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712 (de) vizualizări177 paginiA book for grade 6 mathematics

Jan 03, 2014

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A book for grade 6 mathematics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

712 (de) vizualizări

A book for grade 6 mathematics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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CBSE-i

VI

UNDERSTANDING

UNIT - 7

CLASS

CBSE-i

UNDERSTANDING

VI

UNIT - 7

The CBSE-International is grateful for permission to reproduce and/or translate copyright material used in this publication. The acknowledgements have been included wherever appropriate and sources from where the material has been taken duly mentioned. In case anything has been missed out, the Board will be pleased to rectify the error at the earliest possible opportunity. All Rights of these documents are reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, printed or transmitted in any form without the prior permission of the CBSE-i. This material is meant for the use of schools who are a part of the CBSE-International only.

Preface

The Curriculum initiated by Central Board of Secondary Education -International (CBSE-i) is a progressive step in making the educational content and methodology more sensitive and responsive to the global needs. It signifies the emergence of a fresh thought process in imparting a curriculum which would restore the independence of the learner to pursue the learning process in harmony with the existing personal, social and cultural ethos. The Central Board of Secondary Education has been providing support to the academic needs of the learners worldwide. It has about 11500 schools affiliated to it and over 158 schools situated in more than 23 countries. The Board has always been conscious of the varying needs of the learners in countries abroad and has been working towards contextualizing certain elements of the learning process to the physical, geographical, social and cultural environment in which they are engaged. The International Curriculum being designed by CBSE-i, has been visualized and developed with these requirements in view. The nucleus of the entire process of constructing the curricular structure is the learner. The objective of the curriculum is to nurture the independence of the learner, given the fact that every learner is unique. The learner has to understand, appreciate, protect and build on values, beliefs and traditional wisdom, make the necessary modifications, improvisations and additions wherever and whenever necessary. The recent scientific and technological advances have thrown open the gateways of knowledge at an astonishing pace. The speed and methods of assimilating knowledge have put forth many challenges to the educators, forcing them to rethink their approaches for knowledge processing by their learners. In this context, it has become imperative for them to incorporate those skills which will enable the young learners to become 'life long learners'. The ability to stay current, to upgrade skills with emerging technologies, to understand the nuances involved in change management and the relevant life skills have to be a part of the learning domains of the global learners. The CBSE-i curriculum has taken cognizance of these requirements. The CBSE-i aims to carry forward the basic strength of the Indian system of education while promoting critical and creative thinking skills, effective communication skills, interpersonal and collaborative skills along with information and media skills. There is an inbuilt flexibility in the curriculum, as it provides a foundation and an extension curriculum, in all subject areas to cater to the different pace of learners. The CBSE has introduced the CBSE-i curriculum in schools affiliated to CBSE at the international level in 2010 and is now introducing it to other affiliated schools who meet the requirements for introducing this curriculum. The focus of CBSE-i is to ensure that the learner is stress-free and committed to active learning. The learner would be evaluated on a continuous and comprehensive basis consequent to the mutual interactions between the teacher and the learner. There are some nonevaluative components in the curriculum which would be commented upon by the teachers and the school. The objective of this part or the core of the curriculum is to scaffold the learning experiences and to relate tacit knowledge with formal knowledge. This would involve trans-disciplinary linkages that would form the core of the learning process. Perspectives, SEWA (Social Empowerment through Work and Action), Life Skills and Research would be the constituents of this 'Core'. The Core skills are the most significant aspects of a learner's holistic growth and learning curve. The International Curriculum has been designed keeping in view the foundations of the National Curricular Framework (NCF 2005) NCERT and the experience gathered by the Board over the last seven decades in imparting effective learning to millions of learners, many of whom are now global citizens. The Board does not interpret this development as an alternative to other curricula existing at the international level, but as an exercise in providing the much needed Indian leadership for global education at the school level. The International Curriculum would evolve on its own, building on learning experiences inside the classroom over a period of time. The Board while addressing the issues of empowerment with the help of the schools' administering this system strongly recommends that practicing teachers become skillful learners on their own and also transfer their learning experiences to their peers through the interactive platforms provided by the Board. I profusely thank Shri G. Balasubramanian, former Director (Academics), CBSE, Ms. Abha Adams and her team and Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Head (Innovations and Research) CBSE along with other Education Officers involved in the development and implementation of this material. The CBSE-i website has already started enabling all stakeholders to participate in this initiative through the discussion forums provided on the portal. Any further suggestions are welcome. Vineet Joshi Chairman

Acknowledgements

Advisory Shri Vineet Joshi, Chairman, CBSE Sh. N. Nagaraju, Director(Academic), CBSE Ideators Ms. Aditi Misra Ms. Amita Mishra Ms. Anita Sharma Ms. Anita Makkar Dr. Anju Srivastava Conceptual Framework Shri G. Balasubramanian, Former Director (Acad), CBSE Ms. Abha Adams, Consultant, Step-by-Step School, Noida Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Director (Training),CBSE Ms. Jaishree Srivastava Dr. Kamla Menon Dr. Meena Dhami Ms. Neelima Sharma Dr. N. K. Sehgal Dr. Rajesh Hassija Ms. Rupa Chakravarty Ms. Sarita Manuja Ms. Himani Asija Dr. Uma Chaudhry

Ms. Anuradha Sen Ms. Archana Sagar Ms. Geeta Varshney Ms. Guneet Ohri Dr. Indu Khetrapal

Dr. Indu Khetarpal Ms. Vandana Kumar Ms. Anju Chauhan Ms. Deepti Verma Ms. Ritu Batra English : Ms. Rachna Pandit Ms. Neha Sharma Ms. Sonia Jain Ms. Dipinder Kaur Ms. Sarita Ahuja

Material Production Group: Classes I-V Ms. Rupa Chakravarty Ms. Anita Makkar Ms. Anuradha Mathur Ms. Kalpana Mattoo Ms. Savinder Kaur Rooprai Ms. Monika Thakur Ms. Seema Choudhary Mr. Bijo Thomas Ms. Kalyani Voleti Material Production Groups: Classes VI-VIII Science : Dr. Meena Dhami Mr. Saroj Kumar Ms. Rashmi Ramsinghaney Ms. Seema kapoor Ms. Priyanka Sen Dr. Kavita Khanna Ms. Keya Gupta Mathematics : Dr. K.P. Chinda Mr. J.C. Nijhawan Ms. Rashmi Kathuria Ms. Reemu Verma Mathematics : Ms. Seema Rawat Ms. N. Vidya Ms. Mamta Goyal Ms. Chhavi Raheja Political Science: Ms. Kanu Chopra Ms. Shilpi Anand

Ms. Nandita Mathur Ms. Seema Chowdhary Ms. Ruba Chakarvarty Ms. Mahua Bhattacharya

Geography: Ms. Suparna Sharma Ms. Leela Grewal History : Ms. Leeza Dutta Ms. Kalpana Pant

Material Production Groups: Classes IX-X English : Ms. Sarita Manuja Ms. Renu Anand Ms. Gayatri Khanna Ms. P. Rajeshwary Ms. Neha Sharma Ms. Sarabjit Kaur Ms. Ruchika Sachdev Geography: Ms. Deepa Kapoor Ms. Bharti Dave Ms. Bhagirathi Ms. Archana Sagar Ms. Manjari Rattan Science : Ms. Charu Maini Ms. S. Anjum Ms. Meenambika Menon Ms. Novita Chopra Ms. Neeta Rastogi Ms. Pooja Sareen Economics: Ms. Mridula Pant Mr. Pankaj Bhanwani Ms. Ambica Gulati History : Ms. Jayshree Srivastava Ms. M. Bose Ms. A. Venkatachalam Ms. Smita Bhattacharya

Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Head (I and R) Shri R. P. Sharma, Consultant Ms. Seema Lakra, S O

Coordinators: Ms. Sugandh Sharma, Dr. Srijata Das, Dr. Rashmi Sethi, E O (Com) E O (Maths) E O (Science) Ms. Ritu Narang, RO (Innovation) Ms. Sindhu Saxena, R O (Tech) Shri Al Hilal Ahmed, AEO Ms. Preeti Hans, Proof Reader

C O N T E N TS

C O N T E N TS

Preface Acknowledgment 1. 2. 3. Syllabus Scope Document Teachers Support Material 2 Teacher's Note Activity Skill Matrix 2 Warm up Activity W1 Geometry on the Floor 2 Warm Up Activity W2 Geometry Crossword 2 Warm Up Activity W3 Lines and Angles 2 Pre Content Worksheet P1 Tangrams 2 Pre Content Worksheet P2 Class Mosaic 2 Content Worksheet CW1 Open and Closed Shapes 2 Content Worksheet CW2 Understanding Polygons 1 2 Content Worksheet CW3 Regular and Irregular Polygons 2 Content Worksheet CW4 2D Shapes 2 Content Worksheet CW5 Understanding Polygons 2 2 Content Worksheet CW6 Classification of Triangles 1 16 16 15 14 14 13 13 12 12 1 2 4 5 9 11 11

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CONTENT

Classification of Triangles 2 Content Worksheet CW8 2 Types of Triangles Content Worksheet CW9 2 Classification of Triangles 3 Content Worksheet CW10 2 Types of Quadrilaterals 1 Content Worksheet CW11 2 Types of Quadrilaterals 2 Content Worksheet CW12 2 Types of Quadrilaterals 3 Content Worksheet CW13 2 Types of Quadrilaterals 4 Content Worksheet CW14 2 Interior Angles of a Polygon Content Worksheet CW15 2 Types of Quadrilaterals 5 Content Worksheet CW16 2 Polygon Capture Content Worksheet CW17 2 Visualizing Solid Shapes Content Worksheet CW18 2 Nets of 2D and 3D Objects Content Worksheet CW19 2 Nets of Curved Objects Content Worksheet CW20 2 Solid Shapes 1 Content Worksheet CW21 2 Solid Shapes 2 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 21 20 20 19

CONTENT

Content Worksheet CW22 2 Symmetry 1 Content Worksheet CW23 2 Symmetry 2 Content Worksheet CW24 2 Symmetry 3 Content Worksheet CW25 2 Symmetry 4 Content Worksheet CW26 2 Symmetry 5 Post Content Worksheet PCW1 2

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Study Material Student's Support Material SW 1 : Warm up Activity W1 Geometry on the floor SW 2 : Warm up W2 Geometry Crossword SW 3 : Warm up W3 Lines and Angles SW 4 : Pre Content Worksheet P1 Tangrams SW 5 : Pre Content Worksheet P2 Class Mosaic SW 6 : Content Worksheet CW1 Open and Closed Shapes

