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Dinamica si Fiabilitatea Autovehiculelor Rutiere

Proiect
1.Sa se proiecteze un autoturism avand urmatoarele date initiale:
Masa totala Ga [kg]

1400

Viteza maxima in [km/h] si [m/s]


Panta maxima []
Coeficientul de rezistenta la rulare f (0,0250,035)
Aria sectiunii transversale A [m2] (1,62,8)
Coeficientul de neuniformitate
cx (0,30,5)
Densitate aer aer [kg/m3]

170

47.2222
18
0.03
2
0.97
0.4
1.225

Randamentul
Puterea la viteza maxima Pvmax [kW]

0.9
59.5351

Tipul motorului
Puterea motorului [kW]
Turatia la putere maxima [rot/min] nP

1.5 DCI
66
3000

Cuplu motor [Nm]


Turatia la cuplu maxim [rot/min] nM
Viteza maxima Vmax in [km/h] si [m/s]

200
1750
50

Numar usi
Numar scaune
Lungime [mm]
Latime [mm]
Inaltime [mm]
Ampatament [mm]
Ecartament fata [mm]
Ecartament spate [mm]
Amplasare motor
Volum motor [cm3]
Tractiune
Masa proprie G0 [kg]

5
5
4622
1809
1479
2702
1541
1563
Fata

Transversal

1461
Fata
1290

Masa maxima autorizata [kg]


Tipul pneului
Dimensiuni pneuri
70 indicele de sarcina [kg/pneu]
Latime [mm]
Inaltime [m]
Raport H/B

180

1785
205/65R16

335
205
0.13325
0.65

Diametrul jantei [m]


Raza de rulare rr=r0 [m]

0.4064
0.33645

Repartitia greutatii pe punti


Greutate totala autovehicul Ga [kg]
Greutate bagaj [kg]
Greutate pasager [kg]
b/A [%]
a/A [%]
G1 [kg]
G2 [kg]
Greutate pe anvelopa G1d [kg]

1765

20
75
0.57 b [mm]
0.43 a [mm]
1006.05
758.95
503.025

1540.14
1161.86

3.Trasarea caracteristicii externe


Puterea maxima dezvoltata de motor Pmax [kW]
Coeficientul de elasticitate al motorului
1
2
3
nvmax=nmax (coeficient pentru MAC=0,91)
nvmax/np
f(nvmax/np)
Randamentul total
Turatia minima mmin
Turatia minima stabila nmin stabil
n [rpm]
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300

Pe [kW]
21.7771
25.344
29.04
32.8475
36.7488
40.7264
44.7627
48.84
52.9408
57.0475
61.1424
65.208
69.2267
73.1808
77.0528
80.8251

Me [Nm]

kn

259.9637
268.928
277.332
285.1757
292.4592
299.1824
305.3453
310.948
315.9904
320.4725
324.3944
327.756
330.5573
332.7984
334.4792
335.5997

66.66667
75
83.33333
91.66667
100
108.3333
116.6667
125
133.3333
141.6667
150
158.3333
166.6667
175
183.3333
191.6667

66
0.583333333
0.8
1.4
-1.2
3000
0.9
0.9792
0.874
600
800
kPe
69.79829
81.23077
93.07692
105.2803
117.7846
130.5333
143.4701
156.5385
169.6821
182.8444
195.9692
209
221.8803
234.5538
246.9641
259.0547

kMe
259.1712
268.1081
276.4865
284.3063
291.5676
298.2703
304.4144
310
315.027
319.4955
323.4054
326.7568
329.5495
331.7838
333.4595
334.5766

2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000

84.48
88
91.3675
94.5648
97.5744
100.379
102.96

336.16
336.16
335.5997
334.4792
332.7984
330.5573
327.756
kn

200
208.3333
216.6667
225
233.3333
241.6667
250
kPe

12

kMe
0.312 1.003058

270.7692
282.0513
292.8444
303.0923
312.7385
321.7265
330

335.1351
335.1351
334.5766
333.4595
331.7838
329.5495
326.7568

4.Calculul rezistentei la rulare Rr

Viteza maxima [km/h]


Tipul pneului (radial/cord metalic)

f0
f01 [h/km]
f02 [h2/km]
f03 [h3/km]

Coeficientul pentru autoturisme s


Indicatorul neregularitatilor drumului hd (starea caii foarte buna)
Coef. pentru relatia ce ev.numai viteza de deplasare fr,0
Coef. pentru relatia ce ev.numai viteza de deplasare fr,1
Coef. pentru relatia ce ev.numai viteza de deplasare fr,4
Coeficientul f0
Coeficientul fs
Greutatea totala a autovehiculului Ga [kg]
Unghiul de inclinare longitudinala al drumului
Viteza
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180

fR1
0.0133
0.01303
0.01279
0.0126
0.01244
0.01231
0.01222
0.01217
0.01216
0.01218
0.01223
0.01232
0.01245
0.01262
0.01282
0.01305
0.01333
0.01363
0.01398

fR2
0.013295
0.013895
0.015695
0.018695
0.022895
0.028295
0.034895
0.042695
0.051695
0.061895
0.073295
0.085895
0.099695
0.114695
0.130895
0.148295
0.166895
0.186695
0.207695

fR3
0.0078
0.00815
0.008501
0.008855
0.009215
0.009588
0.009978
0.010394
0.010846
0.011344
0.0119
0.012528
0.013244
0.014064
0.015005
0.016088
0.017332
0.018761
0.020399

fR4
0.0125
0.012527
0.012652
0.012919
0.01336
0.014003
0.01487
0.015985
0.017366
0.019032
0.021
0.023287
0.025908
0.028879
0.032212
0.035923
0.040024
0.044529
0.049449

fR5
0.013295
0.013314
0.013402
0.013591
0.013902
0.014356
0.014968
0.015755
0.01673
0.017906
0.019295
0.020909
0.02276
0.024856
0.02721
0.029829
0.032724
0.035904
0.039376

180
0.013295
-0.000028664
1.8036E-07
0
4
150
0.0078
0.0035
0.0006
0.011
0.006
1765
0.951056516

0.25
0.24
0.23

f
fR1

fR2

fR3

fR4

fR5

0.22
0.21
0.2
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.1

0.09
0.08
0.07

0.06
0.05
0.04

0.03
0.02
0.01

km/h

Rezistenta la rulare in functie de greutatea autovehiculului


Greutatea totala a autovehiculului Ga [kg]
Unghiul de inclinare longitudinala al drumului =18 si =0
0.951057
Pentru =18
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
Viteza
22.3172 22.3172 13.0932 20.98268 22.31718
0
21.8663 23.3244 13.68081 21.0278 22.34903
10
21.476 26.3459 14.26984 21.23792 22.49735
20
21.1462 31.3817 14.8639 21.68604 22.81367
30
20.877 38.4319 15.46904 22.42653 23.33637
40
20.6683 47.4964 16.09372 23.50497 24.09762
50
20.5202 58.5753 16.74882 24.96145 25.12572
60
20.4326 71.6685 17.44762 26.83213 26.44621
70
20.4055
86.776 18.20585 29.15029 28.08255
80
20.4391 103.898 19.04164 31.94687 30.05661
90
20.5332 123.034 19.97552 35.25091 32.38887
100
20.6878 144.185 21.03046 39.0899 35.09875
110
20.903 167.349 22.23184 43.48997 38.20468
120
21.1787 192.529 23.60747 48.47608 41.72428
130
21.515 219.722 25.18755 54.07217 45.67447
140
21.9118
248.93 27.00471 60.30129 50.07149
150
22.3692 280.152 29.09402 67.18566 54.93105
160
22.8871 313.389 31.49293 74.74677 60.2683
170
23.4656
348.64 34.24132 83.00546 66.09797
180

1765
1

400
390
380
370
360
350
340
330
320
310
300
290
280
270
260
250
240
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

