Sunteți pe pagina 1din 5

JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 23, ISSUE 1, DECEMBER 2013

6

A Defected Half Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide (D-HMSIW) Band-pass Filter with T-extension for Ku-Band Applications

Sourav Moitra, Basudeb Mondal, Pushpita Tapu, A. K. Mukhopadhyay and A. K. Bhattacharjee

AbstractA Novel Defected Half Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide (D-HMSIW) filter with Band-pass property has been presented in this article over a substrate with dielectric constant 3.2 and material thickness of 30mils. Single and multiple T- extensions have been implemented over the HMSIW structure to obtain the band-pass characteristics. The design is extremely simple and the pass-band can be obtained at other frequencies by simple alterations of the dimension of the T-slots. The filter finds applications in Ku band operations with advantages like convenient integration, compact size, low cost and ease in fabrication.

Index TermsDefected Half Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide (HMSIW), T-Slot extension, Band-pass filter (BPF), Insertion Loss (IL), Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC), Ku-band.

——————————

——————————

1

INTRODUCTION

  • I N In recent years there is an increasing demand and interest in a variety of applications for microwave fil-

ters. Microwave circuits in millimeter-wave region al- ways demand low loss transmission lines. Rectangular waveguides still play an important role particularly in very high frequency systems, where the loss in such a waveguide is significantly less than that in a popular pla- nar transmission lines. Substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) technology, which works based on the general rec- tangular theory but carries advantages of planar circuits, is an emerging technology in this domain for the devel- opment of circuits and components operating in the mi- crowave and millimeter-wave frequency bands. SIW structures exhibit propagation characteristics similar to that of classical rectangular waveguides, including the field pattern and the dispersion characteristics. Moreover SIW structures serve most of the advantages of conven- tional metallic waveguides, namely, high quality-factor and high power handling capability. This type of wave- guide known as laminated waveguide, has been pro- posed for the first time in 1994 [1]. Since that time, several components based on the SIW technology have been pro- posed over the past years for operation in the microwave

and millimeter wave range. Several filters [2], couplers [3], oscillators [4], slot array antennas [5], six-port circuits [6], and circulators [7] have been proposed since then.

————————————————

Sourav Moitra is B-Tech, M-Tech Assistant Professor in the Dept of Elec- tronics & Communication Engineering, Dr. B C Roy Engineering College, Durgapur, and research scholar in National Institute of Technology, Dur- gapur, India Basudeb Mondal is B-Tech, M-Tech Assistant Professor in the Dept of Electrical Engineering, Dr. B C Roy Engineering College, Durgapur A. K. Bhattacharjee is B.E. M.E. PhD, Professor in Electronics & Commu- nication Engineering Dept. in National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India.

SIW structures are designed by using two rows of con- ducting cylindrical vias embedded in a dielectric sub- strate that connects two parallel metal plates and permit the implementation of classical rectangular waveguide components in planar form, along with several printed passive circuitry, active devices and antennas as shown in Fig. 1.

JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 23, ISSUE 1, DECEMBER 2013 6 A Defected Half Mode Substrate Integrated

Fig. 1. Basic SIW structure realized on a dielectric sub- strate

The major advantage of SIW technology is that a com- plete circuit in planar form (including planar circuitry, transitions with microstrip lines and coplanar wave- guides, rectangular waveguides, active components and antennas) can be fabricated using a standard printed cir- cuit board or other planar processing techniques whereas classical rectangular waveguide filters are bulky, heavy, high cost, and also difficult to integrate with planar cir- cuits, being three-dimensional (3-D) structures. This tech- nology represents an attractive alternative to convention- al metallic waveguides for low-cost, low-loss, and high- density integration of microwave and millimeter-wave components and subsystems.

  • 2 D-HMSIW FILTER DESIGN

The design of basic SIW structure is the first step toward

7

the effective design of a complete SIW component. Sever- al problems have to be considered while designing an SIW, including the operation bandwidth, radiation lea- kage, and dielectric and conductor losses. Traditional me- tallic rectangular waveguide bandpass filters such as E- plane filter [8, 9], H-plane filter [10], and fin-line filter [11] have been widely used in microwave and millimeter- wave systems due to their merits of low insertion loss and high power handling capacity. In our design we started with a basic half mode SIW filter. The basic SIW and HMSIW filter is shown in Fig. 2.