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CONTENT

SW 7 : Content Worksheet CW2 Understanding Polygons 1 SW 8 : Content Worksheet CW3 Regular and Irregular polygons SW 9 : Content Worksheet CW4 2D shapes SW 10 : Content Worksheet CW5 Understanding Polygons 2 SW 11 : Content Worksheet CW6 Classification of Triangles 1 SW 12 : Content Worksheet CW7 Classification of Triangles 2 SW 13 : Content Worksheet CW8 Types of Triangles SW 14 : Content Worksheet CW9 Classification of Triangles 3 SW 15 : Content Worksheet CW10 Types of Quadrilaterals 1 SW 16 : Content Worksheet CW11 Types of Quadrilaterals 2 SW 17 : Content Worksheet CW12 Types of Quadrilaterals 3 SW 18 : Content Worksheet CW13 Types of Quadrilaterals 4 SW 19 : Content Worksheet CW14 Interior Angles of a Polygon SW 20 : Content Worksheet CW15 Types of Quadrilaterals 5

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CONTENT

SW 21 : Content Worksheet CW16 Polygon Capture SW 22 : Content Worksheet CW17 Visualizing Solid Shapes SW 23 : Content Worksheet CW18 Nets of 2D and 3D objects SW 24 : Content Worksheet CW19 Nets of Curved Objects SW 25 : Content Worksheet CW20 Solid Shapes 1 SW 26 : Content Worksheet CW21 Solid Shapes 2 SW 27 : Content Worksheet CW22 Symmetry 1 SW 28 : Content Worksheet CW23 Symmetry 2 SW 29 : Content Worksheet CW24 Symmetry 3 SW 30 : Content Worksheet CW25 Symmetry 4 SW 31 : Content Worksheet CW26 Symmetry 5 SW 32 : Post Content Worksheet PCW1

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Observing and naming shapes around us. Talking about them with reference to their sides. Defining a polygon made of straight lines with reference to a closed figure in a plane. SHAPES 2D AND 3D Classifying polygons based on the number of sides, special mention of the root words. Defining a Triangle as a polygon with three sides, types of triangles based on the measure of the sides and angles, Classifying quadrilaterals based on their sides Identifying and differentiating between 2D and 3D shapes. Creating solids from their nets. Identifying faces, edges and vertices of a solid and naming them. Observing symmetry around us, SYMMETRY Exploring reflection symmetry. Drawing and identifying lines of symmetry

SCOPE DOCUMENT

REVIEW AND RECALL: Basic geometrical concepts of lines and angles, Parallel and perpendicular lines Measuring sides using ruler and angles using protractor Concepts: 1. Recognizing simple polygons (Up to octagons, regulars as well as non regular). 2. Classifying triangles (on the basis of sides, and of angles) 3. Classifying quadrilaterals Trapezium, parallelogram, rectangle, square, rhombus. 4. Identifying 3-D shapes: Cubes, Cuboids, cylinder, sphere, cone, prism (triangular), pyramid (triangular and square) 5. Define and identify elements of 3-D figures in the surroundings 6. Observe and recognize nets for cube, cuboids, cylinders, cones and tetrahedrons. 7. List out the Faces, Edges and vertices of the different 3d solids by looking at the solids. 8. Observe and identify 2-D symmetrical objects for reflection symmetry 9. Learn the operation of reflection (taking mirror images) of simple 2-D objects. 10. Recognizing reflection symmetry and identifying axes of reflection. Learning objectives At the end of this lesson student will be able to Differentiate between open and closed figures, simple and complex polygons Understand and appreciate the properties of regular polygons. Understand and recognize types of triangles and quadrilaterals. Understand and apply the properties of quadrilaterals to classify the quadrilaterals .

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Identify the various 3D objects and know how to obtain them from 2D flat figures. Identify and define edges, faces and vertices of all types of 3D objects. Identify and appreciate symmetrical objects in nature. Recognize reflection and reflect on the given axis. Extension activities: The concept of and the process of making tessellations Create tessellations using rotation and translation Understand and write about the works of M.C. Escher Cross curricular links English: Students would write about the works of M.C. Escher. Throughout the topic students get a lot of chances to look up root words / etymology of the topics done.

ART:

Students understand the meshing of Geometry and topics taught to different art works.

Sports:

Students work on their perceptions and lateral thinking thus enhancing their meta cognition.

Technology help : Web links for reference, research and remedial You tube to deliver content

TEACHERS NOTE

The teaching of Mathematics should enhance the childs resources to think and reason, to visualise and handle abstractions, to formulate and solve problems. As per NCF 2005, the vision for school Mathematics include :

1. Children learn to enjoy mathematics rather than fear it. 2. Children see mathematics as something to talk about, to communicate through, to discuss among themselves, to work together on. 3. Children pose and solve meaningful problems. 4. Children use abstractions to perceive relation-ships, to see structures, to reason out things, to argue the truth or falsity of statements. 5. Children understand the basic structure of Mathematics: Arithmetic, algebra, geometry and trigonometry, the basic content areas of school Mathematics, all offer a methodology for abstraction, structuration and generalisation. 6. Teachers engage every child in class with the conviction that everyone can learn mathematics.

Students should be encouraged to solve problems through different methods like abstraction, quantification, analogy, case analysis, reduction to simpler situations, even guess-and-verify exercises during different stages of school. This will enrich the students and help them to understand that a problem can be approached by a variety of methods for solving it. School mathematics should also play an important role in developing the useful skill of estimation of quantities and approximating solutions. Development of visualisation and representations skills should be integral to Mathematics teaching. There is also a need to make connections between Mathematics and other subjects of study. When children learn to draw a graph, they should be encouraged to perceive the importance of graph in the teaching of Science, Social Science and other areas of study. Mathematics should help in developing the reasoning skills of students. Proof is a process which encourages systematic way of argumentation. The aim should be to develop arguments, to evaluate arguments, to make conjunctures and understand that there are various methods of reasoning. Students should be made to understand that mathematical communication is precise,

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employs unambiguous use of language and rigour in formulation. Children should be encouraged to appreciate its significance. At the upper primary stage, students get the first taste of power of Mathematics through the application of powerful abstract concepts like Algebra, Number System, Geometry etc. Revisiting of the previous knowledge and consolidating basic concepts and skills learnt at the Primary Stage helps the child to appreciate the abstract nature of Mathematics. Whether it is Number system or algebra or Geometry, these topics should be introduced by relating it to the childs every day experience and taking it forward to abstraction so that the child can appreciate the importance of study of these topics. The students in the middle grades have an informal knowledge about a point, line and plane. By this stage they are aware of various 2 dimensional and 3 dimensional shapes. They recognize these shapes early, even before they know the technical terms for the different shapes they see. They have an intuitive idea about different polygons, angles and triangles. They are now expected to define and draw all these terms and their components mathematically. According to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, grades 6-8 students should be able to: Precisely describe, classify, and understand relationships among types of twoand three-dimensional objects using their defining properties; Use two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional objects to visualize and solve problems such as those involving surface area and volume; and, Use geometric models to represent and explain numerical and algebraic relationships (NCTM, 2000). The students at this level should be able to learn the geometric vocabulary of the three dimensional shapes such as faces, edges and vertices. They should be able to create and use two dimensional representations of three dimensional shapes by forming nets of the three dimensional figures. The teacher may encourage the students to discover,

through investigation of various structures the Eulers Formula, the algebraic relation between the edges, vertices and faces of the polyhedrons.

Common Errors

Type of error Diagonals of a Pentagon Error made Counting the number of diagonals Correction Its best to ask the students to pick up one vertex of the pentagon and start making diagonals. A prism has two identical bases and all the faces are rectangles. A pyramid has a single base and a top vertex and all the faces are triangles. Yes a cuboid is a rectangular prism with two rectangular bases

Is a cuboid a prism?

The first Warm up activity (W1) is an artistic geometrical design where the students are using their previous knowledge of informal geometry and appreciate the use of geometry. In Warm Up activity (W2), the students use their previous knowledge of geometrical terms in a crossword game. In Warm up activity (W3), the students recollect the known terms in Lines and Angles.

Through Pre content 1, (P1), the students are informally introduced to Quadrilaterals and its types through Tangrams. In Pre content 2 (P2), the students try to find out how and where geometry exists around us. The focus on the warm up and pre content activities shall be to refresh the previous knowledge of the students so that they can comfortably build up the new topic. The pre content activities act as a bridge between the previously learnt concepts and the new concepts to be studied. The content worksheets from C1 through C26 aim at achieving the above stated learning objectives. Not only shall the students learn the basic concepts of geometry, they shall be encouraged to find how closely and beautifully mathematics is related to their daily lives. The teacher may encourage them to make projects where they can appreciate the applicability of geometry in real life. Further the post content activity (PC1)is designed to assess the students understanding of the concepts learnt in the chapter. The post content worksheet 2 is an assessment test to test the concepts learnt in totality. It is not included in the students Worksheets. The teacher may use it as a timed test by giving print outs to students.

Activity Warm up (W1) Name of the activity Geometry on the floor Skills learnt Application of geometry in art Knowledge and understanding Knowledge and understanding Understanding by doing Understanding by doing Learning by doing Knowledge and understanding Knowledge and understanding Observation skills Knowledge and Geometrical skills Knowledge and Understanding Representation skills Diagrammatical and geometrical understanding. Knowledge and understanding

Warm up (W2)

Geometry crossword

Warm up (W3) Pre content (P1) Pre content (P2) Content worksheet (C1)

Lines and angles Tangrams Class Mosaic Open and closed shapes Understanding polygons Regular and irregular polygons

Classification of triangles 3

Types of Quadrilaterals 1

Knowledge and understanding Understanding and geometrical skills Analytical skills Exploration skills Activity based learning Knowledge and geometrical skills Reasoning skills geometrical skills geometrical skills geometrical skills Observational skills Knowledge and application skills Analytical skills Analytical skills Learning by doing Application and drawing skills Application and drawing skills Knowledge and self learning

Content Worksheet (C11) Content Worksheet (C12) Content Worksheet (C13) Content Worksheet (C14) Content Worksheet (C15) Content Worksheet (C16) Content Worksheet (C17) Content Worksheet (C18) Content Worksheet (C19) Content Worksheet (C20) Content Worksheet (C21) Content Worksheet (C22) Content Worksheet (C23) Content Worksheet (C24) Content Worksheet (C25)

Types of Quadrilaterals 2 Types of Quadrilaterals 3 Types of Quadrilaterals 4 Interior angles of polygons Types of Quadrilaterals 5 Polygon capture Visualizing solid shapes Nets of 2D and 3D objects Nets of curved objects Solid Shapes 1 Solid shapes 2 Symmetry 1 Symmetry 2 Symmetry 3 Symmetry 4

Symmetry 5

Extended Practice

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Objective Teacher gives and solicits a brief description about Rangoli a famous art form of India. Pre preparation Teacher will give an isometric dot paper to each student to practice. Description- Teacher models by joining a set of 6 dots and create a star shape on it. Students practice along with the teacher and then try some on their own. .

