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Airport Development
Reference Manual
9th Edition
Effective January 2004

International Air Transport Association


Montreal Geneva

NOTICE
DISCLAIMER. The information contained in this
publication is subject to constant review in the light of
changing government requirements and regulations. No
subscriber or other reader should act on the basis of any
such information without referring to applicable laws and
regulations and/or without taking appropriate professional
advice. Although every effort has been made to ensure
accuracy, the International Air Transport Association shall
not be held responsible for loss or damage caused by
errors, omissions, misprints or misinterpretation of the
contents hereof. Furthermore, the International Air
Transport Association expressly disclaims all and any
liability to any person, whether a purchaser of this
publication or not, in respect of anything done or omitted,
and the consequences of anything done or omitted, by any
such person in reliance on the contents of this publication.
Opinions expressed in advertisements appearing in this
publication are the advertisers opinions and do not
necessarily reflect those of IATA. The mention of specific
companies or products in advertisement does not imply
that they are endorsed or recommended by IATA in
preference to others of a similar nature which are not
mentioned or advertised.
No part of the Airport Development Reference Manual may
be reproduced, recast, reformatted or transmitted in any
form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying, recording or any information storage and
retrieval system, without the prior written permission from:
Director
Airports and Infrastructure Consultancy Services
International Air Transport Association
800 Place Victoria
P.O. Box 113
Montreal, Quebec
Canada H4Z 1M1

Airport Development Reference Manual


Ref. No: 9044-09
ISBN 92-9195-086-6
2004 International Air Transport Association. All rights reserved.
Montreal Geneva

c
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Acknowledgement ..................................................................................................................................

vii

Chapter A Introduction
Section A1: IATAs Role ...................................................................................................................

Section A2: Purpose of the Manual .................................................................................................

Chapter B Planning
Section B1: Major Planning Processes ............................................................................................

11

Section B2: The Planning Process ..................................................................................................

37

Chapter C Master Planning


Section C1: Principles ......................................................................................................................

43

Section C2: Forecasting ...................................................................................................................

88

Section C3: Land Use Planning .......................................................................................................

98

Section C4: Control Towers .............................................................................................................

103

Chapter D Airport Economics


Section D1: Airport Management .....................................................................................................

109

Section D2: Airport Cost Structures and Revenue Sources ............................................................

114

Section D3: Airport Investment Decisions and Financing ................................................................

116

Section D4: Aeronautical Charge Policies .......................................................................................

120

Section D5: International Cost Variations ........................................................................................

130

Chapter E Environmental Issues


Section E1: Main Issues ...................................................................................................................

137

Section E2: Social and Political Considerations ..............................................................................

141

Section E3: Noise .............................................................................................................................

146

Section E4: Emissions .....................................................................................................................

152

Section E5: Waste Management ......................................................................................................

155

Chapter F Airport Capacity


Section F1: Capacity and Level of Service ......................................................................................

159

Section F2: Capacity Definitions ......................................................................................................

161

Section F3: Airport Systems .............................................................................................................

162

Section F4: Planning Schedule ........................................................................................................

165

Section F5: Runway Systems ..........................................................................................................

166

Section F6: Taxiway .........................................................................................................................

171

Section F7: Apron ............................................................................................................................

173

Section F8: Aircraft Stand ................................................................................................................

174

Section F9: Passenger Terminal Facilities .......................................................................................

178

Airport Development Reference Manual

Page
Section F10: The Airport Scheduling Process .................................................................................

213

Section F11: Computational Fluid Dynamics ...................................................................................

216

Chapter G Airport Flight Operations Issues


Section G1: Aircraft Characteristics .................................................................................................

221

Section G2: Visual Aids ....................................................................................................................

234

Section G3: Non-Visual Aids ............................................................................................................

239

Chapter H Airport Security


Section H1: General Principles ........................................................................................................

245

Section H2: Passenger Operations ..................................................................................................

246

Section H3: Cargo Operations .........................................................................................................

260

Chapter I Airport Access


Section I1: Roads .............................................................................................................................

269

Section I2: Rail .................................................................................................................................

277

Section I3: Intermodality and Airport Access ...................................................................................

282

Chapter J Passenger Terminal


Section J1: Outline of Principle Functions .......................................................................................

289

Section J2: Categories of Passenger Terminal ...............................................................................

301

Section J3: Small Airport Terminals .................................................................................................

318

Section J4: Common Systems CUTE & CUSS ...............................................................................

320

Section J5: Airline Communications Networks ................................................................................

325

Section J6: Passenger Processing Facilities Planning ....................................................................

331

Section J7: Concession Planning .....................................................................................................

