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Revision Topic 4: Percentages

Percentages Multipliers The multiplier for an increase of 6% is 1.06 (100% + 6% = 106% or 1.06). To increase an amount by 6%, multiply it by 10.06. The multiplier for a decrease of 12% is 0. (100% - 12% = To !ecrease an amount by 12%, multiply it by 0. . % or 0. ).

"or repeate! percenta#e chan#es, multiply all the multipliers in turn. !"ample: \$ fast foo! restaurant !eci!e! to !ecrease by 1 % the %ei#ht of pac&a#in# for their re#ular meals, %hich %ei#he! '0 #rams. (alculate the %ei#ht of the ne% pac&a#in#. Met#od 1: \$on%calculator paper "in! 1 % of '0#) 10% of '0# = '# 1% of '0# = 0.'# *o % of '0# = +.2# *o 1 % of '0# = ' + +.2 = ,.2# *o ne% pac&a#in# %oul! %ei#h '0 - ,.2 = +2. # Met#od 2: &alculator paper 'Multipliers( To !ecrease by 1 %, the multiplier is 0. 2 (100% - 1 % = 2%). *o ne% %ei#ht is 0. 2 . '0 = +2. # !"ample 2) \$ manufacturer buys a machine for /06 00. The machine is e1pecte! to depreciate by 12% in the first year an! by .0% each future year. 2hat %ill be the e1pecte! 3alue of the machine after 0 years to the nearest /14 \$ote) )epreciate means to lose 3alue. The multiplier for a !ecrease of 12% is 0. . The multiplier for a !ecrease of .0% is 0.510 (as 100% - .0% = 51.0% or 0.510). *o 3alue of machine after 0 years is
06 00 0. 0.510 0.510 0.510 0.510 = 06 00 0.
multipliers for 2n!, +r!, 'th an! 0th years

0.510 ' = /+00+6

(to nearest

/1) !"amination *uestion \$ shop is ha3in# a sale. 6ach !ay, prices are re!uce! by 20% of the price on the pre3ious !ay. 7efore the start of the sale, the price of a tele3ision is /'00. 8n the first !ay of the sale, the price is re!uce! by 20%. 2or& out the price of the tele3ision on a) the first !ay of the sale b) the thir! !ay of the sale. !"amination *uestion: \$ car %as bou#ht for /,600. 9t !epreciate! in 3alue by 20% each year. 2hat %as the 3alue of the car after + years4

:r :uncombe

(hristmas 200+

Percentage &#ange ;ou nee! to &no% the follo%in# formulae

9ncrease (or !ecrease) 100 8ri#inal amount <rofit (or loss) <ercenta#e profit (or loss) = 100 (ost price <ercenta#e increase (or !ecrease) =

!"ample: 9n 1550 a charity sol! 2= million lottery tic&ets at 20p each. charity. a) (alculate the amount of money &ept by the charity. 9n 1551, the price of a lottery tic&et fell by 20%. *ales of lottery tic&ets increase! by 20%. 0% of the money obtaine! %as &ept by the charity.

0% of the money %as &ept by the

b) (alculate the percenta#e chan#e in the amount of money &ept by the charity. a) b) >oney ma!e by sellin# tic&ets = 2 = million . 20p = /062000 >oney &ept by charity = 0% of /062000 = 0. . /062000 = /'00000. 9n 1551 9n 1551, price of tic&et = 0% of ol! price = 0% of 20p = 20p sales of lottery tic&ets = 120% of 1550 sales =
120 2200000 = 2,00000 100

9n 1551, money ma!e by sellin# tic&ets = 2,00000 . 20p = /0'0000 *o amount to charity is 0. . /0'0000 = /'+2000 Therefore)
<ercenta#e !ecrease = !ecrease '00000 '+2000 100 = 100 = '% . 8ri#inal amount '00000

!"amination +t,le *uestion: :el ?boy@ Aotter buys an ol! cotta#e for / '000. Be spen!s /10'00 on repairs an! reno3ation then sells the cotta#e for /1'5000. "in! his percenta#e profit to the nearest 1%.

:r :uncombe

(hristmas 200+

:r :uncombe

(hristmas 200+

Percentages% &ompound -nterest &ompound interest is interest pai! on an amount an! on the interest alrea!y recei3e! on that amount. ;ou can sol3e compoun! interest Cuestions usin# the formula)
A = P1 + R 100
n

%here)

P is the amount in3este! initiallyD R is the rate of interest (percenta#e per year) n is the number of years in3este!D A is the amount in the account at the en!.