Follow up Students complete the design on their own and display the same in the class.

Objective Recall of the basic geometrical words and concepts done till class V. Description- Students solve the crossword puzzle by using the clues given below. This can be done in pairs. Follow up-Teacher cross checks the answers and reinforces important words once again and reinforces the importance of using the correct words for effective communication in mathematics.

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Objective Recall of the basic geometrical words and concepts they have done till class V. Description- Students do the worksheet which is a recap of all terms and concepts done in class V like definitions of angles, lines etc. This also checks their understanding of formation of angles

Specific Objectives To recall shapes learnt on the basis of the number of sides. Material Required Cartridge sheets, ruler, scissor. Pre preparation Teacher will ensure that the material is available and each student knows the safety precautions working with scissors. Description Teacher in a play way method acquaints students of the different shapes which they see around them. The teacher induces students to think about the number of sides based on which the shapes will be classified. Follow up: As a fun activity teacher asks students to rearrange the shapes cut out to form a square again. The teacher may extend the activity to the other shapes.

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Objective Identify different shapes and create a mosaic which is aesthetic to look at. Material needed- Colored papers, cartridge sheets, crayons, scissors, glue. Description Teacher allows students to recall, identify and collect objects of different shapes and sizes, classify them based on their sides and then create mosaics of various shapes and patterns. Follow up-Teacher goes around the groups work and facilitates mathematical thinking putting up probing questions related to shapes , symmetry and color coordination.

Material required: Computers in computer lab Specific objective - Identify and differentiate between closed and open shapes using microsoft paint . Description - Through this activity, teacher helps students to derive the meaning of open and closed curves while the students work on the MS paint. This allows the students to actually test, verify and later visualize why a particular shape is closed or otherwise. Execution -Students follow instructions given by the teacher and try to justify how and why the shapes are known as closed or open curves. Follow Up-Teacher intervenes where required while students are working with Microsoft paint and ensures that all students have understood the difference between open and closed and are able to communicate the same .

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Material required: Online dictionary Specific objective-Define a polygon with special emphasis on the root word. Description-To acquaint students with mathematical words, and their origin. Through this activity, teacher directs the students to refer to the online mathematics dictionary and define the term Polygon with special focus on the root words and their origin. This shall also act as a precursor to understand the meanings of different types of polygons. Follow up-The students will then tabulate their meanings and complete the corresponding worksheet

Objective Observe and define regular and irregular polygon, simple and complex polygons. Description This is an induction activity where teacher derives the meaning of the words irregular and regular polygons complex and simple polygons. Teacher will familiarize the students with these terms by asking them to draw and think of shapes which they see around them.

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Execution - Teacher notes down all observations put up by the students and then develops the definitions of regular, irregular, simple and complex polygons. Follow Up- Students complete the activity and teacher checks for errors in communicating the meanings of simple, complex, regular, irregular polygons by the students. Teacher should ensure that students use proper mathematical terms while defining the terms.

Objective Students consolidate their understanding of polygons by doing this quiz. Description: The quiz in an unconventional manner ensures that the students have learned and visualized the different types of polygons. The students are required to answer on the basis of clues given. This is followed by another puzzle with different polygons for the students and students to classify them based on the number of sides each has. Some words are given and using some clues students are required to complete the puzzle.

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Execution- This could be a group activity and the group which gives the correct answer scores points. Follow up- Students watch video clip 2 as a closure which talks about different types of quadrilaterals based on their sides. .

Specific Objective Students consolidate their learnings of the content learnt so far Description Students work on the worksheet which checks understanding about different types of polygons in the class and complete the same at home. Follow Up: Teacher discusses the worksheet by asking students to communicate what they have done and intervene where required.

Objective - To acquaint students with the types of triangles based on their sides. Activity 1 : Understanding triangles. Material Required Cut outs of different types of triangles, tracing paper Description

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Through this inductive activity, teacher creates knowledge about the different types of triangles based on the measurement of their sides. Based on what they have researched, students answer the corresponding worksheet wherein some clues are given based on which students write the names of triangles in question number 1. In question 2, students create different types of triangles using drinking straws and then measure the sides and identify the triangle created. They then answer some questions based on perimeter and the triangles which can be created by the same perimeter and their corresponding names. Execution Students follow the instructions given by the teacher and answer the questions put up by her. They also record what they observe in their notebooks. Follow up Teacher allows students to communicate their deductions about the triangles in the class. She/he may want to give alternate ways of doing the activity to students finding it difficult to overlap/superimpose. Some students find difficulty in folding sides from vertex they can cut out and separate the three sides of triangle, place those over each other one by one to verify as shown below.

Use a ruler and measure the three sides to verify the same Repeat the above step(s) for all three triangles. Record the observations. She then asks all to verify their findings by measuring the sides of the triangle cutouts. The students are allowed to solve the questions that follow for more clarity.

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Activity 2 Understanding triangles Objective - To acquaint students with the types of triangles based on their Angles Material Required Cut outs of different types of triangles, tracing paper. Description: After a warm up session where teacher recalls various types of angles through hand gestures and movements, the students then try to guess the measures of the angles of the triangle given and then verify their answers by measuring. They are then encouraged to find out the names of these triangles using a dictionary thus using different techniques to reinforce the meaning of different types of triangles.

Execution-Students follow the directions of the teacher and show evidence of their understanding by responding to the questions posed by the teacher. They show the correct measurements and record the same in their notebooks. Follow up: Teacher discusses students responses and guides them to use the correct terminology and logic. She wraps up the class followed by a video clip as closure. Students watch Video clip 3 to reinforce the concepts learnt which talks about the different types of triangles based on their sides and measures of the angles.

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Activity 3 : Specific Objective - Reinforce the types of triangles and looking for a connection in the two. Material Required Geo dot paper, scissors, protractor . Description Through this activity students re-acquaint themselves with different type of triangles using the geo-board as a manipulative. This acts as an aid for visual and kinesthetic learners. The students then answer some questions based on their observations and tabulate the same in the corresponding activity worksheet.

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Execution-Students follow the instructions of the teacher and try to complete the table given. Follow Up-Teacher to give them as many as different types of triangles to draw conclusions as well as encourage the students to draw as many logical conclusions from this activity. Students note down their observations and teacher wraps up the activity by rephrasing the conclusions.

Objective - Recapitulation of the work done in content C2.1. Description - This is a recapitulation worksheet to make students recall all the concepts learnt in content C2.1. Teacher will ask students to do the work as directed.

Objective Acquaint students to geometrical terminology. Description- Through this activity, Teacher acquaints students of names of different shapes and helps them define them using a dictionary.

Execution - Students will complete the maze and then write the definitions using the online dictionary. Follow upTeacher discusses the

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Objective Acquaint students to geometrical names and shapes of different types of quadrilaterals Description- This is a share and pair activity in which teacher defines different types of polygons. Special attention is paid to the root words for the names of the polynomials, by referring to the dictionary. The quadrilaterals are then displayed on the board and Students are allowed to identify and name the various quadrilaterals that observed which is again followed by a cryptic clue puzzle which is further extended by completing a puzzle on quadrilaterals. Execution - Students follow directions of the teacher and then display their work for all to see. They also talk about the name of their quadrilateral Follow Up - Students look for the words in this word maze and then write down the definitions of each of them in their notebook

Activity 3 Classifying quadrilaterals Specific Objective Students classify quadrilaterals using a flow chart teaching them an important tool of decision making. Material required: A cut out of a quadrilateral and a flow chart to refer to. Description- In this activity teacher uses cut outs of different quadrilaterals and a flow chart as a graphic organizer to classify the quadrilaterals.

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FLOW CHART

Execution- Students follow instructions and try to identify the quadrilateral which they have. Students then exchange their quadrilateral with their partner and repeat the procedure again. Follow up-Students list characteristics about the shape of the quadrilateral, based on the observations.

Activity 4 Classifying quadrilaterals Specific Objective Students classify quadrilaterals using a venn diagram teaching them an important tool of decision making.

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Description- Students Watch video clip 4 on special types of quadrilaterals followed by the discussion using the venn diagram. They then observe the following figure carefully and make correct geometrical statements:

Execution- Students watch video clip 4 and then answer questions looking at the venn diagram. They then complete the table and check for geometrical logic. Follow Up-Teacher checks for understanding and students skill of communicating their arguments logically

Specific Objective-Students investigate the angle sum property of a triangle and a quadrilateral. Description-In this very physical activity teacher allows students to investigate the sum of the three angles of any triangle. Once students are able to identify the sum of the three angles of a triangle, they are allowed to explore the sum of the interior angles of a quadrilateral.

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Execution- Students follow the directions of the teacher and try to complete the activity. Teacher keeps the group focused by asking probing questions. They then solve some problems based on the activity done. Follow Up-Based on the activity done students try to conclude the outcome for the interior angles of a quadrilateral.

Specific Objective- Students test their understanding and consolidate the skills acquired by doing this worksheet. Execution- Students complete the task allotted to them independently. Follow Up- Teacher checks for understanding and skill of communication by asking students to explain the task done. Teacher checks for accuracy and intervenes where required.

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Specific Objective- Students test their understanding and consolidate the skills acquired by playing this game. Preparation- Before playing the game, cards are cut out on the Polygon Captultre Game Cards sheet. They have to be arranged in such a way that the adjacent sides have the solution it the question. The teacher may draw the resultant figure to be obtained on the board. Following is the answer figure.

25

Specific Objective - Students observe and then visualize different solids around them Material required: Isometric dot paper. Description-Through this activity teacher models and instructs students to join the appropriate dots to make the given figures. For example:

Shape 1

Shape 2

Execution - Each student works independently, explore and try to, get the shapes right.

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Specific Objective-Students explore, observe and then create nets of some regular solids. Material required: Isometric dot paper, a closed box made of cardboard, some solids to display for the students to visualize. Description - This is a deductive activity. Through this activity students explore solids by opening up a cubical box to visualize the net of a cube. This enables them to see the 2d cardboard being changed into a sol.id shape. They will then be encouraged to create nets of different simple solids which they have seen before.

Execution - Each student works independently, explores and tries to, get the shapes right.

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Follow up- Teacher checks for understanding of the task by going around and intervene where required. Teacher then asks students to mention the 2D shapes used to make 3D objects in each of the shapes given above.

Specific Objective-Students explore, observe and then create nets of some curved 3D objects as well. Use online dictionary to name the solids so formed. Material required: Nets of some solids. . Description- This is an explorative hands on activity. Teacher instructs students to cut out and use the following nets and try to convert them into 3D objects without any further modifications. They are then encouraged by the teacher to use the math online dictionary to name these solids and complete the corresponding worksheet on 3d solids.

Execution- Students watch video clip 5 and follow the teachers directions and create solids by folding the nets. They then refer to the online dictionary and name their solids.

