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Actual engine cycle


Ideal Gas Cycle (Air Standard Cycle)

Idealized processes Idealize working Fluid Idealized Processes Accurate Working Fluid Model

Fuel-Air Cycle

Actual Engine Cycle

Accurate Models of Processes Accurate Working Fluid Model


Air-Standard Cycle Analysis gives an estimate of engine performance which is much greater than the actual performance, For Example for SI

Compression ratio Thermal Efficiency

Air-Standard Cycle 7:1 55 %

Actual Engine Cycle 7:1 28%



The actual cycles for IC engines differ from the fuel-air cycles and air- standard cycles in many respects. The actual cycle efficiency is much lower than the air-standard efficiency due to various losses occurring in the actual engine operation. The major losses are due to:

Variation of specific heats with temperature Dissociation of the combustion products Progressive combustion Incomplete combustion of fuel Heat transfer into the walls of the combustion chamber Blowdown at the end of the exhaust process Gas exchange process


Theoretical Cycle

Air Cycle

Corrected for the Characteristics of the Fuel-Air

Composition of Cy. Gases Variable sp.heat, Dissociation etc..

II Fuel-Air Cycle

IV Useful work modified to account for Combustion loss, Time loss, Heat loss Blowdown loss, etc

Actual work loses Less the friction losses gives

III Actual Cycle

Comparison Of Air-standard And Actual Cycles


The actual cycles for internal combustion engines differ from air- standard cycles in many respects

The working substance being a mixture of air and fuel vapor or finely atomized liquid fuel in air combined with the products of combustion left from the previous cycle.

ii. iii. iv.

The change in chemical composition of the working substance. The variation of specific heats with temperature. The change in the pressure, temperature and actual amount of fresh charge because of the residual gases

Comparison Of Fuel-Air Cycle And Actual Cycles


The progressive combustion rather than the instantaneous combustion.

vi. vii.

The heat transfer to and from the working medium The substantial exhaust blowdown loss, i.e., loss of work on the expansion stroke due to early opening of the exhaust valve.


Gas leakage, fluid fiction etc., in actual engines.

Points (i) to (iv), are similar to fuel-air cycles Points (v) to (viii) are the difference between fuel-air cycles and actual cycles.

The Major Loss of Actual Cycle


Time loss factor

Loss due to time required for mixing of fuel and air and also for combustion.

Heat loss factor

Loss of heat from gases to cylinder walls.

Exhaust blowdown factor

Loss of work on the expansion stroke due to early opening of the exhaust valve.

Time Loss Factor


In air-standard cycles the heat addition is an instantaneous process whereas in an actual cycle it is over a definite period of time. The crankshaft will usually turn about 30 to 400 b/n the initiation of the spark and the end of combustion (time loss due to progressive combustion)

Time Loss Factor


Due to the finite time of combustion, peak pressure will not occur when the volume is minimum (TDC) but will occur some time after TDC The pressure, therefore, rises in the first part of the working stroke from b to c as shown in Fig. This loss of work reduces the efficiency and is called time loss due to progressive combustion.

Time Loss Factor


The time taken for combustion depends upon


flame velocity which in turn depend up on the type of fuel and the fuel-air ratio shape and size of the combustion chamber.

The The

distance from the point of ignition to the opposite side of the combustion space

In order that the peak pressure is not reached too late in the expansion stroke, the time at which the combustion starts is varied by varying the spark timing or spark advance.

Time Loss Factor


Figure below shows the effect of spark timing on p-v diagram from a typical trial. With spark at TDC (0o spark advance), the peak pressure is low due to the expansion of gases.

Time Loss Factor


If the spark is advanced to achieve complete combustion close to TDC additional work is required to compress the burning gasses

35o Spark advance

Time Loss Factor


With or without spark advance the work area could be less and the power output and efficiency are lowered. Therefore a moderate or optimum spark advance (15o30o) is the best compromise resulting in minimum losses on both the compression and expansion strokes

Time Loss Factor


Table shows the engine performance for various ignition timings (rc =6). The effect of spark advance on the power output by means of the p-V diagram

Time Loss Factor


The effect of spark advance on imep and power loss

Time Loss Factor


Some times a deliberate spark retarded from optimum may be necessary in order to

avoid knocking reduce exhaust reduce emission of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide

Time Loss Factor


At full throttle with the fuel-air ratio corresponding to maximum power and with the optimum ignition advance, the time losses may account for a drop in efficiency of about

5 percent for actual Engine 2 percent fuel-air cycle efficiency mixture is richer or leaner Ignition advance is not optimum and at part throttle operations the losses are higher.

These losses are higher when the

Time Loss Factor


It is impossible to obtain a perfect homogeneous mixture with fuel-vapor and air, since, residual gases from the previous are present in the clearance volume of the cylinder. further, very limited time is available between the mixture preparation and ignition Under these circumstances, it is possible that a pocket excess oxygen is present in one part of the cylinder and a pocket of excess fuel in another part. Therefore, some fuel does not or burns partially to CO and the unused O2 appears in the exhaust

Time Loss Factor


Composition exhaust gases for various fuel-air ratio


Time Loss Factor


Only about 95 % of the energy is released with stoichiometric fuelair ratios. Energy released in actual engine is about 90% of fuel energy input. It should be noted that it is necessary to use a lean mixture to eliminate wastage of fuel, while a rich mixture is required to utilize all the oxygen. Slightly leaner mixture would give maximum efficiency but too lean a mixture will burn slowly increasing the time losses or will not burn at all causing total wastage of fuel In a rich mixture a part of the fuel will not get the necessary oxygen and will be completely lost.

