Sunteți pe pagina 1din 9

1

www.mateinfo.ro
)c.i.v 1cccnicv ^vc1n{c.c
)c.i.v +)/)/
O(IO^)11 201
1) 20 - !2
ARTlC0lF .
1.
Generalizarea unor ecua(ii func(ionale care con(in func(ii
exponen(iale sau logaritmice
Prof. Marcel Chiri(,Bucuresti
Pag. 2
2.
Other solutions to Problems 982 and 983
from The College Mathematics 1ournal
Prof. NELA CICEU si Prof. ROXANA MIHAELA STANCIU
Pag. 5
3.
One Problem, Other Seven Solutions
Prof. Neculai Stanciu, Buzu and Prof. Titu Zvonaru, Comnesti
Pag. 6
Coordonator: Andrei Octavian Dobre
E-mail pentru articole:
revistaelectronicamateinfo.ro
2
1. NOT MATEMATIC
Generalizarea unor ecua(ii func(ionale care con(in func(ii exponen(iale
sau logaritmice
Prof. Marcel Chiri(,Bucuresti
Problema 1.O generalizare a ecuatiei Iunctionale I(3
x
) I(4
x
) x dat
de proI. Marcel Chiri| la concursul anual al revistei Gazeta Matematic pe
anul 1998.
Eie a ~ 1 , a ~ 1 , a = b si m,n m = 0. S se determine Iunctiile
I:|0, R continue pentru care I(a
x
) I(b
x
) mx n , |0, ).
Rezolvare. Ecuatia se mai poate scrie
mx n.
Presupunem c a ~ b . Notm log
ab
a c si din log
ab
ab 1 log
ab
b 1
c ~ 0.
Din a ~ b log
ab
a ~ log
ab
b c ~ 1 c . Notm cu d (0,1).
Notm cu h(t) , t |0, ).
Obtinem mh(cx) mh((1-c)x) mx n, |0, ).
h(cx) h((1-c)x) x , |0, ). (1)
Ecuatia (1) admite solutia h(x) x.
Eacem substitutia h(x) (x) x , unde : |0, R si obtinem (2)
(cx) ((1-c)x) 0 (3)

