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Different leadership styles and the effectiveness of these leadership approach

Presented
By

Doctor Tahir Javed

04/29/09

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A Leadership Story
A group of workers and their leaders are set a task of clearing a road through a dense jungle on a remote island to get to the coast where an estuary provides a perfect site for a port The leaders organise the la!our into efficient units and monitor the distri!ution and use of capital assets " progress is e#cellent The leaders continue to monitor
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Then$ one day amidst all the hustle and !ustle and activity$ one person clim!s up a near!y tree The person surveys the scene from the top of the tree And shouts down to the assembled group below rong ay!" #$tory adapted %rom $tephen &o'ey #2004( )he $e'en *abits o% *ighly +%%ecti'e ,eople" $imon - $chuster(.

A Leadership Story

%&anagement is doing
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Leadership Attri!utes
Leadership Attri!utes

(motional
Trust )onfidence *espect )ommitment )haracter )ourage Passion

*ational
)ommunicator +eneral ,nowledge Technical Skills (#ample *isk Taker

(thical
-onesty .ntegrity (/uita!le &oral

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Types of Leadership Style


Autocratic0 Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else -igh degree of dependency on the leader )an create de1motivation and alienation of staff &ay !e valua!le in some types of !usiness where decisions need to 04/29/09 !e made /uickly education.master@yahoo.com and decisively

Types of Leadership Style


Democratic0
(ncourages decision making from different perspectives " leadership may !e emphasised throughout the organisation )onsultative0 process of consultation !efore decisions are taken Persuasive0 Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct education.master@yahoo.com 04/29/09

Types of Leadership Style


Democratic0
&ay help motivation and involvement 2orkers feel ownership of the firm and its ideas .mproves the sharing of ideas and e#periences within the !usiness )an delay decision making
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Types of Leadership Style


Laisse314aire0
5Let it !e6 " the leadership responsi!ilities are shared !y all )an !e very useful in !usinesses where creative ideas are important )an !e highly motivational$ as people have control over their working life )an make coordination and decision making time1consuming and lacking in overall direction 04/29/09 education.master@yahoo.com 5 *elies on good team work

Types of Leadership Style


Paternalistic0 Leader acts as a 5father figure6 Paternalistic leader makes decision !ut may consult Believes in the need to support staff

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)hange Leadership
The most challenging aspect of !usiness is leading and managing change The !usiness environment is su!ject to fast1paced economic and social change &odern !usiness must adapt and !e fle#i!le to survive Pro!lems in leading change stem mainly from human resource
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)hange Leadership
Leaders need to !e aware of how change impacts on workers0 Series of self1esteem states identified !y Adams et al and cited !y +arrett
Adams6 7. *ayes6 7. and *opson6 ..#eds( #1943( )ransition8 understanding and managing change personal change 9ondon6 :artin ;obertson <arrett6 =. #1994( :anaging &hange in $chool leadership %or the 21st century .rett /a'ies and 9inda +llison6 9ondon6 ;outledge

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!. Immo"ilisation as rumours of the change circulate, the individual feels some sense of shock and possible disbelief so much so that they deem it worthy of doing nothing. 2. inimisation: !s the change becomes clearer, people try to fit in the change with their own personal position and may try to believe that it will not affect them. 3. Depression: as reality begins to dawn staff may feel alienated and angry, feelings of a lack of control of events overtake people and they feel depressed as they try to reconcile what is happening with their own personal situation. 4. Acceptance/letting go: The lowest point in self-esteem finally sees people starting to accept the inevitable. ear of the future is a feature of this stage. 5. Testing out: Individuals begin to interact with the change, they start to ask questions to see how they might work with the change. 6. Search for meaning: Individuals begin to work with the change and see how they might be able to make the change work for them self esteem begins to rise. 7. Internalisation: the change is understood and adopted within the individuals own understanding they now know how to work with it and feel a renewed sense of confidence and self esteem.