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Specific Objective-Students explore, observe and then answer some questions based on the shape of the solids under consideration. Material: Some solids on display for students of different learning styles to analyze the solids. Description- In This exploration activity, teacher keeps a solid before the students and guides them to be able to identify the face, edge and the vertices of a solid by asking questions and leading students to the correct answers by hand gestures and actions. The students are then encouraged to look for the edges, vertices and the faces of different solids which are given in the corresponding worksheet.

Execution-Teacher models the term under considerations and students follow instructions to answer the questions put up by the teacher. They then try to work independently and complete the table.

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Activity1 Independent practice Description - Students test their understanding and consolidate the skills acquired by doing this worksheet. Execution- Students complete the task allotted to them independently.

Specific objective- Warming up with this riddle for out of box thinking. Solve this riddle Description- Students are asked to give the answer to an open ended riddle. The answer to the riddle will encourage students to think of out of the box answers and would be acceptable if the students is able to provide a plausible justification. This also allows students to visualize mirror images (halves)

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Execution- Teacher allows students to give their responses without giving any affirmation. Students counter each other and discuss the logic of their answer with the group. Follow up- Students explore similar, various things and numbers when they are divided in half but in an unusual manner.

Specific objective- Warming up with this riddle for out of box thinking and initiate the concept of mirror images and symmetry . Description- In this pattern finding activity, teacher asks students to solve the riddle by looking for a pattern.

The teacher introduces the word mirror image and models the same to the student to see her view point. This is followed by video clip 7 to introduce Symmetry and use the online dictionary to complete the corresponding worksheet wherein they have to write the etymology of the word symmetry and give some examples. Execution- Students answer the questions that follow, after listening to the teachers instructions followed by watching the video.

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Follow Up- Teacher encourages all of them to answer and monitor their thinking. This is followed by playing this game wherein you hand in the correct shape to Pablo to complete his Robot. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks1bitesize/numeracy/shapes/fs.shtml

Specific objective- Find symmetry and the lines of symmetry by cutting and folding. Description- In this activity teacher encourages students to cut out each of the shapes given in the corresponding worksheet and then fold to look for the lines of symmetry and then write the lines of symmetry for each shape.

Execution- Students follow the teachers directions and then write their answers. Follow up- Teacher monitors and checks for understanding about symmetry and lines of symmetry.

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Specific objective- Find the lines of symmetry using a mirror and then completing the shape using the properties of symmetry. Material Used: Blank sheet of paper and a mirror. Description-Through this hands on activity, the teacher demonstrates the use of the mirror to see the reflection of ones name and reflect the same.

Execution- Students follow the teachers directions and complete the set task. Now based on what they have learnt, students reflect half of the raccoon face to make a complete raccoon face using a mirror. The teacher, if required, provides support to the students as needed while the students work on this task.

Specific objective- Students consolidates their learnings about symmetry through this independent work. Execution- Students complete the task allotted to them independently.

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Follow Up- Teacher checks for understanding and skill of communication and by asking students to explain the task done. Teacher checks for accuracy and intervenes where required.

Objective: To Practice the concepts learnt in the chapter in totality. Pre Preparation: Teacher will prepare the comprehensive worksheets of the chapter. Description: Teacher will hand out the worksheets to the students Follow up: Teacher will assess level of her students on the basis of the post content worksheets PCW1 and give remedial wherever required. Note for the teacher: 1. Students weak at the concepts must be given the enough practice through the basic worksheets and then post content worksheets may be given to them. 2. Students who have grasped the concepts very well and are able to solve regular problems quite easily may be advised to move to extension activities.

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Name of the student ______________________ Date ___________

1. State whether the adjacent figure is a polygon. If it is, identify the polygon and state whether it is convex or not. If it is not, explain why.

2. State whether the following figure is a polygon. If it is, identify the polygon and state whether it is convex or not. If it is not, explain why.

3.

A polygon can be either convex or concave. Draw an example of each Show how the diagonals test or the line test is used to illustrate the convexity or concavity of your polygons.

4.

5.

Tell whether the dotted line on each shape is a line of symmetry. Write yes or no. Explain why do you think so?

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6.

7.

What shape am I? I am three-dimensional. I have 6 faces and 8 vertices. All my faces are rectangles. I can be stacked. I am a

8.

9.

The diagram shows an eight sided figure. a) What special name is given to this shape? b) Write the name of line segments which are parallel to each other. c) Into how many triangles can this shape be triangulated? d) What is the sum of the interior angles of this shape.

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10.

The grid shows a triangle. Measure the angles of the triangle. What special name do you give to this triangle?

11.

Are these statements true or false? a) A parallelogram is never a square. b) A square is always a rectangle. c) A rhombus is never a square. d) A trapezoid is a parallelogram. e) A parallelogram has one set of opposite sides. f) A rectangle has four right angles. g) A rhombus always has four equal sides.

12.

Measure the angles in each case and add up the three angles so obtained. Write what do you observe.

13.

What Shape Am I?

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14.

Polygon G has k sides. How many diagonals can be drawn inside of polygon G?

15.

16. A square is a special kind of rhombus. What makes it special? 17. Identify each of the following polygons. You may want to try describing them with more than one term.

18.

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19.

20.

Three angles of a Quadrilateral are 100o, 50o, 60o. Find the measure of the fourth angle of the quadrilateral.

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Sample Assessment Rubric Parameter Ability to define and identify different types of polygons.

0 Can make no sense of what a polygon is. Is unable to recognize and define it.

1 Can recognize a closed figure but cannot recognize a polygon from a curve.

2 Can recognize and define a polygon but finds it difficult to communicat e his ideas. Can tell the property of a polygon.

3 Can identify and define a polygon. Can understand and recall the various polygons from its root words and properties of polygons and apply it to problems.

4 Can define a polygon using appropriate words and justify his explanations Can understand and apply the properties of polygons in different problems, with proper sketches and plan of action with accuracy and helps his peers to understand too. Can define a triangle and its types. Can extend properties to problems and come up with a suitable alternate plan of action independently with appropriate justifications for all the

Ability to define a regular polygon and apply properties of polygon to solve simple problems

Ability to define and identify triangles as a polygon with 3 sides, Ability to classify triangles based on the sides and angles. Ability to Extend this

Can recognize a triangle but cognition does not go beyond this. Cannot measure sides and angles and can no make no sense of

Can define a triangle but is unable to name its elements accurately. Can measure but not accurately and gets mixed up with the types of triangles. Is

Can define a triangle and types of triangles. Can classify triangles with some guidance. Cannot extend and integrate two concepts to solve simple but higher level

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Can define the triangle and types of triangles. Can classify triangles by sketching and labeling information, analyze the information and solve problems with a proper plan

problems.

solutions. Presents a well organized work and helps his peers in understanding too. Can define a Quadrilateral and its types using a flow chart independently.. Can extend properties to problems and come up with a suitable alternate plan of action independently with appropriate justifications for all the solutions. Presents a well organized work and helps his peers in understanding too.

Ability to define and identify different types of quadrilater als and classify them. Ability to Use properties of quadrilater als to simple problems.

Can Recognize a Quadrilateral but cognition does not go beyond this. Cannot measure sides and angles and can not make sense of different types of Quadrilaterals.

Can define a Quadrilatera l but cannot name its elements accurately. Can measure but not accurately and gets mixed up with the types of Quadrilaterals.

Can define a quadrilateral and types of quadrilaterals. Can classify quadrilaterals with some guidance. Cannot extend and integrate two concepts to solve simple but higher level problems.

Can define the quadrilateral and types of quadrilaterals and show the same with the help of a flow chart or a venn diagram. Can justify the statements related to quadrilaterals with a little guidance and use of manipulative, use information, analyze the information and is able to solve problems with a proper plan of action

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after some guidance. Ability to define 2D and 3D objects. Ability to Identify the different types of solids.

Can locate 2D and 3D shapes but cannot explain why they are referred to as such. Cannot Ability to create find its models and has no vertices, faces and cognition about the edges faces, vertices and edges of a solid.

Can identify, and understand 2D and 3D shapes and classifies them easily. Can Make models of the solids but needs a lot of assistance. Due to Poor eye hand coordination , cannot differentiate between face, vertex and edge Can identify symmetry but is unable to draw the same. Can locate the lines of symmetry easily. Understands reflective symmetry and draws the shapes with a reasonable

Can define, classify 2D and 3D shapes and can relate to them. Can create straw and paper models using templates and answer questions by using them physically. Can use the net, but cannot recognize the solid by just looking at the net. Can identify the symmetry easily by drawing the shape. Is able to identify the different lines of symmetry and can explain the rule of reflection on a geo dot

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Can define, classify 2D and 3D shapes and can relate to them. Can create straw and paper models using templates and answer questions by drawing them, Can identify a net of a solid by drawing the solid.

Can define, classify 2D and 3D shapes and can relate to them. Can create straw and paper models using templates and answer questions by drawing as well as visualizing them. Can identify and draw a net of a solid by visualizing the solid with appropriate justifications Can visualize and identify symmetry and the lines of symmetry accurately. Is able to explain the reflection symmetry without the aid of geo dot paper and mirror.

Abilty to define and identify symmetry and lines of symmetry Ability to understan d Reflection symmetry and its property.

Can identify symmetry but cannot draw the same. Cannot locate the lines of symmetry easily. Understands reflective symmetry and draws

Can identify the symmetry easily by drawing the shape. Is able to identify the different lines of symmetry and can explain the rule of reflection using a geo

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STUDY MATERIAL

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1. Introduction In the previous chapter, you were introduced to some basic concepts of geometry including open and closed curves as well as curves which are simple and not simple. We also discussed polygons as simple closed curves made up of line segments only. In this chapter, we shall first review these concepts and then discuss more of polygons with special reference to quadrilaterals and triangles. We shall also extend this study of 2D figures to some familiar 3D figures (shapes) such as prisms, pyramids including cuboids, cubes, cylinders, cones, etc. Finally, we shall study symmetry of plane figures with respect to a line. 2 Open and closed curves a Review Closed curves: If we place a tip of a pencil on any point on a curve, starting from this point and going along the curve, we can reach the same point without retracing the path, then the curve is known as a closed curve, For example, curves (i), (ii) and (iv) (Fig. 1) are closed curves, while (iii) and (v) are not closed curves (why?).

