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HOW TO WELD
duplex stainless steels
How to weld
duplex stainless steels
Austenitic-ferritic stainless steels, usually referred to as duplex
steels, combine many of the good properties of ferritic and
austenitic stainless steels.
The high chromium content in combination with
nitrogen, and often also molybdenum, gives duplex
steels their superior resistance to both pitting and cre-
vice corrosion. The duplex structure gives very good
strength and, allied with the high corrosion resistance,
very good resistance to stress corrosion.
Thanks to this exceptional combination of strength
and corrosion resistance, duplex steels are widely
used in everything from tanks for corrosive media to
structural components, chemical tankers and offshore
applications.
Duplex steels are primarily intended for applications
where the working temperature is from 40 to +250C.
The weldability of duplex steels is good and all com-
mon welding methods can be used.
Uses
Heat exchangers
Water heaters
Pressure vessels
Storage tanks
Rotors, impellers and shafts
Digesters and other equipment in pulp and paper
production
Cargo tanks in chemical tankers
Desalination plants
Waste gas puriers
Sea water systems
Chemical compositions
Table 1 shows the chemical compositions (parent and
ller metals) of some duplex steels.
Matching llers are used for welding. Fillers that are
more highly alloyed can also be used. For example,
LDX 2101, 2304 and 2205 can be welded with 2507/P100.
Outokumpu EN ASTM
LDX 2101

1.4162 S32101
2304 1.4362 S32304
2205 1.4462 S32205/31803
SAF 2507

1.4410 S32750
Table 1: Chemical compositions parent and ller metals
EN ASTM/AWS C N Cr Ni Mo Other
Plate* LDX 2101

2304
2205
SAF 2507

1.4162
1.4362
1.4462
1.4410
S32101
S32304
S32205
S32750
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.22
0.10
0.17
0.27
21.5
23
22
25
1.4
4.8
5.7
7.0
0.3
0.3
3.1
4.0
5 Mn
MMA
LDX 2101
2304
2205
2507/P100
EN 1600

22 9 3 N L R
25 9 4 N L R
A5.4

E2209
E2594
0.04
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.14
0.12
0.15
0.23
23.5
24.5
23.0
25.5
7.0
9.0
9.5
0.4
<0.3
3.0
3.6
Wire**
LDX 2101
2304
2205
2507/P100
EN 12072

22 9 3 N L
25 9 4 N L
A5.9

ER2209
ER2594
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.15
0.15
0.17
0.25
23.5
23.5
23.0
25.0
7.5
7.5
8.5
9.5
0.2
0.2
3.1
4.0
FCW
LDX 2101
2304
2205
EN 12073

22 9 3 N L
A5.22

E2209
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.14
0.14
0.13
24.0
24.0
22.5
9.0
9.0
9.0
0.6
0.6
3.2
* Hot rolled plate, cold rolled plate, bars, pipes, pipe ttings and anges
** MIG, TIG and SAW wire
2
SAF 2507 is a trademark owed by Sandvik AB
10.0
4 5 4 5
Microstructure
The chemical composition of duplex steels is balanced
to ensure that, in their solution-annealed states, they
have a structure with approximately equal amounts of
ferrite and austenite.
Duplex steels initially solidify with a completely
ferritic structure. They then undergo a phase trans-
formation in which primary and secondary austenite
grows at the ferrites grain boundaries. The amount of
austenite is strongly dependent on composition and
cooling rate. In the production of plates, coils, pipes,
etc., controlled heat treatment can be used to give a
50-50 balance of austenite and ferrite. However, cooling
conditions when welding are not as good. Cooling is
often very rapid here and, consequently, there is little
time for austenite to form. Thus, to give a balanced
structure, ller metals are always over-alloyed with
nickel. This is strongly austenite stabilising. Nitrogen
is another austenite stabilising element and is of great
importance in the re-forming of austenite. However,
variations of between 20 and 70% ferrite are normal.
Welds with this ferrite content have good corrosion and
mechanical properties. Figure 1 shows the fusion line
in a 2205 joint.
Welding with the wrong ller metal (e.g. plate
analysis), or with no or too little ller metal (e.g.
narrow groove/no root gap), can give a ferrite content
of over 70%. This entails a risk of lower ductility and
reduced corrosion resistance.
When duplex steels are subjected to temperatures
from 350C up to around 950C, secondary precipitates
are formed. Intermetallic phases, e.g. sigma phase, are
formed in the 600950C temperature range. Ferrite
is re-formed at 350525C (embrittlement at 475C).
Ferrite re-formation can have an embrittling effect
and a negative impact on corrosion resistance. Hence,
unnecessary exposure to these temperatures must be
avoided. In normal welding, the hold time at these
temperatures is relatively short. However, there is an
evident risk if the metal has to undergo subsequent
heat treatment.
Table 3 sets out the recommended heat treatments.
At any other temperatures than those given in the table,
stress-relieving annealing results in lower ductility and
reduced corrosion resistance. Consequently, it is to be
avoided.
Mechanical properties
Duplex steels are characterised by high strength. Table 2
shows typical mechanical properties of parent and weld
metals (pure weld metal).
The high tensile strength also means that the fatigue
properties are very good. However, fatigue strength is
highly dependent on the components shape. The fatigue
properties of welded joints are also clearly inferior.
Welding method and joint type are of great signicance.
For example, a TIG welded joint has considerably better
properties than one made with covered electrodes.
Because their ductility is lower than that of austenitic
steels, duplex steels are not suitable for use at low
temperatures (< 40C).
Figure 1: Microstructure of a weld in 2205 transition between plate and weld
4 5 4 5
Min.-value
1
) Typical values (pure weld metal)
P H C MMA MIG TIG SAW FCAW
LDX 2101
R
p0.2
(MPa)
R
m
(MPa)
Elongation A
5
(%)
Impact strength (J)
+20C
40C
450
650
30
60

480
680
30

60

530
700
30



640
800
25

45
28
520
710
30
150
110
550
730
30
180
180
570
750
25
140
60
580
760
25
50
40
2304
R
p0.2
(MPa)
R
m
(MPa)
Elongation A
5
(%)
Impact strength (J)
+20C
40C
400
630
25
100
80
400
600
20


420
600
20


640
780
23
40
25
520
710
30
150
110
550
730
30
180
180
570
750
25
140
60
580
760
25
50
40
2205
R
p0.2
(MPa)
R
m
(MPa)
Elongation A
5
(%)
Impact strength (J)
+20C
40C
460
640
25
100
80
460
660
25



480
660
20


620
810
25
45
35
550
770
30
150
110
610
805
31
200
170
590
800
29
100
70
590
810
29
55
40
SAF 2507
R
p0.2
(MPa)
R
m
(MPa)
Elongation A
5
(%)
Impact strength (J)
+20C
40C
530
730
20
100
80
530
750
15