7 the effective design of a complete SIW component. Sever- al problems have to be considered

Fig. 2. Basic SIW and HMSIW Filter

HMSIW consists of nearly half the total dimension of the SIW without any compromise in filter characteristics and thus carry the advantage of more compact layouts. HMSIW can only support TE (m+0.5), 0 (m = 0, 1, 2, …….) mode and restrains the TE (m, 0) (m = 1, 2, …….) mode

which is equivalent to the TE (2m, 0) (m = 1, 2, …

..

)

mode in

SIW, so the first spurious pass-band becomes more far away from the pass-band of a band-pass filter. The HMSIW can be considered equivalent to a high-pass filter due to its inherent sharp cut-off in lower frequency [12]. The important parameters need to be considered of the design of SIW structure are diameter of the holes d, the spacing between the holes b (also known as pitch) and the spacing between the centres of two rows W eff . W is the spacing between end points of the rows of two metallic vias. The pitch b must be kept small to reduce the leakage loss between adjacent vias. It has been observed that the post diameter d is also subject to the loss problem. As a result, the ratio d/b is considered to be more critical than

the pitch length because the post diameter and the pitch length are interrelated. Dispersion characteristics of TE 10 like mode in the SIW are almost identical with the mode of a dielectric filled rectangular waveguide with an equivalent width. This equivalent width is the effective width of the SIW, and can be obtained by the following relation.

a s of the SIW. The cut-off frequency for the SIW may be defined as

(2)
(2)

where, c is the velocity of light in vacuum. This property proves to be an important technique for design of rectan- gular waveguides in a straightforward way to analyze and design various components just knowing W eff of the SIW. The SIW can only support the TE modes propaga- tion while the TM modes cannot be guided due to the nature of the structure. Based on these relations SIW structure has been designed and the structure is modified into HMSIW as shown in Fig 2. The HMSIW filter with- out any T-extensions with its Scattering parameters has been shown in Fig 3 and Fig 4 respectively.

7 the effective design of a complete SIW component. Sever- al problems have to be considered

Fig. 3. Dimension of Basic HMSIW Filter (All dimensions are in mm)

In our design the diameter of vias has been 0.6mm and gap between centre to centre of consecutive vias has been taken as 1mm. The S-parameter as in Fig. 4 clearly indi- cates response of a high-pass filter operable in Ku-band. The filter has its cut-off nearly at 12GHz with a minimal insertion loss (IL) (less than 1dB) at the pass-band.

7 the effective design of a complete SIW component. Sever- al problems have to be considered

a a

s

d

  • 2 Fig. 4. Scattering Parameter of Simple HMSIW Filter

d

0.95 p

(1)
(1)

without T-extensions

where, a s is the separation between via rows (centre to centre), a d is the width of DFW, d is the diameter, p is the pitch (as shown in Figure 1). This property can be used to analyze and design various components just by knowing

Our next objective is to render transmission of power for a particular frequency bands which in terms will enable the filter to create a stop-band at certain higher frequency (for Ku-band we considered to create the stop-band at around 18GHz) in order to allow a particular band (Ku-

8

band) to pass and stop higher frequencies. For this pur- pose we propose a Defected T-extension on the top PEC layer of the HMSIW. The D-HMSIW T extension is formed by a section of HMSIW and can be seen as a qua- si-TEM mode transmission line resonator. It is shorted at one end and open circuited at the other end. The electrical length of the resonators is quarterwave length long of the centre frequency of the the stop band to be created. The insertion loss and the ripple properties are controlled by the external Q e which is given by the following relation.

(3)
(3)

Design of a D-HMSIW with single T-extension filter with its required S-parameters has been shown in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 respectively.

8 band) to pass and stop higher frequencies. For this pur- pose we propose a Defected
8 band) to pass and stop higher frequencies. For this pur- pose we propose a Defected

Fig. 5. Single T-extension D-HMSIW Filter (All dimen- sions are in mm)

Fig. 6. Scattering Parameter of Single T-extension D- HMSIW Filter

As observed by introduction of a single T-extension over the surface of the D-HMSIW, the band-stop characteristic is not quite obtained. However a tendency to create a stop-band may be noticed at around 18GHz. To obtain a sharp cut-off an array of three T-extensions (Fig. 7) has been introduced which serves the purpose quite efficient- ly (Fig. 8). The wide pass-band shows very little IL of around 1dB particularly from 12GHz to 20GHz. It is found that the IL depends on the relative dielectric con- stant of the material chosen. In this case, the T-extensions have been introduced only on the top surface of the D- HMSIW BPF.

