Sunteți pe pagina 1din 10

Analiznd dezvoltarea gndirii pedagogico muzical din cele mai vechi timpuri i pn n zilele noastre, dac tradiia muzical

l folcloric precum i cea religioas au constituit baza educaiei pn n secolul al XIX lea, influenele culturii muzicale europene ptrund n toate sistemele educaionale, pentru ca secolul al XX lea s se caracterizeze prin diversificarea educaiei muzicale adresat celor din nvmntul general obligatoriu, precum i celor din nvmntul special muzical, laic i religios! "n plan conceptul, specialitii din domeniul psiho pedagogiei i al muzicii au pledat pentru includerea artei sunetelor n educaia att a copiilor ct i a adulilor! #ac metodele specifice disciplinei, coninutul programelor i manualelor au fost diferite, nvarea muzicii realizndu se pn n secolul al XIX lea, oral, prin cntec religios i popular, repertoriul muzical cult european i naional $ compus special pentru copii%, nsoit de alfabetizarea muzical, au devenit din secolul al XIX lea pn n prezent coordonatele educaiei muzicale a copiilor! "n evoluia nvmntului distingem trei aspecte fundamentale legate de educaia muzical& '! nvmntul privind formarea slu(itorilor altarului i mbogirea repertoriului muzical necesar cultului religios) *! nvmntul laic, cu scopul pregtirii cntreilor, instrumentitilor i a compozitorilor, care s promoveze arta muzical ntr un cadru particular sau public, dar i a celor ce aveau sarcina de a educa elevii din punct de vedere muzical) +! nvmntul general destinat tuturor copiilor, bazat mai ales pe cntare vocal i mai puin instrumental! Aceste aspecte sunt tratate separat& educaia muzical n diferite sisteme de nvmnt, educaia muzical n nvmntul romnesc, scurt

istoric al evoluiei manualelor i a metodicii predrii educaiei muzicale, un spaiu rezervat special avndu l George Breazul ca pedagog de frunte pentru nvmntul romnesc. ,oate afirmaiile sunt argumentate cu planuri de nvmnt $ ane-a A % i o bibliografie consistent alctuit din programe i manuale colare!

abstract .hapter one goes over The Evolution of Musical Education-Systems, Methodical Concepts, Textbooks, anal/zing the development of the pedagogical musical thin0ing since ancient times to no1ada/s! ,he musical fol0lore tradition, as 1ell as the religious one, represented in our countr/, the basis of education until the '2th centur/, 1hen the influences of 3uropean musical culture entered all the educational s/stems! ,he *4th centur/ is characterized b/ the diversit/ of the obligator/ general school, as 1ell in the special musical, la/ and religious education! In a conceptual plan the e-perts in ps/cho pedagog/ and arts domains have pleaded for the music inclusion of children and gro1n ups in education! 5usic learning 1as realized orall/ until the '2th centur/, through religious and popular songs and the 3uropean and national music repertor/ $especiall/ composed for children% (oined b/ musical alphabetizing, has become since the '2 th centur/ the coordinate of children6s musical education, even though the programmes and te-tboo0s have been different! In the evolution of education 1e distinguish three fundamental t/pes bound to the 5usical 3ducation& '! the education concerning the formation of the shrine6s sub(ects and the enriching of the musical repertor/ necessar/ to religious 1orshipping)

