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Session 4

Session Name: Introduction to Projection Author Name: Sumedha Premi Department: Mechanical Engineering Subject/Course: Engineering Drawing / B. Tech.

Session Objectives
At the end of this session, the learner will be able to: Define Engineering Drawing. Identify the need for Engineering Drawing. Discuss the advantages of Engineering Drawing. State the meaning of projection. Distinguish between different kinds of projection.

Teaching Learning Material


Board and Markers Presentation Slides LCD Projector Sheets of paper with 2D geometric figures drawn on them 3D models of different shapes, a white drawing sheet and a torch

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Introduction to Projection Sumedha Premi, Subharti Institute of Technology & Engineering, Meerut

Session Plan
Time (in min) Content Learning Aid and Methodology Faculty Approach Typical Student Activity Skill and Competency Developed Understanding 10 Introduction to Engineering Drawing Brainstorming Facilitates Explains Listens Participates Intrapersonal Verbal-Linguistic Analyzing 15 Why is Engineering Drawing Needed? Game Conducts Questions Explains Listens Participates Analyzes Intrapersonal Interpersonal Visual Logical Verbal - Linguistic Understanding 10 Advantages of Engineering Drawing Choose and Defend Facilitates Participates Discusses Identifies Interpersonal Logical Verbal-Linguistic Understanding Intrapersonal Visual-Spatial Verbal-Linguistic Remembering 10 Conclusion Questions and Answers Questions Recalls Answers Intrapersonal Verbal

15

Projection and its Types

Demonstration Visual Aids

Facilitates Instructs Explains

Listens Demonstrates Observes Comprehends

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Session Inputs
Introduction to Engineering Drawing
Drawing being a well-known term, the faculty can begin the session by conducting a brainstorming activity so as to know what is the basic understating of learners about the term Engineering Drawing. Suggested Activity: Brainstorming We can conduct the brainstorming activity by posing the questionWhat do you understand by Engineering Drawing? Learners can be given one minute time to respond. They can be asked to share whatever words come to their mind on hearing the term Engineering Drawing. Responses from the learners can be listed on the board by the facilitator. Sample responses: Drawing of machines and its parts, architects, geometric figures, set-squares, compass, instrument box, etc. At the end of the stipulated time, the learners can be asked to stop. We can then remove the irrelevant responses after providing appropriate explanation. From the remaining responses, we can try to frame the definition of Engineering Drawing.

Engineering Drawing: An Engineering Drawing is a type of drawing that is technical in nature, used to fully and clearly define the requirements for engineered items. It is usually created in accordance with standardized conventions. The purpose of Engineering Drawing is to accurately and unambiguously capture all the geometric features of a product or a component so as to convey all the required information that will allow a manufacturer to produce that component.

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Introduction to Projection Sumedha Premi, Subharti Institute of Technology & Engineering, Meerut

Drawings convey the following critical information: Geometry The shape of the object represented as views; how the object will look when it is viewed from various angles, such as front, top, side etc. Dimensions The size of the object. Tolerance The allowable variations for each dimension. Material It represents what the item is made of. Finish It specifies the surface quality of the item.

Why is Engineering Drawing Needed?


We can now move on to a discussion on perception. Through an activity, we can set the context for explaining the need for Engineering Drawing. Suggested Activity: Game The purpose of this activity is to help the learners understand the need for Engineering Drawing. We can ask one of the learners (say learner X) to come onto the dais. We can give a piece of drawing / image to learner X. It can be one of the following :

(A)

(B)

(C)

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Learner X can be given a time-duration of about 1 minute to explain the image verbally to the class. The other learners seated in the class can be asked to draw the figure as per the instructions / explanation given by learner X. At the end of the stipulated time, we can ask learner X to draw the actual figure on the board and then check how many learners were able to draw the exact image. There will be many learners who would have drawn the figure differently. We can repeat the same procedure two or three times by calling different learners onto the dais. We can now ask the learners, what could be the reason for differences in the figures drawn by learners for the same description given by the learner on dais. The views of the learners can be noted. The reason for the differences is perception. Each person perceives the description differently, thereby coming up with different figures. We can now explain the need for Engineering Drawing.

Perception: Perception is the process of attaining understanding of sensory information. Everyone perceives things differently based on their knowledge. A persons knowledge creates his or her reality as much as the truth, because the human mind can only contemplate that to which it has been exposed. If the instructions for manufacturing a product are given orally, then it involves a risk that the product that is going to be manufactured may not be the desired one. We know that a picture is worth a thousand words. What we listen to, we can interpret differently. But, what we see in drawings cannot be interpreted differently because every single thing mentioned in drawings has a specific meaning as the drawings are made in accordance with standardized conventions. Hence, Engineering Drawing is very much needed to pass on information accurately and unambiguously.