R1
R2

R3
R4
R5

Viteza
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180

R1
23.4657
22.9916
22.5812
22.2344
21.9513
21.7319
21.5762
21.4841
21.4557
21.4909
21.5898
21.7524
21.9787
22.2686
22.6222
23.0394
23.5203
24.0649
24.6732

Pentru =0
R2
R3
23.46568
13.767
24.52468 14.38486
27.70168 15.00419
32.99668 15.62883
40.40968 16.26511
49.94068 16.92194
61.58968 17.61075
75.35668 18.34552
91.24168 19.14277
109.2447 20.02156
129.3657 21.0035
151.6047 22.11273
175.9617 23.37594
202.4367 24.82236
231.0297 26.48375
261.7407 28.39444
294.5697 30.59126
329.5167 33.11362
366.5817 36.00346

R4
22.0625
22.10994
22.33087
22.80205
23.58065
24.71459
26.24602
28.21298
30.65043
33.59092
37.065
41.10155
45.72806
50.97076
56.85485
63.40453
70.64318
78.59341
87.27711

R5
23.46568
23.49916
23.65511
23.98771
24.53731
25.33774
26.41875
27.80719
29.52774
31.60339
34.05568
36.90501
40.17077
43.87151
48.02498
52.64828
57.75792
63.36984
69.49952

420
410
400
390
380
370
360
350
340
330
320
310
300
290
280
270
260
250
240
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

R1
R2
R3

R4
R5

5.Calculul rezistentei aerului Ra ,Pa si a rezistentei la panta Rp


Aria sectiunii transversale maxime A [m2]
Coeficientul de rezistenta al aerului cx
Densitatea aerului [kg/m3]
Viteza de deplasare a autovehiculului [m/s]
Unghiul de inclinare longitudinala a caii de rulare []
[]
Rp
Viteza [km/h]Viteza [m/s] Ra
Pa
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 30.8035
10 2.77778 3.780864 0.010502
2 61.59761
20 5.55556 15.12346 0.084019
3 92.37296
30 8.33333 34.02778 0.283565
4 123.1202
40 11.1111 60.49383 0.672154
5 153.8299
50 13.8889 94.5216
1.3128
6 184.4927
60 16.6667 136.1111 2.268519
7 215.0994
70 19.4444 185.2623 3.602323
8 245.6405
80 22.2222 241.9753 5.377229
9 276.1068
90
25
306.25 7.65625
10 306.489
100 27.7778 378.0864 10.5024
11 336.7779
110 30.5556 457.4846 13.9787
12 366.9641
120 33.3333 544.4444 18.14815
13 397.0386
130 36.1111 638.966 23.07377
14 426.9921
140 38.8889 741.0494 28.81859
15 456.8156
150 41.6667 850.6944 35.4456
16 486.4999
160 44.4444 967.9012 43.01783
17 516.0361
170 47.2222 1092.67 51.59829
18 545.415
180
50
1225
61.25
19 574.6278
20 603.6656
21 632.5194
22 661.1806
23 689.6404
24 717.8902
25 745.9212
26 773.7251
27 801.2932
28 828.6173
29 855.689
30
882.5
31 909.0422
32 935.3075
33 961.2879
34 986.9755
35 1012.362

2
0.4
1.225
52.77777778
35

1800

Ra

1700
1600

1500
1400

1300
1200

1100
1000

900
800

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

Ra

Pa
100

90

80

70

60

50

Pa

40

30

20

10

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Rp
1000

900

800

700

600

500

Rp

400

300

200

100

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

6.Determinarea grafica a vitezei maxime


Pa+Pr1
0
0.6179
1.27713
2.04575
2.99182
4.18339
5.68854
7.57532
9.9118
12.766
16.2061
20.3
25.1158
30.7216
37.1855
44.5755
52.9597
62.4061
72.9828

Pa+Pr3
0
0.39052
0.87679
1.52222
2.39094
3.54804
5.05999
6.99492
9.42297
12.4167
16.0512
20.4047
25.5588
31.5987
38.6137
46.6976
55.9485
66.47
78.3707

Pa+Pr5

Pr1

Pr2

Pr3

Pr4

0
0.631309
1.333872
2.184704
3.265083
4.659692
6.456139
8.744641
11.6178
15.1704
19.49931
24.70331
30.88304
38.14088
46.58088
56.30872
67.43163
80.05833
94.29898

0
0.607397
1.193109
1.762182
2.319662
2.870594
3.420025
3.973001
4.534567
5.109769
5.703653
6.321266
6.967652
7.647859
8.366931
9.129916
9.941858
10.8078
11.7328

0
0.647899
1.463659
2.615142
4.270209
6.596723
9.762544
13.93553
19.28355
25.97447
34.17613
44.05641
55.78317
69.52426
85.44755
103.7209
124.5122
147.9892
174.3199

0
0.380023
0.792769
1.238658
1.718782
2.235239
2.791469
3.392593
4.045745
4.760409
5.548754
6.425973
7.410614
8.524919
9.795157
11.25196
12.93068
14.87166
17.12066

0
0.584106
1.179885
1.80717
2.491836
3.26458
4.160241
5.21736
6.477843
7.986717
9.791919
11.94414
14.49666
17.50525
21.02807
25.12554
29.86029
35.29709
41.50273

Pr5
0
0.62081
1.24985
1.90114
2.59293
3.34689
4.18762
5.14232
6.24057
7.51415
8.99691
10.7246
12.7349
15.0671
17.7623
20.8631
24.4138
28.46
33.049

120
110

100
90

80
70

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Pa+Pr1

Pr1

220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Pa+Pr3
Pr3

100

90
80
70
60
50

Pa+Pr5

Pr5
40
30
20
10
0

Pa+Pr5
Pr5

Coordonatele punctului B

57.684

Punctul de intersectie se alfa la viteza de 158 de [km/h]

43.88888889

7.Determinarea raportului de transmitere al transmisiei principale


i0
Ze
Zp
I0ef
FRmax [N]

hg
Coef de incarcare dinamica in regim de demarare m1
Gad

2.408329021
21
11
2.408329021
5844.537423
0.5
0.9244
0.864596833
4988.358031

8.Determinarea vitezelor minime si maxime in fiecare treapta


Icv1
n1=nm
n2=nvmax
etajarea initiala q
Calcularea numarului de trepte kmin
Rotunjirea numarului de trepte
Recalcularea ratiei de etajare
Icv2
Icv3
Icv4
Icv5
n
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900

Vtr1
2.50559
2.81879
3.13199
3.44519
3.75838
4.07158
4.38478
4.69798
5.01118
5.32438
5.63758
5.95077

Vtr2
4.188396
4.711945
5.235495
5.759044
6.282593
6.806143
7.329692
7.853242
8.376791
8.900341
9.42389
9.94744

Vtr3
7.00141
7.876586
8.751762
9.626939
10.50211
11.37729
12.25247
13.12764
14.00282
14.878
15.75317
16.62835

4.671038308
1750
3000
1.714285714
3.859724285
4
1.671620966
2.794316655
1.671620966
1
0.9
Vtr4
11.7037
13.16667
14.62963
16.09259
17.55556
19.01852
20.48148
21.94444
23.40741
24.87037
26.33333
27.7963

Vtr5
13.00412
14.62963
16.25514
17.88066
19.50617
21.13169
22.7572
24.38272
26.00823
27.63374
29.25926
30.88477

2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000

6.26397
6.57717
6.89037
7.20357
7.51677
7.82997
8.14317
8.45636
8.76956
9.08276
9.39596

10.47099
10.99454
11.51809
12.04164
12.56519
13.08874
13.61229
14.13584
14.65938
15.18293
15.70648

17.50352
18.3787
19.25388
20.12905
21.00423
21.87941
22.75458
23.62976
24.50493
25.38011
26.25529

29.25926
30.72222
32.18519
33.64815
35.11111
36.57407
38.03704
39.5
40.96296
42.42593
43.88889