*! the general education destined to all children, mainl/ based on vocal singing and less on the instrumental one) +! the la/ education, 1ith the goal of preparing the psalm readers, instrumentists and composers so that the/ could promote the art of music in a particular and public frame, but also those 1ho had the tas0 to teach the pupils from the musical point of vie1! ,hese aspects are treated separatel/ the Musical Education in different teaching s stems, Musical Education in the !omanian education, short histor of the te"t#oo$s evaluation and of the musical education teaching methods a fragment speciall/ saved, referring to George Breazul as a prominent educator in the !omanian education and his contribution to the musical education in the middle school! All the statements are motivated 1ith education plans $appendi- A, pages *77 *8'% and a substantial bibliograph/ made of school programmes and te-tboo0s $pages *22 +4*%! In the long run of time, 1e realized that the aesthetic ideal influenced the pedagogical ideal, that art had the part of a chief accountant of the human soul and represented a fundamental means in the evolution of the social life! Music 1as founded in Anti9uit/, retaining its goal in harmonious development of human being! ,hat6s 1h/ 1e presented the most ardent upholders of the art6s sounds, as an educational sub(ect, as 1ell as their pedagogical concept& :laton, Aristotel, .onfucius, .omenius, ;ean ;ac9ues <ousseau, =riederich >! =r?ebel $1ho initiated the foundation of 0indergartens%, 3mile ;ac9ues #alcroze, 5aria 5ontessori, .arl @rff! It6s also 1orth remembering the <omanian educators6 contributions in the settlement and consolidation of the Music%s position in the education plans& Apiru Baret, .onstantin Criloiu, ,udor Dianu, Etefan Crsnescu, Feorge Dideanu and man/ others!

Cut the evolution of the musical didactics couldn6t have been possible 1ithout the constant contributions in the field, of those 1ho devoted themselves to education, offering their imagination and devotion, so that the students of different ages could benefit from the positive influence of the art6s sounds! Among these, I mention& Aarah Flo1er, Bugo <iemann, 3dgar >illems, 5aurice .hevais, 5aurice 5artenot, Goltan Hodal/ and Ahinichi Auzu0i! Cesides the above mentioned, numerous <omanian e-perts have come up 1ith genuine solutions for ma0ing the te-tboo0s, the musical 1riting reading ac9uiring s/stems, using the didactic methods and means specific to the field! In this sense, 1e remember& Favriil Falinescu, 5ihail Fr! :oslunicu, Ana 5otora Ionescu, Ion Eerfezi, :avel #elion, Iigia ,oma Goica and Fabriela 5unteanu!

Atudiul de fa continu prin analizarea Mijloacelor specifice de realizare a educa iei muzicale !n perioada prenota iei, n capitolul al ID lea! 3tapa moional este anticipat de o perioad &prea#ecedar', denumit n educaia muzical &prenotaie'. 3-ist mai multe orientri privind etapizarea acesteia, n dou $ 5aria 5ontessori, 5aurice 5artenot, Ion Eerfezi% sau trei etape $5aurice .hevais, .arl @rff, Feorge Creazul%, cu denumiri sensibil asemntoare! :arcurgerea educaiei muzicale n trei etape corespunde finalitlor nvmntului, innd cont de particularitile psihomotorii i aptitudinale ale copiilor i concord cu cele trei cicluri

curriculare& ' etapa achiziiilor senzorial ( fundamentale $grdini i clasele I II%) * etapa achiziiilor instrumentale ( de dezvoltare $clasele III DI%) + etapa achiziiilor valoric ( atitudinale, de o#servare i orientare $ clasele DII XII%! "ntruct pentru nvmntul preprimar nu sunt stabilite coordonatele curriculare, iar pentru nvmntul primar sunt incomplet stabilite, constatm c acestea nu acoper specificul activitilor muzicale, iar din articularea lor nu se realizeaz continuitatea n studierea tuturor aspectelor vizate de acest domeniu! .onsiderm c o#iectivele cadru indicate a fi realizate n perioade prenotaiei trebuie s sintetizeze direciile ce trebuie urmrite pe parcursul acestei i anume& a% dezvoltarea capacitii de receptare a mesa(ului muzical) b% dezvoltarea capacitilor interpretative $vocale i instrumentale%) c% cunoaterea i utilizarea elementelor de limba( muzical n interpretarea i audierea muzicii) d% cultivarea sensibilitii, a imaginaiei i a creativitii muzicale! ,rebuie reinut faptul c prin cntarea vocal i instrumental ca i prin audiiile realizate la activitile muzicale, copiii se echilibreaz i se rela-eaz n acelai timp, acestea avnd i efect terapeutic! 5odalitile specifice de realizare a educaiei muzicale utilizeaz creaii specifice& e"erciiile cu rol n formarea deprinderilor, cntecele care sunt principalul mi)loc de familiarizare a copiilor cu lim#a)ul muzical, )ocurile muzicale ce reprezint forma cea mai comple" de educaie artistic a copiilor i audiiile muzicale ce cultiv gustul pentru valorile autentice. Am fcut delimitrile $ca metod i mi(loc educaional specific% i clasificrile cuvenite privitoare la e-erciii, (ocuri i audiii precum i tehnologia didactic necesar abordrii lor! ,oate cele prezentate sunt susinute prin e-emple propuse pe categorii de vrst, cu recomandri de materiale