TABLE I

Symbol

Dimension

d1

0.6

d2

0.8

d3

0.1

d4

0.6

d5

0.1

d6

20

d7

40

d8

5.25

d9

3

W 0

2.25

8 band) to pass and stop higher frequencies. For this pur- pose we propose a Defected

Fig. 7. Dimension of Single Side T-slot array HMSIW Fil- ter (All dimensions are in mm)

TABLE II

Symbol

Dimension

d1

0.6

d2

0.8

d3

1.5

d4

0.1

d5

0.6

d6

1.45

9

d7

3

d8

5.25

d9

20

d10

40

W 0

2.25

9 d7 3 d8 5.25 d9 20 d10 40 W 0 2.25 Fig. 9. Scattering Parameter

Fig. 9. Scattering Parameter of Multiple T-extensions D- HMSIW Filter

Fig. 9 shows Scattering Parameter of multiple T-extension D-HMSIW Filter. In this case the array of T-extensions has been introduced on top layer of the PEC. This has been found to create a significant stop-band at the higher fre- quencies (around 20GHz in our case), thus delivering important characteristics for the filter to work as BPF. The IL is also under 1dB over the entire pass-band for the di- mensions taken as shown in Table II.

3

CONCLUSION

A novel technique for obtaining band-pass characteristics in a HMSIW has been discussed in this paper. Implemen- tation of array of T-extensions (D-HMSIW) has been found to serve the purpose quite effectively. The design comes with very low IL over the entire pass-band. The structure can find wide application in Ku band radar and remote sensing operations. The design is simple and easy to fabri- cate in presence of advanced fabrication technique.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to express their deep gratitude and sincere thanksgiving to Prof. Susanta Kumar Parui, Bengal Engineering & Science University for providing founding informations regarding SIW technology.

REFERENCES



F. Shigeki, “Waveguide line,” (in Japanese) Japan Patent 06- 053 711, Feb. 25, 1994.



D. Deslandes and Ke Wu, “Single-Substrate Integration Tech-

nique of Planar Circuits and Waveguide Filters,” IEEE Trans. on

Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. MTT-51, No. 2, pp. 593-

596, Feb. 2003.



J.-X. Chen, W. Hong, Z.-C. Hao, H. Li, and K. Wu, Develop-

ment of a Low Cost Microwave Mixer Using a Broadband Sub-

strate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) Coupler,” IEEE Microwave

and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 16, No. 2, Feb. 2006.



Y. Cassivi and K. Wu, “Low Cost Microwave Oscillator Using



Substrate Integrated Waveguide Cavity”, IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 48 50, Feb. 2003. Li Yan, Wei Hong, Guang Hua, Jixin Chen, Ke Wu, and Tie Jun



Cui, “Simulation and Experiment on SIW Slot Array Anten- nas,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 14, No. 9, pp. 446-448, Sept. 2004. Xinyu Xu, R.G. Bosisio, and Ke Wu, “A New Six-Port Junction



Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguide Technology,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. MTT-53, No. 7, pp. 2267 2273, July 2005. W. D’Orazio and Ke Wu, “Substrate-Integrated-Waveguide



Circulators Suitable for Millimeter-Wave Integration,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. MTT 54, No. 10, pp. 3675-3680, Oct. 2006. Shih, Y. C. and T. Itoh, “E-plane filters with finite-thickness septa," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 31, No. 12, 1009- 1013, December 1983.

 Vahldieck, R., J. Bornemannn, F. Arndt, and D. Grauerholz, “Optimized waveguide E-plane metal insert filters for millime- ter wave applications," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 31, No. 1, 65-69, January 1983.  Cid, J. M. and J. Zapata, “CAD of rectangular waveguide H- plane circuits by segmentation, finite elements and artificial neural networks," Electron. Lett., Vol. 37, No. 2, 98-99, January

2001.

 Arndt, F., J. Bornemann, D. Grauerholz, and R. Vahldieck, “Theory and design of low-insertion loss fin-line filters," IEEE

Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 30, No. 2, 155-163, February

1982.