530
750
15


695
895
27
80
55
570
830
29
140

660
860
28
190
170
650
870
25
80






Table 2: Mechanical properties
1) P = hot rolled plate, H = hot rolled coil, C = cold rolled coil
Corrosion properties
Duplex steels offer a very wide range of corrosion pro-
perties. Thanks to the high chromium content, corrosion
resistance is generally very good in most environments.
This applies to both pitting and crevice corrosion. The
high strength also means that the resistance to stress cor-
rosion is very good. Because of the low carbon content,
intergranular corrosion is rarely a problem.
Generally speaking, corrosion resistance increases with
increased nickel, chromium and nitrogen content. This is
reected in the resistance ranking of the duplex steels:
LDX 2101; 2304; 2205 ; SAF 2507. The pitting corrosion
resistance is shown in diagram 1.
For the most part, the corrosion resistance of a welded
joint is slightly lower than that of the parent metal. This
is primarily due to: the temperature cycle undergone by
the weld and the heat-affected zone (HAZ); the shape
of the weld surface; and, the contaminants and defects
generated in welding. To achieve the best possible cor-
rosion resistance, the surfaces of the weld and the plate
must be clean and even. After welding, the weld metal
and HAZ must be pickled. Refer also to the Pre-weld
cleaning and Post-weld cleaning sections.
Detailed information on the corrosion properties of
duplex steels is given in the corrosion handbook
published by Outokumpu.
0
20
40
60
80
100
0
20
40
60
80
100
4404 LDX 2101 2304 2205 SAF 2507 254 SMO
Parent metal Welded joint
) C ( T P C

Steel grades
Diagram 1: Typical critical pitting temperatures (CPT) as per ASTM
G48 parent metal and weld, brushed and pickled TIG joint
6 7 6 7
Shaping
Hot forming, if required, must be performed at the
temperatures given in table 3. Duplex steels are prone
to precipitation when they are subjected to tempera-
tures under approximately 900C. Precipitation entails
a lowering of both ductility and corrosion resistance.
To reduce the quantity of precipitates, the workpiece
should undergo solution heat treatment after hot for-
ming. Duplex steels soften considerably at high tempe-
ratures. This must be borne in mind during handling
and when tooling up/positioning prior to heat treat-
ment.
Cold forming of duplex steels can be accomplished
using conventional methods. However, because of
the high strength, operations such as deep drawing,
stretch forming and spinning are more difcult than
they are with austenitic steels.
Machining of duplex steels (LDX 2101 excepted) is,
owing to their hardness, slightly more difcult than it
is for austenitic steels. Tools made of high-speed steel
are usually more effective than ceramic tools.
Welding methods
All conventional welding methods such as MMA
(covered electrodes), MIG/MAG, TIG, SAW, FCAW,
plasma and laser can be used to weld duplex steels.
Welding without ller metals is only permitted where
subsequent heat treatment (solution heat treatment) is
possible. If heat treatment is not carried out, there is a
great risk that the ferrite content in the weld metal will
be too high. As a result, ductility and corrosion resis-
tance will be lower.
Property requirements, positional weldability and
productivity usually determine the choice of welding
method.
MMA welding is particularly excellent for position
welding, single-sided welding and where access is limi-
ted. Avesta Welding has a very wide range of covered
electrodes for duplex steels:
LDX 2101 AC/DC all positions
2304 AC/DC all positions
2205-3D all positions
2205-4D position welding
2205-2D high metal recovery
2205 Basic high impact strength requirements
2507/P100 Rutile all positions
2507/P100-4D position welding
With all products, direct current (DC+) gives the best
welding results. Nonetheless, all rutile-acid electrodes
can also be used with alternating current. However,
weldability is clearly inferior than it is with direct
current.
A short arc is to be used for welding. This gives the
best stability and reduces the risk of nitrogen pick-
up. The latter can lead to pore formation and increase
surface oxidation.
MIG welding (really MAG welding is often carried
out with an active component in the shielding gas) is
a particularly good method for welding sheet metal
up to around 6 mm thick. Welding is usually from
two sides, but sheet metal (< 4 mm) can be welded
single-sided with a root backing. A spray arc or pulsed
current is normally used for welding. The advantage
of spray-arc welding is the higher deposition rate.
However, because the weld pool is relatively large,
position welding possibilities are limited. Drop trans-
fer is considerably more sedate and more controlled
with a pulsed arc. The opportunity for position weld-
ing, especially vertical-down, is thus very great. As
the stability of a spray arc is relatively poor, a pulsed
arc is particularly important when welding the super
duplex steel, SAF 2507.
The MIG method is especially suited to robot or
automatic welding in all positions.
TIG welding is normally used for thin (up to around
4 mm) workpieces. It is especially common in the weld-
ing of pipe joints. The method is also highly suitable
for welding single-sided root beads (both with and
without root backing). Subsequent beads can then be
welded using a method with a higher deposition rate.
SAW is widely used with duplex steels. Its high pro-
ductivity and beautiful weld nishes are a big plus.
Furthermore, the SAW work environment is consider-
ably better than that of other methods. Both fume ge-
neration and radiation are minimal. The disadvantages
of SAW are that it is restricted to the horizontal position
and that the heat input is relatively large. Consequently,
small objects present problems. A basic agglomerated
ux, e.g. Avesta 805, must be used for SAW.
LDX 2101