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Introduction to Projection Sumedha Premi, Subharti Institute of Technology & Engineering, Meerut

Advantages of Engineering Drawing


Having discussed what Engineering Drawing is and why it is needed, we can now discuss its advantages. Suggested Activity: Choose and Defend The learners can be formed into two or three groups based on the number of rows in the class. Each group can be asked to identify the advantages of Engineering Drawing. The groups can be given 2 minutes for the discussion. The facilitator, along with the learners, can evaluate (debate and defend) the advantages mentioned by each group. For each correct advantage, 2 points can be given and it can be written on the board.

Advantages of Engineering Drawing: It is created as per standardized conventions. Hence, it can be easily used across the globe. All views of a component, along with the sectional views, can be looked at in one go. As most of the specifications are symbolized, a lot of information can be conveyed through a single drawing.

Projection and its Types


Having discussed the fundamentals, we can now explain what projection is and discuss the different types of projection. Suggested Activity: Demonstration We can explain the principle of projection with the help of the following image along with 3D models, a torch and a white drawing sheet. We can ask one learner to hold the sheet vertically and another learner to

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hold the model in front of the sheet. A third learner can be asked to switch on the torch and hold it in such a position that light falls on the front side of the model (the side that is facing the class). The shadow of the model falls on the sheet. This can be shown to the learners. This shadow is nothing but the projection. The terms related to projection like projectors, projection plane, object etc. can be explained to the learners by showing the following image using a PPT.

Projection

Principle of Projection: If straight lines are drawn from various points on the contour of an object to meet a plane, the object is said to be projected on the plane. The figure formed by joining, in correct sequence, the points at which the lines meet the plane, is called a projection of that object. The lines from the object to the plane are called projectors and the plane on which the projectors meet, is known as the plane of projection.

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Introduction to Projection Sumedha Premi, Subharti Institute of Technology & Engineering, Meerut

Various types of projections can be explained with the help of images displayed using a PPT.

Orthographic Projection

(A) Isometric Projection (B) Perspective Projection

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Oblique Projection

Types of Projection: Orthographic Projection Isometric Projection Oblique Projection Perspective Projection Orthographic Projection: When the projectors are parallel to each other and also perpendicular to the projection plane, the projection is called orthographic projection. It shows the object as it looks from the front, right, left, top, bottom or back and are typically positioned relative to each other according to the rules of either first-angle or third-angle projection. Isometric Projection: Isometric projection is a type of pictorial projection in which the three dimensions of a solid are not only shown in one view, but their actual sizes can be measured directly from it. In such projection, the vertical edges are represented by vertical lines, while horizontal edges are represented by lines, making 30 angles with horizontal. Oblique Projection: Oblique projection is a type of pictorial projection in which a three dimensional object is represented on the projection plane by one view only. In such type of projection, the third axis is generally at 30 or 45 or 60 with respect to the two perpendicular axes.

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Introduction to Projection Sumedha Premi, Subharti Institute of Technology & Engineering, Meerut

Perspective Projection: Perspective projection is the representation of an object on a plane surface, called the picture plane, as it would appear to the eye, when viewed from a fixed position.

Conclusion
We can conclude the session by revising the key concepts discussed during the session through a question and answer activity. Suggested Activity: Questions and Answers The following questions can be asked to ensure that the learners have gained a good understanding of the concepts discussed so far. What are the advantages of engineering drawing? What is the basic principle of projection? What are projectors? What is projection plane? Projection is of how many types? What are the different types of projection? What is orthographic projection? What is isometric projection? What is oblique projection? What is perspective projection?

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Summary
In this session, we learnt to: Define Engineering Drawing. Identify the need for Engineering Drawing. Discuss the advantages of Engineering Drawing. State the meaning of projection. Distinguish between different kinds of projection. o Orthographic Projection o Isometric Projection o Oblique Projection o Perspective Projection

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Assignment
1. Identify the different methods used for preparing Engineering Drawings. 2. Identify the advantages of computerized Engineering Drawing over manual Engineering Drawing. 3. Find which type of projection is generally used in industry for drawings. 4. Study the different kinds of orthographic projections.

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References
Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt http://en.wikipedia.org http://google.com

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