement thickness, *, as a function of x.
The total friction force on a plate of length L and width b.
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 7
In 1908 Blasius, a student of Prandtl, obtained an exact solution of the
following BL equations for a flat plate and demonstrated the shape of
the boundary layer profile.
With the following boundary conditions
u(y = 0) = 0
v(y = 0) = 0
u U as y
Blasius exact solution is valid only for laminar BL flow with no pressure
gradient.
LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER (BLASIUS EQN.)
Parallel flow along a
plate with zero
pressure gradient
LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER
Inside the boundary layer since the viscous forces
are predominant
Reasonable to assume: inertial and viscous forces are of
the same order of magnitude in a laminar boundary layer
Inertial forces/unit volume
x
U
x
u
u
2
U
y
u
y
u
y y
=


\

2
2
U
k
x
U
=
x
U
k
=
A nondimensional
parameter
Re
x
k
k
x Ux
= =
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 8
RESULTS OF BLASIUSEXACT SOLUTION
u approaches to 99 % of U at k = 5.
In other words when k becomes 5, y becomes 5.
Therefore using the definition of k, BL thickness at
any x becomes
Using local Reynolds number definition in the
above equation we get
U
x
5 =
grows with
Ux
x
= Re
x
x
Re
5
=
Shear stress
Since in the boundary layer
Replacing in the above equation
RESULTS OF BLASIUSEXACT SOLUTION
U
y
u U
y
u
y y


\

=


\

= = 0
0
0
;
x
U
3
0
constant =
x x
f
Ux
c
U Re
0.664
Re
constant constant
2
2
0
= = = =
= =
L
D
f
U
BL F
C
Re
328 . 1
2
2
= =
where
UL
L
= Re
x
x
Re
729 . 1
*
=
x
x
Re
664 . 0
=
VON KARMANS MOMENTUM INTEGRAL APPROACH
Blasiusexact solution
laminar BL
over a flat plate
With zero pressure gradient (dp/dx=0)
Momentum Integral Approach (MIA)
both laminar and turbulent BLs
over flat and curved surfaces
for any known U(x) and p
outside
(x) distributions
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 10
COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT SOLUTIONS
Source: Munson, Yong, Okiishi, Fundamentals of Fluid
Mechanics, 3rd ed. Willey, 1998
PROBLEM
Air flows over a sharp edged flat plate 1 m long,
3 m width with a velocity of 2 m/s. For one side
of the plate, determine at the end of the plate,
0
at the middle of the plate, F
D
. [ = 1.23 kg/m
3
;
=1.46 10
5
m
2
/s]
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 11
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER
Turbulent Boundary layers are usually thicker
than laminar ones.
Velocity distribution in a turbulent boundary
layer is much more uniform than that in a
laminar boundary layer
Large velocity change occur in a relatively small
vertical distance
Velocity gradient (dv/dy) is steeper in a turbulent
boundary layer than in laminar boundary layer
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 12
From experiments,
Velocity distribution in a turbulent boundary profile
follows 1/7
th
power law i.e.
Satisfactorily describes velocity distribution for most
of the region of turbulent boundary layer but gives
infinite slope at the wall,
Therefore it can not be used to predict
0
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER
1
7
u y
U
 
=

\
( )
6 1
7 7
u
1 7 U at y = 0 y
y
= =
\
*
7
,
8 72
= =
=99%
m
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 13
Using momentum thickness obtained and the above
0
relation in the integral momentum equation we can
obtain
Equating this to the experimental value of shear stress:
2
0
7
72
d
U
dx
=
1
4
7
0.0225
72
d
dx U
 
=

\
Integrating gives:
The turbulent boundary grows as x
4/5
, faster than the laminar
boundary layer where increases as x
1/2
.
2
0
d
U
dx
=
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER
5
1
376 . 0
\

=
Ux
x
( )
5
1
Re
059 . 0
x
f
c =
Momentum thickness
To find the total force, integrate over the plate
length
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER
1
5
7
0.036
72
Ux
x
 
= =

\
2 2
0
0 0
L L
D
d
F dx U dx U
dx
= = =
For a plate of length, L, and width B,
1
5
2
0.036
D
UL
F U LB
 
=

\
1
5
C 0.074Re
f L
=
5 7
(5 10 Re 10 )
L
< <
CVEN 311 Fluid Dynamics 14
For , H. Schlichting assumed a
logarithmic velocity distribution for the boundary layer
flow and obtained a semiempirical relation as follows
The previously obtained relations of average drag
coefficient (C
f
) including the above, (for laminar as well
as turbulent flows) is applicable for the entire length of
the plate.
However, when the plate is of such length as both
laminar and turbulent boundary layer exist then,
TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER
7 9
(10 Re 10 )
L
< <
( )
2.58
10
0.455
C
log Re
f
L
=
1
5
0.074
C
Re
Re
f
L
L
A
=
( )
58 . 2
Re log
370 . 0
x
f
c =
6
1
Re
22 . 0
x
x
=
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