2304 2205 SAF 2507

Hot forming (C) 9001100 9001100 9501150 10251200


Solution heat treatment (C) 10201080 9501050 10201100 10401120
Stress-relieving annealing (C) 10201100 9501050 10201100 10401120
Table 3: Recommended heat treatments
6 7 6 7
FCAW is suitable for material thicknesses above ap-
proximately 2.5 mm. Thanks to the slag that is formed,
positional weldability is very good. When FCW is
used, the arc and weld pool are protected by both the
slag and the shielding gas. Drop transfer is even and
nishes are extremely smooth and ne.
FCAW can advantageously be used for single-sided
welding against a ceramic backing. This is fast and
efcient. At the same time, the surface properties
on the root side are very good. For the best results,
the root bead should here be welded using a slightly
lower current intensity.
Table 4: Example welding parameters for different types of joints
Method Filler Diam. (mm) Position EN/ASTM Bead Current (A) Voltage (V) Speed (cm/min)
MMA 2205 2.50
3.25
PF (3G) Root*
Cap
50 60
80 95
2022
2325
4 6
7 9
MMA 2507/P100 4.00 PA (1G) 125135 2426 1525
MIG 2205 1.20 PA (1G) 180200 2830 3040
TIG 2205 1.60 H-L 045 (6G) Root 45 50 910 3 5
TIG
FCAW
2205 2.40
1.20
PA (1G) Root
Cap
100120
190210
1618
2830
5 8
1722
SAW 2205 3.20 PA (1G) 400450 3032 4050
SAW 2507/P100 2.40 PA (1G) 350400 2830 4050
FCAW 2205 1.20 PA (1G) Root*
Cap
135145
200220
2426
2830
2025
3045
FCAW 2205-PW 1.20 PF (3G) Root
Cap
140150
160180
2325
2426
812
913
FCAW LDX 2101 1.20 PA (1G) Root
Cap
170190
200220
2628
2729
3040
3045
* Single-sided
Figure 2: Welding with FCW 2205
Flux cored wire is available as LDX 2101, 2304 and
2205 in the following variants:
FCW-2D LDX 2101 welding in the at and horizontal-
vertical positions
FCW-2D 2304 welding in the at and horizontal-
vertical positions
FCW-2D 2205 welding in the at and horizontal-
vertical positions as well as against
a ceramic backing in all positions
FCW 2205-PW position welding
8 9 8 9
Laser, laser hybrid and plasma welding are high
productivity methods that are very suitable for duplex
steels. However, as previously stated, if a ller metal
is not used, the workpiece should be heat treated after
welding.
Laser hybrid is a particularly interesting method. It
combines keyhole welding (laser) with arc welding
(MIG/MAG, TIG or plasma). The method ensures a
high productivity process that, thanks to the ller metal
and the low heat input, preserves metallurgical proper-
ties.
Nowadays, laser hybrid welding is most often per-
formed using a CO
2
laser or a Nd:YAG laser. With the
exception of the considerably better penetration, laser
hybrid welding of thin sheets has much in common
with ordinary MIG/MAG welding. Penetration depth
is primarily determined by the laser beams ability to
create a keyhole. The width is dependent on the heat
transferred by the arc.
There are two variants of laser hybrid welding, name-
ly, leading and trailing laser. Whichever is chosen,
it is important that the arc and the beam are sufciently
close to each other for them to work in the same weld
pool. For better process stability in leading laser
hybrid welding, the angle of the MIG/MAG nozzle
should be as slight as possible (i.e. nozzle in the upright
position). Having the arc in the leading position allows
material from the ller wire to ll any gaps. This means
that the laser beam creates a keyhole in a stable weld
pool. The result is an even weld with good penetration.
In the laser-MIG/MAG process, the following
parameters have proved to be important: torch angle,
offset, stick-out, working distance and focal length.
The effect of torch angle is much the same as in con-
ventional MIG/MAG welding.
Spray and pulsed arcs can advantageously be used.
However, because there is no stabilising of the arc, a
short arc must not be used in laser-MIG/MAG welding.
Shielding gases
MIG welding of duplex steels is possible using the
conventional shielding gases used with stainless steels.
Normally, argon is used with an addition of 2% O
2
or
23% CO
2
. Both of these act as arc stabilisers. An addi-
tion of around 30% helium is advantageous. It increases
arc energy which, in turn, increases weld pool uidity
and enables higher welding speeds.
Using a pulsed arc, a four-component gas (Ar +30%
He + 2.5% CO
2
+ 0.03% NO) has given very good
results.
Arc stability varies greatly between different arc
types, different steel grades and even between different
welding machines. Table 5 sets out general recommen-
dations for the MIG welding of various duplex grades.
TIG welding is usually performed with pure argon as
the shielding gas. Resistance to, in particular, pitting
corrosion can be considerably raised by the addition of
up to 2% nitrogen. However, because the risk of pores
increases with increased nitrogen content, the latter
should not exceed 2%.
The addition of around 30% helium markedly
increases arc energy and thus enables a considerable
increase (2030%) in welding speed. In the welding
of duplex steels, the addition of hydrogen is not to be
recommended. In combination with the high ferrite
content (over 70%), this can lead to hydrogen embritt-
lement.
Single-sided root beads must be welded with a
backing gas. This is normally the same as the shiel-
ding gas. However, Formier gas (90% N
2
+ 10% H
2
)
is a good alternative that also provides rst-class root
protection while also being cheaper than pure argon.
Because only a negligible quantity of the hydrogen
penetrates the weld metal, no negative effect has been
demonstrated. A backing gas should also be used for
tack welding all the way up until weld thickness is at
least 8 mm.
FCAW is most suitably performed using argon with
an addition of 1625% carbon dioxide as the shielding
gas. Welding with pure carbon dioxide is also possible,
but arc stability and weld pool control are noticeably
poorer. However, compared with a mixed gas, one
advantage is that penetration is slightly better. Also
compared with a mixed gas, the voltage should be
increased by 23 volts when welding with pure carbon
dioxide. This prevents the arc being too short.
Plasma welding normally uses pure argon, or argon
with an addition of 2030% helium, as both the plasma
and the shielding gas. As with TIG welding, the addition
of 23% nitrogen has a positive effect on corrosion resis-
tance. The addition of hydrogen should be avoided.
Laser welding can be carried out with pure argon,
nitrogen, helium or mixtures of these gases. To ensure
high-quality welds when using a CO
2
laser or a
Method Grades Shielding gases
MIG LDX 2101, 2304, 2205
2507/P100
1. Ar+30%He+13%CO
2

2. Ar+12%O
2
or Ar+23%CO
2

1. Ar+30%He+13%CO
2
2. Ar
3. Ar+30%He+12%N
2
+12%CO
2
TIG LDX 2101, 2304, 2205,
2507/P100
1. Ar+2%N
2
+1030%He
2. Ar
FCAW LDX 2101, 2304, 2205 1. Ar+1625%CO
2

2. 100% CO
2
Plasma LDX 2101, 2304, 2205,
2507/P100
1. Ar*
2. Ar+2030%He+12%N
2
*
Laser LDX 2101, 2304, 2205,
2507/P100
1. Ar
Table 5: Shielding gases for MIG, TIG, FCAW,
plasma and laser welding
* Also as plasma gas
8 9 8 9
Nd:YAG-laser, a shielding gas is required. Because
interaction between the beam and the shielding gas
affects heat transfer to the workpiece, the choice of
shielding gas in CO
2
laser welding is critical. The
normal shielding gases are pure argon or, where high
laser powers (1.52.0 kW) are used, helium. As there
is little or no interaction between shielding gases and
the wavelength of the Nd:YAG laser, argon, which is
relatively cheap, is normally used.
Laser hybrid welding with a CO
2
laser has demon-
strated that the shielding gas need not be pure helium.
It is sufcient that a minimum of 30% helium is added
via the MIG/MAG nozzle. For Nd:YAG laser hybrid
welding, a mixture of Ar + 3035% He + 25% CO
2
can
advantageously be used. The mixture is added via the
MIG/MAG nozzle. The addition of helium improves
process stability and gives even welds.
Edge preparation
When welding stainless steels, meticulous edge
preparation and the correct choice of joint type are
important for good results. This applies even more
particularly to duplex steels.
Because of the weld pools slightly poorer penetra-
tion and uidity (compared with standard austenites),
the joint must be correctly designed to give full pene-
tration without the risk of burn-through. The groove
angle must be sufciently wide to allow the welder
full control of the arc, weld pool and slag. A groove
angle of around 35 (i.e. somewhat larger than for
austenitic steels) is to be recommended for manual
welding.
General recommendations:
An X-joint can advantageously be used for plate
thicknesses above approximately 15 mm.
For plate thicknesses above approximately 30 mm,
a double U-joint is advantageous.
In single-sided welding, a root gap of 23 mm and
a straight edge of about 01 mm are recommended.
For double-sided welding, the straight edge can be
increased to 1.52 mm.
A wider root gap, 46 mm, should be used when
welding against a ceramic backing.
Figure 3 shows a number of common joint types.