32.51029
34.1358
35.76132
37.38683
39.01235
40.63786
42.26337
43.88889
45.5144
47.13992
48.76543

i0ef
icv1
icv2
icv3
icv4
icv5
ntr
rr

2.40833
4.67104
2.79432
1.67162
1
0.9
0.874
0.33645

80
75
70

65
Pe
[kW]
Vtr1

60
55

Vtr2

50
Vtr3
45

Vtr4

40

Vtr5

35
30
25
20
15
10

5
0
3200

3100

3000

2900

2800

2700

2600

2500

2400

2300

2200

2100

2000

1900

1800

1700

1600

1500

1400

1300

1200

1100

1000

900

800

9.Caracteristica de tractiune a autovehiculelor


Forta de tractiune Fr1
Forta de tractiune Fr2
Forta de tractiune Fr3
Forta de tractiune Fr4
Forta de tractiune Fr5
Momement motor efectiv Me
Raza de rulare rr
Randamentul total al transmisiei autovehiculului
Treapta I-a
Turatia Moment
n [rot/min] Me [Nm] Va [km/h] Fr1 [N]
800 259.964 9.020122 7596.839
900 268.928 10.14764 7858.799
1000 277.332 11.27515 8104.386
1100 285.176 12.40267 8333.601
1200 292.459 13.53018 8546.444
1300 299.182 14.6577 8742.914
1400 305.345 15.78521 8923.011
1500 310.948 16.91273 9086.736
1600
315.99 18.04024 9234.089
1700 320.473 19.16776 9365.069
1800 324.394 20.29527 9479.676
1900 327.756 21.42279 9577.911
2000 330.557 22.5503 9659.774
2100 332.798 23.67782 9725.264
2200 334.479 24.80533 9774.381
2300
335.6 25.93285 9807.126
2400
336.16 27.06036 9823.499
2500
336.16 28.18788 9823.499
2600
335.6 29.3154 9807.126
2700 334.479 30.44291 9774.381
2800 332.798 31.57043 9725.264
2900 330.557 32.69794 9659.774
3000 327.756 33.82546 9577.911
Treapta IV-a
Turatia Moment
n [rot/min] Me [Nm] Va [km/h] Fr4 [N]
800 259.964 42.13333 1626.37
900 268.928
47.4 1682.452
1000 277.332 52.66667 1735.029
1100 285.176 57.93333
1784.1
1200 292.459
63.2 1829.667

Treapta a II-a
Va [km/h] Fr2 [N]
15.07822 4544.594
16.963 4701.304
18.84778 4848.22
20.73256 4985.341
22.61734 5112.668
24.50211 5230.201
26.38689 5337.939
28.27167 5435.883
30.15645 5524.033
32.04123 5602.388
33.926 5670.948
35.81078 5729.715
37.69556 5778.687
39.58034 5817.864
41.46512 5847.247
43.34989 5866.836
45.23467 5876.63
47.11945 5876.63
49.00423 5866.836
50.88901 5847.247
52.77379 5817.864
54.65856 5778.687
56.54334 5729.715

9086.736113
5435.883071
3251.863419
1945.335387
1750.801848
310.948
0.33645
0.874
Treapta a III-a
Va [km/h] Fr3 [N]
25.20508 2718.68
28.35571 2812.42
31.50634 2900.31
34.65698 2982.34
37.80761 3058.51
40.95825 3128.82
44.10888 3193.27
47.25952 3251.86
50.41015
3304.6
53.56079 3351.47
56.71142 3392.48
59.86206 3427.64
63.01269 3456.94
66.16332 3480.37
69.31396 3497.95
72.46459 3509.67
75.61523 3515.53
78.76586 3515.53
81.9165 3509.67
85.06713 3497.95
88.21777 3480.37
91.3684 3456.94
94.51903 3427.64

1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000

299.182
305.345
310.948
315.99
320.473
324.394
327.756
330.557
332.798
334.479
335.6
336.16
336.16
335.6
334.479
332.798
330.557
327.756

68.46667
73.73333
79
84.26667
89.53333
94.8
100.0667
105.3333
110.6
115.8667
121.1333
126.4
131.6667
136.9333
142.2
147.4667
152.7333
158

1871.728
1910.284
1945.335
1976.881
2004.922
2029.458
2050.489
2068.014
2082.035
2092.55
2099.56
2103.065
2103.065
2099.56
2092.55
2082.035
2068.014
2050.489

7000
6750
6500
6250
6000
5750
5500
5250
5000
4750
4500
4250
4000
3750
3500
3250
3000
2750
2500
2250
2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
500
250
0

Fr1 [N]
Fr2 [N]
Fr3 [N]
Fr4 [N]

180

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

10.Caracteristica de putere a autovehiculelor


Turatia Moment Treapta I-a
n [rot/min] Me [Nm] Va [km/h]
800 259.964 9.020122
900 268.928 10.14764
1000 277.332 11.27515
1100 285.176 12.40267
1200 292.459 13.53018
1300 299.182 14.6577
1400 305.345 15.78521
1500 310.948 16.91273
1600
315.99 18.04024
1700 320.473 19.16776
1800 324.394 20.29527
1900 327.756 21.42279
2000 330.557 22.5503
2100 332.798 23.67782
2200 334.479 24.80533
2300
335.6 25.93285
2400
336.16 27.06036
2500
336.16 28.18788
2600
335.6 29.3154
2700 334.479 30.44291
2800 332.798 31.57043
2900 330.557 32.69794
3000 327.756 33.82546

Treapta a II-a
Treapta a III-a
Pr1 [N] Va [km/h] Pr2 [N] Va [km/h] Pr3 [N]
19.03456 15.07822 19.03456 25.20508 19.0346
22.15229
16.963 22.15229 28.35571 22.1523
25.38283 18.84778 25.38283 31.50634 25.3828
28.7108 20.73256 28.7108 34.65698 28.7108
32.12082 22.61734 32.12082 37.80761 32.1208
35.5975 24.50211 35.5975 40.95825 35.5975
39.12545 26.38689 39.12545 44.10888 39.1255
42.6893 28.27167 42.6893 47.25952 42.6893
46.27367 30.15645 46.27367 50.41015 46.2737
49.86316 32.04123 49.86316 53.56079 49.8632
53.44239
33.926 53.44239 56.71142 53.4424
56.99599 35.81078 56.99599 59.86206
56.996
60.50856 37.69556 60.50856 63.01269 60.5086
63.96473 39.58034 63.96473 66.16332 63.9647
67.34911 41.46512 67.34911 69.31396 67.3491
70.64631 43.34989 70.64631 72.46459 70.6463
73.84096 45.23467 73.84096 75.61523
73.841
76.91767 47.11945 76.91767 78.76586 76.9177
79.86105 49.00423 79.86105 81.9165
79.861
82.65572 50.88901 82.65572 85.06713 82.6557
85.28631 52.77379 85.28631 88.21777 85.2863
87.73742 54.65856 87.73742 91.3684 87.7374
89.99367 56.54334 89.99367 94.51903 89.9937

Treapta IV-a
Turatia Moment
n [rot/min] Me [Nm] Va [km/h] Pr4 [N]
800 259.964 42.13333 19.03456
900 268.928
47.4 22.15229
1000 277.332 52.66667 25.38283
1100 285.176 57.93333 28.7108
1200 292.459
63.2 32.12082
1300 299.182 68.46667 35.5975
1400 305.345 73.73333 39.12545
1500 310.948
79 42.6893
1600
315.99 84.26667 46.27367
1700 320.473 89.53333 49.86316
1800 324.394
94.8 53.44239
1900 327.756 100.0667 56.99599
2000 330.557 105.3333 60.50856
2100 332.798
110.6 63.96473