!"ample: \$ buil!in# society pays compoun! interest at a fi1e! rate of ,% per annum. 9f /' 0 is in3este! in an account, %hat %ill be the 3alue of the account after + years4 Met#od 1) 9n first year) 9nterest pai! is ,% of /' 0 = 0.0, . ' 0 = /++.60 *o balance at en! of 1st year is /' 0 + /++.60 = /01+.60.

9n secon! year) 9nterest pai! is ,% of /01+.60 = 0.0, . 01+.60 = /+0.502 *o balance at en! of 2n! year is /01+.60 + /+0.502 = /0'5.002 9n thir! year) 9nterest pai! is ,% of /0'5.002 = /+ .'6 6' *o balance at en! of +r! year is /0'5.002 + /+ .'6 6' = /0 Met#od 2: .se of formula
\$fter + years balance %oul! be \$ = P1 + R , + = ' 01 + = ' 0 1.0, = /0 100 100
n +

.02 (to nearest 1p)

.02 .

\$ote) *ometimes you are as&e! for the total amount of interest that has been recei3e!. ;ou #et this by subtractin# the initial amount in3este! from the final balance. Bere the total interest recei3e! is /0 .02 - ' 0 = /10 .02. !"ample: Tony in3ests /000 in a ban& account that pays '% (compoun!) interest p.a. 7y %hat sin#le number must /000 be multiplie! by to #et the amount in the account after 0 years4
The amount in3este! after 0 years is P1 +
0

R ' = 000 1 + . 100 100

*o the reCuire! multiplier is (1.0') = 1.21660 (to 0 !ecimal places). !"amination *uestion: /000 is in3este! for 2 years at 6% per annum compoun! interest. a 2or& out the total interest earne! o3er the t%o years. /200 is in3este! for three years at ,% per annum compoun! interest. / 7y %hat sin#le number must /200 be multiplie! to obtain the total amount at the en! of the + years4 :r :uncombe (hristmas 200+ '

!"amination *uestion) Eesta in3ests /00 in a ban& account payin# compoun! interest at a rate of 10% per annum. (alculate the total amount in Eesta@s ban& account after 2 years.

Reverse Percentage *uestions :r :uncombe (hristmas 200+ 0

(alculatin# the original value of somethin# /efore an increase or decrease too0 place is calle! Fcalculatin# a re3erse percenta#eG. !"ample 1: 6lla bou#ht a pair of climbin# boots for /'0.60 in a sale that #a3e F20% offG. 2hat %as the nonsale price of the boots. Het the ori#inal price of the boots be 100%. The sale price then is 0%. *o 0% of the price = /'0.60 *o 1% of the price = /'0.60 I 0 = /0.0, *o 100% of the price = /0.0, . 100 = /0,. *o the non-sale price of the boots %as /0,. !"amination *uestion 1: \$ clothes shop has a sale. \$ll the ori#inal prices are re!uce! by 2'% to #i3e the sale price. The sale price of a Jac&et is /+6. 6. 2or& out the ori#inal price of the Jac&et.

!"amination *uestion 2: 9n a sale all prices are re!uce! by 16%. \$lan buys a sha3er in the sale for /21. Bo% much !oes he sa3e by buyin# it in the sale4 KBint) "irst %or& out the price before the saleL

!"ample 2: The total price of a bi&e (inclu!in# M\$T at 1,.0%) is /1'6. 0. (alculate the cost of the bi&e e1clu!in# M\$T. Het the cost of the bi&e before M\$T be 100%. Then the cost inclu!in# M\$T %oul! be 11,.0%. *o 11,.0% = /1'6. 0. Then 1% = /1'6. 0 I 11,.0 = /1.2'5, ,N *o 100% = /1.2'5, , . 100 = /12'.5 (to nearest 1p). *o the cost of the bi&e e1clu!in# M\$T is /12'.5 . :r :uncombe (hristmas 200+ 6

!"amination *uestion 1: The price of a ne% tele3ision is /'2+. This price inclu!es Malue \$!!e! Ta1 (M\$T) at 1,.0%. a) 2or& out the cost of the tele3ision /efore M\$T %as a!!e!. 7y the en! of each year, the 3alue of a tele3ision has fallen by 12% of its 3alue at the start of that year. The 3alue of the tele3ision %as /'2+ at the start of the first year. b) 2or& out the 3alue of the tele3ision at the en! of the t#ird year.

!"amination *uestion 4: The population of a to%n increase! by 20% bet%een 15 1 an! 1551. The population in 1551 %as '+200. 2hat %as the population in 15 14 KHint: Let the population in 1981 be 100%L.

!"amination *uestion 2: \$ tourist buys a stereo %hich costs /100.10, inclu!in# M\$T at 1,.0%. Tourists !o not ha3e to pay M\$T. Bo% much !oes the tourist pay4

:r :uncombe

(hristmas 200+

:r :uncombe

(hristmas 200+