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KYAMBOGO

UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY

NAME:

MASEREKA JOCKUS

COURSE:

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY (CHEMISTRY)

REG NO:

11/U/18164/CTE/PE

COURSE UNIT: LECTURER

POLYMER AND RUBBER TECHNOLOGY DR. NYENDE DAVID

ASSIGNMENT 1

QUESTION: Classifica i!" !f #!l$%&'s a"( #las ics


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POLYMERS

TOPIC: CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMERS AND PLASTICS OBJETIVES: By the end of this topic my colleagues should be able; To define a polymer, plastic and classify different polymers and plastics To compare and contrast between different polymer groups and describe different polymerization methods such condensation and addition polymerization. To give examples of each group of polymers, plastics and classify the plastic using their plastic codes. Demonstrate various lin age mechanisms of various polymers and give some e!uation of the reaction. Introduction to poly !r" "olymer is a higher molecular mass compound formed by the combination of larger number of low molecular weight compounds called monomers. The process for the formation of polymers is called polymerization. "olymers can be formed either by the combination of two or more different types of monomers the polymer formed by this case is termed as a copolymers or they can be obtained by same type of monomers and this polymer is termed as a #omo polymer. $lso polymers can be obtained from both organic and inorganic molecules. %ome inorganic polymers are meta phosphoric acids,&#"'(),silicates, and silicones.

#owever in the classification of polymers, environmental effects, aplliications, shall be tac led i. *a+orly classification will be based on; %ource of availability *ode of polymerization *ode of addition of the monomers %tructure of polymers *olecular forces present in the polymers

importance, advantages, disadvantages,

Cl#""i$ic#tion o$ poly !r" This part involves different modes of classification, structures of different polymer molecules, and properties of those polymers, merits and demerits. %& Poly !r" c#n '! cl#""i$i!d '#"in( on "ourc! o$ #)#il#'ility&

"olymers classified in this mode include; naturally occurring polymers, semi synthetic polymers and synthetic polymers. ,) -aturally occurring polymers

These polymers occur in plants and animals and are very essential to life. These include; starch, cellulose, protein, nucleic acids and natural rubber. %tarch is a polymer of glucose, cellulose is also a polymer of glucose, and proteins are polymers of amino acids as shown below # . / /''# -#0
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1here . is an al yl group -atural rubber consists of repeated units of isoprene &0 2 methyl 3 4, ( 3 butadiene). ii& S! i "ynt*!tic poly !r" These as; /ellulose on acetylation with acetic acid an hydride in presence of suphuricacid forms cellulose diacetate e.g. /ellulose nitrate vulcaniesed rubber /ellulose 2&/5#46'7)n iii "ynt*!tic poly !r" The polymers which are prepared in the laboratory are synthetic polymers or manmade polymers 8xamples include; 9ibers, plastics and synthetic rubbers +& Cl#""i$ic#tion '#"in( on t*! !t*od o$ poly !ri,#tion. are mostly derived from naturally occurring polymers by chemical modifications such

,n this there are two ways in which a polymer can be classified i) ii) #omo polymers and copolymers $ddition and condensation polymers

A-i. /o o poly !r" These are polymers made by polymersation of a single monomeric chemical species and a vivid example is a polyethene formed from ethylene -ii. Copoly !r" 1hen the polymers are synthesized by polymerization of two or more different monomers termed as a copolymers.
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$n example of a copolymer is a styrene 2 butadiene rubber formed by polymerization of styrene and butadiene rubber formed by polymerization of styrene and butadiene. The structure below illustrates the formation of a copolymer

B-i. #ddition poly !r" These are polymers formed by a direct repeated addition of monomer. ,n this type of polymer, the monomers are unsaturated compounds and are generally derivatives of ethane. 9or example, the addition polymers polythene and polypropylene are obtained; &/#0 iii. /#0) n & /#0 /#0) n

Cond!n"#tion poly !r"

These are polymers formed by condensation reaction generally involving two different monomers. 8ach monomer normally contains two functional groups. During these reaction there is usually loss of small molecules usually water. 8xamples of these polymers are nylon, terelene, al yl resins and Ba elite.

8!uation for the formation of nylon 5,5

-ylon 5, 5 is a condensation polymer of hexamethledene diamine and adipic acid molecule. 0 Poly !r" c#n #l"o '! cl#""i$i!d 'y t*! n#tur! o$ ion" u"!d $or t*! initi#tion proc!""& This is due because some polymers are hard to be classified whether they are based on either condensation and addition polymerization These polymers are; i) ii) i) /hain growth polymers %tep growth polymers /hain growth polymers

These are polymers formed by chain growth polymerization which involves a chain reaction. This reaction re!uires an initiation li e organic peroxide to form a free radical which is added to another monomer to form another monomer. This process results into formation of action and ultimately a polymer is formed. The examples of chain growth polymers are ; ethylene , polyethylene , butadiene , polybutadiene , tetrafluoethylene Teflon &"T98), vinyl chloride , poly vinyl chloride&":/). ii) %tep growth polymers

These are polymers formed due to the condensation process which ta es place in several steps.
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The condensation process may or may not be accompanied by elimination of smaller molecules such as water. 8xamples are adipic, hexamelthylene diamine nylon 5.5, formaldehyde Structur!" o$ #dipic #cid This molecule for it is able to undergo condensation reaction by reaction of 3oh group on the carboxyl . 2/3'# group.