2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
2900
3000

334.479
335.6
336.16
336.16
335.6
334.479
332.798
330.557
327.756

115.8667
121.1333
126.4
131.6667
136.9333
142.2
147.4667
152.7333
158

67.34911
70.64631
73.84096
76.91767
79.86105
82.65572
85.28631
87.73742
89.99367

110

105
100
95
90
85
80
75
70

65
60

Pr1 [N]

55

Pr2 [N]

50

Pr3 [N]

45

Pr4 [N]

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5

0
200

190

180

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

11.Bilantul de tractiune al autovehiculelor


V [km/h]
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170

Rr [N]
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44

Ra [N]
0
3.780864
15.12346
34.02778
60.49383
94.5216
136.1111
185.2623
241.9753
306.25
378.0864
457.4846
544.4444
638.966
741.0494
850.6944
967.9012
1092.67

Ra+Rr [N]
519.4395
523.2204
534.563
553.4673
579.9333
613.9611
655.5506
704.7018
761.4148
825.6895
897.5259
976.9241
1063.884
1158.406
1260.489
1370.134
1487.341
1612.109

2300
2200
2100
2000

1900
1800
1700
1600
1500
1400
1300

1200

Rr [N]

1100

Fr4 [N]

1000

Ra+Rr [N]

900
800
700
600

500
400
300
200
100
0

Caracteristica de tractiune si bilantul de tractiune al autovehiculului pentru =5 []

V [km/h]
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
3700
3600
3500
3400
3300
3200
3100
3000
2900
2800
2700
2600
2500
2400
2300
2200
2100
2000
1900
1800
1700
1600
1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

Rr [N]
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44

Rp+Rr [N]
2028.511
2028.511
2028.511
2028.511
2028.511
2028.511
2028.511
2028.511
2028.511
2028.511
2028.511
2028.511
2028.511
2028.511
2028.511
2028.511
2028.511
2028.511

Ra+Rr+Rp[N]

2028.511
2032.292
2043.634
2062.538
2089.005
2123.032
2164.622
2213.773
2270.486
2334.761
2406.597
2485.995
2572.955
2667.477
2769.56
2879.205
2996.412
3121.18

Rp+Rr [N]

Ra+Rr+Rp[N]
Fr3 [N]
Rr [N]

Caracteristica de tractiune si bilantul de tractiune al autovehiculului pentru =10 []

V [km/h]
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
6000
5800
5600
5400
5200
5000
4800
4600
4400
4200
4000
3800
3600
3400
3200
3000
2800
2600
2400
2200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

Rr [N]
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44

Rp+Rr [N]
3526.097
3526.097
3526.097
3526.097
3526.097
3526.097
3526.097
3526.097
3526.097
3526.097
3526.097
3526.097
3526.097
3526.097
3526.097
3526.097
3526.097
3526.097

10

Ra+Rr+Rp[N]

3526.097
3529.878
3541.22
3560.125
3586.591
3620.619
3662.208
3711.359
3768.072
3832.347
3904.183
3983.581
4070.541
4165.063
4267.146
4376.791
4493.998
4618.767

Rr [N]

Rp+Rr [N]
Ra+Rr+Rp[N]
Fr2 [N]

Caracteristica de tractiune si bilantul de tractiune al autovehiculului pentru =18 []

V [km/h]
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170

10500
10000
9500
9000
8500
8000
7500
7000
6500
6000
5500
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0

Rr [N]
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44
519.44

Rp+Rr [N]
5869.961
5869.961
5869.961
5869.961
5869.961
5869.961
5869.961
5869.961
5869.961
5869.961
5869.961
5869.961
5869.961
5869.961
5869.961
5869.961
5869.961
5869.961

18

Ra+Rr+Rp[N]

5869.961
5873.741
5885.084
5903.988
5930.454
5964.482
6006.072
6055.223
6111.936
6176.211
6248.047
6327.445
6414.405
6508.927
6611.01
6720.655
6837.862
6962.63

Rr [N]
Rp+Rr [N]
Ra+Rr+Rp[N]
Fr1 [N]

Va [km/h]
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170

350
340
330
320
310
300
290
280
270
260
250
240
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

12.Bilantul de putere al autovehiculului


Caracteristica de putere a autovehiculului pentru =5 []
Pr
Pp+Pr Pa+Pr+Pp
0
0
0
1.44289 5.634752 5.645254
2.88578 11.2695 11.35352
4.32866 16.90426 17.18782
5.77155 22.53901 23.21116
7.21444 28.17376 29.48656
8.65733 33.80851 36.07703
10.1002 39.44326 43.04559
11.5431 45.07802 50.45524
12.986 50.71277 58.36902
14.4289 56.34752 66.84992
15.8718 61.98227 75.96097
17.3147 67.61702 85.76517
18.7575 73.25177 96.32555
20.2004 78.88653 107.7051
21.6433 84.52128 119.9669
23.0862 90.15603 133.1739
24.5291 95.79078 147.3891

Pr
Pp+Pr
Pa+Pr+Pp
Pr3 [N]

Va [km/h]
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Caracteristica de putere a autovehiculului pentru =10 []


Pr
Pp+Pr Pa+Pr+Pp
0
0
0
1.44289 9.794714 9.805216
2.88578 19.58943 19.67345
4.32866 29.38414 29.66771
5.77155 39.17885 39.85101
7.21444 48.97357 50.28637
8.65733 58.76828 61.0368
10.1002
68.563 72.16532
11.5431 78.35771 83.73494
12.986 88.15242 95.80867
14.4289 97.94714 108.4495
15.8718 107.7419 121.7205
17.3147 117.5366 135.6847
18.7575 127.3313 150.4051
20.2004 137.126 165.9446
21.6433 146.9207 182.3663
23.0862 156.7154 199.7333
24.5291 166.5101 218.1084

Pr
Pp+Pr

Pa+Pr+Pp
Pa+Pr+Pp
Pr2 [N]

Caracteristica de putere a autovehiculului pentru =18 []


Va [km/h]
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
350
340
330
320
310
300
290
280
270
260
250
240
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Pr
0
1.44289
2.88578
4.32866
5.77155
7.21444
8.65733
10.1002
11.5431
12.986
14.4289
15.8718
17.3147
18.7575
20.2004
21.6433
23.0862
24.5291

Pp+Pr
0
16.30545
32.61089
48.91634
65.22178
81.52723
97.83268
114.1381
130.4436
146.749
163.0545
179.3599
195.6654
211.9708
228.2762
244.5817
260.8871
277.1926

Pa+Pr+Pp
0
16.31595
32.69491
49.1999
65.89394
82.84003
100.1012
117.7404
135.8208
154.4053
173.5569
193.3386
213.8135
235.0446
257.0948
280.0273
303.905
328.7909

Pr
Pp+Pr
Pa+Pr+Pp
Pr1 [N]

13.Caracteristica dinamica a autovehiculelor

Va[km/h]
9.02012
10.1476
11.2752
12.4027
13.5302
14.6577
15.7852
16.9127
18.0402
19.1678
20.2953
21.4228
22.5503
23.6778
24.8053
25.9328
27.0604
28.1879

Treapta I
FR [N]
Ra [N]
7596.84 3.076209
7858.8 3.893327
8104.39 4.806577
8333.6 5.815958
8546.44 6.921471
8742.91 8.123115
8923.01 9.420891
9086.74 10.8148
9234.09 12.30484
9365.07 13.89101
9479.68 15.57331
9577.91 17.35174
9659.77 19.22631
9725.26
21.197
9774.38 23.26383
9807.13 25.42679
9823.5 27.68588
9823.5 30.0411

Va[km/h]
25.2051
28.3557
31.5063
34.657
37.8076
40.9582
44.1089
47.2595
50.4102
53.5608
56.7114
59.8621
63.0127
66.1633
69.314
72.4646
75.6152
78.7659
81.9165

