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Woven and knitted fabrics are thought of as the traditional textile structures.

There are many other structures that are found in sewn products each with its specific performance character. Aside from non-wovens, which are focused upon in this study tool, there are yarn formed structures, direct solution sheet formed materials, surface applied fabrics, multi-layered textiles and animal hide products. See your swatchbook for more information regarding these miscellaneous structures. on-woven textiles are formed directly from fibers. The fibers are held together by several different methods! entanglement of fibers, applied adhesives, or heat fusion for thermoplastic fibers. The non-wovens industry is a very fast growing segment of the textile industry. "apid growth of the industry is due to the relative low cost of production and the increase in use of disposable textiles which are most often non-wovens. on-wovens are made by the oldest method of textile production #felting$ and some of the newest methods. %or more specific information regarding some of the non-wovens, click onto one of the following.

&'FELTED NON-WOVENS
Structuring Process true felt must contain at least ()* wool fiber or related animal fiber i.e. camel, goat hair. wool is treated in machines to accomplish felting,i.e. heat, moisture and agitation are applied. scales on the wool fiber #see Wool in %iber Section$ become entangled in felting process. wool may be blended with rayon or cotton. Identifying the Knit dense mat of fibers. must be ()* to +))* wool to be true felt. other felt-like structures can be formed by needle punch method. Performance haracteristics higher wool content felts can be blocked and shaped more easily than low wool content felts, e.g. hats. does not ravel. no grain. absorbs sound and shock, provides cushioning. poor draping -ualities. low tensile strength. once stretched out of shape, does not return to original shape. low tear strength. must be dry-cleaned.

ommon Fa!ric haracteristics thickness from +./0 inch to / inches. weight from / o1.s- yd to 2) lbs.s- yd. uses! padding, sound-proofing, insulation, filter, shaped clothing #hats, slippers, snow shoe boot liners$, crafts.

felt

3 &'SP"N#ONDED NON-WOVENS
Structuring Process continuous extrusion of filament fibers in a random fashion unto a collection surface. further adhered or bonded by thermal bonding, mechanical entanglement, adhesive bonding or using etched filament surfaces that hold fibers together Identifying the Knit filament fibers randomly swirl through the fabric. appears melted and without pattern #spun-laced always has a distinct pattern$ paper-like stiffness and sheen, although made in a variety of weights and thicknesses. Performance haracteristics Surface of a typical spunbonded. varies from firm, stiff hand to soft, non-woven fabric. no grain orientation. excellent strength to weight ratio.

ommon Fa!rics !y Identifying haracteristics ma4or use for geotextiles! road bed liners, land-fill liners and filters, landscape containment, tree root growth containment. clothing interlinings, show liners. carpet backings, wall-paper backings, packaging, vinyl film backings.

spunbonded interfacing

3 &'FIL$
Structuring Process polymer solution extruded as a sheet #flat surface$ opa-ue or clear. smooth or patterned #embossed$ may be reinforced with a scrim. may be punctured with a patterning of holes to provide air permeability. Identifying the Knit no yarns or fibers apparent Performance haracteristics impermeable to air, moisture and some chemicals. does not allow perspiration or moisture to pass. no grain.

ommon Fa!rics !y Identifying haracteristics impermeable barrier used for wind, rain resistant slickers, boots. impermeable barrier used for geotextiles, e.g. land fill liners. may be combined with other materials, i.e. backings. mylar films often coated with metallics and used as thermal insulator, e.g. safety blanket.

film

3 &'T"FTED NON-WOVENS
Structuring Process a pile yarn is needled or tufted into a base fabric. pile may be cut or uncut or hi-lo pile #cut and uncut pile to form a pattern$ after tufting the structure is usually stabili1ed with a coating of latex to the fabric back, may be further stabili1ed with addition of a woven or non-woven backing. very -uick method of producing pile fabric. Identifying the Knit pile surface. back of fabric exhibits loops of the tufted yarn pulled tight to the base fabric. pile is not woven or knitted into the fabric. Performance haracteristics less costly than like woven or knitted structures. good stability. usually heavy weight structures--5)* of domestic carpets made with this structure.