didactice utile $culegeri de cntece i (ocuri muzicale, casete i discuri audio, incluse i n bibliografia muzical artistic%! .onsiderm a fi convingtoare compact discurile realizate, cu propunerile pentru audiii e-istente n lucrare $ane-a .%! ,he stud/ goes on 1ith the anal/sis Specific Means of "ealizin# of Musical Education in the $renotation $chapter ID%! ,he notational stage is anticipated b/ the Ja#cK period called in 5usical 3ducation JprenotationK! ,here are several approaches regarding its division& into t1o $5aria 5ontessori, 5aurice 5artenot, Ion Eerfezi% or three stages $5aurice .hevais, .arl @rff, Feorge Creazul%, 1ith responsive ali0e denominations! ,he coverage of 5usical 3ducation in three stages corresponds to the purpose of education, ta0ing into account the ps/chomotor features and the children6s s0ills and harmonize the three curricular c/cles& ' the stage of sensor fundamental ac*uisition $0indergarten and primar/ grades I II%) * the stage of instrumental ac*uisitions of development $grades III ID%) + the stage of the values ( attitudes ac*uisitions of o#serving and orientation $grades DII XII%! Cecause the curricular coordinates for pre primar/ education haven6t been established, and the/ are established incompetel/ for primar/ education, 1e realize that these don6t cover the specific of the musical activities and the continuit/ in the stud/ing of all the aspects referred to in this field can6t be realized from their articulation! >e consider that the frame o#)ectives 1hich 1ere suggested to be realized in the period of prenotation should s/nthesize the direction pursued during the period and namel/& a% the development of the reception capacit/ of the musical message) b% the development of the rendition abilities $vocal and instrumental%) c% the 0no1ledge and use of the musical language elements in

the music rendition and audition) d% the gro1ing of sensibilit/, imagination and of the spontaneous musical creativit/! It6s necessar/ to be retained the fact that through the auditions realized during the musical activities, children balance and rela- at the same time, these having a therapeutic effect too! In this sense, the specific modalities of realizing the musical education use specific creation& the musical e"ercises +ith the role of forming the s$ills, the songs, +hich are the main means of familiarizing the children +ith the language, the musical games +hich represent the most comple" form of artistic education of children and the musical auditions +hich nurture the sense for the genuine values. >e made in our stud/ the determination $as specific educational method and means% and the proper classifications regarding the e-ercises, games, auditions and songs, as 1ell the didactic technolog/ necessar/ to their approach! All those presented above are sustained b/ e-amples suggested on age categories, dra1n out from the 1or0s of composers such as& #an Doiculescu, Ale-andru :acanu, Anton Acornea, #umitru #! Atancu, Iiviu .omes, .ristian 5isievici and 1ith recommendations of useful didactic materials $song boo0s and musical games, tapes, audio dis0s, also included in the musical artistic bibliograph/%! >e consider to be convincing the compact dis0s $appendi- .%! 3voluia muzicii ca mod de comunicare artistic s a aflat ntotdeauna ntr un raport de interdeterminare cu spiritul epocilor pe care le a reflectat i cu evoluia sensibilitii i capacitii intelectuale a omului! =enomenul artistic reprezint o relaie care vizeaz trei mari entiti& creatorul $n cazul muzicii i interpretul n ipostaza de co autor%, opera artistic i publicul, precum i relaiile funcionale dintre acestea!