Treapta III
FR [N]
Ra [N]
2718.68 24.01967
2812.42 30.3999
2900.31 37.53074
2982.34 45.41219
3058.51 54.04427
3128.82 63.42695
3193.27 73.56025
3251.86 84.44416
3304.6 96.07869
3351.47 108.4638
3392.48 121.5996
3427.64 135.486
3456.94 150.123
3480.37 165.5106
3497.95 181.6488
3509.67 198.5376
3515.53 216.1771
3515.53 234.5671
3509.67 253.7078

D
0.438574
0.453657
0.467788
0.480968
0.493196
0.504474
0.5148
0.524176
0.5326
0.540073
0.546595
0.552166
0.556786
0.560454
0.563171
0.564938
0.565753
0.565617

D
0.155629
0.160674
0.165339
0.169621
0.173522
0.17704
0.180178
0.182933
0.185307
0.187298
0.188909
0.190137
0.190984
0.191448
0.191532
0.191233
0.190553
0.18949
0.188047

Va [Km/h]
15.07822
16.963
18.84778
20.73256
22.61734
24.50211
26.38689
28.27167
30.15645
32.04123
33.926
35.81078
37.69556
39.58034
41.46512
43.34989
45.23467
47.11945

Treapta II
FR [N]
Ra [N]
4544.594 8.595902
4701.304 10.87919
4848.22 13.4311
4985.341 16.25163
5112.668 19.34078
5230.201 22.69855
5337.939 26.32495
5435.883 30.21997
5524.033 34.38361
5602.388 38.81587
5670.948 43.51676
5729.715 48.48626
5778.687 53.72439
5817.864 59.23114
5847.247 65.00651
5866.836 71.05051
5876.63 77.36312
5876.63 83.94436

D
0.26197
0.27089
0.27923
0.28699
0.29416
0.30076
0.30677
0.3122
0.31705
0.32132
0.32501
0.32812
0.33064
0.33259
0.33395
0.33473
0.33493
0.33455

Va [Km/h]
42.13333
47.4
52.66667
57.93333
63.2
68.46667
73.73333
79
84.26667
89.53333
94.8
100.0667
105.3333
110.6
115.8667
121.1333
126.4
131.6667
136.9333

Treapta IV
FR [N]
Ra [N]
1626.37 67.11857
1682.452 84.94694
1735.029 104.8728
1784.1 126.8961
1829.667 151.0168
1871.728 177.235
1910.284 205.5506
1945.335 235.9637
1976.881 268.4743
2004.922 303.0823
2029.458 339.7878
2050.489 378.5907
2068.014 419.4911
2082.035 462.4889
2092.55 507.5842
2099.56 554.777
2103.065 604.0672
2103.065 655.4548
2099.56 708.9399

D
0.09005
0.09226
0.09415
0.09571
0.09695
0.09786
0.09846
0.09872
0.09867
0.09829
0.09759
0.09656
0.09521
0.09354
0.09154
0.08922
0.08657
0.08361
0.08031

85.0671
88.2178
91.3684
94.519

3497.95 273.5991 0.186221


142.2 2092.55 764.5225
3480.37 294.241 0.184014 147.4667 2082.035 822.2025
3456.94 315.6335 0.181425 152.7333 2068.014
881.98
3427.64 337.7767 0.178454
158 2050.489 943.8549

0.0767
0.07276
0.0685
0.06391

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4
D treapta I

D treapta a II-a
D treapta a III-a
0.3

0.2

0.1

D treapta a IV-a

Caracteristica de propulsie a drumului

Va [hm/h]
0.1
0
0.057
10 0.05678
20 0.05613
30 0.05503
40 0.05351
50 0.05154
60 0.04914
70
0.0463
80 0.04302
90 0.03931
100 0.03516
110 0.03058
120 0.02556
130
0.0201
140
0.0142
150 0.00787
160
0.0011
170 -0.00611

0.2
0.114
0.113782
0.113127
0.112035
0.110506
0.108541
0.106139
0.1033
0.100025
0.096313
0.092164
0.087578
0.082556
0.077097
0.071201
0.064869
0.058099
0.050893

Coeficientul de aderenta

0.3
0.35
0.4
0.171
0.1995
0.228
0.170782 0.199282 0.227782
0.170127 0.198627 0.227127
0.169035 0.197535 0.226035
0.167506 0.196006 0.224506
0.165541 0.194041 0.222541
0.163139 0.191639 0.220139
0.1603
0.1888
0.2173
0.157025 0.185525 0.214025
0.153313 0.181813 0.210313
0.149164 0.177664 0.206164
0.144578 0.173078 0.201578
0.139556 0.168056 0.196556
0.134097 0.162597 0.191097
0.128201 0.156701 0.185201
0.121869 0.150369 0.178869
0.115099 0.143599 0.172099
0.107893 0.136393 0.164893

0.6
0.342
0.341782
0.341127
0.340035
0.338506
0.336541
0.334139
0.3313
0.328025
0.324313
0.320164
0.315578
0.310556
0.305097
0.299201
0.292869
0.286099
0.278893

0.8
0.456
0.45578
0.45513
0.45403
0.45251
0.45054
0.44814
0.4453
0.44202
0.43831
0.43416
0.42958
0.42456
0.4191
0.4132
0.40687
0.4001
0.39289

0.7

0.6
D treapta I
0.5

0.4

0.3

D treapta a
II-a
D treapta a
III-a
D treapta a
IV-a
=0.1
=0.2

0.2

=0.3

=0.35
0.1

1E-16

-0.1

=0.4

14.Determinarea vitezei maxime

Sosea din beton in stare buna


Coeficientul rezistentei la rulare "f"

0.018
Viteza maxima

=0 []
=3 []
=5 []
=10 []
Treapta a IV-a
Treapta a III-a
Treapta a II-a
Treapta a I-a
DIV
Va [km/h]
DIII
Va [km/h]
DII
Va [km/h]
DI
Va [km/h]
0.018
146
0.070311
102
0.105087
60
0.191375
20
Rezistenta maxima a drumului
Viteza autovehicul Va [hm/h]
Coef. rezist. totale
Viteza autovehicul Va [hm/h]
Panta maxima p [%]
Unghiul de inclinare []

30
60
90
120
150
0.37
0.22
0.12
0.07
0.05
30
60
90
120
150
0.352
0.202
0.102
0.052
0.032
20.60969 11.65394 5.854351 2.980725 1.83378

Diagrama acceleratiilor autovehiculelor


Momentul de inertie al mecanismului motor, inclusiv volantul Jm [kg*m2]
Momentul de inertie al unei roti a autovehiculului JR

0.04
0.4

Numarul de roti ale autovehiculului n


Randamentul mecanic global al transmisiei autovehiculului tr
Randamentul total de transmitere al transmisiei autovehiculului itr
Raportul de transmitere al transmisiei principale i0
Raportul de transmitere corespunzator treptei selectate icvI
Raza de rulare a rotilor motoare rr
Masa automobilului ma

4
0.874
11.2494
2.40833
4.67104
0.33645
1765

Coeficientul de influenta al maselor in miscare de rotatie 1


1

0.00801
1.03015
0.02214

Va [km/h]
9.02012
10.1476
11.2752
12.4027
13.5302
14.6577
15.7852

Treapta a I-a
D
a [m/s2]
0.43857 4.005076
0.45366 4.148701
0.46779 4.28327
0.48097 4.40878
0.4932 4.525233
0.50447 4.632629
0.5148 4.730967

1/a [s2/m]
0.249683
0.241039
0.233467
0.22682
0.220983
0.21586
0.211373

Va [km/h]
15.07822
16.963
18.84778
20.73256
22.61734
24.50211
26.38689

Treapta a II-a
D
a [m/s2] 1/a [s2/m]
0.261975 2.323338 0.43042
0.270893 2.408271 0.41524
0.279231 2.48767 0.40198
0.286988 2.561534 0.39039
0.294163 2.629863 0.38025
0.300757 2.692658 0.37138
0.30677 2.749919 0.36365