1& Cl#""i$ic#tion o$ poly !r" c#n #l"o '! '#"!d on t*! "tructur! o$ t*! poly !r and the type of classification is divided into; linear, branched, chain polymers and cross lin ed polymers. ii. Lin!#r c*#in poly !r" These are polymers in which monomeric units are lin ed to form linear chains They have the following properties They are well pac ed and therefore have high densities #ave high tensile strengths and melting points

8xamples of these polymers are "olyesters, polythene etc iii. Br#nc*!d c*#in poly !r"

These are polymers in which monomer units are cross lin ed together to form a three dimensional networ . These polymers have the following characteristics; They are hard They are rigid They are brittle because of the networ stricture.

8xamples are melamine formaldehyde, resin Ba elite etc 2 Poly !r" #l"o c#n '! cl#""i$i!d '#"in( on t*!
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ol!cul#r $orc!".

The forces holding up these molecules are either vanderwaals forces or hydrogen bonding. $lthough the above forces are wea but in polymers they have a cumulative effect all along the chain polymers. -ow basing on the strength of these forces they are classified four categories. i) ii) iii) iv) i. 8lastomers 9ibers Thermoplastics Thermosetting polymers El#"to !r"

These polymers, the chains are held by wea est intermolecular forces which permit the polymers to be stretched. $ few ;cross lin s< are introduced between the chains which help the polymers to regain is original position when the force is released. 8xample is vulcanized rubber ii. These Fi'!r" polymers posses high tensile strength and are used in ma ing fibers. This is due to

the strong inter molecular forces li e hydrogen bonding which operate for example in nylon 5,5& a polyamide). These forces also lead to close pac ing of chains and this gives crystalline nature. iii. T*!r opl#"tic"

These are polymers in which the intermolecular forces of attraction are midway between those of 8lastomers and fibers. Due to that, these polymers can be easily moulded by heating. ,n these polymers, there are no cross lin ing between chains. 8xamples of thermoplastics include; polythene, polystyrene etc. i). T*!r o "!ttin( poly !r"
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These are prepared from low molecular masses semi fluid substance. 1hen heated in a mould they get highly cross lin ed to form hard infusible and insoluble products. 8xamples include Ba elite ,llustration of the thermosetting property of Ba elite

,llustration of Ba elite; a three dimensional thermosetting polymer Cl#""i$ic#tion o$ pl#"tic" The word plastic cones from a =ree word ;plast ers< meaning to form D!$inition: $ plastic us a synthetic material made from a wide range of organic polymers such as polythene, polyvinyl chloride etc that can be molded into shape. "lastic are characterized by light weight, high corrosion points. The society of plastic industry &%",) in 4>?? put forwards recycling numbers to allow consumers and recyclers to differentiate types of plastics while providing a uniform coding system for manufacturers. resistance, high strength to weight ratios and low melting

These codes are designated in @ polymer groups and these codes are; 4A"8T8 &"olyethylene terephlatyhlate) 0A #D"8 &#igh density polythene) (A ":/ &:inylBpolyvinyl chloride) CA .DD"8 &Dow density polyethene) 7A "" &"olypropylene) 5A "% &polystyrene) @A othersBother mixed resins #. For cod! %-poly!t*yl!n! t!r!p*t*#l#t! This code will be classified by giving user properties, examples and importance "roperties ,t has got high solvent resistance for example mouth wesh bottles They have a high microwave transparence strapping #ave got high heat resistance such as prepared food trays, roasting bags ,tems got from the plastics of PETE are commonly recycled

For cod! +-/i(* d!n"ity poly!t*yl!n! -/DPE. "roperties ,t has got excellent moisture barrier properties They act as weather proofs =ood chemical resistance 8asy to process by most methods
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8asy to process by most methods

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Applic#tion" Toys, +erry cans, itchen ware For cod! 0 -Poly)inyl c*lorid!. "roperties #ard , rigid, but flexible when plasticized) floor covering

8xcellent transparency Dong term stability pipes Esed as insulator For cod! 1 Lo3 d!n"ity poly!t*yl!n!"4 -LDPE. These plastics can be classified in this code basing on its properties "roperties %emi rigid , translucent and very tough. Dow water absorption %table electrical properties insulator.