D
C

D
C

C
1. I-joint for: single-sided MMA, TIG
and PAW; and, double-sided welding
using the same methods plus MIG and
FCAW. Suitable root protection must be
used with single-sided TIG and plasma
welding.
2. V-joint (t > 4 mm) for: single and
double-sided MMA and TIG welding
as well as double-sided MIG and
FCAW. Single-sided welding is also
possible with FCAW, but a ceramic
backing must then be used.
3. V-joint for SAW. So that full penetra-
tion is possible, the root bead must be
ground precisely.
4. In SAW, an X-joint is to be recommended
where plate thickness exceeds 16 mm.
To achieve best penetration when weld-
ing 2205 and 2304, the straight edge
can be increased up to 8 mm. The torch
must then be slightly angled (around
15) in the direction of welding. In this
way, thicknesses up to 20 mm can be
welded with only two beads. However,
for LDX 2101 and SAF 2507, the straight
edge should not exceed 4 mm.
D = 1.0 2.0 mm MIG
D = 2.0 2.5 mm MIG
D

D
C

D
C

C
Joint type 1
I-joint, t < 2.5 mm
D = 1.02.0 mm
Single-sided, with or without root backing
I-joint, t < 4.0 mm
D = 2.02.5 mm
Double-sided without root backing but
with root grinding
Joint type 2
V-joint, t = 416 mm
= 6070
C = 0.51.5 mm
D = 2.04.0 mm (46 mm against abacking)
Single-sided, with or without root backing
V-joint, t = 416 mm
= 6070
C = 2.02.5 mm
D = 2.53.5 mm
Double-sided without root backing but
with root grinding
Joint type 3
V-joint, t = 816 mm
= 8090
C = 36 mm
Double-sided welding without root gap,
but with root grinding
Joint type 4
X-joint, t = 1430 mm
= 8090
C = 38 mm (2507/2101 34 mm)
Double-sided welding without root gap,
but with root grinding
10 11 10 11
Pre-weld cleaning
To ensure good weldability and reduce the need for
post-weld cleaning, all joint surfaces, and the surfaces
adjoining these, must be thoroughly cleaned before
welding. Dirt, oil and grease must be removed using,
for example, a cleaning agent such as Avesta Cleaner.
All rough edges must be completely removed by gentle
grinding. Oxides, paints and primers must be entirely
removed not only in the joint but also in the 50 mm
from the joint edges.
Tack welding
So that shrinkage during welding does not prevent full
burn-through, precise tack welding is extremely im-
portant. For metal thicknesses up to 6 mm, tack length
should be 1015 mm. This should be increased to 2025
mm for thicker workpieces. A suitable distance between
tacks is 150200 mm.
In single-sided welding, the entire tack must be
ground away before welding. In double-sided welding,
it is sufcient to grind away the beginning and the end
of the tack. A common alternative in single-sided weld-
ing is the use of bridges or distance pieces (see gure 4).
These must be made of, and tacked with, duplex steel.
Note that gap width must be constant throughout the
joint.
Figure 4: Tack welding of thick-walled pipe using distance pieces
5. Edge preparation for pipe joints. Welding
is most suitably performed using TIG or
MMA for the root bead. For in creased
productivity, FCAW may then be used.
6. Half V-joint with full burn-through.
Where grinding the root presents dif-
culties, the root should be welded as
a single-sided TIG or MMA weld or,
alternatively, as FCAW against a cera-
mic backing. In this type of joint, the
distance between tacks should not
exceed 150 mm. This is so that shrinkage
does not prevent full burn-through.
7. Simple U-joint for the welding of thick
sections (t > 30 mm). The joint can
advantageously be made as a symmet-
rical or asymmetrical double U-joint.
Root welding is most suitably carried
out as a TIG or MMA weld followed by,
for example, FCAW or SAW.
1oinI preparaIions 1able 7.1
No. ahd |oihI Iype Sides MeIhod 1hickhess
28. Hal! V-|oihI One side MMA 4 !2 mm
= 50 MlC
C = !.5 2.5 mm TlC
6)
D = 2.0 4.0 mm lCW
5)
29. Hal! V-|oihI Two sides MMA 4 !6 mm
= 50 MlC
C = !.5 2.5 mm TlC
6)
D = !.5 2.5 mm lCW
30. K-|oihI Two sides MMA !4 30 mm
8)
= 50 MlC
C = 2.0 2.5 mm TlC
6)
D = 2.0 4.0 mm lCW
31. Hal! V-|oihI
7)
Two sides MMA 4 !6 mm
= 50 MlC
C = !.0 2.0 mm TlC
6)
D = 2.0 3.0 mm lCW
32. Hal! pipe One side MMA 4 !6 mm
= 45 MlC
C = !.5 2.0 mm TlC
D = !.0 2.0 mm lCW
88
Ldge preparaIioh
5)
Welding perlormed againsl ceramic backing (round lype).
6)
Normally only lor lhe lirsl ! 3 runs. lollowed by MlC, lCW, MMA or SAW.
7)
lor openings such as manways, viewporls and nozzles.
8)
A lhickness above 20 mm can be prepared as an asymmelrical X-joinl.