340

Section J8: Maintenance ..................................................................................................................

344

Section J9: Check-In ........................................................................................................................

348

Section J10: People Mover Systems ...............................................................................................

356

Section J11: Passenger Boarding Bridges ......................................................................................

362

Section J12: Signage .......................................................................................................................

370

Chapter K Passenger Facilitation


Section K1: Principles ......................................................................................................................

385

Section K2: Roles and Responsibilities of Governments/Airlines ....................................................

386

Section K3: Immigration Processes .................................................................................................

388

Section K4: Customs Processes ......................................................................................................

392

Section K5: Simplifying Passenger Travel .......................................................................................

396

Section K6: Disabled Passengers and Staff ....................................................................................

400

Table of Contents

Page

Chapter L Aircraft Parking Aprons


Section L1: Current and Future Aircraft Types ................................................................................

407

Section L2: Physical and Functional Requirements ........................................................................

409

Section L3: Gate Stands and Remote Stands .................................................................................

419

Section L4: Ground Handling Equipment .........................................................................................

426

Section L5: Service Roads & Storage Areas ...................................................................................

433

Section L6: Distributed Electrical Power & Air .................................................................................

438

Section L7: Aircraft De/Anti-Icing Facilities ......................................................................................

445

Chapter M Aviation Fuel Systems


Section M1: Safety Issues ................................................................................................................

453

Section M2: Delivery to Apron .........................................................................................................

456

Section M3: Storage Distribution Facilities & Processes .................................................................

458

Chapter N Contingency Management


Section N1: Aviation Crisis Management .........................................................................................

463

Chapter O Cargo & Separate Express Facilities Terminal


Section O1: Planning Principles .......................................................................................................

469

Section O2: Forecasting and Sizing .................................................................................................

471

Section O3: Flows and Controls ......................................................................................................

487

Section O4: Expedited & Express Cargo Processing ......................................................................

492

Section O5: Perishable Cargo ..........................................................................................................

501

Section O6: Mail Faciltities ...............................................................................................................

507

Chapter P Airport Support/Ancillary Facilities


Section P1: Aircraft In-Flight Catering Facilties ...............................................................................

513

Section P2: Aircraft Maintenance .....................................................................................................

516

Section P3: Hotels and Business Centers .......................................................................................

519

Chapter Q Landside Facilities


Section Q1: Road System and Curb Arrangements ........................................................................

525

Section Q2: Traffic Studies & Parking .............................................................................................

530

Chapter R Airport Commissioning


Section R1: Checklist for the Successful Opening of a New Airport ...............................................

537

Chapter S Future Technologies & Miscellaneous


Section S1: Future Technology Systems .........................................................................................

549

Section S2: Developing & Adopting Future Technology ..................................................................

551

Section S3: Interfaces People & Cultural Issues ........................................................................

553

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Chapter T Airport Processes


Section T1: Terminal Processes ......................................................................................................

557

Section T2: Apron Processes ...........................................................................................................

560

Section T3: Support Processes ........................................................................................................

562

Chapter U Airport Baggage Handling


Section U1: Baggage System User Requirements ..........................................................................

567

Section U2: Departures Systems .....................................................................................................

573

Section U3: Transfer Systems .........................................................................................................

613

Section U4: Early Baggage Processes ............................................................................................

618

Section U5: Arrivals Baggage Systems ...........................................................................................

622

Section U6: Control Systems ...........................................................................................................

631

Section U7: Management Information Systems (MIS) .....................................................................

634

Section U8: Oversized Baggage ......................................................................................................

638

Section U9: Sort Allocation Computer (SAC) ..................................................................................

641

Section U10: Baggage Hall Design ..................................................................................................

647

Section U11: Hold Baggage Screening ...........................................................................................

651

Section U12: Passenger & Hand Baggage Screening ....................................................................

659

Chapter V IATA Airport Project Process


Section V1: Concept/Feasibility/Detail Design/Commissioning/Handover .......................................

669

Section V2: Project Cost Management ............................................................................................

677

Chapter W Anti-Terrorism and Police Facilities


Section W1: Terminal Building Considerations ................................................................................

685

Section W2: Pier Area Considerations .............................................................................................

688

Section W3: Airfield Area Considerations ........................................................................................

690

Section W4: Airport Police Facilities ................................................................................................

692

Chapter X Airport Fire Services


Section X1: Fire Response Category ...............................................................................................

697

Section X2: Fire Response Services & Equipment .........................................................................

699

Chapter Y Networks
Section Y1: Frontline Operational and Security ...............................................................................

705

Section Y2: Building Services ..........................................................................................................

710