Fig. 1 Open curves: A curve which is not closed is known as an open curve. Thus, curves (iii) and (v) in Fig. 1 are open curves. 45

Simple curves: A curve that does not intersect itself is known as a simple curve. For example, curves (i), (ii) and (v) in Fig. 1 are simple curves, whereas curves (iii) and (iv) are not simple curves. Simple closed curve: A curve which is simple as well as closed is known as a simple closed curve. For example, in Fig. 1, (i) and (ii) are simple closed curves, whereas curve (iv) is a closed curve but not simple. Example 1: Classify the following curves as (a) closed curves (b) open curves (c) simple curves (d) simple closed curves:

Fig. 2 Solution: (a) (b) (c) (d) Closed curves : (ii), (iii), (iv), (vi), (viii), (ix) and (x) Open curves : (i), (v) and (vii) Simple curves : (i), (ii) (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (viii), (ix) and (x) Simple closed curves : (ii), (iii), (iv), (vi), (viii), (ix) and (x)

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Polygons Recall that a simple closed curve made up of line segments only is called a polygon.

For example, curves in (i) , (ii) and (vii), in Fig. 3 are polygons, whereas curves in (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) and (viii) are not polygons (why?).

Fig. 3 Convex and Non-convex Polygons Recall that polygon like as in (i) is called a convex polygon, whereas polygons like as in (ii) and (vii) (Fig. 3) are not convex polygons. In case of a convex polygon, if you take any two points P and Q in the interior of the polygon, then the entire line segment PQ lies in its interior. But in case of a non-convex polygon, it is not so. (See Fig. 4 below).

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Fig. 4 A non-convex polygon is also called a concave polygon. From now onwards, we shall use the word polygon to mean a convex polygon, unless stated otherwise. Types of Polygons Polygons may be classified based on the number of sides. A polygon of 3 sides is called a triangle, a polygon of 4 sides is called a quadrilateral, a polygon of 5 sides is called a pentagon, and so an. (See the table below) Number of sides 3 Name of polygon Triangle Illustration

Quadrilateral

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Pentagon

Hexagon

Septagon or Heptagon

Octagon

Nonagon

10

Decagon

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Regular Polygons: A polygon whose all angles and all sides are equal is called a regular polygon. For example, following are regular polygon (Fig. 5):

Fig. 6

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(iv) Quadrilateral (v) Triangle (vi) Hexagon (vii) Pentagon (viii) Octagon. 4 Triangles and their types Recall that a triangle is a polygon of 3 sides, i.e. a polygon of least number of sides, Triangles can be classified in two ways: (a) According to Sides A triangle having all three unequal sides is called a scalene triangle [Fig. 7(i)]

A triangle having two equal sides is called an isosceles triangle (Fig. 7(ii)).

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A triangle having all three equal sides is called an equilateral triangle [(Fig. 7(iii)] F i g . Fig. 7

(b)

According to Angles A triangle whose each angle is less than 90, i.e., each angle is an acute angle, is called an acute angled triangle or acute triangle (Fig. 8(i)).

A triangle whose any one angle is of 90, then the triangle is called a right angled triangle or right triangle. (Fig. 8(ii)).

A triangle whose any one angle is greater than 90, then the triangle is called an obtuse angled triangle or obtuse triangle (Fig. 8(iii)). Fig. 8 52

Example 3: The lengths of the sides of triangles are given below. Classify them as scalene, equilateral or isosceles. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Solution: Scalene: (i), (iii), (vi) Isosceles: (iv) , (v) Equilateral: (ii) An important Note! An equilateral triangle is also considered as an isosceles triangle because of its definition but not conversely. In this sense, triangle in (ii) is also an isosceles triangle. Example 4: Classify the triangles whose angles are given below : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 40, 50, 90 60, 60, 60 35, 45, 100 45, 45, 90 45, 40, 95 4 cm, 5 cm,, 8 cm 11 cm, 11 cm, 11 cm 8.7 cm, 7.2 cm, 11 cm 9 cm, 12 cm, 9 cm 2.3 cm, 3.1 cm, 2.3 cm 3.4 cm, 5 cm, 6 cm

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Solution: Acute angled (ii) Right angled (i), (iv) Obtuse angled (iii), (v) You can verify that in an isosceles triangle, angles opposite equal sides are equal and if in a triangle, two angles are equal, then sides opposite equal angles are also equal. Also, in an equilateral triangle, all angles are equal as all sides are equal. Classify each of the following triangles in two different ways. One is done for you.

5.

Quadrilaterals and Their Types Recall that a quadrilateral is a polygon of four sides (Fig.9). There are many types of quadrilaterals. Trapezium: A quadrilateral in which a pair of 54

opposite sides is parallel is called a trapezium. In Fig. 10, ABCD is a trapezium in which AB||CD.

Parallelogram: A quadrilateral in which both the pairs of opposite sides are parallel is called a parallelogram. In Fig. 11, PQRS is a parallelogram in which PQ||SR and PS||QR.

You can verify by actual measurement that PQ = SR and PS = QR. Also, P= R and Q= S.

Rectangle: A rectangle is a special type of a parallelogram in which one angle is a right angle. In Fig. 12, ABCD is a rectangle in which AB||DC, AD||BC and A = 90.

You can check by actual measurement that A= B= C= D = 90. Also, AB = DC and AD = BC.

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Rhombus: A rhombus is a special type of a parallelogram in which a pair of adjacent sides is equal. In Fig. 13, MNPQ is a rhombus in which QM = QP, MN||QP and MQ||NP. You can verify by actual measurement that MN = NP = PQ = QM. Also, M= P and N= Q.

Square: A square is a quadrilateral which is a rectangle as well as a rhombus. In Fig. 14, ABCD is a square, because it is a rectangle as well as a rhombus. That is, AB||DC, AD||BC, and AB = BC = CD = DA. Example 5: State whether the following statements are true or false: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) The opposite sides of a trapezium are parallel. All the sides of a rhombus are equal. A square is a parallelogram. A parallelogram is a rhombus. Each angle of a rectangle is of 90. A square is a special type of a rectangle. All angles of a rhombus are equal. In a parallelogram, each pair of opposites sides are equal. A= B= C= D = 90

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Solution: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) False, as in general only one pair of opposite sides is parallel. True True False, a rhombus is a parallelogram but not conversely. True True False, only in some cases, opposite angles are equal but not in general. True

Example 6: State whether the following statements are true or false: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Solution: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) False. All angles of a rectangle are equal but all sides are not equal. True. All angles and all sides are equal. False. All sides are equal but all angles are not equal. False. For a polygon to be regular, all sides as well as all angles have to be equal. A rectangle is a regular polygon. A square is a regular polygon. A rhombus is a regular polygon. A polygon is regular if its all sides are equal

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Three Dimensional Shapes (3D Shapes) You have studied so far about polygons such as triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons etc. All these shapes wholly lie in a plane. Such shapes are called two dimensional shapes. (2D shapes or plane figures). Thus, a triangle, rectangle, rhombus, square, pentagon etc. and even a circle are 2D shapes. Look at the following shapes which you see in day to day life. (Fig. 15)

You can see that each of them does not wholly lie in a plane. Such shapes are called 3D shapes (or solid shapes or solid figures). They are given special names like cuboid, cube, cylinder, cone, sphere, prism, pyramid etc.

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Cuboid Look at the shape in Fig. 16. It is called a cuboid. It is made up of 6 rectangular regions called its faces. So, it has 6 faces. Opposite faces of a cuboid are equal in size. Two faces meet in a line segment called edge of the cuboid. See that there are 12 edges. Three edges meet in a point called a corner or vertex. See that there are 8 vertices (plural of vetex). Thus, a cuboid has : 6 faces, 12 edges and 8 vertices. Cube Look at the shape in Fig. 17. It is called a cube.

A cube is a special type of a cuboid in which all the edges are equal. Clearly, all its faces are squares of the same size. Thus,

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A cube has 6 faces, 12 edges and 8 vertices. Prism Look at the shape in Fig. 18. It is a prism.

It is made up of two triangular faces of equal size and three rectangular faces. It is a special type of prism called triangular prism. See that a triangular prism has 5 faces, 9 edges and 6 vertices. In general, in place of two triangular faces of equal size, a prism can have any two polygonal faces of equal size. If these faces are pentagonal, then prism is called a pentagonal prism. If these faces are hexagonal, then it is called a hexagonal prism etc. Note that cuboid is also a prism, a cube is also a prism. Cylinder Look at the shape in Fig. 19. It is called a cylinder.

It is made up of two circular faces and one curved surface. A cylinder has two circular faces, one curved surface and two circular edges and no vertex. A cylinder may be thought of as a prism whose base and top are circular (i.e. polygon of infinitely many number of sides of equal size).

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Shape (i) is made up of a triangular base, three more triangles meeting at one vertex. It is called a triangular pyramid or a tetrahedron. It has 4 faces, 6 edges and 4 vertices. Shape (ii) is again made up of 4 triangular faces meeting at one vertex and a square base. It is called a square pyramid. It has 5 faces, 8 edges and 5 vertices.

A pyramid can have any polygonal face as its base. The other faces will be triangular meeting at one vertex. Thus, if the base is pentagonal, then it is called a pentagonal pyramid. If the base is hexagonal, then it is called a hexagonal pyramid.

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It is made up of a circular face (called base) and a curved surface. Thus, a cone has one circular face, one curved surface, one circular edge and one vertex.

A cone may be thought of a pyramid whose base is circular (i.e. polygon of infinite number of sides) Sphere Look at the shape in Fig. 22. It is called a sphere.

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(a)

Cone

(b)

Sphere

(c)

Cylinder

(d)

Cuboid

(e)

Pyramid

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Solution: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (ii) (iv) (v) (iii) (i)

Example 8: Complete the table : S.No. Shape Faces Edges Vertices Curved Surface(s) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Cube Cuboid Cylinder Triangular Pyramid Triangular Prism Square pyramid Cone Sphere 6 12 8 0 -

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Nets of 3D Shapes Cuboid : Look at the shape in Fig. 22. It is a 2D shape. Cut it out and fold it along the dotted lines.

You will get a cuboid (3D shape). The shape in Fig. 22 is called a net of a cuboid. 65

Cut it out and fold it along the dotted lines. You will get a cube (3D shape). The shape in Fig. 23 is called a net of a cube. Triangular Prism Look at the shape in Fig. 24. It is a 2D shape.

Cut it out and fold it along the dotted lines. You will get a triangular prism (3D shape). The shape in Fig. 24 is called a net of a triangular prism. 66

Pyramid Look at the shapes in Fig. 25(i) and (ii). These are 2D shapes.

Cut them out and fold each along the dotted lines. You will get a triangular pyramid (tetrahedron) from (i) and a square pyramid from (ii).

The shapes in Fig. 25(i) and (ii) are called nets of a tetrahedron and a square pyramid

respectively.

Cylinder The shape in Fig. 26 is a 2D shape. Cut it out and fold it along length so that two ends coincide. You will get a cylinder. The shape in Fig. 26 is called a net of a cylinder.

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Cone The shape in Fig. 27 is a 2D shape. Cut it out and fold it (sector) so that two radii coincide with each other.

