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FROM WASTE TO PROFIT

Present
Karthik Arumugham
e d bKy
uralamudhan .R
Ko w t h a m Ku m a r . K Kailasanathan .T
OUTLINE OF
PRESENTATION

• Indian Energy Scenario


• Renewable Energy
Development
• Power Generation from
Biomass
Video1
Biomass
INDIAN ENERGY
SCENARIO
THE CHALLENGE
• India is facing formidable
challenges in meetings its
energy needs and providing
adequate energy of desired
quality in a sustainable manner
and at reasonable costs.
INDIA-SOME FACTS
• Total Population - 10.6 billion
• Rural Population - 7.0 billion
• Total Villages - 610,000
• Un-electrified Villages - 125,000
• Un-electrified Households - 45%
total
56% rural
INDIAN POWER
SCENARIO
• TOTAL INSTALLED CAPACITY
1,48,265 MW
• GROSS GENERATION 640 BUs
• PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION 620
kwh/ ANNUM
• ENERGY SHORTAGE about 8%
• PEAKING SHORTAGE about 13-14
%
POWER SECTOR AT A
GLANCE
• Thermal:
94,205
• Large Hydro:
36,877
• Renewable :
13,242
• Nuclear:
4,120
• Total:
POWER GROWTH
PERSPECTIVE
• E l e c t r i c i t y d e m a n d g ro w i n g @ 8 %
annually

• Capacity addition of about 92,000


M W re q u i re d i n t h e n ex t 1 0 y e a r s

• C h a l l e n g e i s t o m e e t t h e e n e rg y
needs in a sustainable manner
RENEWABLE
ENERGY DEVELOPMENTS
RENEWABLE BASED GRID
INTERACTIVE POWER
Electricity generation from
• Wind
• Small Hydro
• Biomass

These sources are becoming


increasingly competitive with
some preferential treatment
being meted out to them.
RENEWABLE ENERGY IN
INDIA -
• Wind Power - 48000 MW
• Small Hydro - 15000 MW
• Biomass Power - 16000 MW
• Bagasse Cogen - 5000 MW
• Solar Energy - 20 MW/Sq Km
• Waste to Energy - 2500 MW
Video2
Bagasse based cogeneration
BIOMASS
TYPES OF BIOMASS WHICH
CAN BE
• Agricultural Field
Residues
• Agro Industrial Residues
• Bagasse
• Wood from plantation
• Waste wood from
industrial operations
POTENTIAL OF BIOMASS
POWER
• Biomass based power generation
f ro m s u r p l u s b i o m a s s – 1 8 , 0 0 0 M W
• Ad d i t i o n a l p o w e r g e n e r a t i o n t h ro u g h
optimum bagasse cogeneration –
5000MW
Video3
Electricity from Biomass
BIOMASS PROGRAMME
COMPONENTS
• Biomass based power
generation in grid connected
mode
• Bagasse based cogeneration
for export of surplus power to
grid
• Biomass gasification systems
for thermal and electrical
applications, primarily in off-
grid mode, for industry and
CONVERSION
TECHNOLOGIES
B i o m a s s Te c h n o l o g i e s C u r r e n t l y
Deployed:

– Grid Power
• Combustion
• Gasification

– Off-grid / Distributed Power


• Gasification

– Cogeneration
• Bagasse cogeneration in sugar mills
• Non-bagasse cogeneration in other
BIOMASS POWER /
CO-GENERATION STATUS
EQUIPMENT
MANUFACTURING
Biomass Gasifier
• 1 2 m a n u f a c t u re r s – i n d i g e n o u s
• U n i t s i z e – f ro m a f e w KW- 1 M W
• A n n u a l Pr o d u c t i o n c a p a c i t y – 1 0 M W
• C o m m e rc i a l i z e d 1 0 0 % p ro d u c e r g a s
and biogas engines with enhanced
re l i a b i l i t y
• Gas cleaning / scrubbing systems
developed
WHERE DOES BIOMASS COME FROM?
• Biomass is obtained from
any plant, human or animal
d e r i v e d o r g a n i c m a t t e r.

• Wo o d f r o m t r e e s ,
agricultural crops, wood
factory waste, and the
construction industry

• Burnt wood from forest


fires

• Animals and animal


droppings
WHAT IS BIOMASS?
• All organic matter is known as biomass,
and the energy released from biomass
when it is eaten, burnt or converted into
f u e l s i s c a l l e d b i o m a s s e n e r g y.

• Biomass provides a clean, renewable


energy source that could dramatically
improve our environment, economy and
e n e r g y s e c u r i t y.

• Biomass energy generates far less air


emissions than fossil fuels.

• U n l i ke c o m b u s t i o n o f f o s s i l f u e l s , w h i c h
re l e a s e s c a r b o n d i oxi d e c a p t u re d b y
photosynthesis billions of years ago,
c arbon dioxide re le ase d by biomass is
b a l a n c e d b y c a r b o n d i ox i d e c a p t u re d i n t h e
HOW WAS BIOMASS
• USED
Bioma s s w a s t h e IN
f i r s t f THE
mankind learned to use for
uel PAST?
e n e r g y. B u r n i n g w o o d f o r
warmth and cooking and
keeping wild animals away
• Some of the earliest power
plants in America were fueled
by wood material
• It was an abundant fuel in many
parts of the country where
logging took place
• It burned much cleaner than
coal and it was available before
abundant oil and natural gas
was discovered
• Many cultures used animal
dung to burn, and some are
CONVERSION OF
BIOMASS WASTE INTO
Gasification
• Exposing a solid fuel to high temperatures
USEABLE FUEL
and limited oxygen produces biogas.

Pyrolysis
• Heating the biomass can produce pyrolysis
oil and phenol oil leaving charcoal.

Digestion
• Bacteria, in an oxygen-starved
environment can produce methane.

Fer mentatio n
• Bio-material that is used to manufacture
Ethanol and Biodiesel by an anaerobic
biological process in which sugars are
converted to alcohol by the action of
GASIFICATION
• B i o g a s i s p ro d u c e d b y
exposing biomass to
h i g h t e m p e r a t u re s a n d
l i m i t e d ox y g e n .

• Biogas energy can


serve as a feedstock
for electricity
generation or a
building block for
PYROLYSIS
• Heat is used to chemically
convert biomass to biooil.

• Pyrolysis Oil, is easier to


store and transport than solid
biomass material and can be
burned like petroleum to
g e n e r a t e e l e c t r i c i t y.

• Phenol Oil, a chemical used


to make wo od adhesi ves,
molded plastics and foam
insulation.

• Wood adh esiv es are used to


glue together plywood and
FERMENTATION
• Unlike other renewable energy sources,
biomass can be converted directly into
liquid fuels— biofuels—for our
transportation needs

• The two most common types of biofuels


are ethanol and biodiesel.

• Ethanol is an alcohol, created by


fermenting biomass high in
carbohydrates. It is used as a fuel
additive to cut down carbon monoxide
and other emissions.

• Biodiesel is made by combining alcohol


with vegetable oil, animal fat or other
recycled cooking grease and is also an
additive to reduce emissions.

• When pure, biodiesel is a renewable


alternative fuel for diesel engines.
• Animal Dung
SOLID FUEL
• Wo o d COMBUSTION
• Peat is an
accumulation of
partially decayed
vegetable matter .

• Direct combustion of
solid matter where the
biomass is fed into a
furnace where it is
burned.

• The heat is used to


boil water and the
energy in the steam is
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