D
C
C
D

C
D

C
D
C
M
Y
CM
MY
CY
CMY
K
Fig S ny.pdf 0-I0-0 I4.40.?I
Joint type 5
V-joint, t = 416 mm
= 50
C = 1.02.0 mm
D = 2.03.0 mm
Single-sided without root backing
Joint type 6
Half V-joint, t = 1430mm
= 50
C = 1.52.5 mm
D = 2.03.0 mm (46 mm against a backing)
Single-sided, with or without root backing
Joint type 7
U-joint, t > 20 mm
= 10
R = 8 mm
C = 2.02.5 mm
D = 2.02.5 mm (46 mm against a backing)
Double-sided without root backing but
with root grinding
1oinI preparaIions 1able 7.1
No. ahd |oihI Iype Sides MeIhod 1hickhess
21. FilleI weld One or MMA > 2 mm
No rool gap lwo sides MlC
A 0.7 x l TlC
lCW
22. Hal! V-|oihI One side MMA 4 !6 mm
= 50 MlC
C = !.0 2.0 mm TlC
6)
D = 2.0 4.0 mm lCW
23. Hal! V-|oihI Two sides MMA 4 !6 mm
= 50 MlC
C = !.5 2.5 mm TlC
6)
D = 2.0 3.0 mm lCW
24. Hal! X-|oihI One side MMA !4 30 mm
= 50 MlC
C = !.0 !.5 mm TlC
6)
D = 2.0 4.0 mm lCW
5)
25. Hal! X-|oihI Two sides MMA !4 30 mm
= 50 MlC
C = !.5 2.5 mm TlC
6)
D = 2.0 3.0 mm lCW
26. FilleI weld Two sides MMA < 2 mm
No rool gap MlC
TlC
lCW
27. FilleI weld Two sides MMA 2 4 mm
D = 2.0 2.5 mm MlC
TlC
lCW
87
Ldge preparaIioh

t2
C
D
t1
5)
Welding perlormed againsl ceramic backing (round lype).
6)
Normally only lor lhe lirsl ! 3 runs. lollowed by MlC, lCW, MMA or SAW.
A
t1
t2

D
t2
t1
C
D
C
M
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MY
CY
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Fig ny.pdf 0-I0-0 I4.8.48
86
Ldge preparaIioh
1oinI preparaIions 1able 7.1
No. ahd |oihI Iype Sides MeIhod 1hickhess
17. X-|oihI Two sides MMA !4 30 mm
8)

!
= 45 MlC

2
= !5 TlC
6)
C = !.5 2.5 mm lCW
D = 2.5 3.0 mm
18. X-|oihI Two sides SAW
9)
!4 30 mm

!
= 45

2
= !5
C = 3.0 8.0 mm
4)
No rool gap
19. U-|oihI Two sides MMA < 50 mm
= !0 MlC
P = 8.0 mm TlC
6)
C = 2.0 2.5 mm lCW
D = 2.0 2.5 mm SAW
!0)
20. Double U-|oihI Two sides SAW
9)
> 20 mm
= !5
P = 8.0 mm
C = 4.0 8.0 mm
4)
4)
A rool land ol 5 mm and above may require lhe lorch lo be angled lowards lhe direclion ol lravel,
4)
see "Widlh and deplh" in chapler 4.
6)
Normally only lor lhe lirsl ! 3 runs. lollowed by MlC, lCW, MMA or SAW.
8)
A lhickness above 20 mm can be prepared as an asymmelrical X-joinl.
09)
TlC or MMA can be used lor rool runs. Crinding lrom lhe back. C = 3.0 mm.
!0)
SAW can be used lor lill and cap passes.

