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Present Perfect Simple


Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului to have" la prezent, la care se adauga forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I have worked We have worked You have worked You have worked He/she/it has worked They have worked Negativ I have not (havent) worked. He/she/it has not (hasnt) worked. Interogativ Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relatie. l arata o legatura intre trecut si momentul prezent. Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseste in urmatoarele situatii! arata o actiune inceputa in trecut care continua p"na in prezent. #u acest sens se folosesc de obicei prepozitiile since (din, incep"nd din) si for (de, timp de). Ex. I havent seen John for two onths. (!u "#a va$ut %e John de doua "uni.) I havent seen John sin&e 'e%te (er. (!u "#a va$ut %e John din se%te (rie.) I have known John for two years. (I" &unos& %e John de doi ani.) I have known John sin&e )**+. (I" &unos& %e John din )**+.) arata o a&tiune tre&uta, efe&tuata intr#o %erioada de ti % neter inata. In a&est &a$, fo"osirea "ui este insotita de adver(e %re&u - today, this week, this onth, this year. Ex. I have seen two fi" s this week. (. va$ut doua fi" e sa%ta /na a&easta.) $aca adverbul de timp este this morning", folosirea timpului verbal este conditionata de momentul in care se face afirmatia% daca aceasta este in cursul diminetii (p"na la ora &') sau dupa amiaza. Ex. ora )+ a. . # I havent 0ot u% ear"y this ornin0. ora 1 %. . # I didnt 0et u% ear"y this ornin0. Tradu&erea &e"or doua %ro%o$itii in "i (a ro /na este identi&a. !u #a s&u"at devre e a$i di ineata. arata o a&tiune tre&uta, ter inata, &are are re$u"tate in %re$ent sau &are, dintr#un otiv sau a"tu", interesea$a in %re$ent. Ex. Have you seen Ha "et? (.i va$ut Ha "et?) I have "ost y u (re""a . I ust (uy a new one. (2i#a %ierdut u (re"a. Tre(uie sa# i &u %ar una noua.) Trebuie precizat faptul ca, daca se mentioneaza momentul trecut in care a avut loc actiunea care intereseaza in prezent sau care are rezultate in prezent, nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect. (n acest caz, se foloseste Past Simple.

$e asemenea, daca se pune o intrebate referitoare la trecut care incepe cu )hen", nu se poate folosi timpul Present Perfect, intruc"t )hen" reprezinta un moment precizat in trecut. Ex. When did you see Ha "et? I saw it "ast week. Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat in trecut. Se foloseste cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leaga trecutul de prezent. *dverbe de timp neprecizat care se aseaza intre au+iliar si verb! often, never, seldom, al)a,s, ever, alread,, just. Ex. Have you ever (een to En0"and? (.i fost vreodata in .n0"ia?) !o, I have never (een to En0"and. Yes, I have often (een to En0"and. *dverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sf"rsitul propozitiei! latel,, ,et (in propozitii negative). Ex. He hasnt returned ho e yet. (E" nu s#a intors in&a a&asa.) I havent seen hi "ate"y. (!u "#a va$ut in u"ti u" ti %.) $upa cum se poate observa, timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce in rom"neste fie cu prezentul, fie cu perfectul compus, in functie de conte+t.

Present Perfect Continuous


Se formeaza cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului to be", la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I have (een workin0 We have (een workin0 You have (een workin0 You have (een workin0 He/she/it has (een workin0 They have (een workin0 Negativ I have not (havent) (een workin0. He has not (hasnt) (een workin0. Interogativ Have I (een workin0? Has he (een workin0? Timpul Present Perfect #ontinuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare, cu accent pe durata, intre un moment trecut si prezent. +. ( am tired because ( have been )or.ing all da,. (Sunt obosit pentru ca am muncit toata ziua.) $e asemene, poate arata probabilitatea ca actiunea inceputa in trecut, care continua in prezent, sa continue si in viitor. +. (t has been raining for three hours. (f it doesn/t stop soon, )e shall have floods. (Ploua de trei ore. $aca nu se opreste in cur"nd, vom avea inundatii.) #a si Present Perfect Simple, se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din limba rom"na. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous ). Folositi Present Perfect Simple in locul infinitivelor din paranteze:

). Where you ((e)? I ((e) to the arket. 1. You (water) the f"owers? 3. He 4ust ("eave) ho e. 5. I ("end) hi so e oney today. 6. There isnt any train servi&e (e&ause the en0ine 7 drivers (0o) on strike. 8. Wou"d you "ike a &ake? 9. !o, thank you, I 4ust (have) one. :. I a"ready (see) this fi" . *. He (not &o e) ho e yet. )+. I (not (e) to the seaside this year. )). I ((uy) a new house. You ust &o e and see it. )1. You (visit) the ;i""a0e 2useu ? )3. You ever (eat) &aviar? )5. I (not write) to y friend for three onths. )6. It (not rain) sin&e <e&e (er. )8. You ever (drive) a &ar? )9. He a"ways (re"y on) his friend. ):. You (read) 'ores&us "ast (ook? )*. You (%ay) the te"e%hone (i""? 1+. He (not 0o) to (ed yet. 1). How "on0 you ("ive) here? 11. I ("ive) here for one year. ). Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: ). He (fish) for two hours (ut he (&at&h) nothin0 yet. 1. We (know) ea&h other for severa" years. 3. The radio (%"ay) sin&e 9 a. . I tired of it. 5. I (sho%) a"" day and I want to have a rest now. 6. How "on0 you (wear) 0"asses? 8. I (&ook) a"" the ornin0. 9. How any dishes you (&ook)? :. Why you ((e) in the 0arden so "on0? *. I (water) the f"owers. )+. He (s"ee%) for )+ hours now. Its ti e we woke hi u%. )). I (ask) you to &"ean your roo for two days. When are you 0oin0 to do it? )1. Ever sin&e that wo an &a e to work here, she (try) to ake trou("e. ). Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple in locul infinitivelor: ). I ("ose) y %en. You (not see) it anywhere? !o, I havent. When you (use) it "ast? 1. Your ever (try) to 0ive u% s okin0? Yes, I (try) "ast year (ut I (not su&&eed). 3. You (see) your other this week? !o, she ("eave) for =rasov a week a0o. 5. You ((e) out of work "on0? 6. I a not out of work now. I (0et) a 4o( "ast onth. 8. I (wear) y hair "on0 sin&e I ((e) a "itt"e 0ir". 9. 'he (&han0e) a "ot sin&e I (see) her "ast. :. I (do) a "ot of work sin&e I (0et u%) in the ornin0.

*. The &hi"d (%"ay) the %iano sin&e I (return) fro )+. It (rain) sin&e we ("eave) =u&harest. )). He ((e) very i"" sin&e the ho"idays ((e0in).

s&hoo".

). Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Tense Simple sau Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous: ). >ine te#a invatat sa vor(esti en0"e$a at/t de (ine? 1. ?nde ti#ai %etre&ut va&anta anu" a&esta? 3. 2#a 0/ndit adesea sa# i iau &arnet de &ondu&ere. 5. <e &/t ti % inveti en0"e$a? 6. ;re ea s#a in&a"$it in u"ti u" ti %. 8. E" este inistru de doi ani. 9. Tradu& un text de doua ore si nu "#a ter inat in&a. :. E" a s&ris nu ai doua s&risori de &/nd a %"e&at in strainatate. *. ?n &o%i" a s%art 0ea u". Tre(uie sa#" in"o&ui . )+. !in0e de doua ore. )). . ers %e 4os )+ k %/na a&u . )1. 2er0e %e 4os de "a ora 3. )3. <e &/nd i#a &u %arat asina, a ers arareori %e 4os "a s"u4(a. )5. @a &e te#ai uitat? )6. . fost un a&&ident. )8. >u &ine ai votat "a u"ti e"e a"e0eri? )9. !u a ers "a vot. . stat a&asa si nu a re0retat ni&i o &"i%a. ):. .i va$ut $iaru" de a$i? )*. . %"e&at John? 1+. <a, a %"e&at a&u o ora. 1). Ti#ai "uat de4a i&u" de4un? 11. <a, "#a "uat "a ora :. 13. .i ai fost in a&est oras? 15. <a, a %etre&ut o "una ai&i, a&u doi ani. 16. Ei "u&rea$a "a a&easta &asa de un an si nu au ter inat#o in&a.