You will get a cone. The shape in Fig. 27 is called a net of a cone. Suggested Activities Make nets of the following 3D shapes: (i) cuboid (ii) cone (iii) cylinder (iv) tetrahedron (v) cube (vi) triangular prism (vii) square pyramid (8) Symmetry Symmetry Around Us Look at the following pictures (Fig. 28) :

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These pictures look beautiful because of their symmetry. If you could fold a picture along a line such that one part of the picture covers exactly the other part of the picture, then we say that the picture is symmetrical with respect to line of folding. The line of folding is called the line of symmetry (or the axis of symmetry) for the picture (Fig. 29).

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This type of symmetry is usually referred to as line symmetry or linear symmetry. Reflection and Symmetry Let us place a plane mirror along the line of symmetry in each of the above pictures. You will find that one part of the picture will appear to be the image of the other part. Because of this reason, the line symmetry is also called the reflection symmetry. Now look at the picture showing the reflection of the English letter P in a plane mirror.

Clearly, the object (P) and its image ( ) are symmetrical with reference to the mirror line. If the paper is folded, the mirror line becomes the line of symmetry.

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Drawing Symmetry

and

Identifying

Lines

of

(ii)

If the figure is folded along the line m, then one part covers the other part exactly. So, m is a line of symmetry for this figure.

(iii)

In this case, by folding the figure in two different ways, you will find that there are two lines of symmetry (i.e. l and m) for the figure.

(iii)

By folding the paper, you can find that there are four lines of symmetry in this case. Thus, a square has four lines of symmetry.

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(iv)

By folding the figure in three different ways, you can find that there are three lines of symmetry of an equilateral triangle.

(v)

By folding the circle along one of its diameters, you can find that a diameter is a line of symmetry for the circle. Since there are infinitely many diameters of a circle, so there are infinitely many lines of symmetry for a circle.

(vi)

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Try to fold it in such a way that one part of the parallelogram covers the other part of the parallelogram. Can you find any line of symmetry? No. Thus, a parallelogram has no line of symmetry. A plane figure which has no line of symmetry is called an asymmetric figure. Example 9: Find the number of lines of symmetry in each of the following figures:

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Solution:

Example 10: Write the number of lines of symmetry for the following : (i) Isosceles triangle (ii) Equilateral triangle (iii) A (iv) H (v) N (vi) E (vii) Rhombus (viii) T Solution: (i) One (ii) Three (iii) One (iv) Two (v) Zero (vii) One (vii) Two (viii) One

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 1- Geometry on the floor Step 1 - Select a set of six dots as shown. Date ____________

Draw three concurrent line segments passing through the six dots as shown. Step 2 - Now join the three lines to dots as shown to see a star as shown.

This is a Chukkala (dot) Muggu( Rangoli) .To draw this kolam, first draw 13 dots in the centre and then go in the descending order on both sides then add those chukkalu as per the final design, add colors to it.

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Activity 2- Cross word time Instructions: Read the clues given below and then complete the crossword. Across 2. extends in one dimension, usually represented by arrowheads 4. extends in two dimensions, represented by a shape that looks like a table top 5. the point that divides or bisects a segment into two congruent segment 7. angle measure 9. where two rays come together to form an angle 11. part between two points on a line 12. device used to measure length of a straight line 13. device used to measure angles 14. an angle with a measure equal to 180 degrees 15. one or more sets of lines that cross each other

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down 1. two lines that intersect to form a right angle 3. Consists of two different rays. They have the same initial point 6. lines that do not touch each other but run right beside each other 8. an angle with a measure equal to 90 degrees 10. represented by a small dot 12. part of a line that consists of a point

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Name of the student ______________________ 1. Date ____________

Choose the most appropriate answer from the box to fill in the blanks:

a) Two lines that intersect and form a right angle are called _________. b) In geometry, a ______________ extends endlessly in both directions. c) A ____________________ is part of a line with two end points. d) The symbol for a _________________ is a dot. e) When you write and angle with three letters (angle ABC), the ___________ is always the middle letter. f) An ____________________ is greater than 900. g) A __________________ measures 1800. h) An __________________ is less than 900.

2.

Are the pair of the angles shown below complementary or supplementary? Justify.

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(ii)

3.

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4.

5.

Write down the pairs of parallel lines and perpendicular lines in the shape given below:

Working space

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6.

Find the angle measure between the hands of the clock in each figure:

1.00 p.m.

6.00 p.m.

7.

Where will the large hand of a clock stop if it (a) starts at 12 and makes 1 of a revolution, clockwise? 2 1 (b) starts at 2 and makes of a revolution, clockwise? 2 (c) starts at 5 and makes 1 of a revolution, clockwise? 4 Working space

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 1- Tangrams 1. Take a regular piece of paper (8.5 x 11) and fold the paper down to make a triangle. 2. 3. Now cut the rectangle at the bottom of the paper off. Unfold the paper, and write what shape you see. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. Cut on the folded line, and write what shape you have now? _____________________________________________________________________ 5. Take one triangle; Bring one corner to opposite corner to make 2 triangles. Unfold and cut on the folded line. 6. These two triangles are a part of your puzzle. Place them to the side. 7. Now take the other large triangle, and lay it down, to look like a mountain, with a flat base and a point. 8. Take the point and fold it to the bottom part of the mountain. Write what shape you see. _____________________________________________________________________. 9. Now cut the small triangle you created and write what shape you are left with. Is there a special name to the shape which is left over? Observe the shape carefully.

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Date ___________

_____________________________________________________________________ 10. 11. Fold this shape (trapezium) in half. Cut on the folded line. Now take one half of this shape, fold the long point to the other side. What shapes do you see? _____________________________________________________________________ 12. 13. Now cut on the folded line and Write the names of the two shapes. Take the other half of the trapezoid and fold the corner on the same plane with the long point. Write what shapes do you see? _____________________________________________________________________ 14. Unfold and cut on the folded line. Write what shapes did you get? _____________________________________________________________________ 15. Write the answer to the following question; The finished set now has _________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 16. All of the seven pieces are needed for any tangram puzzle. Now try these in pairs: a) In how many ways can you make a square with tangram pieces? Draw figure to explain. b) In how many ways can a rectangle be made with tangram pieces? c) Make a square with all 7 tangrams pieces. d) Make a square without using triangular pieces of tangram. Paste all your material here

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 2- Make a class mosaic Answer the following ; 1. What do you mean by a mosaic. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Observe around you and write the different shapes you see. ______________________________________________________________ 3. Draw them in this workbook here . 4. Decide on a design of a mosaic which you want to create. Remember your mosaic would be judged on: Complexity of Shape Neatness, Number of different shapes used, Colour coordination Design/paste your mosaic here Date ____________

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 1: Using Microsoft paint (open and closed shapes) Instructions; Copy the following shapes on paint. Date ____________

Choose fill with colour tool and try to fill the above objects with any colour of your choice.

fill in the figure without changing the background color? _______________________________________________________________________ Give reasons to justify your answer. Record the observation and explain:

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Figure 1 and 4 ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Figure 2, 3 and 5 ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Conclusion: Figure 1 and 4 are _____________________. Figure 2, 3 and 5 are ___________________.

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 2: Understanding polygons Refer to the online math dictionary and define the term Polygon What does the word poly mean? ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Date _____________

What are the important things to observe for a polygon: ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

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The examples of polygons are _______________________ because ___________________ _________________________________________________________________________ The figures ____________________ are not polygons because ______________________ _________________________________________________________________________ The figure below is not a polygon, since_________________________________________

Polygon is a Greek word. Different types of polygons must also get their names from Greek. Let us discover: Find the meaning of the following words in Greek/Latin. Tri, tetra, pent, hex, hept (sept), oct, Nona (or Ennea) and Deca

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Working space

Now, Count the numbers of sides for each of the polygons given below and then name them based on the word power: Name the polygon.

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 3: Regular and irregular Polygons Date _____________

Give one point of similarity and one point of difference between each of the following pairs of polygons :

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Working space

On the basis of your observations define the following terms Regular polygons ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

Irregular polygons ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Simple and complex polygons State one point of similarity and one point of difference between the following pairs of quadrilaterals.

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Working space

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 4: Shape quiz 1) Which shape has 3 sides? Date ____________

2)

3)

4)

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5)

6)

7)

8)

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Name of the student ______________________ Task 1: Test your understanding; 1. Given the following items, identify the polygon shape: An exterior door ______________________________________________________ An eight-sided window _________________________________________________ A 12'' 12'' floor tile ____________________________________________________ A six-sided deck _______________________________________________________ Date ____________

2.

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3.

Decide which figures are polygons. If they are not, explain why??

Working space

4.

A carpenter is preparing to install a window with five equal sides. This shape is Heptagon Hexagon Pentagon Octagon

5.

The sum of all of the sides of a stop sign is 96 inches. A stop sign is an octagon with all sides equal. How many inches does each side measure?

6.

If you multiply the number of sides I have by the number of sides in an octagon, you will get 48. What polygon am I?

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7.

If you add the number of sides that I have into the number of sides in a triangle, you get 8 sides. What polygon am I?

8.

9.

Can you find a triangle in the picture below? A quadrilateral? A hexagon? Can you find any other polygons in the picture?

Pompeii, Italy

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10.

Use the grid below to draw the following: i) a 5-sided shape iv) an 8-sided shape ii) a 6-sided shapes v) a 9-sided shape iii) a 7-sided shape vi) a 10-sided shape

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 1:Understanding Triangles Date _____________

Instructions: Copy the above triangles (using tracing paper) on a separate sheet of paper. And cut out the three triangles. Now Fold triangle 1 at one of the vertex to see if the sides over lap. Now try this with all the three vertices and answer the following questions: What do you observe? ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ What can you say about the sides of triangles touching each other from vertex to vertex? ______________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ If the sides overlap what does it mean to you? If they do not overlap what do you understand? ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

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What can you deduce from this activity? ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ What do you conclude from this activity? Triangle 1 None of the sides of triangle are equal. Triangle2 - _____________________________________________________________ Triangle3 - ______________________________________________________________ (Refer to online math dictionary to name the triangles) On the basis of sides there are three types of triangle: Triangle 1 is known as ______________. Triangle 2 is known as ______________. Triangle 3 is known as ______________. Look for the root word of each of the names and explain why the triangle is named so ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Paste all your findings here

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1. Tell whether each triangle is isosceles, scalene or equilateral. Give reason for your answer (for example write because two sides are equal My sides measure 3cm, 4cm and 5cm. What triangle am I? ________________________________________________________________________ My sides measure 4cm, 8cm, and 7cm .What triangle am I? ________________________________________________________________________ My sides measure 5cm, 5cm, 5cm .What type of triangle am I? ________________________________________________________________________ My sides measure 15cm, 15cm and 12cm. What type of triangle am I? ________________________________________________________________________ Two of my sides measure 14cm, 18cm. The sum of the three sides is 50cm.What type of triangle am I? ________________________________________________________________________ 2. a) Create triangles with a single drinking straw. Measure the sides and Compare your triangle with your peers. Did you all get the same triangle? Draw diagrams to explain your findings

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b) Classify your triangle based on the measure of the sides. Do you always need to measure to check that out?

d) Given the perimeter of a triangle, how many triangles can you create? Write 2 sets of measures of triangles. Classify the triangle based on their side length.