2
C
D

1
D
C
R
t

C
R

2
C

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10 11 10 11
Starts and stops
striking and extinguishing the arc
It is very important to use the right technique when
striking and extinguishing the arc. As regards metal-
lurgical, mechanical and corrosion properties, each start
and stop is a critical area.
To avoid striking scars, the arc must always be struck
down in the joint. If, despite this, striking scars occur,
they must be carefully repaired by grinding and polish-
ing or, in the worst cases, repair welding.
In MMA welding, the arc must be extinguished care-
fully by rst making several circular movements in
the centre of the weld pool. The electrode is then to be
moved slowly backwards 10 mm through the weld
pool before being gently lifted. If this is done too
quickly, crater cracks and slag inclusions may result.
Modern power sources for MIG and TIG welding
often have a so-called crater lling facility. This gives
smooth and controlled stops.
To remove any crater cracks and slag inclusions, each
start and stop must be carefully ground with a suitable
grinding disc.
Planning the welding sequence
Because it makes burn-through unnecessary, double-
sided welding is always to be preferred over single-
sided welding. To ensure full burn-through on the last
bead, the root side must be ground to clean metal. A
grinding disc not exceeding 2 mm in width is a suit-
able tool. If it is difcult to decide whether grinding has
reached the rst bead, penetrant testing can be used.
In double-sided MMA welding, electrodes with a
diameter of 3.25 to 4.00 mm can be used from the very
start. Single-sided welding is most simply carried out
against a root backing. Single-sided root beads are
suitably welded with a 2.50 mm diameter electrode.
The joint is then lled using 3.25, 4.00 or 5.00 mm elec-
trodes. The choice of electrode diameter is determined
by welding position. In certain cases (e.g. pipe joints)
single-sided welding without root backing is required.
This is most simply done using MMA or TIG welding
with electrode diameters of 2.50 mm and 1.602.40 mm
respectively. As already stated, a backing gas must be
used in TIG welding. Single-sided welding without
root backing places the severest demands on even and
thorough edge preparation. Figure 5 shows a correctly
executed TIG root bead.
Root beads must satisfy three important
requirements:
Correct metallurgy and structure (right root gap to
ensure sufcient quantity of ller metal).
Correct geometry (no concavity, undercutting or
lack of fusion).
Best possible productivity (always in relation to
weldability).
Filler beads must be deposited with the highest pos-
sible productivity. At the same time, structure and
mechanical properties have to be maintained. In many
cases, ll passes use the same ller metal as that used in
root passes. High productivity welding methods may
thus be economical for joint lling. Several common
choices are:
TIG root pass + MMA, MIG or SAW ll passes
MMA root pass + SAW or FCAW ll passes
Generally speaking, welding is carried out with the
highest possible heat input that is still consistent with
maintained properties and weldability. Visual inspection
between the passes is important.
Slag residues and severe welding oxide are removed
before depositing the next layer. Otherwise, there is al-
ways the risk of slag inclusions being left behind. A suit-
able grinding disc must be used. To avoid damaging
adjacent surfaces, grinding should be carried out with
some care. Figure 6 shows deleterious grinding scars.
Figure 5: Single-sided TIG root bead Figure 6: Grinding scars
12 13 12 13
The cap bead is primarily intended to give the weld
good corrosion protection. Besides structure, surface
geometry can also play a critical role here. Undercut-
ting, unevenness, high crowns, gaps, etc. can all have
a negative impact on corrosion resistance. Aesthetic
considerations are often also important.
When using slag forming welding methods, weld
reinforcements must be cleaned of all slag residues.
Welding techniques
In the at position, there should be no signicant
weaving. However, in the vertical-up position, weaving
of up to 20 mm is advantageous. For the best control of
arc and weld pool, welding is normally carried out with
a torch or electrode angle of around 10 away from the
welding direction, i.e. backhand. In submerged arc
welding, the torch is not normally angled. A torch angle
of 1015 in the welding direction (i.e. forehand) in-
creases penetration. This allows the unbevelled edge to
be increased to up to around 8 mm. However, because
LDX 2101 and SAF 2507 are slightly more sensitive to
the necessary high heat input, this increase must only
be used for 2205 and 2304. Especially when using wel-
ding wire, backings are very often ceramic. Backing
shape may vary with joint type. A root gap of 46 mm
most often gives a nicely shaped root bead. Too wide a
gap can result in a too thin root bead that, in the worst
cases, may crack because of the degree of restraint.
Ceramic backings are frequently used for welding
stainless steel cargo tanks in chemical tankers. Here,
welding is often in difcult positions with little access
from both sides.
Distortion
Broadly speaking, the coefcient of expansion of duplex
steels is lower than that of austenitic steels. It is only
slightly higher than that of carbon steels. Consequently,
distortion during the welding of duplex steels is some-
what less than it is with austenitic steels. However, this
does not mean that tack welding can be simplied.
Preheating
On the whole, stainless steels (duplex steels inclu-
ded therein) must not be preheated before welding.
Normally, welding takes place at room temperature.
At lower temperatures, preheating to a maximum of
50C is advisable. This drives off any moisture that
may otherwise lead to pore formation.
When welding castings, or where the workpiece
is thick or where restraint is high, preheating to a
maximum of 150C may be advantageous. This is
particularly true where the welding method has a low
heat input (max. 0.5 kJ/mm). In these cases, a suitable
preheating method is the use of electric blankets or
similar. The use of soot-depositing ames can result in
local carbon pick-up. This reduces resistance to inter-
granular corrosion.
Interpass temperature
The recommended interpass temperature for LDX
2101 is 150C. Both 2304 and 2205 are slightly more
tolerant, but should be welded below 200C. Super
duplex steels such as SAF 2507 have a far more sen-
sitive structure and, because the risk of deleterious
precipitation rises sharply with increased interpass
temperature, should not be welded above 100C.
Thermal conductivity is of the same order as that of
austenitic stainless steels, i.e. considerably lower than
it is for low-alloy and carbon steels. This means that,
compared to carbon steels, it takes longer to reach the
correct interpass temperature. The cooling rate can be
increased by using compressed air. This is most suit-
ably directed at the back of the plate or the inside of the
pipe. Compressed air directed straight into the welded
joint presents the risk of contamination. Cooling can
also be accelerated by intermittent welding or using a
correctly planned welding sequence.
The interpass temperature must be measured. Some
form of thermometer or thermoelement is appropriate
for this. Temperature crayons seldom give good results
and must be avoided.
Heat input
Without negatively affecting microstructure and,
consequently, properties, 2205 can be welded using a
relatively high heat input. Heat inputs above 3 kJ/mm
have been used with no negative effects. Welding
method, radiation, distortion and weld pool size are
most often the limiting factors (rather than heat input).
LDX 2101, 2304 and, in particular, SAF 2507 must be
welded with lower heat inputs.
General recommendations:
2304 max. 2.0 kJ/mm
2205 max. 2.5 kJ/mm
LDX 2101, SAF 2507 max. 1.5 kJ/mm
Duplex steels should not be welded with a too low heat
input. The cooling rate could then be very high, which
might result in a high ferrite content (above 70%). This
is particularly true in the welding of thick workpieces.
Theoretical minimum heat inputs are 0.5 kJ/mm
for 2304 and 2205 and 0.3 kJ/mm for LDX 2101 and
SAF 2507. Especially in automatic welding, heat input
is easy to control.
Although it is always desirable to optimise produc-
tivity by increasing the welding parameters, heat
input should never exceed the recommended value.
{ }
Heat input =
U x I

V x 1,000
U x I

mm/s x 1,000
= kJ/mm
U = voltage
I = current
V = speed
12 13 12 13
Figure 7: Storage tanks are a major end use for duplex stainless steels.
14 15 14 15
Post-weld heat treatment
Duplex stainless steels do not normally need post-weld
heat treatment. However, in certain situations, it may
be necessary to subject the workpiece to solution heat
treatment or stress-relieving annealing. The spinning
of dished ends is just such an example. Shaping is here
carried out in stages with intermediate heat treatment.
Table 3 gives the recommended temperatures.
The heat treatment of duplex steels requires very pre-
cise control of both time and temperature. It must only
be carried out by qualied personnel using suitable
equipment.
Welding duplex steels to other metals
Duplex or austenitic ller metals such as Avesta P5
(309MoL) or Avesta 309L are used to weld duplex steels
to carbon or low-alloy steels. As austenitic metals
demonstrate a somewhat greater toughness, Avesta
P5 or 309L may be particularly suitable for welding
workpieces where there is a high degree of restraint
(t > 20 mm). A further alternative is to use Avesta P7,
which also gives a weld metal that is highly resistant
to cracking.
Welding to other stainless steels such as EN 1.4301
or EN 1.4401 is also fully possible. It can be done with
a duplex ller metal or with Avesta P5 or Avesta 309L
(only stainless steels that are not alloyed with molyb-
denum).
Welding to fully austenitic steels or nickel base
alloys is suitably carried out using a ller metal that
matches the other metal, for example, Avesta P12
when welding 2205 to 254 SMO.
Post-weld cleaning
Post-weld cleaning is critical in achieving fully satis-
factory corrosion resistance. Clearly enough, it is thus
an integral part of the entire stainless steel welding
procedure. Despite this, post-weld cleaning is not
always standard.
The method and extent of cleaning is determined by
the requirements imposed in respect of corrosion resist-
ance, hygiene and appearance.
Figure 8: Avesta BlueOne
TM
being used to spray pickle a stainless steel tank.
14 15 14 15
Generally speaking, one basic requirement is that de-
fects, welding oxide, organic contaminants and carbon
steel contamination must be removed from weld and
parent metal surfaces. This can be done mechanically
(grinding, brushing, polishing, blasting) or chemically
(pickling). An important rule of thumb for grinding
is to always nish with polishing. The risk of harmful
grinding scars is otherwise very great.
The demonstrably most reliable method is a combina-
tion of mechanical and chemical cleaning, i.e. brushing
with a stainless steel brush followed by pickling.
Avesta Finishing Chemicals has a complete product
programme for the pickling of stainless steel welds. It
comprises cleaning products, pickling pastes, pickling
sprays, pickling uids and various items of equipment.
Duplex steels are generally more difcult to pickle than
are austenitic steels such as 1.4401 (308L) and 1.4404
(316L). Thus, Avesta BlueOne
TM
and Avesta RedOne
TM
,
which are comparatively strong pickling products,
should be used for pickling duplex grades. Further
details are available at www.avestanishing.com or can
be obtained directly from Avesta Finishing Chemicals.
Defects
Broadly speaking, duplex steels are no more prone to de-
fects than other stainless steels. However, several factors
require special attention.
The high nitrogen content of duplex steels means
poorer penetration.
Compared to austenitic steels, there is a slightly greater
tendency to pore formation.
Arc stability, uidity and arc control are also somewhat
poorer than they are for austenitic stainless steels.
Consequently, to avoid incomplete penetration, slag
inclusions and pores, the margins for welding parame-
ters and root gaps are more restricted.
Figure 10: Slag inclusions, SAW 2205 Figure 11: Pores, FCW LDX 2101
Figure 9: Incomplete penetration, MIG 2205
16 17 16 17
Repair welding
All defects must be suitably repaired. Minor surface
defects such as spatter, slag and oxide islands can easily
be remedied by grinding followed by polishing using
an at least 320 mesh disc. Note that a grinding disc in-
tended for stainless steel must be used. After polishing,
conventional pickling is to be carried out. Pickling paste
is most often the simplest alternative.
Defects must never be repaired by TIG dressing
(remelting using a TIG electrode). This is because TIG
dressing has the same effect as welding without ller
metal, i.e. high ferrite content.
Large defects and subsurface defects require heavier
grinding with a coarser grinding disc. Once the entire
defect has been removed (which can be checked by, for
example, penetrant testing), the ground area is to be l-
led using a suitable method, most often MMA welding.
A plasma arc can be used to remove deep subsurface
defects in thick workpieces. Because of the resultant
carbonisation, carbon arcs should not be used. The
problem with both plasma and carbon arcs is the
powerful spatter. If care is not taken, this can damage
adjacent surfaces. The latter should be protected using,
for example, Masonite or chalk paint. After gouging,
the area must be ground before welding can start.
Repair welding can be carried out at least 5 times
with no negative impact on the parent metal.
Measuring ferrite content
Ferrite content can be assessed in several ways. Point
counting, which is a standardised method (ASTM
E562), is one of these. This method gives very precise
results, but is both time-consuming and costly. Hence,
ferrite content is normally determined using a so-
called ferritescope such as the Fischer Feritscope