.Obtinem prin iterare
...... , ( x), unde n N` .
Rezult , ( x), unde n N` .
Deoarece I este continu h este continu este continu si trecnd la
limit dup
n obtinem , ( ), , |0, ). (4)
Din (3) avem (0) (0) 0 (0) 0 (5)
Din (4) si (5) obtinem (x) 0 , |0, ). (6)
Din (2) si (6) obtinem h(x) x t , t |0, )
I( (ab)
t
) mt , t |0, ) I(x) mlog
ab
x , x |1, ).
In Iinal exist o singur Iunctie I(x) mlog
ab
x , x |1, ) , care
veriIic ecuatia Iinctional
3
Problema 2.Eie a, b, d c (0, ), a= b si c c R. Determinati Iunctiile I: R
R`, continue, pentru care avem
I (ax) d
cx
I (bx), x cR.
Prof. Marcel Chirita ,Bucuresti
Rezolvare. Dac d 1 sau c 0 atunci I(ax) I(bx) x c R si cum Iunctia
este continu rezult c Iunctia este continu adic I (x) k, k c R` , x c
R.
Eie d = 1 si c = 0.
Eie Iunctia E: R R, E (x) (x) log
d
- tx, unde t c R.
Avem E(ax) - E(bx) log
d
- tax - log
d
tbx log
d
tx(b-a) log
d
d
cx
tx(b-a) cx tx(b-a) x| c t(b-a)|.
Dac t (a-b)/c atunci E(ax) E(bx) , x R. Deoarece Iunctia este
continu rezult c Iunctia E este continua adic E(x) k , k x R.
Rezult log
d
- tx k log
d
x k
Deoarece I (ax) si I(bx) au acelasi semn rezult Iunctiile
I
1
(x) k si I
2
(x) -k unde k este un numr pozitiv constant
Problema 3.S se determine Iunctiile continue I: R R continue n
origine cu propietatea c
I(log
a
x) I(log
b
x ) log
ab
x , x (0, ) , unde b a 1.
Marcel Chirit,Bucuresti
Rezolvare.Notm t log
a
x x a
t
. Atunci log
b
x log
b
a
t
t log
b
a si
log
ab
a
t
t log
ab
a.
Notm cu u log
b
a si cu v log
ab
a si atunci u,n (0, ) .
Relatia din enunt devine I(t) I(ux ) vt si avem pe rnd I(ut) I(u
2
x )
uvt ,
I(u
2
t) I(u
3
x ) u
2
vt ,....., I(u
n-1
t) I(u
n
x ) u
n-1
vt . Adunnd relatile
obtinem
I(t) I(m
n
x ) vt(1m
2
m
3
...m
n-1
) I(t) I(m
n
x ) .
Trecnd la limit , tinnd cont de continuitatea Iunctiei I si de Iaptul c
0.
Obtinem I(t) I(0) t (0, ) I(x) I(0) care veriIic
ecuatia.
4
Problema 4.O generalizare a ecuatiei Iunctionale I(16
x
) 2I(4
x
) I(2
x
)
x dat de proI. Marcel Chiri| la olimpiada de matematic din municipiul
Bucuresti etapa jude|ean ,1999.
Eie a (1, si b,c R . S se determine toate Iunc|iile continue I:|1, )
R astIel nct
I(a
4x
) 2I(a
2x
) I(a
x
) bx c x |1, ).
Prof Marcel Chirij,Bucureti,Romania.
Solu|ie. Eie g :|1, ) R ; g(x) I(a
2x
) I(a
x
) .
Atunci g(2x) g(x) I(a
4x
) I(a2
x
) I(a
2x
) I(a
x
)
I(a
4x
) 2I(a
2x
) I(a
x
) bx c 0 , x |1, ).
Ob|inem g(x) g(2x) si prin induc|ie rezult c g(x) g , x
|0, ) si n .
Cum, pentru x |0, ), 0 si g este continu n 0 rezult g g(0)
2I(1) .
Cum, din enun|, I(1) ob|inem c g 0, deci g(x) 0 x
|0, ) , de unde
I(a
2x
) I(a
x
) x |0, ).
Eie h:|0, ) R , h(x) I(a
x
) . Atunci h(2x) h(x) I(a
2x
)
I(a
x
) I(a
2x
) I(a
x
) x |0, ) si cum h(0)
I(1) 0 , rezult ca si n cazul Iunc|iei g c h(x) 0 x |0, ).
Ob|inem I(a
x
) x |0, ) , deci I(x) b log
a
x c.
Pentru a2,b1,c0 ob|inem o problem dat de M.Chiri|,V si Matrosenco
dat la Iaza judetean a olimpiada de matematic din municipiul Bucuresti n
anul 1999.
Bibliografie.[1].Concursul anual al revistei Ga:eta Matematic pe anul
1998,Ga:eta Matematic 1998,nr 10 Pag. 383.
[2]. Jasile Pop-Ecuatii functionale,Editura Mediamira Cluf-Napoca
2002 pag 64,150-151.
M.Andronache,M.Chirij,J.Matrosenco,subiecte date la olimpiada de
matematic din municipiul Bucureti in anul 1999.
5
2. Other solutions to Problems 982 and 983
from The College Mathematics 1ournal
by Roxana Mihaela Stanciu
1
and Nela Ciceu
2
Solution:
We have that:
bc
a c bc b
R
bc
a c b
R R A R R HA
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 cos 2
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
= = ,
R
abc
S
4
=
and
R
bc
R
abc
a a
S
h
a
2 4
2 2
= = = .
ThereIore, the given inequality becomes:
0
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
> + + + + + c b ab a b a ca c a c bc b
ca bc ab c b a + + > + +
2 2 2
, true.
We have equality iI and only iI c b a = = .
Solution:
WLOG we consider 1 = = AC AB and we denote x CAK = Z .
We deduce that:
x AKC x DAC ADC == Z = Z = Z
0 0 0
150 , 100 , 50 .
By the Law oI Sines in triangles ADC A and AKC A we obtain that:
;
50 sin 2
1
50 sin 30 sin
0 0 0
= = AD
AC AD
1
Liceul cu Program Sportiv ``Iolanda Balas Soter``, Buzu
2
Rosiori, Bacu
6
) 30 sin(
sin
;
) 30 sin( 2
1
sin ) 150 sin( 30 sin
0 0 0 0
+
=
+
= =