16.9127
18.0402
19.1678
20.2953
21.4228
22.5503
23.6778
24.8053
25.9328
27.0604
28.1879

Va [km/h]
25.2051
28.3557
31.5063
34.657
37.8076
40.9582
44.1089
47.2595
50.4102
53.5608
56.7114
59.8621
63.0127
66.1633
69.314
72.4646
75.6152
78.7659
81.9165
85.0671
88.2178
91.3684
94.519

0.52418
0.5326
0.54007
0.5466
0.55217
0.55679
0.56045
0.56317
0.56494
0.56575
0.56562

4.820247
4.90047
4.971635
5.033743
5.086793
5.130785
5.16572
5.191597
5.208417
5.216179
5.214884

0.207458
0.204062
0.201141
0.198659
0.196588
0.194902
0.193584
0.192619
0.191997
0.191711
0.191759

28.27167
30.15645
32.04123
33.926
35.81078
37.69556
39.58034
41.46512
43.34989
45.23467
47.11945

0.312202
0.317052
0.321322
0.32501
0.328117
0.330643
0.332587
0.333951
0.334733
0.334934
0.334554

2.801645
2.847836
2.888493
2.923615
2.953203
2.977256
2.995774
3.008758
3.016208
3.018123
3.014503

0.35693
0.35114
0.3462
0.34204
0.33862
0.33588
0.3338
0.33236
0.33154
0.33133
0.33173

Treapta a III-a
D
a [m/s2]
0.15563 1.31062
0.16067 1.358671
0.16534 1.403086
0.16962 1.443867
0.17352 1.481012
0.17704 1.514521
0.18018 1.544396
0.18293 1.570635
0.18531 1.593238
0.1873 1.612207
0.18891 1.62754
0.19014 1.639237
0.19098
1.6473
0.19145 1.651727
0.19153 1.652518
0.19123 1.649675
0.19055 1.643196
0.18949 1.633081
0.18805 1.619332
0.18622 1.601947
0.18401 1.580926
0.18142 1.556271
0.17845 1.52798

1/a [s2/m]
0.762998
0.736014
0.712715
0.692585
0.675214
0.660275
0.647502
0.636685
0.627652
0.620268
0.614424
0.61004
0.607054
0.605427
0.605137
0.60618
0.60857
0.612339
0.617539
0.62424
0.632541
0.642562
0.654459

Va [km/h]
42.13333
47.4
52.66667
57.93333
63.2
68.46667
73.73333
79
84.26667
89.53333
94.8
100.0667
105.3333
110.6
115.8667
121.1333
126.4
131.6667
136.9333
142.2
147.4667
152.7333
158

Treapta a IV-a
D
a [m/s2] 1/a [s2/m]
0.090054 0.68616 1.45739
0.092263 0.707199 1.41403
0.094149 0.725157 1.37901
0.095711 0.740033 1.35129
0.09695 0.751828 1.33009
0.097865 0.760541 1.31485
0.098456 0.766173 1.30519
0.098724 0.768724 1.30086
0.098668 0.768194 1.30175
0.098289 0.764582
1.3079
0.097586 0.757889 1.31945
0.09656 0.748114 1.33669
0.09521 0.735258 1.36007
0.093536 0.719321
1.3902
0.091539 0.700302 1.42795
0.089218 0.678202 1.47449
0.086574 0.653021 1.53134
0.083606 0.624758 1.60062
0.080315 0.593414 1.68516
0.0767 0.558989 1.78894
0.072761 0.521482 1.91761
0.068499 0.480894 2.07946
0.063913 0.437225 2.28715

Diagrama variatiei acceleratiei

6
Acceleratia in
treapta I
5

Acceleratia in
treapta a II a

Acceleratia in
treapta a III a
4
Acceleratia in
treapta a IV a

3
Incersul
acceleratiei in
treapta I
2.5

Inversul
acceleratiei in
treapta a II-a
Inversul
acceleratiei in
treapta a III-a

1.5

0.5

Inversul
acceleratiei in
treapta a IV-a

15.Timpul si spatiul de demarare al autovehiculelor


Timpul de demarare pentru drum (orizontal/inclinat) din asfalt in stare (uscata/umeda)
Va
[km/h]
9.02012
10.1476
11.2752
12.4027
13.5302
14.6577
15.7852
16.9127
18.0402
19.1678
20.2953
21.4228
22.5503
23.6778
24.8053
25.9328
27.0604
28.1879
32.0412
33.926
35.8108
37.6956
39.5803
41.4651
43.3499
45.2347
47.1195
53.5608
56.7114
59.8621
63.0127
66.1633
69.314
72.4646
75.6152
78.7659
81.9165
85.0671

i/ai

i/ai+1

dv

Ti

td

[km/h]
1.127515
1.127515
1.127515
1.127515
1.127515
1.127515
1.127515
1.127515
1.127515
1.127515
1.127515
1.127515
1.127515
1.127515
1.127515
1.127515
1.127515
3.853347
1.884778
1.884778
1.884778
1.884778
1.884778
1.884778
1.884778
1.884778
6.441335
3.150634
3.150634
3.150634
3.150634
3.150634
3.150634
3.150634
3.150634
3.150634
3.150634
3.150634

[s]
0.076847
0.074307
0.072081
0.070126
0.068409
0.066904
0.065589
0.064444
0.063455
0.062608
0.061895
0.061307
0.060837
0.060479
0.060231
0.060088
0.060051
0.287909
0.180165
0.178179
0.176566
0.175306
0.174386
0.173794
0.173524
0.173573
0.851685
0.540287
0.535811
0.532586
0.530567
0.529728
0.530058
0.53156
0.534256
0.53818
0.543388
0.549952

[s]
0.076847
0.151154
0.146388
0.142206
0.138535
0.135314
0.132493
0.130033
0.127898
0.126063
0.124504
0.123202
0.122144
0.121316
0.12071
0.120319
0.12014
0.34796
0.468074
0.358344
0.354745
0.351872
0.349692
0.348179
0.347317
0.347096
1.025258
1.391972
1.076098
1.068397
1.063153
1.060296
1.059786
1.061618
1.065816
1.072436
1.081568
1.09334

[m /s]
0.249683
0.241039
0.233467
0.22682
0.220983
0.21586
0.211373
0.207458
0.204062
0.201141
0.198659
0.196588
0.194902
0.193584
0.192619
0.191997
0.191711
0.191759
0.346201
0.342042
0.338615
0.33588
0.333804
0.332363
0.331542
0.331332
0.33173
0.620268
0.614424
0.61004
0.607054
0.605427
0.605137
0.60618
0.60857
0.612339
0.617539
0.62424

[m /s]
0.241039
0.233467
0.22682
0.220983
0.21586
0.211373
0.207458
0.204062
0.201141
0.198659
0.196588
0.194902
0.193584
0.192619
0.191997
0.191711
0.191759
0.346201
0.342042
0.338615
0.33588
0.333804
0.332363
0.331542
0.331332
0.33173
0.620268
0.614424
0.61004
0.607054
0.605427
0.605137
0.60618
0.60857
0.612339
0.617539
0.62424
0.632541

88.2178
91.3684
94.519
105.333
110.6
115.867
121.133
126.4
131.667
136.933
142.2
147.467
152.733

0.632541
0.642562
0.654459
1.360066
1.3902
1.427955
1.474486
1.531344
1.600619
1.685163
1.788944
1.91761
2.079459

0.642562
0.654459
1.360066
1.3902
1.427955
1.474486
1.531344
1.600619
1.685163
1.788944
1.91761
2.079459
0

3.150634
3.150634
10.8143
5.266667
5.266667
5.266667
5.266667
5.266667
5.266667
5.266667
5.266667
5.266667
-152.733

0.55797
0.567561
3.025789
2.011769
2.061428
2.123082
2.198709
2.290973
2.403488
2.541245
2.711276
2.923782
-44.1115