&hange 9eadership

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Theories of Leadership

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Theories of Leadership
Trait theories0
A Trait Approach789::1 89;:s<0 Leaders are !orn$ not made The focus of early leadership research was to find personal traits that distinguished leaders from followers

.s there a set of characteristics that determine a good leader=


Personality= Dominance and personal presence= )harisma= Self confidence= Achievement= A!ility to formulate a clear vision= 04/29/09 education.master@yahoo.com

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Theories of Leadership
Trait theories0
Are such characteristics inherently gender !iased= Do such characteristics produce good leaders= .s leadership more than just !ringing a!out change= Does this imply that leaders are !orn not !red=

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)riticism
The search was not successful118::s of studies lead to the conclusion that there was no such set of personal characteristics that !y themselves distinguished leaders from non1leaders A few traits such as a!ove average intelligence$ responsi!ility$ self confidence$ and persistence were associated with leaders$ !ut they are not sufficient e#planations Later studies of leadership characteristics led to the conclusion that there were a few general traits that were associated with effective leadership such as self1 04/29/09 education.master@yahoo.com confidence$ stress tolerance$ emotional 13

Theories of Leadership
Behavioural0
.mply that leaders can !e trained " focus on the way of doing things Structure !ased !ehavioural theories " focus on the leader instituting structures " task orientated *elationship !ased !ehavioural theories " focus on the development and maintenance of " process orientated 04/29/09 relationships education.master@yahoo.com

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Theories of Leadership
)ontingency Theories0
Leadership as !eing more fle#i!le " different leadership styles used at different times depending on the circumstance Suggests leadership is not a fi#ed series of characteristics that can !e transposed into different conte#ts
But the thorny questions are what traits or styles with what situations 2hat are the !asic situations= 2hat are the !asic styles= 04/29/09 education.master@yahoo.com 2hat are the matches that lead to effectiveness=

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)onclusions for )ontingency Theory


.n high1control situations$ task1oriented leaders are more effective than relations1 oriented leaders .n moderate1control situations$ relations1 oriented leaders are more effective than task1oriented leaders .n low1control situations$ task1oriented leaders are more effective than relations1 oriented leaders Avoid situations where you are likely to fail &atch your leadership style with the appropriate situation> seek situations 04/29/09 education.master@yahoo.com where you will likely succeed and know

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&ay depend on0

Adoption of Theories of Leadership


Type of staff -istory of the !usiness )ulture of the !usiness ?uality of the relationships @ature of the changes needed Accepted norms within the institution

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Theories of Leadership
Transformational0
2idespread changes to a !usiness or organisation

*e/uires0
Long term strategic planning )lear o!jectives )lear vision Leading !y e#ample " walk the walk (fficiency of systems and processes

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Theories of Leadership
.nvitational Leadership0
.mproving the atmosphere and message sent out !y the organisation 4ocus on reducing negative messages sent out through the everyday actions of the !usiness !oth e#ternally and$ crucially$ internally *eview internal processes to reduce these Build relationships and sense of !elonging and identity with the organisation " that gets communicated to customers$ 04/29/09 etc education.master@yahoo.com 22

Theories of Leadership
Transactional Theories0
4ocus on the management of the organisation 4ocus on procedures and efficiency 4ocus on working to rules and contracts &anaging current issues and pro!lems

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4actors Affecting Style


Leadership style may !e dependent on various factors0
*isk 1 decision making and change initiatives !ased on degree of risk involved Type of !usiness " creative !usiness or supply driven= -ow important change is " change for change6s sake= Arganisational culture " may !e long em!edded and difficult to change @ature of the task " needing cooperation= Direction= Structure=

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)onclusion
%The most effective leaders make no demands$ they just define and communicate the course$ provide resources$ and get in front of the team'

(ffectiveness
Leader effectiveness depends on the appropriate matching of leadership !ehavior with the situation
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8 (ffectiveness depends upon matching leadership !ehavior style with the maturity of the group in a specific situation B *emem!er knowing and doing are different things C Leaders must develop fle#i!ility to change style D &atching style and situation is not the only leadership role> group development is another important role$ that is$ moving the group to readiness and responsi!ility is also an leadership role 04/29/09 education.master@yahoo.com

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Behavioural Leadership Approach 7&ichigan<


8 JAB1)(@T*(D L(AD(*S-.P B(-AF.AG*
Attempts to !uild work group performance !y paying attention to the efficient completion of the task Primary emphasis is on the task B (&PLAH((1)(@T*(D L(AD(*S-.P B(-AF.AG* Attempts to !uild work group performance !y paying attention to 04/29/09 education.master@yahoo.com the human aspects of the group

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