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 2 Understanding triangles Draw the different types of angles discussed in the class. Date ____________

1.

Look at the angles of the triangles and write the difference(s) between the three triangles shown above.

2.

3.

Now complete the following statements: ( one has been done for you) Triangle 1 has one right angle and two acute angles. Depict it by drawing a figure as shown below.

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Triangle 3 has

4.

Verify your answers by measuring each angle with the help of a protractor.

5.

Refer to online dictionary and name the above triangles. Triangle 1 has a right angle so will be named after that angle. It is a right angled triangle. Triangle 2 has ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Triangle 3 has ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

6.

Watch Video clip 3 to reinforce the concepts learnt and write what you have learnt.

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 3 Extension (Types of triangles) Instructions: On a geo board (paper) draw a scalene triangle, an isosceles triangle and an equilateral triangle. Now use paper folding or paper cutting or simply use protractor to compare the three angles of each if the triangles. Now record what you observe. Date ___________

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Complete the following based on YOUR observations: In a scalene triangle no two angles are equal. In an isosceles triangle _______________________________________________________ In an equilateral triangle_____________________________________________________ Students now use tracing paper and copy the triangles given in the table below on a separate sheet of paper. They use paper folding, paper cutting or protractor to make conclusions and complete the following table. Shape Name of the triangle Is A= B? Is A= C? Is B= C? Conclusion

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 4: Check your understanding Check your understanding: 1. In the triangles below, how many of the sides are of equal length? Date ____________

2. For the triangles below, place each in one or more of the categories by writing the lead letter below each triangle: Equilateral, Isosceles, Scalene, Obtuse, Right or Acute

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3. Draw the triangles listed below. If triangle is not possible, explain why. a) Equilateral Obtuse Triangle c) Equilateral Acute Triangle e) Isosceles Right Triangle g) Scalene Obtuse Triangle i) Scalene Acute Triangle b) Equilateral Right Triangle d) Isosceles Obtuse Triangle f) Isosceles Acute Triangle h) Scalene Right Triangle

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4. Complete the following If and then statements a. If it is a triangle then it has __________sides. b. If it is a triangle then it has __________angles. c. If the three sides of a triangle are equal then ___________________________ d. If the three angles of a triangle are acute then __________________________ e. If all the angles of a triangle are acute then it is a ______________triangle. f. If any one angle is right, then it is _________________triangle. g. If all sides are unequal then it is ________________triangle. h. If any two sides are equal then it is a ______________triangle 5. If the three angles are used to group the triangles, classify the triangles on the basis of their angles.

6. Jitendra has a pool in the shape of a triangle. The sum of the sides of the pool is 100ft. One of the sides of the pool measures 30 ft and other measures 40ft. What type of triangle is it? Draw a figure (not to scale) to answer.

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7. a) If the sum of the sides if an equilateral triangle is 45ft, what is the measure of each side? b) What is the ratio of all sides of an equilateral triangle?

8. The sides of a triangle are in the ratio 2: 3: 4. What type of triangle is this? Justify your answer.

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9. On the triangle grid paper below, locate and draw the following: a) Equilateral triangle c) Scalene triangle e) Obtuse triangle b) Isosceles triangle d) Right triangle f) Acute angled triangle

10. Measure, if required, and sort and classify the triangles given below; a) On the basis of its angles b) On the basis of its sides

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Locate all points C such that Triangle ABC is a) Right d) Isosceles b) Acute e) Scalene c) Obtuse f) Equilateral

Note : Use a different colour to represent the points for each of the six classifications. For instance, use green to indicate all points that create right triangles, use red for all points that create isosceles triangle.

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12.

Match the following: Measures of Triangle (i) 3 sides of equal length (ii) 2 sides of equal length (iii) All sides are of different length (iv) 3 acute angles (v) 1 right angle (vi) 1 obtuse angle (vii) 1 right angle with two sides of equal length Type of Triangle (a) Scalene (b) Isosceles right angled (c) Obtuse angled (d) Right angled (e) Equilateral (f) Acute angled (g) Isosceles

13.

Try to construct triangles using match sticks. Some are shown here.

(i) Make a triangle with (a) 3 matchsticks? (c) 5 matchsticks? (b) 4 matchsticks? (d) 6 matchsticks?

(Remember you have to use all the available matchsticks in each case) (ii) Name the type of triangle in each case. If you cannot make a triangle, write what could be the possible reason for the same.

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 1: Word perfect: Instructions: Look for the words in this word maze. Then write down the definitions of each of the following in your notebook Date _____________

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 2 - Flexible I am Instructions: Using flexi straws create a four sided closed polygon. Refer to the dictionary and write the special name given to this polygon? _________________________________________________________________________ Now display the quadrilaterals on the board, then check with the classmates and see if they have the same shape as your polygon. Identify and name the various quadrilaterals that you observed. (Feel free to refer to the math dictionary for help) ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Instructions: Solve this puzzle to see if there are more quadrilaterals than what you could think of!!!! Work out the answers to the multiplication sums below. Each chain of answers will form a quadrilateral when you join the dots up above. Use a different colour for each chain and then write the name of the quadrilateral in the space provided Date _____________

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Choose from:

21

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 3 Classifying quadrilaterals Instructions; Cut out the quadrilaterals and Follow the steps shown in the flow chart. Identify the type of quadrilateral you have. Discuss with your friends and your teacher. Classify the quadrilaterals. Different shapes of a quadrilateral

Date _____________

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FLOW CHART

Refer to the table below and identify the quadrilateral you have now. If you get YES for all the findings, you get your quadrilateral too.

List characteristics about the shape of the quadrilateral, based on the observations and the video clip observed. Now Exchange your quadrilateral with your partner and repeat till you have explored each cut out and filled up the table.

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 4 Classifying quadrilaterals Watch video clip 4 on special types of quadrilaterals. Observe the following figure carefully and make correct geometrical statements: For example: 1. All squares are rectangles but all rectangles are not squares. Date ____________

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 5 Interior angles of triangle and quadrilateral Instructions: Test the sum of the angles of a triangle with your feet. Draw a large chalk triangle on the pavement. Make the lengths of the sides between 1 and 2 meters long. Choose one person to be the Walker. The others will be Observers who stand outside (exterior) the triangle and watch the motion of the Walker. When you are moving FORWARD, you pivot on your TOES at the vertex, When you are moving BACKWARD, you pivot on your HEELS at the vertex, Stand inside the triangle with your right foot along the midpoint of one side. One observer to mark the location of feet of walker with chalk, as this will be both the starting and ending location. Walk until you reach the VERTEX in front of youthe point where two of the lines come togetherso that your toes go into the corner. To walk the interior angle, pivot clockwise on your toes just enough so that your heels point toward the next vertex and your left foot is lined up with the second side. (See illustrations.) Date _____________

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Walk backward along this second side until your heels reach the vertex. Pivot clockwise on your heels so that your toes point toward the third vertex and your right foot is lined up with the third side. Walk along the third side, pivot clockwise in the last vertex, and then finish by walking backward to the starting/ending chalk line. Now answer the following questions: In which direction did the walker face before starting? __________________ What is direction the walker is facing after end of walk? _________________ By what angle did the walker rotate? __________________. Complete the statement, and write what you conclude about a special property of a triangle? Sum of the three interior angles of a triangle is ___________________ In other words, A triangle is possible only if the sum of the three angles is ________. Now try the same activity but with a quadrilateral and answer the following questions. How many times did you rotate? ________________________. Sum of all angles of a quadrilateral is ___________________. Also a quadrilateral is made up of ______________ triangles. Sum of angles of two triangles _________________________. Did you get the same answer?

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Based on what you have learnt , test your findings by measuring the angles in each case.

C = _____________

C = _____________

C = _____________

c) Draw any quadrilateral and verify that the sum of all angles of any quadrilateral is 3600.

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 6 - Test your understanding: 1. Write the letter of the figure from the list below that is best described by each definition given below; Date ____________

A parallelogram with at least one right angle A quadrilateral with exactly one pair of opposite sides parallel A four sided polygon A quadrilateral in which two disjoint pairs of consecutive sides are equal

A quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite sides parallel. A parallelogram with at least one pair of consecutive sides equal A trapezoid whose non parallel sides are equal A parallelogram that is both a rectangle and a rhombus

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2. Make a Geo board shape that fits the conditions given below. You may use a ruler to measure and make the required shapes. Also identify their name

3. True or False? Explain with the help of a reason/diagram: a) Every square is a rhombus.

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5. Choose the appropriate answer a) A quadrilateral with 2 pairs of parallel sides is called ____________ Trapezoid Parallelogram Square

b) Quadrilaterals are polygons with ____________ Four sides Three sides Five sides

c) A quadrilateral with only 1 pair of parallel sides is called ____________ Square Trapezoid Parallelogram

d) What is a parallelogram with 4 right angles and 4 sides equal ___________ Trapezoid 6. Extension: Given the three sides of a triangle as 6 cm, 5cm, and 12cm. Create a triangle using drinking straws. What do you observe? Change the straws with bigger or smaller straws and try to make triangle. What do you conclude? Discuss your answer with your class and your teacher. Rectangle Square

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7.

Working space

8.

In a right angled triangle, one acute angle is 39o. Find the other angle.

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9.

Two angles of a triangle are 60o and 85o. What can you say about this type of triangle? (Scalene, isosceles, equilateral)

10.

Three angles of a Quadrilateral are 1000, 500, 600. Find the measure of the fourth angle of the quadrilateral

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 7 Polygon Capture Game Instructions: Play this game to enhance your learning. Cut out the cards to get different shapes. Arrange them so that the answer of the question on the card is adjacent to the arrangement. Date ______

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STUDENT WORKSHEET 22

Visualizing solid shapes

CONTENT WORKSHEET CW 17

Name of the student ______________________ Activity 1 Visualizing solid shapes: Follow the instructions given below and complete the task. Instructions: Join the appropriate dots in the isometric paper and make the given figures. For example: Date ______

Shape 1

Shape 2

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STUDENT WORKSHEET 23

Nets of of 2 D and 3 D objects

CONTENT WORKSHEET CW 18

Name of the student ______________________ Activity 2 - Getting 3D objects from 2D (NETS) Instructions: 1. Bring a closed box made of cardboard. Unfold the box ,one face at a time.

Date ______

Simultaneously draw the shape you observe at each step on the isometric dot paper. The net of the 3D cube is obtained. Now cut out the flat net from isometric paper. Try to fold it and get the cube from it.