 L. Qiang, Y.-J. Zhao and Q. Sun, W. Zhao, and B. Liu, “A

COMPACT UWB HMSIW BANDPASS FILTER BASED ON

COMPLEMENTARY SPLIT-RING RESONATORS”, Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 11, 237-243, 2009

 Yuanqing Wang, Wei Hong, Yuandan Dong, Bing Liu, Hong Jun Tang, Jixin Chen, Xiaoxin Yin and Ke Wu, “Half Mode Substrate Integrated Waveguide (HMSIW) Bandpass Filter” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 17, No. 4, April 2007.

Sourav Moitra received his B-Tech (Elec- tronics & Communication Engineering) in 2005 from the West Bengal University of Technology. He was associated with several electronics industries in between 2005 to 2007. He received his M-Tech (Microwave Engineering) in 2009 from The University of Burdwan. He has been associated with Dept. of Atomic Energy, Govt. of India on a project related to the development of high power RF tubes. At present he is associated with Dr. B. C. Roy Engineering College, Durgapur, India as Assistant Professor in the Dept of Electronics & Communication Engineering. He has several publications in Inte- ternational Journals & Conferences. His current research interest includes design & development of microwave & millimeter wave passive circuits based on microstrip line and substrate integrated waveguides applicable in wireless networks.

9 d7 3 d8 5.25 d9 20 d10 40 W 0 2.25 Fig. 9. Scattering Parameter

10

10 Basudeb Mondal received his B-Tech (Electrical Engineering) in 2006 from the West Bengal University of

Basudeb Mondal received his B-Tech (Electrical Engineering) in 2006 from the West Bengal University of Technology. He received his M-Tech (Power Sys- tem/Electrical Engineering) in 2008 from Bengal Engineering & Science University, Sibpur, West Bengal, India. At present he is associated with Dr. B. C. Roy Engi- neering College, Durgapur, India as As- sistant Professor in the Dept of Electron- ics & Communication Engineering. He has several publications in International Conferences. His current research interest includes distribution system, renewal energy sources, optimization technique, design & development of micro- wave passive components.

10 Basudeb Mondal received his B-Tech (Electrical Engineering) in 2006 from the West Bengal University of

A. K. Mukhopadhyay, is M.Tech (ECE) from IIT Kharagpur and Ph.D(Engg) from Jadavpur University, Kolkata. He is at present the Head of Computer Science & Engineering Department, Dr. B. C. Roy Engineering College, Durgapur, India. Previously he has been The Director of Bengal Institute of Engg & Management, Santiniketan and the Chairman, Comput- er Society of India, Durgapur Chapter. With more than 38 years of experience in teaching, research, administration, he served institutions like IIT Kharagpur , NERIST Itanagar, CEMK, Kolaghat, NiT, Kolkata, BCREC, Durgapur, BCETW, Durgapur holding various positions

such as Principal, Dean, HoD etc. His current area of research in- cludes next generation wireless and mobile networks. He has about

  • 65 research publications in national/ international journals and confe-

rence proceedings and delivered many key note/theme lectures in conferences. He is honorary Life Fellow of ACEEE, Life Fellow of the Institution of Engineers (I), Sr.Member, IEEE, Sr. Life Member, CSI; Life Member of ISTE, SSI and IETE.

10 Basudeb Mondal received his B-Tech (Electrical Engineering) in 2006 from the West Bengal University of

Pushpita Tapu is doing her B-Tech (Elec- trical Engineering) in 2014 from the Na- tional Institute of Technology, Durgapur, West Bengal. She had received several academic awards throughout her career. She had a keen interest of Microwave and Wireless communications systems.Her current research interest includes wireless ad-hoc networks, microwave passive cir- cuits and microwave solid state devices.

A. K. Bhattacharjee received his B.E. (Electronics & Telecommunication Engi- neering in 1983 and M.E. (Telecommuni- cation Engineering) in1985. He was awarded his PhD (Engineering) in the year 1989. He is currently holding the position of Professor in Electronics & Communication Engineering Dept. in National Institute of Technology, Durga- pur. He is the author of more than 200 national and international publications in several journals and conferences. He has also produced more than 8 PhD scholars around India. He has around 30 years of teaching and research experiences in several domains. His current research interest includes Microwave passive circuits based on Microstrip and SIW technology applicable in long distance communications, VLSI Design and Signal Processing Techniques.

10 Basudeb Mondal received his B-Tech (Electrical Engineering) in 2006 from the West Bengal University of