=olclorul reprezint o parte a culturii naionale a unui popor, reflectnd n modul cel mai direct profilul spiritual i talentul artistic al unei naiuni! "n acest sens creaia copiilor pstreaz o strveche modalitate de comunicare i de e-teriorizare artistic, n cadrul vieii colective care, precede naterea limbilor vorbite i a limba(ului muzical! ,radiiile folclorice ale copiilor vor constitui primul pas ctre cunoaterea muzicii, dup care pot e-plora universul sonor creat, dup modelul folclorului copiilor, de ctre compozitori talentai i inspirai de atmosfera de vra( a lumii mirifice a copilriei! creaiile, fie folclorice, fie culte, sunt att vocale ct i vocal instrumentale! Acompaniamentul este predominant ritmic, corporal $prin bti din palme, picioare, sau mers ritmic pentru marcarea timpului sau a ritmului%, sau instrumental $cu instrumente de percuie sau obiecte sonore ce mbogesc sonor atmosfera de (oc%! Ia nceput, sub forma (ocului iar apoi sub forma leciei, educaia muzical aduce numai beneficii, bucurii i entuziasm n sufletele copiilor, indiferent de paralela sau meridianul unde se afl! Important este ca nceputul tiinific, coordonat, al formrii muzicale s porneasc de la ceea ce le este familiar i anume creaiile lor folclorice ca s poat crete n universul sonor specific zonei creia i aparin! #ar tot acest efort nu va avea finalitate dac nu va fi ancorat n realitatea imediat ce impune corelarea interdisciplinar cu toate domeniile pe care le e-ploreaz n drumul lor cognitiv spre nelegerea universului n care triesc! abstract ,he evolution of music as means of artistic communication has al1a/s been in an interdetermination relation 1ith the spirit of the epochs 1hich it has reflected 1ith the evolution of sensibilit/ and the intellectual abilit/ of man! ,he musical phenomenon refers to three great entities& the creator $in the

case of music and the interpreter as a co author%, the artistic 1or0 and the audience as 1ell as the d/namic relations among these! ,he selection of an repertor/ ade9uate to the /oungest, re9uires the 0no1ledge of the stages of children6s musical evolution, and as 1ell as the ac9uiring possibilities of the musical 1or0s, in the curricular activities but especiall/ of those e-tracurricular optional, 1hich can be directed to1ards the interpretative practice prevalent vocal or vocal instrumental! ,he rendition of the vocal 1or0s is made b/ the vocal groups or choirs, and those of the vocal instrumental ones are realized b/ the group of musical games! ,he fol0lore represents a part of the national culture of a people, reflecting in the most direct 1a/ the spiritual profile and the artistic gift of a nation! In this sense, the children6s creation retains an ancient means of communication and of artistic e-ternalization, 1ith ancient roots in the collective life 1hich preceedes the birth of spo0en languages and of the musical language! ,he children%s fol$loric traditions can represent especiall/ in the countr/side the first step to1ards the 0no1ledge of music, after 1hich the sonorous created universe can be e-plored b/ composers after the model of children6s fol0lore! ,he +or$s, either fol$loric, or academic are #oth vocal and vocal-instrumental. ,he accompaniment is prevalent rh/thmic, bodil/ $through clapping hands, tapping feet or rh/thmic 1al0 to mar0 the time and rh/thm%, or instrumental $1ith sonorous ob(ects or the percussion 1hich enrich the pla/ atmosphere in a sonorous 1a/%!,he academic repertor/, destined to children 1as realized 1ith e-amples from the 1or0s of the composers mentioned above! At the same time 1e also propose possible alternatives for integrating the scores in different interdisciplinar/ activities!

At the beginning, under a form of game and then as a form of lesson, the 5usical 3ducation brings onl/ benefits, (o/ and enthusiasm in the souls of children, no matter the parallel or meridian he lies! It6s important that the scientific beginning, co ordinate of the musical formation, should start from 1hat it seems familiar to them and namel/ their fol0loric creations, so that the/ could increase in the specific sonorous universe of the area to 1hich the/ belong! Cut this effort 1ill not have a final product if it isn6t anchored in the immediate realit/ 1hich imposes the interdisciplinar/ correlation 1ith all the fields 1hich the children e-plore in their cognitive 1a/, to1ards the understanding of the universe the/ live in!