=
x
x
KC
x
AK
x
KC
x
AC AK
.
Erom ) ( ) ( KCE Area KAD Area A = A we have that:
) 30 sin(
10 sin sin
) 30 sin( 50 sin 4
) 80 sin(
10 sin ) 100 sin(
0
0
0 0
0
0 0
+
=
+
+
=
x
x
x
x
CE CK x AK AD
) 80 sin( ) 60 cos 40 (cos sin 2 ) 80 sin( sin 50 sin 10 sin 4
0 0 0 0 0 0
+ = + = x x x x
0 0 0 0 0
40 cos ) 40 sin( 2 40 cos sin 2 ) 80 sin( sin 40 cos sin 2 + = + + = x x x x x
0 ) 20 cos( 0 ) 20 sin( ) 20 cos( 2 0 ) 40 sin( sin
0 0 0 0
= + = + = + x x x x .
So, there is only one possibility
0
70 = x , i.e.
0
30 = ZKAD .
3. One Problem,
Other Seven Solutions
by Neculai Stanciu, Buzu and Titu Zvonaru, Comnesti
In this short article, we present, seven elementary solutions , other than was
presented in |1|, to the Iollowing
Problem.
ABCD is a square; E and F are points oI trisection oI the sides AB and CD
respectively, with E closer to A than to B , and F closer to C than to B (so
3
1
=
AB
AE
and
3
1
=
CB
CF
). Segments DE and DF are drawn as shown. Show that
5
4
sin = ZEDF .
We can consider 3 = AB , and then 1 = = CF AE , 2 = = BF EB . Using the
Pythagorean theorem we obtain 10 = = DF DE , 2 2 = EF . We denote by
| ... | Z XY the area oI the polygon Z XY... . Let = ZEDF , and
= Z = Z EDA FDC .
7

I. First solution, elementary, in the classroom


We have 4
2
1 3
2
2 2
2
1 3
9 | | | | | | | | | | =

= = CFD BEF ADE ABCD EDF .


Also we have
2
sin
| |
EDF DF DE
EDF
Z
= . Hence,
5
4
10
4 2
sin =

= ZEDF .
II. Second solution, elementary, in the classroom
Let M be the projection oI the point E on the side DE, i.e. E M
DF
Pr = . We
have that
2
10
4
2
| |
EM EM DF
DEF

=

= , so
10
8
= EM .
Hence,
5
4
10
8
sin = = = Z
ED
EM
EDF .
III. Third solution, elementary, in the classroom
Because, CDF ADE Z = Z , we have that the diagonal BD is the bisector oI
EDF Z .
8
ThereIore,
2
1
3
1
1
3
1
1
45 1
45
) 45 (
2
0
0
0
=
+

=
+

= =

tg tg
tg tg
tg tg .
Hence,
5
4
4
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
sin
2
=
+
=
+
=

tg
tg
.
IV. Third solution, elementary, in the classroom
We have
5
1
10
1
2
2
10
3
2
2
sin 45 cos cos 45 sin ) 45 sin(
2
sin
0 0 0
= = = =

, and then
5
2
5
1
1
2
cos = =

. Hence,
5
4
2
cos
2
sin 2 sin = =

.
V. Fifth solution, elementary, in the classroom
We denote EF BD N = . By isosceles right triangle BEF , we obtain
2 2 2
2
1
2
1
= = = EF FN . Because 2 3 = BD , we have
2 2 = = = FN BD BN BD DN . We deduce that
2
1
2
= =
DN
NF
tg

, and we
continue as in second solution.
VI. Sixth solution, elementary, in the classroom
With the same notations as in IiIth solution, we have
5
1
2
sin = =
BD
NF
, and
5
2
2
cos = =
DF
DN
. Hence,
5
4
2
cos
2
sin 2 sin = =

.
VI. Seventh solution, elementary, in the classroom
Let R be the circumradius oI triangle EDF .
9
We have
4
2 5
4 4
2 2 10 10
| | 4
=


=
EDF
EF FD ED
R , and by the Law oI Sines
yields that
5
4
2
2 5
2 2
2
sin = = = Z
R
EF
EDF .

[1] One Problem, Six Solutions, AT RIGHT ANGLES, Jol. 2, No. 1,


March 2013.