MP30 or by calculations based on the chemical compo-
sition. There are a number of calculation methods, e.g.
DeLong and WRC-92. For duplex steels, calculation as
per WRC-92 gives results that are closer to reality than
those obtained using DeLong. Figure 12 shows a WRC-
92 diagram.
When it is obtained by measurement, ferrite content
is normally expressed as a percentage. Where it is ob-
tained by calculation it is usually expressed as a ferrite
number (FN). A normal range is 2070 (%/FN).
Overlay welding
Duplex ller metals can be advantageously used for the
overlay welding of carbon steels. The duplex overlay
is resistant to corrosion and has good wear resistance.
Although all welding methods can be used, those with
a high deposition rate (i.e. SAW, FCAW and MIG) are
normally preferred. Welding with 2205 can be direct
onto carbon steel. However, ller metals such as 309L
or P5 can also be used for the rst layer. This is some-
what more cost-efcient, especially when welding with
2507/P100.
In overlay welding, there should be as little mixing
with the parent metal as possible. This can be a par-
ticular problem with SAW, FCAW and MIG welding.
Welding parameters and technique are of great im-
portance. Each run is built up on the preceding. The
arc should never be directed towards the parent metal.
10
12
14
16
18
18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Nickel equivalehI =
Ni + 35C + 20N + 0.25Cu
Chromium equivalehI =
Cr + Mo + 0.7Nb
WRC-1992
10
12
14
16
18
18 20 22 24 26 28 30
2507/P100