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2. Think of some other net which can give a cube. Cut out and make the cube from it.

3. Observe the net given below and describe the process involved. a) b) What is the shape of the solid seen? What are the various shapes you see when the solid is unfolded?

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4.

Now try to make the net for the following on the isometric dot paper.

5. Write what do you conclude from this, by completing the sentence given below: All 3D hollow objects can be _____________________________________

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6.

In each of the above cases mention the 2D shapes used to make 3D objects in the table given below: Solid 2d shapes used

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7.

b)

c)

d)

e)

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State the number of dimension of each of the shape in above pairs? Explain. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

Explain the difference between 2D and 3D objects? Give two examples of each. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

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Name of the student ______________________ Date ______

Activity 3 Nets of curved 3D objects/Getting 3D objects from 2D (NETS) Instructions: 1. Use the following nets and try to convert them into 3D objects without cutting them any further

2.

Copy the following flat objects on hard board and fold it to form a 3D object

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1.

Naming 3D objects: Use online math dictionary to name the following 3D objects:

2.

Write what did you observe and learn from the video clip 4.

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Date ______

Reconsider the following net of a cube: How many corners do you see in the cube?_______ The corners of the cubes are known as __________.

The toy above is placed at the edge of the cube. How many edges are there in a cube? _______ Why is this known as edge of the cube? _______________________________________________________ How many flat surfaces it opens up into? ____________ The flat surfaces are known as ____________.

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Shape

Think of as many as 3D objects you have studied and fill up the details of the table same as the above table.

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 1 Independent Practice Label the shapes with the names from the box below Date ____________

cube cone

cylinder pyramid

diamond rectangle

square sphere

triangle pentagon

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b) List certain things you can find around the classroom or playground that match the following solid shapes? Place them in the correct column.

3. Match the flattened shapes given in one group with that of its 3D shape in the other group.

4. Solve the following Riddles: Riddle time!!!!! Read each of the following shape riddles and answer.

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a) I have six faces. I have twelve edges. All of my faces are rectangles. Who am I?

b) I have one flat surface and one curved surface. I have one edge and no corners. What am I?

c) I have six square faces. What am I? I have five flat faces. Two of them are triangles. I look like a Toblerone package. What am I?

e) I have six faces and twelve edges. Two faces are squares and four are rectangles. What am I?

f) I have one curved surface. If you cut me in half I look like a circle on top. What am I?

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5.

For the given net make the 3D shape inside the circles

6.

7.

Fill in the missing words: a) Cylinders have two ends that are _______________ and ____________ curved surface. b) Prisms have _____________ that are of the same shape. Their sides are _______________. c) The sides of a pyramid are ____________. They meet to make a _______. d) A (square based) pyramid has ___________ number of corners. e) A cone has a total of _________ faces. f) A sphere is a _____________ object. g) A pentagon has _______________ angles. h) A cylinder has ________________ edges

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 1- It is everything to do with perception Instructions; Solve this riddle. ? Date _____________

Use the space here to think and draw your response. Give a reason why you think this is the answer.

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 2 - It is all in the mind!!!! Observe and draw the next shape in the pattern given below: Date _____________

Use the space given here for your answer. Explain why you think your answer is correct.

Now write the correct answer and explain how you get this answer. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

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What is another name for mirror images ? ____________________________________________________________________________ Refer to a dictionary, and write the meaning of the word Symmetry. ______________________________________________________________________________ Also write down the etymology of the word symmetry. ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Based on the video viewed, Give some examples of symmetry in nature. ___________________________________ Give two examples of symmetry from your body. ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Discuss with your friend, why you think symmetry is important. ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ What is meant by the line of symmetry? Draw two shapes having one / two lines of symmetry. ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 3: Cut and fold Cut out each of these shapes; fold it to show the lines of symmetry. Write the lines of symmetry for each shape. Date ____________

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 4 Mirror mirror on the wall !!! Write your name on the piece of paper. Now reflect your name on the sheet of paper using the mirror. Place your mirrors on the dotted line in the following figure. By looking into the mirror complete the picture behind the mirror. Date _____________

Reflect half of the raccoon face to make a complete raccoon face using a mirror.

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Closing Activity : Questions: Refer to the above diagrams and state the properties of symmetry: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

Differences between the object and the image ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

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Name of the student ______________________ Activity 5 - Test your understanding: 1. Draw the lines of symmetry for each shape. Some of them may have more than one line of symmetry. Date _____________

2. Tell whether the dotted line on each letter represents a line of symmetry .Write yes or no. a)

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b)

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Date ____________

1. Which of the following are regular polygons? Give reasons for your answer.

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4. Complete the pattern using the dotted line as the mirror line

5. Write the name of these shapes on the line under the shape:

________

________

________

________

Draw me I am 2 D. I have 4 sides. All my sides are the same length. I have right angles. I am a ______________. I am a flat shape. I have 6 corners. I have 6 edges. I am a ______________.

Draw me

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I am a ______________.

I am 3 D. I have 5 faces. I have 8 edges. I have 5 corners. 4 of my faces are triangles. One of my faces has two long sides and two short sides. I am a ____________.

Which of the following triangles is scalene, isosceles, or equilateral triangle? a) 15cm, 30 cm, 20 cm c) 12cm, 12cm, 12cm f) 7cm, 9 cm, 11cm. b) 13cm, 8cm, 6cm e) 12cm, 8cm, 8cm

8.

The three angles of a triangle are 40o and 75 o and 650. What can you say about this type of triangle? ( scalene, isosceles, equilateral)

9.

One of the equal angles of an isosceles right angles triangle is 68o. Find the other angles of the triangle.

10.

Look at the following figure: a) What type of quadrilateral is this? b) What is the measure of side EH, HG?

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c) If EG = 9.5 cm, what is the length of HF? d) Fill in the blanks to make each a correct statement: i) When three angles of a triangle are equal then it is known as _______________. ii) When two angles of a triangle are equal, then the sides opposite these angles are __________. The triangle is known as ______________ iii) iv) v) A triangle having no sides equal is known as ________________. The measure of each angle of an equilateral triangle is _____. A _______________ is a parallelogram in which all four sides are _____________. vi) In a trapezium, one pair of opposite sides is _______________.

vii) A ___________ possesses all the properties of a trapezium, parallelogram and a rhombus also. viii) A solid having many faces is called _______. ix) x) e) A ___________is a solid with side edges meeting in a point. The drawing of an unfolded shape is called _____________ of the solid.

During a local math Olympiad the team from Bigtown High School was presented with the following problem to solve in no more than 2 minutes: "What is the relationship between the number of vertices of a regular polygon and the number of symmetry lines of the polygon?" They did it! What was their answer?

f)

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g)

h)

Do as directed:

Colour the pattern to make a symmetrical design i) Find the unknown angle in the following figures: (hint: use straight angle and then sum of a quadrilateral)

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Acknowledgement: Websites Referred to: http://www.swarthmore.edu/SocSci/Education/Portfolios/rwillem1/Worksheets/Po lygonWordRoot.pdf http://www.education2000.com/teachers-guide/p6-polygons.pdf http://www.racismnoway.com.au/classroom/lesson_ideas/20021211_53.html http://www.mathrealm.com/PDFiles/Geometry/02_lines_angles.PDF http://www.mymaths.co.uk/integrate/file.asp?section=shape&fileID=948§ionID= 3&topic=polygons http://www.suite101.com/content/basic-math-shapes-a18143 http://www.mathsisfun.com/puzzles/cubic-outlines.html http://www.nsa.gov/academia/_files/collected_learning/elementary/geometry/Clas sifying_Triangles.pdf http://www.kutasoftware.com/FreeWorksheets/PreAlgWorksheets/Classifying%20T riangles%20and%20Quadrilaterals.pdf http://bemidji.ntcmn.edu/academics/departments/math_computer_science/smi/smi _archive/projects/2004/Session_1/Geom/tammylesson%20TM%20JM.pdf http://www.kgcs.k12.va.us/instruction/SS%20Math%20Gr6_Course%201_PDFs/Expl oring%20Triangles.pdf http://www.kgcs.k12.va.us/instruction/SS%20Math%20Gr5_PDFs/Triangle%20Sort.p df https://sites.google.com/site/8thgrademathhomepage/tessellation-project http://homepage.mac.com/efithian/Geometry/Activity-12.html http://www.learner.org/courses/learningmath/geometry/support/lmg2.pdf http://ellerbruch.nmu.edu/classes/cs255f01/cs255students/rbudek/P10/quadworksh eet.pdf

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http://books.google.co.in/books?id=jzgWL4ahqukC&pg=PA213&lpg=PA213&dq=qua drilateral+worksheet&source=bl&ots=MgekNrN7Y3&sig=NffVR5LYglEmTnDUc0k1TCKzDU&hl=en&ei=putGTePWAcnQccz4gY8O&sa=X&oi=book_r esult&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CD8Q6AEwBzjKAg#v=onepage&q=quadrilateral% 20worksheet&f=false http://www.enslow.com/product_images/worksheets/Geometry.pdf http://www.geogebra.org/en/upload/files/MSP/HarryMarshall/Investigating_Qua drilaterals.pdf http://www.lessonsnips.com/docs/pdf/comparing3d.pdf http://www.kwiznet.com/p/takeQuiz.php?ChapterID=1472&CurriculumID=4 http://3dshapes.org/faces-edges-a-vertices-explained-for-3d-shapes.html http://www.numeracyworld.com/shape-and-space-worksheets.php http://math.buffalostate.edu/~it/projects/Fiden.pdf http://www.suite101.com/content/how-to-make-tessellations-with-kidsa201851#ixzz1CizC7Y1N https://leecountyschools.wikispaces.com/.../Tessellation+Project+Directions.doc

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Suggested videos:

Name shapes around us Video clip 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gclsis-A1sw&feature=related shapes and basic geometry http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ru61Z8XQp9Q&feature=related song on polygon Video clip 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9cKN2jk2vDI&feature=related polygons introduction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JTVPQEYN_10 Video clip 3 Video clip 4 Video clip 5 Web link 1 Web link 2 Web link 3 Web link 4 Web link 5 Web link 6 classification of triangles http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7KqFwUSot7k types of quadrilaterals http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nt1d93aSRr8 Names of 3d figures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wlvn4anF-fI&feature=fvwrel edges , vertices and faces of 3D objects http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9T-HsKXzkLc&feature=related symmetry http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BX4cx-9zT1A http://www.primaryschool.com.au/mathematicslessonsresults.php?s trand=Space%20and%20Geometry&unit=3D&grade=56 http://www.learnanytime.co.uk/Maths/Shape.htm http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/geometry-math-games.html http://www.crickweb.co.uk/ks2numeracy-shape-andweight.html#Symm Tiltle/Link

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