ommon Fa!rics !y Identifying haracteristics most common method of producing carpet. interior uses! blankets, bedspreads. apparel! fake furs.

fake fur #front$

fake fur #back$

3 &'NEEDLEP"N %ED NON-WOVENS


Structuring Process may be formed with any staple fiber. web of fiber formed as first step. web is passed through a needle punch machine. barbed needles resembling fish-hooks punch into the web and entangle staple fibers . Identifying the Knit differentiate from felt by identifying fiber content, needlepunch may be any staple fiber #true felt must be at least ()* wool$ look for tiny pin-point holes in the fabric. may use a substrate #cheesecloth-like fabric$ in the middle of the structure for support. Performance haracteristics high density fabrics with some bulk. less expensive than wool felt. poor draping -ualities.

ommon Fa!rics !y Identifying haracteristics insulating properties for blankets. used for padding,i.e. shoulder pads. most popular form of indoor-outdoor carpeting made of olefin fibers. geotextile uses! filters, insulation, padding, drainage.

nonwoven felt

3 &'SP"N-L& ED NON-WOVENS
Structuring Process wet laid process used to lay up a web of staple fibers. spun laced pattern formed by entanglement of fibers with water 4ets. friction of fibers causes mechanical binding. no binders #adhesives$ used. Identifying the Knit forms a decorative lace-like pattern. softer hand than spun bonded due to use of staple fibers. Performance haracteristics soft hand and drape. usually more absorbent than spun bonded. more linting than spun bonded. strength varies.

ommon Fa!rics !y Identifying haracteristics absorbent characteristics used for mattress pads, cleaning cloths and wipes, sanitary products. softness characteristics used for disposable medical gowns and drapes #nonsurgical$ backing for -uilted tablecloths.

spunlaced

3 &'FO&$
Structuring Process rubber or polyurethane #most used$ extruded to incorporate air into an elastic structure #resilient foams$ open cell foam has air cells that open to the surface of the foam. closed cell foam has closed air cells. rigid foams #styrofoam$ are not used for textile products because the insulating property is destroyed with one impact. Identifying the Knit continuous sheet of spongey material with varying degrees of thickness and compressibility. open cell foam is more compressible as air cells can be easily collapsed. closed cell foam is more resistant to compression because air cells cannot be compressed to expel the air. Performance haracteristics yields structures able to withstand impact or compression with full recovery. impact protection depends on type of foam and thickness of foam. insulation properties depend on thickness of foam and compressibility.

ommon Fa!rics !y Identifying haracteristics insulating properties used for scuba suits, -uilts. provides lightweight padding.

impact protection properties used for athletic e-uipment. open cell urethane foam used as backing for furniture throws because of friction properties. bonded as backing for fabrics.

foam

3 &'STIT %-#ONDED NON-WOVENS


There are three types of stitch bonded fabrics! malimo, maliwat and malipol Structuring Process a system of using needles and threads to sew a system of warp and filling yarns together. malimo! warp and filling laid at right angles with tricot or chain stitch used to hold fabric together. maliwat! layer or web of fibers is stitched over to form fabric. malipol! pile added to prefabricated ground by stitching in place. Identifying the Knit malimo! can imitate wovens when using thick yarns for laid in yarns and fine yarns for structure, look for yarns oriented at right angles that are held in place by stitching. maliwat! heavy batting fabrics, look for a web of unoriented fibers that are stitched over, similar appearance to needle-punched fabrics. malipol! fabrics resemble terrycloth, velveteen, other piles or nonwovens, tend to adhesives on back for support. Performance haracteristics malimo! behaves like woven except does not ravel. maliwat! felt-like hand without grain. malipol! sub4ect to abrasion and changes in hand and appearance when cleaned, less expensive than wovens with similar uses.

ommon Fa!rics !y Identifying haracteristics malimo! decorative interior textiles #curtains, upholstery, casements, wall coverings$, apparel #suits, sportswear$ and industrial fabrics #conveyor belts, packing materials$ maliwat! apparel and interiors interlinings and backing or insulation for wall coverings and carpeting. malipol! upholstery, fake fur, carpeting, towels.