2304
A
AF
F
FA
0
4
6
8
N
F

2
1
0
1
2
1
4
1
6
8
1
0
2
2
2
4
2
6
2
2
8
0
3
3
5
0
4
5
4
0
5
0
6
7
0
0
8
0
9
N
F
0
0
1

SIaihless sIeels
Iov forrilo conlonl (O 3 IN DoIong)
givos a voId llal may bo sIigllIy sonsilivo lo
lol cracking. To avoid llis, a fiIIor viro vill
a roIalivoIy ligl forrilo conlonl musl bo usod.
In somo domanding onvironmonls, o.g. uroa
pIanls and corlain cryogonic appIicalions,
forrilo-froo paronl molaIs and voIds aro
slipuIalod. WoIding musl llon uso Iov forrilo
or fuIIy auslonilic fiIIors sucl as 3O8I-II,
SKR-NI, I6 and I12. Hoal inpul musl bo Iov
and conlroIIod. DiIulion of llo paronl molaI
musl bo kopl lo a minimum.
A forrilo conlonl of 3 12 IN DoIong givos
good rosislanco lo lol cracking. AII slandard
auslonilic fiIIors sucl as 3O8I/MVR,
316I/SKR, I5 and 347/MVNb givo voIds
vill a forrilo conlonl in llis rango. Honco,
lloso fiIIors provido good rosislanco lo lol
cracking.
Al forrilo conlonls abovo 12 IN DoIong, a
conlinuous nolvork of forrilo may bo prosonl.
In somo onvironmonls, llis may rosuIl in
soIoclivo corrosion. Wlon subjoclod lo loal
lroalmonl, llo forrilo may, doponding on limo
Figure 1.13. WRC-92 diagram !or weldihg cohsumables
and lomporaluro, lransform lolaIIy or parlIy
inlo sigma plaso. Tlis roducos corrosion
rosislanco and louglnoss.
A dupIox slainIoss slooI voId lypicaIIy las
a forrilo conlonl of 25 65 IN WRC-92. Tlo
incroasod yioId and lonsiIo slronglls llis
givos aro liglIy bonoficiaI.
Iiguros 1.14 lo 1.16 slov slainIoss slooI
microslrucluros vill, rospoclivoIy, Iov,
modium and ligl forrilo conlonls.
Figure 1.14. FerriIe 3 FN DeLohg
,LDX 2101
C
M
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Fig.II_ WRC-9?_I0II.pdf 0-I0-?S IS.09.S?
Figure 12: WRC-92 diagram
16 17 16 17
Table 7. Welding duplex steels of similar
compositions
Steel grades Filler metal
ASTM 329 Avesta 2205
AL 2003 (UNS S32003)
3RE60 (S31500)
Avesta 2205
Avesta 3RE60 or 2205
URANUS 35N, SAF 2304 Avesta 2304 or 2205
SAF 2205, URANUS 45N, Remanit 4462,1903SC,
AF22, VS22, Falc 223, SM 22Cr, NKCr22
Avesta 2205
SAF 2507, Zeron 100, DP-3W, S32760,
URANUS 52N+
Avesta 2507/P100
Table 6. Example chemical compositions of overlay weld metals:
SAW 2205 P5
4
2205
1
2
805
805
0.03
0.03
0.7
0.7
1.2
1.2
21.0
22.5
13.0
9.0
Mo 2.3
Mo 2.8
5
35
6
45
MMA 2205 P5
4
1 0.03 0.8 1.1 21.5 13.0 Mo 2.4 8 8
2205 2 0.03 0.8 0.7 22.5 9.5 Mo 2.8 25 35
MMA 2207 P5
2
1 0.03 0.8 1.1 21.5 13.0 Mo 2.4 8 8
2507/P100 2 0.03 0.6 1.3 24.5 10.5 Mo 3.5 25 35
FCW 2205 FCW-2D P5 1 0.03 0.6 1.4 22.0 12.0 Mo 2.1 15 15
FCW-2D 2205 2 - 0.03 0.7 1.1 22.5 9.5 Mo 3.1 30 40
1. Target analysis of the nal layer
2. Ferrite as per Schaefer-DeLong
Inspection and quality assurance
The rules that apply to structural steels apply also to
stainless steels (duplex included therein). The follow-
ing are some of the relevant international standards:
ISO 5817, which gives guidelines on acceptance
levels for various defects in welded joints.
EN 288 and ASME IX, which describe the approval
of welding procedures.
However, duplex steels are used in applications
where the strength and corrosion requirements are
very severe. There is thus every reason to be extra
careful from beginning to end. Welding oxide, spatter,
striking scars and grinding scars must be removed to
achieve the correct corrosion resistance. For the best
fatigue resistance, the weld surface must be even with
no sharp edges.
Nondestructive testing is an integral part of the
examination of welded joints. Suitable methods are
visual inspection, penetrant testing (PT), radiographic
testing (RT), ultrasound testing (UT) and ferrite content
measurement using a ferritescope. In ultrasound
testing, it is important that surfaces are ground at
so that defects such as pores and cracks can be
reliably detected.
Handling of ller metals
Stainless steel covered electrodes, ux cored
wires and uxes can be prone to moisture pick-
up. Avesta Weldings consumables are supplied
in packages that have been designed to resist
moisture. However, for the best possible results,
the following storage and handling precautions are
still recommended.
Storage of unbroken packages: Covered elec-
trodes, FCWs and uxes must be stored in their
unbroken, original packaging. Storage in opened
packaging can considerably shorten the products
service life. Following the rst in, rst out princi-
ple, storage time must be kept as short as possible.
Covered electrodes and uxes should not be stored
longer than 5 years. Products that are over 5 years
old should be redried before use.
Covered electrodes, FCWs and uxes should
not be stored in direct contact with oors or outer
walls.
Storeroom temperature must be kept as even as
possible ( 5C) and should not fall below 15C.
The relative air humidity should not exceed 50%.
Handling of opened packages: Electrodes that
remain unused at the end of a shift should be
replaced in their packaging and resealed. Alterna-
tively, they can be put in a warm heating cabinet
at 6070C. The relative air humidity should not
exceed 50%.
Flux that has not been used should be stored in a
heating cabinet at 6070C.
Handling during welding: It is an advantage if
welding can be carried out at room temperature
and low relative air humidity. Covered electrodes,
Method Final layer
1
Filler

Layer Flux
Chemical composition, % by weight Ferrite
C Si Mn Cr Ni Other FN
2
%
3
3. Ferrite in % using a Fischer Feritscope

MP30
4. Welding is also possible with 2205 or 2507/P100
How to weld duplex steels of
similar compositions
There are a number of steel grades that have composi-
tions similar to those of the Outokumpu duplex steels
described above. Some general recommendations are
set out below.
18 19 18 19
FCWs and uxes should be used at the same rate
as they are unpacked preferably within 24 hours.
During shifts, electrodes must be kept as dry as pos-
sible. If the climate so demands, they should be kept
warm in a portable heat-retaining container or similar.
One alternative is to use smaller packs, e.g. half or
quarter capsules.
Rebaking: Electrodes and ux cored wires that have
sustained slight moisture damage can be rebaked for
around 3 hours at, respectively, 250280C and 150C.
Heating and cooling must both be gradual. Items
should not be rebaked any more than three times.
Fluxes can be rebaked for 2 hours at 250300C.
Procedures that have been approved for carbon steel
electrodes are also completely satisfactory for stainless
steel electrodes. This is because the latter are not as
prone to moisture pick-up.
Recycling: Because they can be reused, leftover pro-
ducts and scrap are valuable. Wherever possible, pro-
ducts and packaging must be recycled in accordance
with local regulations.
Health and safety
The fumes and radiation given off during welding can be
hazardous to health. Spatter, molten metal and arcs can
cause burns and res. Furthermore, electrical equipment is
used. If it is not handled correctly, there is the risk of elect-
rical shock. Thus, it is of the greatest importance that wel-
ders and supervisors are aware of all the potential dangers.
Ensure that ventilation is adequate and that the
welding site has an extractor system that removes
fumes and gases from the welders breathing zone.
When welding in conned spaces, use respiratory
protective equipment or a compressed air line
breathing apparatus. Use safety equipment for
hands, eyes and body, e.g.: gloves; helmet or face
mask with lter glass; safety boots; apron; and arm
and shoulder guards.
Keep the workplace and equipment clean and dry.
Regularly check that safety clothing and equipment
are in good condition.
As far as possible, insulate all conducting elements.
Further information on each product group is contained
in Avesta Weldings material safety data sheets. These
can be downloaded from Avesta Weldings website,
www.avestawelding.com, or ordered from Avesta
Weldings distributors and retailers.
Figure 13: Order and tidiness are essential for a good work environment.
Photo: The Karl Kremsmller Welding Academy, Austria
18 19 18 19
Figure 14: Storage tanks in chemical tankers are often made of duplex stainless steels.
All rights reserved. Contents subject to change without warning or notication. Great care has been taken to ensure that the contents of this publication
are correct. However, Avesta Welding and its subsidiaries cannot accept responsibility for errors or for information that is found to be misleading.
Suggestions for, or descriptions of, working methods or of the use, treatment or machining of products are for information only and Avesta Welding
and its subsidiaries can accept no liability in respect thereof. Before using products supplied or manufactured by the company, customers should satisfy
themselves of product suitability.
Avesta Welding AB
P.O. Box 501, Koppardalen
SE- 774 27 Avesta, Sweden
Tel: +46 (0) 226 815 00
Fax: +46 (0) 226 815 75
info@avestawelding.com
www.avestawelding.com
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