1.107922
1.12553
3.59335
5.037558
4.073197
4.18451
4.321791
4.489682
4.694461
4.944733
5.25252
5.635058
-41.1877

t [s]

0.07685
0.15115
0.14639
0.14221
0.13854
0.13531
0.13249
0.13003
0.1279
0.12606
0.1245
0.1232
0.12214
0.12132
0.12071
0.12032
0.12014
0.34796
0.46807
0.35834
0.35474
0.35187
0.34969
0.34818
0.34732
0.3471
1.02526
1.39197
1.0761
1.0684
1.06315
1.0603
1.05979
1.06162
1.06582
1.07244
1.08157
1.09334
1.10792
1.12553
3.59335
5.03756
4.0732

vi [km/h]

vi+1

dt [s]

Si

Sd

9.020122
10.14764
11.27515
12.40267
13.53018
14.6577
15.78521
16.91273
18.04024
19.16776
20.29527
21.42279
22.5503
23.67782
24.80533
25.93285
27.06036
28.18788
32.04123
33.926
35.81078
37.69556
39.58034
41.46512
43.34989
45.23467
47.11945
53.56079
56.71142
59.86206
63.01269
66.16332
69.31396
72.46459
75.61523
78.76586
81.9165
85.06713
88.21777
91.3684
94.51903
105.3333
110.6

10.14764
11.27515
12.40267
13.53018
14.6577
15.78521
16.91273
18.04024
19.16776
20.29527
21.42279
22.5503
23.67782
24.80533
25.93285
27.06036
28.18788
32.04123
33.926
35.81078
37.69556
39.58034
41.46512
43.34989
45.23467
47.11945
53.56079
56.71142
59.86206
63.01269
66.16332
69.31396
72.46459
75.61523
78.76586
81.9165
85.06713
88.21777
91.3684
94.51903
105.3333
110.6
115.8667

0.074307
-0.00477
-0.00418
-0.00367
-0.00322
-0.00282
-0.00246
-0.00213
-0.00184
-0.00156
-0.0013
-0.00106
-0.00083
-0.00061
-0.00039
-0.00018
0.227821
0.120114
-0.10973
-0.0036
-0.00287
-0.00218
-0.00151
-0.00086
-0.00022
0.678162
0.366714
-0.31587
-0.0077
-0.00524
-0.00286
-0.00051
0.001832
0.004198
0.00662
0.009132
0.011772
0.014582
0.017608
2.467819
1.444208
-0.96436
0.111313

0.19782
-0.01418
-0.01375
-0.01322
-0.01261
-0.01193
-0.01117
-0.01036
-0.00948
-0.00855
-0.00754
-0.00647
-0.00532
-0.00408
-0.00275
-0.00132
1.748153
1.004769
-1.00536
-0.03486
-0.02933
-0.0234
-0.01703
-0.01015
-0.00272
8.698755
5.127895
-4.8378
-0.12468
-0.08949
-0.05126
-0.00958
0.036073
0.08633
0.141939
0.203805
0.273028
0.350945
0.439198
63.71341
40.08728
-28.9219
3.501197

0.19782
0.183639
-0.02793
-0.02697
-0.02583
-0.02454
-0.0231
-0.02154
-0.01985
-0.01803
-0.01609
-0.01401
-0.01178
-0.0094
-0.00683
-0.00407
1.746833
2.752922
-0.00059
-1.04022
-0.06419
-0.05273
-0.04043
-0.02718
-0.01287
8.696038
13.82665
0.290093
-4.96248
-0.21417
-0.14075
-0.06085
0.026488
0.122402
0.228268
0.345744
0.476833
0.623973
0.790143
64.15261
103.8007
11.16538
-25.4207

4.18451
4.32179
4.48968
4.69446
4.94473
5.25252
5.63506
-41.1877

115.8667
121.1333
126.4
131.6667
136.9333
142.2
147.4667
152.7333

121.1333
126.4
131.6667
136.9333
142.2
147.4667
152.7333

0.137281
0.167891
0.204779
0.250272
0.307787
0.382538
-46.8228

4.518839
5.772034
7.339819
9.336533
11.93246
15.39005
-1952.25

8.020036
10.29087
13.11185
16.67635
21.26899
27.32251
-1936.86

16.Parametrii capacitatii de franare ai autovehiculului


Coeficientul de influenta al maselor in miscare de rotatie 1

Momentul de inertie al unei roti a autovehiculului JR

1.00601
0.00601
0.3

Acceleratia gravitationala g
Unghiul de inclinare al drumului
Coeficientul de rezistenta la rulare f
Coeficientul de rezistenta aerodinamica frontala k
Greutatea totala a autovehiculului Ga [kg]
Unghiul de inclinare al drumului:drum orizontal 1=0 []
(dv/dt)max
Va
Modul de franare
Starea caii de rulare
[km/h]
[m/s2]

9.81
0.08727

Cu toate rotile pana


la limita de
aderenta, fara
blocare

Cu toate rotile
blocate

beton uscat =

0.7

beton umed =

0.35

polei =

0.15

beton uscat =

0.56

beton umed =

0.28

polei =

0.12

60
100
168
60
100
168
60
100
168
60
100
168
60
100
168
60
100
168

6.826002

3.413001

1.462715

5.460802

2.730401

1.170172

0.013071

0.4
1765
tfmin
[s]
2.39689
3.93017
6.41991
4.70748
7.60315
12.1327
10.481
16.34
24.876
3.05205
4.87134
7.90789
6.10411
9.35213
14.7707
14.2429
19.7534
29.6012

Unghiul de inclinare al drumului:drum orizontal 2=5 []


(dv/dt)max
Va
Modul de franare
Starea caii de rulare
[km/h]
[m/s2]

Cu toate rotile pana


la limita de
aderenta, fara
blocare

Cu toate rotile
blocate

beton uscat =

0.7

beton umed =

0.35

polei =

0.15

beton uscat =

0.56

beton umed =

0.28

polei =

0.12

Unghiul de inclinare al drumului:drum


orizontal 1=0 []
Ff
Ff
Ff
Ff
Ff
Ff

12346.57
6286.447
2823.517
9922.524
5074.422
2304.078

60
100
168
60
100
168
60
100
168
60
100
168
60
100
168
60
100
168

7.676975

4.263974

2.313688

6.311775

3.581374

2.021145

tfmin
[s]
2.44164
3.50775
6.16603
4.88329
10.8807
17.0376
11.3943
4.23862
6.90951
3.05205
4.23862
6.90951
6.10411
7.26795
11.6214
14.2429
12.2917
19.1003

Unghiul de inclinare al drumului:drum


orizontal 2=5 []
Ff
Ff
Ff
Ff
Ff
Ff

13857.56
7797.436
4334.506
11433.51
6585.41
3815.066

Spatiul minim de franare [m]


Felul suprafetei de rulare

Coeficientul de aderenta/frecare
=
0.7
= (pentru toate rotile franate)
0.56
=
0.35
= (pentru toate rotile franate)
0.28
=
0.15
= (pentru toate rotile franate)
0.12

Drum de beton cu suprafata uscata


Drum de beton cu suprafata umeda
Drum de beton cu suprafata acoperita cu
polei

Rotile franate

10
toate rotile =0,7
0.39332
ale puntii fata =0,7 0.845052
ale puntii spate =0,7 1.120185
toate rotile =0,56 0.393535
toate rotile =0,35 0.393859
ale puntii fata =0,35 1.82767
ale puntii spate =0,352.102803
toate rotile =0,28 0.393967
toate rotile =0,15 0.394167
ale puntii fata =0,15 4.447984
ale puntii spate =0,154.723118
toate rotile =0,12 0.394214

Viteza initiala Vai [km/h]


60
14.15951
30.42186
40.32665
14.16727
14.17892
65.79611
75.7009
14.1828
14.19003
160.1274
170.0322
14.19169