Time Loss Factor


The flame speed in mixtures more than 10% richer is low, thereby, increasing the time losses and lowering the efficiency. Imperfect mixing of fuel and air may give different fuel-air ratios during suction stroke or certain cylinders in a multi cylinder engine may get continuously leaner mixtures than others.

Heat Loss factor


During combustion the heat flows from the cylinder gases through Cooling water Lubricating oil Conduction and convection and radiation Heat loss during combustion will have the maximum effect on the cycle efficiency

Heat Loss factor


The effect of heat loss during combustion reduce the maximum temperature and therefore the specific heats are lower. Out of various losses heat losses contribute around 12 % For further details, read John B. Heywood, chapter 12 (page 668- 711)

Exhaust Gas Blowdown

The actual exhaust process consists of two phases: P i) Blowdown PT ii) Displacement
i i e


State 6 (TC) State 5 (BC)



Blowdown At the end of the power stroke when the exhaust valve opens the cylinder pressure is much higher than the exhaust manifold pressure which is typically at 1 atm (P4 > Pe), so the cylinder gas flows out through the exhaust valve and the pressure drops to Pe.

Displacement Remaining gas is pushed out of the cylinder by the piston from BDC moving to TDC.

Exhaust Gas Blowdown


When to open the exhaust valve? The cylinder pressure at the end of expansion stroke is high as 7 bar depending on the compression ratio employed. If the exhaust valve is opened at BDC, the piston has to do work against high cylinder pressure during the early part of the exhaust stroke If the exhaust valve is opened too early, a part of the expansion stroke is lost The best compromise is to open the exhaust valve 400 to 700 before BDC thereby reducing the cylinder pressure to halfway (say 3.5 bar) before the exhaust stroke begins

Exhaust Gas Blowdown

P5 = Pe = P6 , T5 = Te = T6 P5 T5 = T4 P 4
k 1 k

Pe = T4 P 4

k 1

f =

m6 m6 V6 v6 1 v4 = = = m1 m4 V4 v4 rc v6 1 T4 P6 1 T4 P6 = = rc T6 P4 rc T5 P4
k 1 k 1

The residual gas temperature T6 is equal to T5


T5 P5 = T4 P4
f =
1 k

P6 = P 4
1 k



1 P5 1 Pe = P rc P r c 4 4


Exhaust Gas Blowdown


Loss due to Gas Exchange process (pumping loss)


work done for intake and exhaust stroke cancelled each other


pumping loss increased at part throttle, because throttling reduce the suction pressure loss also increase with speed



loss affect the Volumetric efficiency when Pi less than Pe

Exhaust Gas Blowdown

Unthrottled (WOT): Pi = Pe = 1 atm
imep =
EV opens

Throttled: Pi < Pe
W561 = ( Pi Pe )Vd
Pumping work

EV closes IV opens

W34 W12 IV closes (state1) Vd

EV opens

EV closes

6 IV opens

IV closes

Supercharged: Pi > Pe
IV opens 6 1

EV closes

Exhaust Gas Blowdown


Volumetric efficiency affected by

The density of fresh charge The exhaust gas in the clearance volume The design of intake and exhaust manifold The timing of intake and exhaust valves

Volumetric Efficiency

The density of fresh charge

As the fresh charge arrives in the hot cylinder, heat is transferred to it from

The hot chamber walls The hot residual gases

Temperature rise reduces the density , which decrease the mass of fresh charge admitted and a reduction in volumetric efficiency The volumetric efficiency increased by

Low temperature High pressure of fresh charge


Volumetric Efficiency

Exhaust gas in the clearance volume

The residual gas charge.

occupy a portion of piston displacement

volume, thus reducing the space available to the incoming

These exhaust products tend to rise the temperature of the fresh charge.

Volumetric Efficiency

The design of intake and exhaust manifold

The exhaust manifold should be designed to enables the exhaust products to escape readily,

The intake manifold should be designed so as to bring in

maximum possible fresh charge flowing in to the cylinder

Volumetric Efficiency

The timing of intake and exhaust valves

Valve timing is the regulation of the points in the cycle at which the valves are set to open and close. Valves requires a finite period of time to open or close for smooth operation

Volumetric Efficiency

The effect of intake valve timing on the engine air capacity is indicated by its effect on the air inducted per cylinder, per cycle. The intake valve timing for both a low and high speed SI engine For low speed

Opening @10o before TDC Closing @10o after BDC

Volumetric efficiency

For high speed

Opening @10o before TDC Closing @60o after TDC

Loss due to Running Friction


The losses are due to friction between

the In

piston and the cylinder walls

various bearings


spent in operating the auxiliary equipment (cooling pump, ignition system, fan)

The piston ring friction increases rapidly with engine speed.

Loss @ part and Full load r=8