I port#nc! ,t is very health plastic that tends to be both durable and flexible $pplications Esed in ma ing s!ueeze bottles, carrier bags , heavy duty suc s, gas and water pipes For cod! 2 Polypropyl!n! -PP. This plastic is occasionally recycled and it has got the following properties

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Prop!rti!" "olypropylene is strong and can usually withstand temperatures ie goo dimensional stability at controllable temperatures #ave got high melting point ,t is hard but flexile 'pa!ue %tructure of polypropylene Applic#tion" *a ing of margarine containers &margarine storage) For cod! 5 Poly"tyr!n!" "roperties They are brittle , transparent , low shrin age , low cost 8xcellent x3ray resistance 8asy to process by plastic manufacturers

For cod! 6 This codes "olycarbonates and polylactide are included in this category Prop!rti!" These plastics are difficult to recycle. Applic#tion" "olycarbonates are used in baby bottles
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code is used to designate miscellaneous types of plastics not defined by the above six

Esed in compact discs $lso used in medical storage containers "roperties of polycarbonates They are strong and stiff They are hard and tough They are transparent engineering thermoplastics that can maintain rigidity up to 4C66 oc and toughness down to 0666c or special even low. *erits and demerits of plastics The main advantage of plastic materials is also the reasons why plastics are such a problem to the destruction of our environment. M!rit" "lastics last forever They are cheap to be made e.g. &polythene bags) They are chemical resistant and durable *ost plastics are used for insulation properties They are used on most buildings to prevent capability They favor atmospheric emission and have light weight& eg plastic bags)

D! !rit" "lastic bags are made of a photochemical which is anon renewable resource ,mproper disporsal of plastic bags unsightly and in tremendous hazard to wild life. "lastics clog road side drains which could cause the flooding of the streets when heavy rainfalls are received.
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The production and consumption of plastics is millions of times more than their decomposition.

"lastics clog road side drains whioch could cause the flooding of the streets when heavy rainfalls are received.

The production and consumption of plastics is millions of times more than their decomposition.

"oisonous gases produced by the decomposition of plastics can cause cancer. "lastics degradation ta es 76634666 years but manufacturing ta es only seconds which possess a big problem to the environment.

7!n!r#l "u -

#ry to t*! pr!$!r!nc! o$ pl#"tic" co p#r!d to ot*!r poly !r"

"lastics are inexpensive in the current&subsided) mar et They are non brea able in shipping and use *alleable for design purposes e.g. &electronic housings) 9lexible for use purposes& bendy straws) Theoretically they are able to be made with recycled content "erformance multifunctionality $ PVC rain +ac et or part of clogs eeps you water proof

En)iron !nt#l i p#ct" o$ poly !r" "olymers can be natural or synthetic. "lastics are polymers but all polymers are not plastics. %ynthetic polymers are the ones that affect the environment causing pollution of soil, water and air. "lastics recycling result into release of toxic fumes which affect the environment directly leading to air pollution.
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$lmost all plastics are non biodegradable which possess a threat to the soil resulting into soil pollution which destroys our agricultural lands and cause of infertility of soils.

"lastics cause water bloc ages most especially polythene which tends to cause flooding of water most commonly in cities. "lastics bags are made of a photo chemical which is a non renewable resource which also affects the environment.

R!co -

!nd#tion" to

#nu$#ctur! #nd u"#(! o$ pl#"tic"

%ince plastics are non biodegradable, they should be recycled to control their spillage in the environment.

The government should lighten laws governing the wage, disposal and manufacture of plastics which are non partisan. This will help to stump of the effects.

"eople

should properly be sensitized on the use and disposal of plastics to reduce on the

effects of associated with them. CONCL8SION ,n the whole universe approximately a greater of materials are made up of plastics and human beings inclusive. -ot all polymers are plastics but all plastics are polymers.

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REFERENCES *ttp:99333&(!ocit!"&co 9/olly3ood99:+;;9clip *ttp:99333&poly !r indu"tri!"&co 333&p "!&"it!"&#c"&or( 333&n#tur!&co 9&&&9"it!&$!#tur!&*t l 333&,!ro3#"t!&or( JO8RNALS Fournal of polymer .esearch $dvances in polymer technology 4>434>>7 $drichimica $cta *ino acids analyst $dvance in polymer technology /anadian +ournal of chemistry Fournal industrial engineering chemistry resaaerch Fournal of applied polymer science 4>C534>>7 part $ polymer chemistry b +ohn 1iley and sons Thomson .euters $ustralian +ournal of chemistry volume 4 4>C?&/%,.') Fournal of polymers and the environment TE<TBIOO=S 8nvironmental and health #azards of chemicals in plastic polymers by Delilah litnner "hD, department of plant and 8nvironmental sciences university of =othenburg "olymer materials; $n introduction for technologists and scientists by /hristopher #all *acmillan

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