80
25.17247
54.0833
71.69181
25.18625
25.20696
116.9709
134.5794
25.21387
25.22671
284.671
302.2795
25.22968

100
52.97697
84.50515
112.0185
65.54366
101.7589
112.0185
210.2803
124.7432
215.0286
444.7984
472.3118
258.2456

120
75.50892
121.6874
161.3066
93.20024
143.7372
161.3066
302.8036
175.4801
297.8691
640.5098
680.1289
355.2549

168
143.463
238.507
316.161
175.862
266.155
316.161
593.495
321.285
523.979
1255.4
1333.05
614.354

Spatiul de franare pentru toate rotile


Spatiul de
franare pentru
=0.7

600
550
500

Spatiul de
franare pentru
=0.56

450

400

Spatiul de
franare pentru
=0.35

350
300

Spatiul de
franare pentru
=0.28

250

200

Spatiul de
franare pentru
=0.15

150
100

Spatiul de
franare pentru
=0.12

50
0

Spatiul de franare pentru =0,7


600
550
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0

Spatiul de
franare cu toate
rotile
Spatiul de
franare cu rotile
puntii fata
Spatiul de
franare cu rotile
puntii spate

Spatiul de oprire
Variatia deceleratiei in timpul procesului de franare
Timpul intarzierilor fiziologice t1
Timpul intarzierilor mecanice t2
Timpul de initiere a franarii t3
Modul de
franare al
rotilor
Ss [m]
cu toate
Sfmin [m]
rotile
Sopr [m]
numai cu Ss [m]
rotile p. Sfmin [m]
fata
Sopr [m]
numai cu Ss [m]
rotile p. Sfmin [m]
spate
Sopr [m]

0.5
0.3
0.1

Viteza initiala Vai [km/h]


10
2.361111
0.39332
2.754431
2.361111
0.845052
3.206163
2.361111
1.120185
3.481296

60
14.16667
14.15951
28.32618
14.16667
30.42186
44.58852
14.16667
40.32665
54.49331

80
18.88889
25.17247
44.06136
18.88889
54.0833
72.97219
18.88889
71.69181
90.5807

100
23.61111
52.97697
76.58809
23.61111
84.50515
108.1163
23.61111
112.0185
135.6296

120
28.33333
75.50892
103.8422
28.33333
121.6874
150.0208
28.33333
161.3066
189.6399

168
39.6667
143.463
183.129
39.6667
238.507
278.174
39.6667
316.161
355.828

Spatiul de oprire
600

550
500
450
400
350

300
250
200
150
100

50
0

Spatiul de
oprire cu toate
rotile
Spatiul de
oprire numai cu
rotile puntii
fata
Spatiul de
oprire numai cu
rotile puntii
spate

17.Stabilitatea miscarii autovehiculelor cu roti


1.Stabilitatea miscarii autovehiculelor cu roti la urcarea unei pante
a [m]
b [m]
hg [m]

Coordonatele centrului de masa ale autovehiculului

1.16186
1.54014
0.9244

Tabelul 1.Valorile unghiurilor limita de stabilitate longitudinala


Unghiuril
Punte
e limita Aderenta Punte
motoare
motoare
de

spate
fata
stabilitate
r
1.666097
a

0.7
0.35
0.15

Ambele
punti
motoare

0.204608 0.204608
0.094604 0.108997
0.038873 0.048527

0.7
0.35
0.15

2.Stabilitatea miscarii autovehiculelor cu roti la deplasarea rectilinie cu viteza


mare pe drum orizontal
Conditia de stabilitate longitudinala la rasturnare

Inaltimea metacentrului fata de calea de rulare ha

0.7395

Densitatea aerului
Coeficientul de portanta Cz
Aria sectiunii transversale a autovehiculului A [m]
Coeficientul aerodinamic frontal k
Coeficientul de rezistenta al aerului Cx

1.225
0.4
2
0.4
0.4

va

<

162.0161

[km/h]

3.Stabilitatea miscarii autovehiculelor cu roti la deplasarea pe o cale de rulare


cu inclinare transversala sau in viraje
Tabelul 2.Viteza limita de stabilitate la rasturnarea transversala
Unghiul de
inclinare
transv.

1=0
2=3
3=5

Raza de curbura a drumului [m]


15
20
30
40
60
39.95585 46.13705 56.50611 65.24764 79.91171
42.12313 48.6396 59.5711 68.78678 84.24626
43.62109 50.3693 61.68954 71.23294 87.24218

Unghiul de
inclinare
transv.

1=0
2=3
3=5

Raza de curbura a drumului [m]


80
100
140
180
240
300
92.27409 103.1656 122.0672 138.4111 159.8234 178.688
97.2792 108.7615 128.6883 145.9188 168.4925 188.38
100.7386 112.6292 133.2646 151.1079 174.4844 195.079

Diagrama de variatie a vitezelor limita de stabilitate


la rasturnarea transversala 1=0 1=3 1=5
310
300
290
280
270
260
250
240
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Tabelul 3.Viteza limita de stabilitate la deraparea in viraj


Coeficientul
de
aderenta
laterala

y1=0,56
y2=0,28
y3=0,12
Coeficientul
de
aderenta
laterala

y1=0,56
y2=0,28
y3=0,12

Raza de curbura a drumului R [m]


15
20
30
40
60
80
32.7505 37.81703 46.31622 53.48136 65.50102 75.63407
23.1581 26.74068 32.75051 37.81703 46.31622 53.48136
15.1605 17.50588 21.44024 24.75706 30.32108 35.01177

100
84.5615
59.794
39.1443

Raza de curbura a drumului R [m]


140
180
240
300
100.054 113.4511 131.002 146.4647
70.7492 80.22204 92.63243 103.5662
46.3162 52.51765 60.64216
67.8

320
310
300
290
280
270
260
250
240
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

y1=0,56
y2=0,28

y3=0,12

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160

4.La deplasarea autovehiculului cu viteza constanta pe o cale de rulare


rectilinie cu o inclinare laterala
Conditia de stabilitate transversala la rasturnare
tgr

0.833514

5.La deplasarea autovehiculului cu viteza ridicata pe o cale de rulare rectilinie


fara inclinare transversala
Tabelul 4.1 Viteza unghiulara limita de bracare a rotilor de directie (pentru evitarea
rasturnarii)
Viteza limita
de bracare a
rotilor de
directie

Coeficientul
de aderenta
transversala
a drumului

(d/dt)r

Viteza limita
de bracare a
rotilor de
directie

Coeficientul
de aderenta
transversala
a drumului

(d/dt)r

Viteza autovehiculului [km/h]


10
20
30
40
60
80
8.83393 4.416965 2.944643 2.208483 1.472322 1.10424

Viteza autovehiculului [km/h]


100
120
140
168
0.883393 0.736161 0.630995 0.525829

Tabelul 4.2 Viteza unghiulara limita de bracare a rotilor de directie (pentru evitarea
depararii)
Coeficientul
de
Viteza limita
de bracare a aderenta
rotilor de
transversal
directie
aa
drumului

(d/dt)a
(d/dt)a
(d/dt)a

0.7
0.35
0.15

Coeficientul
de
Viteza limita
de bracare a aderenta
rotilor de
transversal
directie
aa
drumului

(d/dt)a
(d/dt)a
(d/dt)a

0.7
0.35
0.15

Viteza autovehiculului [km/h]

10
20
30
40
60
80
7.418896 3.709448 2.472965 1.854724 1.236483 0.92736
3.709448 1.854724 1.236483 0.927362 0.618241 0.46368
1.589763 0.794882 0.529921 0.397441 0.264961 0.19872

Viteza autovehiculului [km/h]

100
120
140
168
0.74189 0.618241 0.529921 0.441601
0.370945 0.309121 0.264961 0.2208
0.158976 0.13248 0.113555 0.094629

10

6
=0.7
=0.35

=0.15

(d/dt)r

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

Transversal

205/65R16